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"A distinction worthy of attainment": the Associated Board of the Royal Schools Music in Calgary.

Situated far from other, greater cities, one might have supposed that in 1909 Calgary was a bit of a cultural backwater. But it was a bustling little city of nearly 30,000, full of confidence. And its position as a transportation, distribution, and financial hub had attracted a well educated, wealthy class of business and professional people accustomed to a rich and diverse cultural life in their home cities and eager to support something similar in their adopted one.

The first music teacher had arrived in 1887; by 1892, formal music instruction had been added to the Calgary public school curriculum. By the turn of the century, citizens were enjoying regular performances by various regimental bands, a number of church choirs, and even local light opera productions. With the construction of a few larger halls and theatres, travelling musical entertainers and shows were beginning to add a stop in Calgary to their itinerary. Still, it was quite a coup when the prestigious Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music in London, England, decided in 1909 to establish a musical examination centre in far-off Calgary.

The person who convinced the Associated Board to take this remarkable step was Annie Glen Broder. There were a number of strong and talented women who guided Calgary's early musical history but one of the most influential and imposing was Mrs. Broder. She was lured to the city in 1903 by Colonel J.S. Dennis, chief engineer in charge of the irrigation department of the Canadian Pacific Railway and a keen musical advocate. He had known and admired Mrs. Broder in Regina and felt she was just the person to "take hold of the musical situation" in Calgary and really make something of it. (1) Before immigrating to Canada to marry her childhood sweetheart Richard Broder, Annie Glen had been a clever piano student at the National Training School for Music (precursor to the Royal College) in London, England, had enjoyed a brilliant concert and teaching career, and had become very well known in musical circles after writing an authoritative textbook on the art of accompaniment.

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In Calgary, Mrs. Broder quickly assumed a leadership role in local musical affairs. She was organist and choir director at the Anglican Pro-Cathedral Church of the Redeemer as well as a piano and voice teacher in her own studio and at the short-lived Calgary Conservatory of Music. In her fashionable gowns and richly trimmed hats, she was a familiar and formidable presence at all local musical events for more than three decades in her role as music critic for local newspapers such as the Calgary News-Telegram and the Calgary Herald, which employed her for more than twenty years. She was so active in the Calgary Women's Musical Club, arranging and presenting programs or lecturing on various musical topics, that eventually she was made honorary president. When she died in 1937, the club president exclaimed, "But what will we all do? Everyone went to Mrs. Broder for information. She had an answer for everything and her information was always authentic ... Her musical opinion was valued not only locally but by all the great artists who visited Calgary." (2)

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Throughout all her years in Calgary, Mrs. Broder maintained close ties to the British musical establishment, sometimes submitting her reviews of local events to journals and newspapers in the Old Country and sometimes travelling there to report on musical events for readers back home. Her training gave her a natural bias in favour of British musical standards which she reinforced in Calgary through her own teaching and by encouraging the same in her colleagues. They were living in a small prairie city some four thousand miles from London, but "she saw no reason why the traditional standards of the Royal College could not be carried on here." When she learned that the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music was thinking of establishing offices all across Canada, she began a campaign of "requests, urgent and persistent" that Calgary be chosen as one of the new centres. (3)

The Royal Schools in question were the Royal Academy of Music, founded in 1822, and the Royal College of Music, founded in 1883. Both were located in London and both were formed with the same general goal: the advanced training of musically talented young people to become professional musicians and/or music teachers. In 1889, the two schools decided to co-operate rather than compete by forming a joint examining body called the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music (ABRSM) to create and distribute study materials and conduct local testing at all levels of musicianship.

For the first few years, the ABRSM limited its activities to Britain but the Royal College's charter required it to promote "the cultivation and dissemination of the art of music in the United Kingdom and throughout the Dominions," (4) and so, in 1892, the Associated Board extended its testing to South Africa and, in 1895, to Australia, New Zealand, and Canada.

From 1895 to 1909, the Associated Board did all its Canadian testing in Montreal because of its initial affiliation with McGill University. When McGill established an independent system of music examinations in 1909, the Board decided to expand its Canadian presence by setting up testing centres all across the country. Initially, it chose the four major cities of Montreal (for all the eastern provinces), Toronto, Winnipeg (for the prairie provinces), and Vancouver. Then, unexpectedly, it also included little Calgary as a second prairie centre--simply because of Annie Glen Broder's strong ties to both Royal Schools of Music and consequent influence with directors of the Associated Board.

It was a happy decision for all concerned. Many of Calgary's early music teachers had been trained in Britain and were pleased to support the Associated Board even after the Toronto Conservatory of Music established a rival examination centre in Calgary a few years later. When the Duke of Connaught visited the city as Governor-General in September 1912, Mrs. Broder arranged for him to present certificates to successful ABRSM candidates in a big ceremony outside City Hall. Well-attended and with enthusiastic press coverage, it was a brilliant public relations move against the Canadian rival and reinforced the British (for many, inherently superior) origin of the awards while also increasing their local snob value.

The Associated Board's local examination centres in Canada were called Secretariats and the administrator in charge, who could not be a practising music teacher, was known initially as the Honorary Local Representative and later as the Resident Secretary. The Reverend Archibald O. MacRae, founder and principal of Western Canada College, was Calgary's first Honorary Local Representative from 1911 to 1923; superintendent of Calgary public schools, A. Melville Scott, served briefly from 1924 to 1926; but it was Mrs. Herbert Hooper Sharples who made the job her own, serving as Resident Secretary from 1927 until the ABRSM withdrew from Canada in 1953.

Jeanette Smith Sharples had a brief career as a comic opera singer in her native Australia before coming to Calgary with her husband in 1912. She was recruited onto the executive of the Women's Musical Club within weeks of joining in 1913 and served that group so long and in so many capacities (including president several times) that she was given a lifetime membership and was Honorary President at her death in 1966. She was very involved with the Calgary and Alberta Musical Festivals, serving as president of each organization, president of the Calgary Ladies String Orchestra, on the executive of the Calgary Symphony Orchestra, and was the first life member of the Calgary Allied Arts Council. But for all her involvement in Calgary's musical life, Mrs. Sharples never taught music. That, and her firm belief in the superiority of all things British, made her the perfect choice when the ABRSM appointed a new Resident Secretary in 1926.

Every spring, the Associated Board sent twelve to sixteen adjudicators from Britain to the Canadian testing centres to examine students in graded tests of practical musicianship and theory, to award medals and to confer scholarships. From the beginning, the Board's involvement in Canada was controversial for some nationalists who, fearing cultural imperialism, resented an outside body imposing its publications and examinations on Canadian students. But Canadian ties to Britain were still strong in the first half of the twentieth century and most music teachers appreciated the Associated Board's "high standards, well-devised syllabus, experienced examiners and scholarly editions of basic repertoire." (5)

As a distant part of the Empire, there was some satisfaction in knowing that Board testing was uniform worldwide, that a standard of music was being upheld which was "the same wherever the exam [was] held, it may be Capetown, Birmingham, Sydney, Belfast, Colombo, or Vancouver." (6) By the early 1930s, about 3,500 Canadian candidates were being tested annually by ABRSM examiners, although this number declined as Canada adopted a more North American focus after World War II and Canadian systems of music examination, such as Toronto's Royal Conservatory of Music and the Western Board of Music, gained wider acceptance.

During its heyday, however, annual visits from Associated Board examiners were highly anticipated. During her long reign as Resident Secretary, Mrs. Sharples handled correspondence, received candidates' entries, arranged schedules, distributed music, made local arrangements for testing and the accommodation of visiting examiners, and forwarded official results once the process was complete. In fact, she did "everything but the actual examining." (7) Her name was synonymous with Associated Board testing and in later years even the examinations were held in her spacious Mount Royal home where she also hosted a party each year to honour the visiting examiners. Generally, there was a very cordial relationship and much mutual respect between the examiners and local music teachers and some examiners returned year after year. Nevertheless, the adjudicators were sensibly cautious and Resident Secretaries were instructed to delay publishing results until the examiners were safely on their way to the next centre.

As well as marking students on music tests, Board examiners awarded gold and silver medals to those with the highest marks in each grade level and offered scholarships to candidates who had completed all levels and/or earned a Licentiate diploma and who, in the judgment of the examiners, showed exceptional musical promise (though not necessarily the highest marks). Instituted in 1897 in celebration of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, these "exhibitions" (as the scholarships originally were known) gave winning students two full years of free tuition at the Royal Academy or the Royal College of Music in London with possible extensions for two or more years.

Viewed as a kind of musical finishing school by some wealthy families, "exhibitions" at the Royal Schools nevertheless were highly coveted by talented young musicians who might not otherwise have been able to attend. Students took a full curriculum of music-oriented course work in addition to studying their chosen instrument(s) with leading British experts. Serious students graduated after two or more years of concentrated study of "a standard so high that the certificate granted may be regarded as a distinction worthy of attainment." (8) The resulting diploma, which was considered invaluable for those seeking a professional music career in teaching or performing, earned students the professional designation LRAM (Licentiate of the Royal Academy of Music), ARCM (Associate of the Royal College of Music), LAB (Licentiate of the Associated Board) or, after 1933, LRSM (Licentiate of the Royal Schools of Music, London).

In the beginning, ABRSM scholarships were available only to British students, but starting in 1906 awards were extended to overseas candidates, and in 1909, one exhibition space per year was awarded to a Canadian student. The number was soon raised to two, and then to three in 1926 as the Board attempted to redistribute some of the large income it gained from charging fees for testing. (9) In all, a total of 104 Canadian students were awarded Associated Board scholarships between 1909 and 1953 and 77 took advantage of the opportunity to study at one of the Royal Schools.

The list of Canadian winners testifies to Calgary's rich musical life in the first half of the twentieth century, particularly during the first three decades when Annie Glen Broder and other British-trained music teachers held sway. Of the fifty Canadian students who attended the Royal Academy or the Royal College on Associated Board scholarships from 1909 to 1939, sixteen, or nearly one-third, were winners from Calgary.

Not surprisingly, a number of the early winners were Mrs. Broder's students, or benefited from her advice and support in some way: violinist Jaroslav Bauer (1910), cellist Freda Sweet (1912) and soprano Odette de Foras (1916). Freda's father was a real estate broker during a boom period and could afford to send his daughter to London and maintain her there for the duration of her musical training (the scholarship only covered tuition) but Jaroslav and Odette might not have taken up their scholarships if not for Mrs. Broder's assistance. Along with Dr. MacRae, she organized a series of Bauer Benefit Concerts to raise funds by subscription so Jaroslav could attend the Royal Academy for three years. His grateful progress letters were published in the Calgary Herald. Similarly, Mrs. Broder's great faith in Odette's operatic potential probably influenced Senator Patrick Burns' decision to advance funds to the de Foras family so their daughter could train for nearly five years at the Royal College.

Mrs. Broder was still teaching in 1930 when Mary Shortt's parents decided that she had outgrown her mother's piano teaching. At twelve, Mary became Mrs. Broder's youngest student but progressed rapidly and came to rely on her coaching for violin as well as piano exams. She excelled with both instruments and won an Associated Board scholarship in 1934 to study violin at the Royal College of Music. Looking back on her student days, Mary viewed Mrs. Broder as her very best teacher and felt she had learned more from her than anyone else, even her professors at the RCM. As a tribute to that fine early teaching, she donated a seat in the Jack Singer Concert Hall in honour of Annie Glen Broder when the Calgary Centre for the Performing Arts opened in 1985. (10)

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Significantly, in view of Mrs. Broder's persuasive argument to the ABRSM that Calgary would be a worthy centre for their activities, the very first Canadian winner of an Associated Board scholarship was from Calgary. Gladys McKelvie had studied piano from the age of six with Calgary's first music teacher, Ada Dowling Costigan. She was just twelve years old in 1909 when she received the highest marks in Canada in the Associated Board exams and became the youngest person ever to win a Board scholarship. Worried that she was too young to leave home, but unwilling for her to miss such a wonderful opportunity, the McKelvies postponed Gladys' entry into the Royal Academy until January 1911, just after her fourteenth birthday. Mrs McKelvie stayed in London with her daughter the first year but then left her to continue on her own at the RAM for another year and a half after that. Young Gladys easily completed the program in two years, earning Bronze (first year) and Silver (second year) medals. Her scholarship was extended to another year, but she took just an additional six months to complete her studies at RAM by earning a Certificate of Merit, Pianoforte in 1913 at the age of sixteen.

Gladys went from London to New York where she studied at the Julliard School for several years. Critics predicted a brilliant concert career but her father's death drew her home to Calgary in 1916. She established a music studio where she and her associates taught generations of students to become music teachers and professional musicians. Her overseas training, high standards of musicianship and elevated social position (she married prominent Calgary lawyer, later judge, William Gordon Egbert in 1924) made Gladys McKelvie Egbert a natural leader in the Calgary musical community.

She served on the executive of the Calgary Women's Musical Club for many years, often organizing and presenting programs featuring her students and colleagues. In 1935 she helped to organize the Calgary Music Teacher's Association (which later became the Calgary branch of the Alberta Registered Music Teachers Association), becoming its second president in 1936. That same year, she also helped to organize the Western Board of Music, a body created to oversee the music courses and examinations offered by the universities of the three prairie provinces. She served on the WBM for many years as the professional musician representative from Alberta.

Later in life, Mrs. Egbert expressed no regret about her abandoned concert career. She was philosophical, observing that "it took as much work and dedication to become a good teacher as it did to become a good performer. A person could do one or the other, but not both." (11) The passion she would have put into her own musical career she devoted to her students and her reputation as a brilliant teacher was unsurpassed in Calgary and frequently recognized by the wider musical community. In 1936, the Royal Academy of Music made her an Honorary Fellow. The Calgary Herald was impressed, reporting that she had received "the highest honour the Academy can confer. Another Calgary musician, Glyndwr Jones, is the only other person on the North American continent to have been so honoured." (12) Nearly thirty years later, her teaching still excited praise. A British adjudicator at the 1964 Alberta Musical Festival described her as "one of the world's best" teachers after awarding one of her pupils the highest mark he had ever given at any festival anywhere, and said he was "astounded" by the number of winners she had created, adding, "it takes a phenomenal teacher to produce as many musicians of top caliber as Mrs. Egbert obviously has." (13)

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Significantly, all of the Associated Board scholarship winners from Calgary who won for piano after Mrs. Egbert started teaching were her students: Mollie Pierce (1921), Jean Cotton (1923), Betty Bateson (1926), Jean Gilbert (1937) and Carlina Carr (1950). It is a testament to the quality of her teaching that her ABRSM scholarship winners spanned thirty years. As well, most of these students went on to have professional careers after graduating from the Royal Schools. Several remained in Britain: Jean Gilbert as official pianist for the Sadler's Wells ballet company and Carlina Carr as a concert pianist and well-known teacher. But, luckily for Calgary, several returned home to become music teachers and leaders of the local music community in their turn.

When Mollie Pierce came back to Calgary in 1926 after training at the Royal Academy, she established a studio where she and her associates taught piano for more than a decade before she helped to found the Associated Studios of Music with Gladys McKelvie Egbert and Phyllis Chapman Ford. In addition to her thirty year teaching career, Mollie was a popular local accompanist, choir director at Hillhurst United Church, and a charter member of the Calgary Music Teachers Association. She served on the executive of that body throughout her professional career and as president at both the local and provincial levels.

Another popular local accompanist and charter member of the CMTA, Jean Cotton had a forty year career teaching piano in Calgary after training at the Royal College during the late 1920s. In addition to teaching, she fronted the Jean Cotton Trio, a group of three women in elegant evening gowns who played the piano (Jean), the cello and the violin (Mary Shortt, for a time). The Trio was popular in Calgary in the 1950s and also entertained at the Banff Springs Hotel during the summer months.

In addition to Mrs. Broder and Mrs. Egbert there were a number of other excellent music teachers in early Calgary who produced Associated Board scholarship winners. As a young woman in her native Britain, Marion Ellis-Browne had studied at the Royal Academy of Music. She returned to teaching music after moving to Calgary in 1908 as a widow with three small children. She taught voice privately and was also music director at First Baptist Church, St. Hilda's School for Girls, and the Calgary Normal School. In the early 1920s, Madame Ellis-Browne had the enviable distinction of having three former voice students at the Royal College at the same time: her youngest daughter, Dorothy, who won an Associated Board scholarship in 1920; Odette de Foras, who had deferred her 1916 scholarship until 1919 because of World War I; and Florence McHugh, who did not win an ABRSM scholarship but attended the Royal College at the same time as the others as a fee-paying student. Odette and Florence both went on to have professional careers: Florence had a British acting career of some note during the 1920s, and Odette sang leading roles with the Royal Opera at Covent Garden in the late 1920s and early 1930s before returning to the Calgary area to teach.

Another prominent early teacher was Elaine Dudley Smith, who had earned a diploma from the Royal College of Music before immigrating to Calgary in 1907. She became head of the viola section of an early version of the Calgary Symphony Orchestra and was a violin teacher of note, often collaborating with Annie Glen Broder to combine piano and violin students in ensemble work for local recitals. In 1921, she formed Mrs. Dudley Smith's String Orchestra which was comprised mainly of her students and was the basis for the new Calgary Symphony Orchestra when it reorganized in 1928.

Her teaching helped to produce three ABRSM scholarship winners: Jaroslav Bauer (1910) and sisters Kathleen Tierney (1930) and Mary Tierney (1936). After completing their studies at the Royal Academy, all three pursued professional careers as musicians, though sadly not in Calgary. Jaroslav and Kathleen both remained in England, Jaroslav as a sub-professor at the RAM and Kathleen as a violinist with a number of orchestras including the London Symphony, Sadler's Wells, and the Old Vic. Mary returned to Canada, but headed to Vancouver where there was more opportunity for concert and radio work.

An impressive number of string students from Calgary won ABRSM scholarships in the 1930s and violinist Grigori Garbovitsky's name was associated with most of them: Evelyne Pearson (1930), Kathleen Tierney (1930), Verdun Leigh (1933), Mary Shortt (1934), Noel Cook Taylor (1935), and Harold Clark (1937). Garbovitsky was the flamboyant conductor of the Calgary Symphony Orchestra from its resurrection in 1928 until its wartime demise in 1939. Not surprisingly, because of its strong initial association with Mrs. Dudley Smith's String Orchestra, the CSO had a disproportionately large string section that included many talented students as well as professional musicians. These students studied privately with a number of good local teachers but also spent lesson time with Garbovitsky because of their association with the orchestra.

Garbovitsky was a temperamental, larger-than-life figure in the Calgary musical community and his influence on their development appears to have been inspirational rather than technical. In fact, Mary Shortt later recalled spending her first six months at the Royal College tediously unlearning a faulty bowing technique never corrected by the enthusiastic but careless Garbovitsky. (14) But it was musical potential, not finely developed skills, that the Board scholarships were designed to nurture and it is possible that Garbovitsky's passionate example may have helped to ignite a corresponding passion in the students under his influence.

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Most of the scholarship winners associated with Garbovitsky went on to have musical careers after training at one of the Royal Schools but only one returned to Canada; the others stayed on in Britain where work for professional musicians was more plentiful. Evelyne Pearson was one of those who remained in England, but perhaps, like Jaroslav Bauer, she felt she could not really afford to return to Canada at the conclusion of her scholarship. As an obviously very talented child, her family had struggled to provide her with a decent violin and regular lessons. When she won an ABRSM scholarship in 1930, good-hearted Mrs. Sharples rallied the local musical community to raise funds so she could accept. After graduating from the Royal College, Evelyne played with the Bournemouth Orchestra for many years.

Although he studied with Grigori Garbovitsky, cellist Noel Cook Taylor's main teacher was his mother, Calgary music teacher Ethel Archbutt Cook. He was a teacher in her music studio before winning an ABRSM scholarship in 1935 and might have returned to Calgary to continue his career if World War II had not started just as he was completing his studies at the Royal College. He enlisted, as did many of his fellow students, including another Calgary ABRSM scholarship winner, Harold Clark. Harold had trained with Garbovitsky and played first violin with the Calgary Symphony Orchestra but had won his scholarship to study voice at the RCM. Sadly, he died in action, but Noel survived and returned to England after serving with the Royal Air Force. After teaching for a number of years, he opened a recording studio.

Mary Shortt was the only one of Garbovitsky's students who returned to Calgary to follow her profession, but even she might have made a different decision if not for the war. As a student at the Royal College, she had been excited by the musical richness of London and was considering staying on to explore her career potential after she graduated in the summer of 1939 but international tensions escalated and her worried parents demanded her return to Canada and safety. She arrived in Quebec City just as war was declared. Her music, following on the next boat, was lost when it was torpedoed and sunk. At first, she was dismayed to find musical activity in Calgary overshadowed by wartime concerns but by the time the war was over she had settled back into the local musical community. Teaching at first with her mother, she soon established her own studio where she produced many award-winning violinists before retiring at age 80. In addition to teaching, she played violin with the Jean Cotton Trio in the 1950s and the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra from 1955 to 1971, much of the time as first violin and assistant concert master. She was on the executive of the CMTA and ARMTA for more than fifty years, serving as president in 1979.

In addition to complicating the lives of a number of Canadian students who were training in England when war broke out, World War II also dealt a death blow to the Associated Board's presence in Canada. The number of Canadian students accepting ABRSM scholarships dropped sharply during the war years as parents, determined to keep their children out of danger closer to home, increasingly turned to music schools with well-established reputations in Canada and the United States. This seems to have been particularly true in Calgary: all seven ABRSM scholarships awarded to Calgary students from 1938 to 1946 were declined.

The Associated Board scholarships never recovered from this break in the pre-war tradition of sending promising young musicians to England for further training. Prior to the war, students had only been given free tuition; parents were responsible for all other costs. To entice overseas students after the war, the Board increased the number of Canadian scholarships to four and raised the value to cover the high cost of living in London as well as transportation back home when done. With this encouragement, seventeen Canadian students took up Associated Board scholarships in the post-war period, but only two were from the Calgary area: Carlina Carr from Calgary (1950) and Dale Bartlett from Lethbridge (1952). After graduating from the Royal College and Royal Academy respectively, both pianists developed professional performance and teaching careers, Carlina in Britain and Dale in eastern Canada.

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Carlina deliberately pursued her ABRSM scholarship with the intention of developing an overseas concert career (15) but most of Mrs. Egbert's other award-winning students during this period chose to stay in North America for further training. In fact, many headed to the Juilliard School in New York City where their teacher had studied and still frequently visited. This reflected a general Canadian trend away from Britain and towards the United States during the post-war period, but one might speculate that the low number of Calgary area students accepting Associated Board scholarships (as compared to numbers in other Canadian centres) may also have been influenced by Mrs. Egbert's growing bias in favour of Canadian testing and North American training.

In 1936, she had helped to set up the Western Board of Music, which, along with the Toronto Conservatory of Music, was increasingly viewed by local teachers as a good Canadian alternative to the ABRSM. Interestingly, just a few years after the WBM was established, the trend for Calgary students to accept Associated Board scholarships reversed. The watershed year seems to have been 1938: before that, sixteen of eighteen ABRSM scholarships offered to Calgary students had been accepted; after that, only two of the nine scholarships offered to Calgarians were accepted. Just as Mrs. Broder's example in an earlier period had helped to convince local opinion of the value of British training and testing, Mrs. Egbert's influential position in the Calgary musical community in the post-war period seems to have guided local opinion towards North American options.

In 1953, the Board finally realized it could no longer compete with North American training schools and examination systems so it decided to close the Canadian secretariats. Mrs. Sharples hosted her last group of visiting Board examiners at a party at her home on June 13, 1953. In her report to the Canadian Federation of Music Teachers Association Bulletin, Margaret Dobson observed, "The party was very pleasant--congenial company, witty conversation, and good food--but with all our minds was the same sense of depression. This was the last party we should hold for representatives of the Royal Schools. Just how much we should miss their very real contribution to Canada's musical education was most strongly brought home to us that evening." (16)

NOTES

(1) Kennedy, Norman L, "The growth and development of music in Calgary, 1875 1920," MA thesis, University of Alberta, 1952, 13

(2) Mrs. Annie Glen Broder, well known musician, dies," Calgary Herald, Aug 19, 1937

(3) Currie, Dorothy J., "Annie Glen Broder--Pioneer Musician of Calgary," Annie Glen Broder fonds, Glenbow Archives (M 6258/2).

(4) The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. 1889-1948, London: [ABRSM] Central Office, 1948, 16

(5) Turbide, Nadia and Kenneth Winters, "The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music" in Helmut Kallmann and Gilles Potvin, eds, Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, 2nd ed., University of Toronto Press, 1992, 53.

(6) Associated Board advertisement, Alberta Musical Festival, Calgary program, May 9-13, 1927, Calgary Musical Club fonds, Glenbow Archives (M 887/5).

(7) Van Wagner, Joy, "Personality of the week: Mrs. H.H Sharpies," Calgary Herald, Sept. 10, 1955.

(8) The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. 1889-1948, 13.

(9) Wright, David, "The South Kensington Music Schools and the Development of the British Conservatoire in the Late Nineteenth Century," Journal of the Royal Musical Association, vol. 130, no.2, 259.

(10) Interviews with Mary Shortt, March 13, 2007 and Feb. 1, 2008.

(11) Brennan, Brian, "Gladys abandoned stage to teach music", Calgary Herald, Aug. 30, 1994

(12) "Mrs. W.G. Egbert honoured by Royal Music Academy," Calgary Daily Herald, Nov. 18, 1936.

(13) Bursten, Sid, "Adjudicator showers praise on piano teacher and pupil," Calgary Herald, April 25, 1964.

(14) Shortt interview, op. cit.

(15) Interviews with Sally Carr, March 1, 2007, and Carlina Cart Babynchuk, April 9, 2007.

(16) Dobson, Margaret, "News from the Provinces: Alberta: Calgary Branch," Canadian Federation of Music Teachers Association News Bulletin, vol VIII, no. 1, Nov. 1953, 3.

In addition to the sources referenced above, much useful information was gathered from newspaper clipping files at the Glenbow Library and the Calgary Public Library and from manuscript collections at the Glenbow Archives including the Annie Glen Broder fonds (M 6258), the Madame Ellis-Browne fonds (M 8096), the Elaine and Dorothie Dudley Smith fonds (M 6765, etc.), the Mary Shortt fonds (M 8314), the Calgary Musical Club fonds (M 887). and the Alberta Registered Music Teachers' Association, Calgary Branch fonds (M 6364, etc).

Jennifer Hamblin is a reference librarian at the Glenbow Museum, Calgary, and is co-author of the book The Diva and the Rancher: The Story of Norma Piper and George Pocaterra (Rocky Mountain Books, 2006).
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