Ethnomedicinal survey of medicinal plants used by folk medical practitioners in four different villages of Gazipur District, Bangladesh.
At the very beginning of the modern civilization, health care system for the mankind was strongly dependent on the plant diversity. The traditional form of delivering treatment for ailment has been offering treatment depending mostly on plant source. Despite all the progress in synthetic chemistry and biotechnology, plants are still an indispensable source of medicinal preparations, both preventive and curative. Hundreds of species are recognized as having medicinal values and many of those are commonly used to treat and prevent specific ailments and diseases (Srivastava 1996). Scholars have proposed various reasons for this popularity including affordability, accessibility, availability, expenses, few side effect, simplicity, safety and changing needs and belief. About 80% of the world's population, particularly the people living in the developing countries, use various traditional medicines (WHO, 1978) which rely on plants as sources of drugs, it is very important to ensure that these medicinal plants or their products really possess the claimed properties and exert the desired therapeutic effects (Ghani, 1998). Different approaches are available in seek out for new biologically active principles in higher plants. The ethnomedicinal uses of plants are one of the most successful criteria of drugs, used by the pharmaceutical industry in finding new therapeutic agents for the various fields of biomedicine (Cox and Balick, 1994). Plants have profoundly influenced the culture and civilization of human beings including the ethnic people of any geographical area (Anisuzzman et al., 2007). Bangladesh has also a rich history of traditional medicinal practices (alternately known as alternative or complementary medicine). Besides the established systems of Ayurveda and Unani, traditional medicinal practitioners in Bangladesh (known variously as Kavirajes or Vaidyas) follow their own system, which can be termed as 'folk medicinal system'. In folk medicine, each Kaviraj has his own unique formulations of medicinal plants based on partly his own experience and partly on the basis of plants growing in his own vicinity. This knowledge is rarely written down, but is closely guarded within the family and passed on from generation to generation. Each successive generation adds to the formulations, so that at the end of several generations, if the family still clings to the medicinal practice, a considerable amount of knowledge on the medicinal properties of plants is accumulated. Since this folk medicinal preparations and use of plants can vary considerably between the Kavirajes of different regions of the country.
The main objective of this survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal investigation among the Kaviragies of four different villages named Mogor Khal, Chandana, Vogra and Choto Deora of Gazipur district in Bangladesh to identification and documentation of the various plants and their use in the traditional life and culture. Many ethnomedicinal surveys have been conducted among various tribes and various region on Bangladesh for quite some time (Rahmatullah, et al., 2009; Hossan, et al., 2009; Hanif, et al., 2009; Nawaz et al., 2009; Hossan et al., 2010; Mollik et al., 2010 and Rahmatullah et al., 2010). Gazipur is a very suitable place for searching medicinal plants as a large portion of our total forest area is in this district. It is a place of versatile plants of medicinal uses. Bhawal National park is situated in this area. Not only that several small and big rivers, such as old brahmaputra, shitalakshya, turag, bangshi, balu, banar are flowing over the district. Because of these rivers and forest there are some remote villages were villagers wholly depend on Folk medical practitioners for any ailment. Phytochemical studies on some exclusive plants found through the ethnomedicinal survey on some villages of Gazipur area can discover some drug molecules potential pharmacological activity.
Material and Methods
Area of Survey:
The present survey was conducted among four villages of Gazipur district of Bangladesh. Gazipur district is situated in the middle of Bangladesh and falls roughly between 22[degrees] 11N and 90[degrees]20'E. It has an area of 1741.53km2 which is bounded by Mymensingh and Kishorgang districts on north, Dhaka, Narayangang and Narsingdi districts on the south, Narsingdi on the east, Dhaka and Tangail district on the west. The annual average temperature is maximum 36oC and minimum 12.7[degrees]C and annual rainfall is 2376mm. The district is divided into six sub-districts. They are Gazipur sadar, Kaliakair, Kaligang, Kapasia, Tongi and Sreepur. The four villages surveyed were Mugor khal, Chandana, Vogra, Choto deora lies within Gazipur sadar sub-district.
Data Collection and Mode of Survey:
A total of four Kavirajes were included in the survey. The Kavirajes were Md. Baten mia, Md. Sujon, Mrs Fulbanu, Mrs Alamjan. Informed consent was obtained from each Kaviraj prior to the survey. The Kavirajes were apprised as to the objectives of the survey and consent obtained that the information provided by them may be disseminated in national and international publications. The actual survey was conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided fieldwalk method as described by Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected the medicinal plants, pointed out the plants and described their uses. All interviews were conducted in the Bengali language, which was spoken by both Kavirajes and the interviewers. All informations provided by the Kavirajes including local names of plants were double-checked with the Kavirajes in evening sessions later. Plant specimens were collected and dried in the field and later identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka.
Results and Discussions
A total of 31 plants distributed into 27 families were observed to be used by the Kavirajes for treatment of various diseases. The Euphorbiaceae, Acanthaceae, Fabeacea and Cucurbitaceae family contributed two plants for each family. The various plant parts used are shown in Graph 1. Leaves constituted the major plant part used (48.39%). However, the Kavirajes of the villages surveyed in the present study used roots 32.26%, barks 12.90%, fruits 19.35%, stems 16.13%, whole plant 6.45%, seed 9.48%, rhizome 6.45% of total use.
A single plant part, combination of plant parts from the same plant, as well as a combination of multiple plant parts or whole plants were noted to be used by the Kavirajes for treatment of ailments. The leaves of Justicia adhatoda were used to treat severe fever with mucus, while the bark of Clerodendrum viscosum Vent was used to treat kala azar. In the former case, leaves were macerated in warm water and then taken with a little salt (presumably to increase the taste). In the latter case, barks were boiled in water and then the water administered orally. Interestingly, for most of the plant or plant combinations, the decoction was advised by the Kavirajes to be taken on an empty stomach. Centella asiatica is an example where a combination of two parts from the same plant, namely, leaves and roots were administered for treatment of common cold and dysentery. Multiple plant parts from the same plant may also be used for treatment of multiple ailments. The leaves, roots and fruits of Coccinia grandis (L.) are used for treatment of joint pain, scabies and infertility of females. Here leaves are used to treat scabies, fruits are used to treat infertility of females and roots are used to treat joint pain.
Kavirajes use a large number of plants in case of gastrointestinal problems like constipation, diarrhea and loss of appetite which are the most common disorder among the population of the villages surveyed. 15 plants are used both in single plant part or combination with other plants to treat gastrointestinal problems. Kavirajes use one plant as blood purifier. Kavirajes strongly believe that blood accumulate toxins through ingestion of food or through exposure of various environmental factors. Such blood if not purified, can cause different disorders. So they use Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr to purify blood.
The kavirajes are used several plants for treatment of ailments which are hard to cure or incurable with modern medicine. Such ailments include kidney disorder, hepatic problem, diabetes, jaundice and tumors. Andrographis paniculata is used to treat liver cirrhosis. Three plants are used to treat diabetes by kavirajes in these villageses such as Momordica charantia L., Syzygium cumini (L.) and Coccinia grandis (L.). Roots of Phoenix sylvestris L. is used to treat generalized swelling. Four plants are used to treat jaundice by the kavirajes. These are Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp andrographis paniculata, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb and Chrysopogon acciculatus. Not only that, all of those kavirajes also treat complicated diseases like sexual problems of men, menstrual problem of female and infertility of women. One kaviraje use the comnation of extract of Nigella setiva seed, root extract of Chrysopogon acciculatus and extract of garlic in case of infertility of women. Another kaviraje use the paste of Coccinia grandis (L.), Zingiber officinale and the flower of Lagenaria siceraria to treat infertility. In case of menstrual problem one of them uses fruits and barks of Terminalia chebula with fruits of Terminalia belerica warmed in water and mixed with salt and then adde talmishri and finally all of those are boiled and it continues until the mixture is 250ml. Another kabiraje uses Nigella setiva and Allium cepa in case of sexual problems.
Rural people are very much unconscious to take care of their teeth and eye. So there have large number of people who are seriously affected by dental problems such as toothache, dental caries, gingivitis etc and many eye problems like conjunctivitis. In case of dental problems one kaviraj use roots of Areca catechu in combination with the root of Mangifera indica, root of Aegle marmelos and root of Syrygium cumini. All these roots are pasted and taken it for tooth problem. Kavirajes also treated conjungtivitis. In this case one of them used the steam of Enydra fluctuans Lour which is applied into the eye. Kavirajes of Gazipur district also treat some veterinary diseases such as restlessness in cows, food poisoning and to increase milk production in cows. Mimosa pudica and 'Bezibeguni' used to treat food poisoning in cows, Euphorbia tirucalli L. is used to increase milk production in cows.
Rural peoples are frequently faced some poisonous occurrences such as snake bite, unconsciously take poisonous substance or plant parts. Kavirajes of Gazipur district use three plants as antidote. Leaves of Rauwolfia serpentine is used to treat snake bite. Sometimes they use Datura metel as they have claimed that it has antitoxic activity. Pasted leaves of Ipomoea aquatica is also used as antidote.
Almost all elderly peoples in village are affected by various bone diseases like osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and joint pain. Kavirajes use total three plants to treat such bone diseases. Leaves of Cajanus cajan is used to treat osteoporosis, pasted juice obtain from Coccinia grandis is used to treat osteoarthritis and joint pain. When village people have bone fracture, kabirajes use paste of Cissus quadrangularis leaf and stem to treat. A number of village people both elderly and children are attacked frequently by helminthes and headache. Kabirajes use three plants to treat these problems. Fruit juice of Momordica charantia and pasted leaves of Annanas comosus taken on an empty stomach is used to treat as anthelmintic. The juice of root of Ocimum tenuiflorum is used to treat headache.
A number of treatments included combination of plant(s), which are formulated or mixed with various ingredients like mishri (crystalline sugar), sugar, coconut oil, ginger and water. Mishri is prepared by the Kavirajes by adding sugar to boiling water till the sugar no longer dissolves. The solution is then left to cool within a vessel where a thread is hung from the top. Sugar crystallizes around the thread as the mixture cools to ambient temperature. Mishri is used with the juice of Aloe barbadenis Mill to treat constipation. Terminalia chebula Retz is utilized in case of menstrual problem of female. The Kavirajes, on the query about the use of mishri instead of sugar, mentioned that mishri has special healing properties. Notably, the use of sweet substances like mishri or sugar with plant parts suggest that these ingredients may like salt, are used to make the decoction more palatable to the patients. Centella asiatica is given with ginger to treat dysentery of children. Coconut oil is mixed with the paste of Datura metel seed to treat baldness. To treat bowel problems dried sliced fruit of Aegle marmelos is mixed with water.
Scientific reports are the evidences of the folk medicinal use of a number of plants found out in the present survey. Pharmacological activities of Magnifera indica L. in different areas like analgesic, antimicrobial, antiiflammatory acitivities are studies and reviewed in different scientific journals(Ojewole, J. 2005, Nathalie W. et al., 2007). The anti-tubercular action of Justicia adhatoda (used by the kavirajes for treatment of tuberculosis) has been reported (Gupta and Chopra, 1954). The seeds of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels are used by the Kavirajes of Gazipur district for treatment of diabetes. The seeds reportedly possess both a-amylase (Karthic, K., 2008), as well as a-glucosidase inhibitory activities (Shinde, J., 2008), which can the scientific evidence of the ailment. Ethanolic extract of seeds also reportedly decreased blood sugar level in alloxan diabetic albino rats (Singh. N. and M. Gupta, 2007). Centella asiatica is widely used in all area of Bangladesh for gastrointestinal disorder like diarrhea and dysentry. This medicinal use is valid as antibacterial activity has been reported in crude extract of leaves (Zaidan, M.R., 2005). The gastric ulcer healing effect of the plant has been recognized in another research (Guo, J.S. et al., 2004). Kavirajes in Gazipur district uses Momordica charantia L. as anthelmintic, antidiabetic agent and the same purposes are mentioned as authentic in various report (Leung L., 2009). Hepatic disorder like liver cirrhosis and others like jaundice are treated by the folk medical practitioners in this region using leaf extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burn. F.) Wall. Ex Nees. Various research reports has also demonstrated the same activities of this plant (Singha, P.K., 2007).
Overall, the plants used by the Kavirajes have the potentiality for treatment of a number of diseases which are sometimes difficult to treat with modern medicine. These diseases include diabetes, paralysis, rheumatism and insanity. Some plants can be used as preventive measures, like plants used as blood purifier or plants used as appetite stimulant. The Kavirajes consider the origination of many diseases to accumulation of toxins in blood. Some plants can effectively remove these toxins and so purify blood, which can result in non-occurrence of diseases. Similarly, plants used as appetite stimulant can significantly alter many disease patterns through healthy ingestion of foods. But unfortunately medicinal plants are rapidly becoming extinct or highly endangered in Bangladesh because of increase in human habitat and consequent loss of forests. It is important that scientific studies be conducted on these plants. Such studies can open up new avenues for discovery of costeffective drugs with minimal or no side effects. The Kavirajes have centuries-long experience in the use of medicinal plants and as such, there is a high possibility that the plants that they use are effective in the treatment for ailments they are used for. It is time that the knowledge of the Kavirajes should be thoroughly explored by the scientific community. Once the importance of a particular medicinal plant is realized, it can spur efforts by both Government and the public about the conservation and sustainable cultivation of not only the plant in question but medicinal plants in general. This is important because a number of once widely available medicinal plants are rapidly becoming endangered and even extinct in wild.
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Corresponding Author: Anjuman Ara Begum, Lecturer-Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
D.M. Zakaria, Mahfuzul Islam, Sharif MD Anisuzzaman, Sukalyan Kumar Kundu, Mohammad Salahuddin Khan and Anjuman Ara Begum
Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh.
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by Kavirajes of four different villages of Gazipur district of Bangladesh. Sl Scientific Name Family Name Local Name No. 1 Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae Aam 2 Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Lamiaceae Kalo Tulshi 3 Chrysopogon acciculatus Leguminoseae. Premkata 4 Cissus quadrangularis L. Vitaceae Harvanggha 5 Justicia adhatoda L. Acanthaceae Basok 6 Mimosa pudica L. Fabaceae Lojjaboti 7 Centella asiatica Apiaceae Thankuni (L) Urb. (Khudi manik) 8 Coccinia grandis Cucurbitaceae Telakuja (L.) J. Voigt 9 Phoenix sylvestris L. Arecaceae Khejur 10 Zingiber officinale Zingiberaceae Ada 11 Andropogon Poaceae Chiraguti squarossus Hack 12 Clerodendrum Verbenaceae Shutiveti viscosum Vent 13 Aloe barbadenis Mill. Aloaceae Ghrito- kanchon 14 Enydra fluctuans Asteraceae Helencha Lour. 15 Terminalia chebula Combretaceae Hortoki Retz. 16 Ipomoea aquatica Convolvulaceae Kolmishak Forssk. 17 Datura metel L. Solanaceae Dhutara 18 Areca catechu Palmae Supari 19 Allium cepa Liliaceae Piyaj 20 Ananas comosus (L.) Merr Bromeliaceae Anarosh 21 Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae Pathorkuchi (Lam.) Pers. 22 Syzygium cumini Myrtaceae Jaam (L.) Skeels 23 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Cuscutaceae Shorno lota 24 Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Rutaceae Bel 25 Raiuwoljia serpentina Apocynaceae Sharpagan (L.) Benth. ex Kurz dha 26 Euphorbia tirucalli L. Euphorbiaceae Dudh kora 27 Andrographis paniculata Acanthaceae Kalomegh (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees 28 Momordica charantia L. Cucurbitaceae Karolla 29 Abroma augusta L.f. Sterculiaceae Ulot kombol 30 Cajanus cajan Fabaceae Orohoro (L.) Millsp. 31 Phyllanthus emblica L. Euphorbiaceae Amloki Sl Scientific Name Plant part No. used 1 Mangifera indica L. Leaf and bark 2 Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Root 3 Chrysopogon acciculatus Root 4 Cissus quadrangularis L. Stem and Leaf 5 Justicia adhatoda L. Leaf 6 Mimosa pudica L. Root, whole plant 7 Centella asiatica Leaf, root (L) Urb. 8 Coccinia grandis Leaf, root (L.) J. Voigt and fruit 9 Phoenix sylvestris L. Root 10 Zingiber officinale Rhizome 11 Andropogon Whole plant squarossus Hack 12 Clerodendrum Root viscosum Vent 13 Aloe barbadenis Mill. Leaf 14 Enydra fluctuans Stem Lour. 15 Terminalia chebula Bark, fruit Retz. 16 Ipomoea aquatica Stem and leaf Forssk. 17 Datura metel L. Leaf and seed 18 Areca catechu Root, fruit 19 Allium cepa Rhizome 20 Ananas comosus (L.) Merr Leaf, root 21 Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf (Lam.) Pers. 22 Syzygium cumini Seed and bark (L.) Skeels 23 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Stem 24 Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Leaf, fruit 25 Raiuwoljia serpentina Root (L.) Benth. ex Kurz 26 Euphorbia tirucalli L. Leaf,stem 27 Andrographis paniculata Leaf (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees 28 Momordica charantia L. fruit 29 Abroma augusta L.f. Leaf, bark 30 Cajanus cajan Leaf, seed (L.) Millsp. 31 Phyllanthus emblica L. Fruit Sl Scientific Name Ailments and Medications No. 1 Mangifera indica L. Diarrhea, Cholera and fever (specially in children) Leaf of Mangifera indica L., Psidium guajava L. and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels is macerated to collect juice. Juice is mixed with lime water and taken twice daily for 7 days for diarrhea and cholera of children. In case of fever, bark of Mangifera indica, Spondias dulcis and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Combindly pasted. After the paste is made, a red hot iron is placed in it before it is given to the patient. 2 Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Headache. Juice of root is taken. 3 Chrysopogon acciculatus Jundice Roots of Chrysopogon acciculatus,and bark of Citrus sinensis are paste with 'talmishri '. Then this paste is mixed with the water of Cocos nucifera L. in night and this water will take next morning (after bath) for 3 days 4 Cissus quadrangularis L. Bone fractures Paste of leaf and stem is applied to fractures. 5 Justicia adhatoda L. Common cold, cough, whoopihg cough. Juice obtain from the leaf of Justicia adhatoda L. is taken. Juice obtain from the leaf of Justicia adhatoda and Ocimum sanctum with honey is also used in the treatment of cough and whooping cough. 6 Mimosa pudica L. Used in the treatment of leprosy and food poisoning of cattle. Roots of Mimosa pudica is pasted and applied it into the affected area to treat leprosy. For cattle, the whole plant is feeded to treat food poisoning. 7 Centella asiatica Common cold and dysentery. (L) Urb. Juice from macerated leaves is taken combintly with the juice obtained from Ocimum sactum in case of common cold. Juice obtained from the leaf and roots of Centella asiatica are taken with juice of Zingiber officinale is used to treat dysentery of children. 8 Coccinia grandis Osteoarthritis, joint pain, scabies (L.) J. Voigt and infertility of women. Roots of Coccinia grandis (L.) are macerated and then taken to treat osteoarthritis and joint pain. For scabies leaves are pasted and applied into the affected site. In case of infertility, fruits of Coccinia grandis (L.), flowers of Lagenaria siceraria and Zingiber officinale are pasted in combination and this paste is taken. 9 Phoenix sylvestris L. Generalized swelling. Roots of Phoenix sylvestris L and Artocarpus heterophyllus are pasted and then take it. 10 Zingiber officinale Dysentery, nausea, common cold, dyspepsia. Juice of Zingiber officinale is taken. 11 Andropogon Dysentery squarossus Hack Macerated whole plant is taken with sugar four times daily. 12 Clerodendrum Rheumatic fever, fever (kalajor) viscosum Vent Roots of Clerodendrum viscosum Vent is macerated. The juice obtained from the macerated roots is taken daily night to treat rheumatic fever and kalajor. 13 Aloe barbadenis Mill. Constipation Leaves are macerated and taken with plantago ovate Fors(Ispaghula) or mishri (crystalline sugar) every morning on an empty stomach. 14 Enydra fluctuans Eye problems such as Lour. conjunctivitis, irritation in eyes etc. For conjunctivitis and eye irritation the steam of the stem of Enydra fluctuans Lour is taken directly into the eye. 15 Terminalia chebula Used in menstrual problem of Retz. female. For menstrual problem 100g fruits without seed of Terminalia chebula, four 'kagozi lebu', 250g 'talmishri ',sufficient amount of salt all these are boiled with 3L water. Boiling should be continued until the water is in 250mL.Then this water is taken. 16 Ipomoea aquatica Liver diseases and antidote. Stems Forssk. and leaves of Ipomoea aquatica are macerated and the juice obtain by it is used in various poisoning and also treat liver diseases. 17 Datura metel L. Used in asthma, pain, anti poisonous activity, baldness, earache and fever. In case of asthma the smoke from the burning leaves is inhaled.The leaves rolled into cigarette can be smoked to relieve asthmatic attack. In case of fever a desired quantity of fruit should be placed in an earthen pot and covered with a plaster composed of cloth and clay. It should be parched into 12g of cowdung cakes. When the fire gets extinguished and the pot is cold, the burnt fruit should be removed, powdered for use. For earache, 125g of juice of datura leaves and sesame oil should be boiled. When half of the juice has evaporated seven leaves then seven leaves should be boiled. Then this oil is filtered and few drops of this oil in the ear cure earache. For baldness a paste made with datura seeds, liquorice, saffron and milkcream is heated in coconut oil thoroughly til the solid mass converted to a charred powder. 18 Areca catechu Stimulant, tooth problem and constipation. The juice of tender fruits of Areca catechu is used as laxative. For any kind of tooth problem the root of Areca catechu is used combintly with the root of Mangifera indica, root of Aegle marmelos and root of Syrygium cumini.All these roots are pasted and taken it for tooth problem. The juice of unripe fruit is very good stimulant 19 Allium cepa Tuberculosis, stomachache and used in sexual problems. 500g leaf of Adhatoda vasica and decoct in 5L of water till it turns into a dark brown mass. Use half a teaspoonful of this drug with honey and 10g Allium cepa twice daily for 6 months to treat tuberculosis. The fresh bulb is eaten raw with salt helps in relieving stomachache. In case of sexual problems the juice of Allium cepa and Nigella setiva is taken combintly. 20 Ananas comosus (L.) Merr Diarrhea, antihelminthic and fever. Root decoction is used to treat diarrhea. For helminthiasis and fever leaves are pasted and then taken on an empty stomach. 21 Kalanchoe pinnata Eczema and infection in skin, (Lam.) Pers. wound, cuts and hemorrhoids. Leaves are pasted and applied it into the affected area. 22 Syzygium cumini Diabetes, loss of appetite, asthma. (L.) Skeels Seeds of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels are dried and then powdered. Powdered seed is taken with water to treat diabetes. Juice obtained from pasted bark is used to treat asthma and in case of loss of appetite. 23 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Alopecia and Jaundice. The paste of the stem of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb is applied in head to treat alopecia. The juice of the plant mixed with the plant of Saccharum officinarum is used in the treatment of jaundice 24 Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Blood purifier, bowel complaints, dysentery. 50g of the juice of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. fruit mixed with warm water and sugar,2- 3 times a day helps to eradicate blood impurities.In bowel problems the juice of ripe fruit is taken.. In case of dysentery macerated leaves are taken with water. The fruit is sliced and dried it into sunlight. Then this slice is taken with water to treat bowel problem. 25 Raiuwoljia serpentina Insomnia, itching, snake bite. (L.) Benth. ex Kurz About 0.6 to 1.25g of the powder of its root is mixed with some vehicle and taken in case of insomnia. One gram of powdered root can be taken with water in case of itching. In snake bite, Crushed roots are taken. 26 Euphorbia tirucalli L. Increase milk production in cows. Leaves and stems are feeded to cows. 27 Andrographis paniculata Liver cirrhosis, jaundice, (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees constipation, fever. The juice of the leaf is taken 28 Momordica charantia L. Anthelmintic, diabetes, painful menstruation. The fruit is cocked and then taken or the juice of the fruit is taken. 29 Abroma augusta L.f. Sinusitis, irregular menstruation Dried bark is powdered and then taken to regulate menstrual flow in females. Leaves are used to treat sinusitis. 30 Cajanus cajan Osteoporesis, jaundice, urinary (L.) Millsp. disorder bronchitis, coughs, toothache. Salted leaf juice is taken for jaundice. Powdered leaves help to expel bladderstone. Decoction of leaves are used for bronchitis and coughs. Dried seeds are used to treat toothache. 31 Phyllanthus emblica L. Burning sensation in skin and eyes, diabetes, sinusitis and common cold Paste of fruits is used to reduce burning sensation in skin and eyes. Fruits also used to treat diabetes. Juice of fruit mixed with ginger juice and honey is used to prevent common cold and sinusitis.