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Youth, sexuality and sex education messages in Indonesia: issues of desire and control.



Abstract: Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development The United Nations coordinated an International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt from 5-13 September 1994. Its resulting Programme of Action is the steering document for the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). , the need for sexuality education for youth has been articulated, and numerous activities in Indonesia, especially Java, have been directed at young people. However, many parents, teachers and religious leaders have considered it essential that such education should suppress youth sexuality, This article reflects upon current discourses on youth sexuality in Java as against the actual sexual behaviour of young people. Using examples from popular magazines and educational publications, and focus group discussions with young men and women in 5urabaya, East Java East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and also includes neighboring Madura and Bawean islands. , we argue that the dominant prohibitive discourse in Java denounces youth sexuality as unhealthy, reinforced through intimidation about the dangers of sex. In contrast, a discourse of competence and citizenship would more adequately reflect the actual sexual behaviour of youth, and raises new challenges for sexuality education. Information should be available to youth concerning different sexualities, respecting the spectrum of diversity. Popular youth media have an especially important role to play in this. The means to stay healthy and be responsible--contraceptives and condoms--should be available at sites where youth feel comfortable about accessing them. Meanwhile, young Indonesians are engaging in different forms of sexual relationships and finding their own sources of information, independent of government, religion and international organisations.

Keywords: young people, sexual relationships, sexuality education, sexual health services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract , media, Indonesia

**********

AFTER the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the need for sexuality education for youth was articulated, and numerous activities in Java, where half the population of Indonesia live, were directed at adolescents. Since the fall of the Suharto regime in 1997, there have been shifts in policy to address reproductive health Within the framework of WHO's definition of health[1] as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene  and rights, and sexuality and sexual health. (1) At the same time, Indonesian civil society organisations, especially health activists and feminist groups, have succeeded in bringing human rights in relation to sexuality and reproduction and the needs of adolescents to the fore. Prominent here are AIDS service organisations, academic research groups, progressive media and some lesbian-gay-transgender organisations. (2,3)

Foucault identified efforts to make sexuality in the young a theme of education because of its perceived dangers, especially masturbation. (4) Such educational efforts rely upon moral and medical principles that describe child and youth sexuality as unhealthy and morally devastating. (5) Regulatory mechanisms of society, represented by parents, teachers and religious leaders, are seen as essential to suppress juvenile sexuality.

This article reflects upon current discourses on youth sexuality in Java as against the actual sexual behaviour of adolescents. We argue that the dominant prohibitive discourse in Java denies and denounces youth sexuality as abnormal, unhealthy, illegal or criminal, reinforced through intimidation about the dangers of sex. In contrast, a discourse of competence and citizenship (6) would more adequately reflect the actual sexual behaviour of youth, and raises new challenges to sexuality education different from a framework of prohibition.

Our data sources include a youth magazine that explicitly deals with reproductive health; the four most popular youth magazines in 2001-03, which illustrate the imagery of youth sexuality; information from focus group discussions with young men and women in the East Javanese city of Surabaya; publications on reproductive health for youth from the past decade by international, governmental, and non-governmental organisations; and data on sexual activity among young Indonesians. We do not provide a comprehensive overview of publications and debates about youth sexuality in Java, but use a selection to illustrate our argument.

Sexuality discourses

The regulation of youth sexuality occurs through legal-moral mechanisms that allow sexuality in marriage but deny sexual activity in non-married youth, as it poses a threat to the norms which the state and religion feel responsible for. The minimum age at marriage in Indonesia is 19 for men and 16 for women. (7) The median age at first marriage has been rising since 1994 (currently 20 in urban areas and 18 years rurally), and the age-specific fertility rate Noun 1. fertility rate - the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 population per year
birth rate, birthrate, fertility, natality
 has declined (from 76 in 1991 to 62 in 1997 in 15-17 year olds) but is still relatively high. (8)

It is a contradiction that a 16-year-old girl can have sexual relations sexual relations
pl.n.
1. Sexual intercourse.

2. Sexual activity between individuals.
 and pleasure within the confines of marriage, which gives her adult status and allows her access to family planning family planning

Use of measures designed to regulate the number and spacing of children within a family, largely to curb population growth and ensure each family’s access to limited resources.
 and reproductive health services. Whereas, if she is unmarried it is considered sinful, pathological or abuse and she has to face sanctions for violating societal prohibitions.

A different discourse about youth sexuality engages notions of citizenship and human rights. (9, 10) Central to this discourse is the idea of competence of adolescents: to be able to make decisions about sex in a mature way. The notion of competent citizenship includes participation, access, equal and just treatment. (6) The Convention of the Rights of the Child as well as the Cairo declaration The Cairo Declaration was a result from Cairo Conference at Cairo, Egypt, on November 27, 1943. President Franklin Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China were present.  about reproductive and sexual rights ascribe to youth of both sexes such competence when fully informed and having had education in these matters.

Differently from the prohibitive, regulatory framework, this discourse is permissive and builds on the enlightenment principle of rationality In the context of knowledge-based systems, Newell (in 1982) proposed the following principle of rationality:

"If an agent has knowledge that one of its actions will lead to one of its goals, then the agent will select that action.
, in contrast to the idea of an irrational sexual drive in search of satisfaction. A citizenship discourse supports a belief in self-control through rational choice, not requiring outside controls. Nonetheless, there is also ambivalence in this discourse: adolescent sexuality is tolerated, even accepted, yet framed with concepts of rights and responsibility. Thus, youth can be sexually active but have to show care for their own and their partner's health, consent and pleasure, a position supported by progressive Indonesian civil society groups.

Discourses of prohibition and intimidation

To illustrate the discourse of prohibition and intimidation, we use two examples from a youth magazine published by the NGO NGO
abbr.
nongovernmental organization

Noun 1. NGO - an organization that is not part of the local or state or federal government
nongovernmental organization
 Yayasan Pelita Ilmu (<http://www.pelita-ilmu.or.id/>) a health NGO set up in the early 1990s to work on HIV/ AIDS, including for young people, who later developed work on sexuality issues more generally. The foundation operates several health clinics in Jakarta, a buddy programme for AIDS patients, a drug abuse prevention and care programme and training on reproductive health issues. It publishes a monthly magazine Warta Propas, with a circulation of 2,500, which is distributed to school-going youth and sold at kiosks.

Scene 1

The back page of the January 2002 issue of Warta Propas contains a drawing from a caricature drawing competition, run as part of the Student Creativity Festival among adolescent pupils in October 2001. On a bench, outdoors, a girl is sitting in obvious despair. Her schoolbag lies besides her (Figure 1). The sign for OSIS OSIS Open Source Information System (now Intelink-U; US DOD)
OSIS Ocean Surveillance Information System
OSIS One-Stop Internet Shop (European Union)
OSIS Open Scriptural Information Standard
 (Internal School Student Organization) identifies her as a schoolgirl. She is thinking about study and marriage, posed as alternatives. The use of the words in English might indicate that she has followed Western ways by having sex. The ghost with a skull for a face draws immediate attention, along with the black (or bloody?) Indonesian word aborsi (abortion) on its chest, holding a knife from which drops of blood are falling.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The alternatives of study or marriage are not pictured "Not Pictured" is episode 22 and the season finale of season 2 of the television show Veronica Mars. It had an estimated audience size of 2.42 million US viewers on its first airing. Plot
This is the graduation episode.
 as horrendous. Though study may be more desirable than marriage, the only really frightening idea is abortion for this, we assume, pregnant schoolgirl. Questions arising from the drawing might be: Is abortion the worst thing that can happen to a pregnant girl? Abortion, would it kill, with a knife? Or does the knife suggest the embryo would be killed? Would she be able to continue her studies? Would she be able to marry after having aborted? Would she, a pregnant teenager, have to marry if she did not have an abortion? Why would an abortion not be seen as relief?. Why is it a bloody horrible ghost? Is abortion the ultimate sin? Is it so frightening?

Was the artist a girl, showing her own problem? Or did the artist want to warn others? Was it a he? Is the drawing an cry of despair or protest against the lack of accessible, affordable and safe abortion services? Is the drawing an accusation against the dangerous, painful and illegal abortions to which young Indonesian girls have recourse? Is the drawing, and this is what we suspect, a warning against sexual relationships during school years--sex that forces you to give up your studies, your hopes for a good marriage, sex threatening your life? Is the message of this drawing an appeal for abstinence, virginity, repression of sexual desires? And isn't the threat of an unsafe abortion the most drastic warning possible against sexual relations for a young adolescent student?

There is no young man in this drawing. Didn't she love him, have pleasure with him, desire him? Is her pregnancy the result of rape, violence, date rape date rape n. forcible sexual intercourse by a male acquaintance of a woman, during a voluntary social engagement in which the woman did not intend to submit to the sexual advances and resisted the acts by verbal refusals, denials or pleas to stop, and/or physical , incest, all of which girls are made afraid of? Is she a victim of her own or an older or young man's desires? In this scene of fear, he is absent. What does the drawing tell us about this timid, lonely girl? "Grrl" power? Not in this scene. Gender relations, sexual relations are missing; we are confronted only with pregnancy as consequence and as nightmare. Sexuality and horror. Sexuality as horror.

Scene 2

In the same issue of the Warta Propas magazine there is a long article entitled "Chatting. Berguna atau malah berbahaya?" (Chatting: useful or dangerous?) (11) This time, it is boys who are in danger. The article reports the story of a 17-year-old boy with homosexual interests who was invited after a cyber chat to a Gay and Lesbian Room, where he met a 25-year-old man who said he would introduce him to the gay world. He was taken to an apartment where he was raped by two men, who tied his feet and covered his mouth with tape. The boy suffocated and died. The perpetrators cut up his body, put the parts in a suitcase and left it in front of a post office. The police found the murderers, who insisted that the boy's death was an accident.

The message is to watch out for cyber sex; you start with chatting and you end up being raped and murdered. Don't trust men in the cyber world, they can find you, your phone number and address, and kill you. Look for safety, have positive aims which also can bring fun, look for healthy entertainment, distance yourself from those who intend to harm you--that is the advice at the end of the story. Again there is a link between sex and danger, sex and death, and boys are not safer than girls. Homosexual encounters can be as dangerous as heterosexual ones. Be careful, awas! Gaul itu perlu, tapi jangan kebablasan! You need to be cool, but don't go too far!

This destructive image of sex as the terminator of life, status, chances and hopes is channelled into education discourses, illustrated in the publications of the three most influential family planning organisations in Indonesia: PKBI PKBI Perkumpulan Keluarga Berencana Indonesia (Indonesian Family Planning Association)  (Indonesian family planning association This article is about the UK charity. For the Hong Kong organisation, see The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong.

The Family Planning Association, also known as fpa, is a UK registered charity (number 250187) working to promote sexual health.
), UNFPA UNFPA United Nations Population Fund (formerly United Nations Fund for Population Activities)
UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population Activities (now United Nations Population Fund) 
 (UN Population Fund), and BKKBN BKKBN Badan Koordinasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (Indonesian population and family information network)  (National Family Planning Coordination Board).

A PKBI poster, for example, uses a similar, though less dramatic message than the Warta Propas article "Bergaul boleh, sex--no way" (Have fun, but no sex). PKBI has explained that such a strong "no" to adolescent sex is promoted due to the absence of contraceptives for youth and unmarried persons and a law that forbids abortion. Sexual permissiveness, they say, would have catastrophic consequences--unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted diseases

Infections that are acquired and transmitted by sexual contact. Although virtually any infection may be transmitted during intimate contact, the term sexually transmitted disease is restricted to conditions that are largely
, giving up ambitions, exposure to crime and destruction of one's life. PKBI uses pragmatic reasons of harm prevention for its campaign, not ideological ones. Yet, this pragmatism coincides with religious beliefs (no sex before marriage) and state policy (family planning and reproductive health services only for married couples), supporting the same principle. (12)

The website of PKBI of West Java also provides a long list of reasons why sex before marriage should be prevented. The main reason is that the risks are too high (unwanted pregnancy unwanted pregnancy Obstetrics A pregnancy that is not desired by one or both biologic parents. See Teen pregnancy. , guilt feelings Noun 1. guilt feelings - remorse caused by feeling responsible for some offense
guilt trip, guilty conscience, guilt

compunction, remorse, self-reproach - a feeling of deep regret (usually for some misdeed)
, STDs, HIV/AIDS). Furthermore, religious prohibition is cited--sex is sacred and meant for procreation PROCREATION. The generation of children; it is an act authorized by the law of nature: one of the principal ends of marriage is the procreation of children. Inst. tit. 2, in pr. , therefore sexual relationships should only be realised in sanctioned forms of commitment and responsibility. Consequently, abstinence is the best form of pregnancy prevention, requiring commitment, motivation and self-control. Sex should not be the expression of love either, the site says. Rather, sex would prevent the couple getting to know each other, because of the sexual satisfaction one achieves. So what should the adolescent do? "Repress re·press
v.
1. To hold back by an act of volition.

2. To exclude something from the conscious mind.
 your sexual desires! Don't touch erotic body zones, because the nerves there would increase your sexual drive, which would weaken your self-control! Do things together with your boy/girl friend that are nonsexual ... Adolescents have sexual relationships for proof of love, separation fear, curiosity, the belief that sex is common, pleasure, no fear of STDs or pregnancy, money, trivialisation of sex, lack of self-control and demonstration of sexual prowess. What would prevent an adolescent from having sex? Fear of the consequences, obedience to parents, fear of violence, friendship, consciousness of sinfulness, immaturity and fear of loss of virginity ... To prevent sex, decide your boundaries, don't drink alcohol, don't take drugs, be firm in your resistance, don't get dependent on someone else, be open about your refusal, mistrust, don't go to isolated places, don't meet your friend, and pray. If you follow this advice, you will be a healthy couple (Pacaran Sehat), physically, mentally and socially healthy." (13)

In this discourse of self-regulation, a new moral principle of responsibility is asserted--responsible abstinence. (13) This assemblage of warnings, advice and promises culminates in the slogan "Bergaul boleh, sex--no way". Thus, youth should vanquish their sexuality through self-restraint.

Nowadays, the period of adolescence has been extended through further education and training. The abstinence discourse is supported by an older family planning discourse of the desirability of greater education for girls because of the correlation between female education and later marriage, which eventually leads to lower fertility. (14, 15)

However, all these good reasons for abstinence in adolescence, appealing to rational decision-making on issues of morality, seem to need to be complemented by not-so-rational horror stories and fear-mongering. These vast efforts to inculcate in·cul·cate  
tr.v. in·cul·cat·ed, in·cul·cat·ing, in·cul·cates
1. To impress (something) upon the mind of another by frequent instruction or repetition; instill: inculcating sound principles.
 behavioural change and prevent unacceptable sexual activity raise the question of what adolescent behaviour in sexual matters actually is.

Data on adolescent sexual behaviour in Indonesia

The BKKBN website reports that in the 1990s, 20-30% of youth living in the Javanese cities of Bandung, Bogor, Sukabumi and Yogyakarta engaged in premarital sex. The biggest survey to date, conducted in 1998 among 4,106 men and 3,978 women aged 15-24 in West, Central and East Java and Lampung in southern Sumatra, found that although most respondents disapproved of sexual activity before or outside marriage, 12% approved premarital sex if the couple were planning to marry. (16)

A much smaller study among 210 students (aged 15-24) who were sexually active and unmarried found that more than half had had sex after a year of acquaintance with a partner. In addition, some youths had regular commercial sex encounters and others homosexual encounters, and a few attended "orgies". This author also pleads for control of sexual urges (disiplin hasrat). (17)

A study in Java by PKBI in 1994 found that of 2,558 abortions, 58% were in young women aged 15-24, of whom 62% were not married. Nine cases were in girls under the age of 15. (18) A qualitative study in 2002 of premarital pregnancy in 44 adolescents in Yogyakarta, found that 11 of 18 pregnant girls (aged 15-20) had had an abortion and 17 others had given birth. More young women with higher education chose abortion, whereas those with less education gave birth. The reasons given for unprotected intercourse were lack of knowledge about the consequences of sexual acts and impulsiveness. (19)

In many cases, marriage is forced on young people who may not be economically or socially prepared for it, often resulting in early divorce. In the survey already mentioned, 13.1% of young men and 23.1% of young women who had married said they were forced to marry by their parents (reasons not stated), and two-thirds of them felt that they had married too young. (16) Hypocritically hyp·o·crit·i·cal  
adj.
1. Characterized by hypocrisy: hypocritical praise.

2. Being a hypocrite: a hypocritical rogue.
, the detrimental effects of forced marriage are rarely acknowledged.

All these studies indicate that a substantial minority of adolescents are sexually active, though "active" is not defined. A study in 1994 of sexual behaviour in urban, Jakartan, middleclass youth by Utomo provides details on this question. Of 344 high school students aged 15-19, 7% of boys and 2% of girls had had intercourse. Other sexual expressions like kissing on the lips (230/0) and breast (18%) and genital fondling (11%) were reported by more boys than girls. 80% of adolescent girls felt that premarital sex would never be right, but others were positive about premarital sex if contraceptives were used (16%), there was mutual agreement (5%), in the case of love (20%), if the parents-in-law had already proposed (13%), if already engaged (21%) or if a male prostitute was involved (4%). The attitudes of the boys were quite similar to those of the girls, but 10% felt premarital sex was all right with mutual agreement and 14% if it was with a prostitute. In general, Muslim youth Muslim Youth (Persian: سازمان جوانان مسلمان [Sazman-i Jawanan-i Musulman], Arabic:  had less sexual experience than non-Muslims and significantly more conservative beliefs than non-Muslims. (20)

Open discussions with young people

In order to gather qualitative information on sexual activity among university students, Oetomo conducted focus group discussions with five young women and four young men who were already analysing issues of gender and sexuality with him. They were aged 19 to 25 and from both rural and urban backgrounds. There were three sessions. Four of the five participants in the first session took part in the third one as well, as did one of the four in the second discussion. The first and second sessions were based on scanning one issue each of three popular youth magazines, chosen randomly. The keywords gender and sexuality were used to provoke discussion. The third discussion was based on a series of questions about the participants' sexual practices and those of their friends, and the meaning of these practices. Oetomo and a facilitator led the discussions.

For these young people, partner choice was very important. Most of them said that ideally their partner would resemble a young singer or film star, with a light skin colour, "baby face", straight hair, tall body and muscular. Others added criteria such as same religion, economic security, competence and responsibility. Some gifts wanted their boyfriends to look like their father. Boys wanted a girlfriend who looked fresh, voluptuous or thoughtful. Most were conscious that those characteristics were not easily found.

In this group, seven had engaged in sexual activities, with a partner or alone. On a rating set by the group from one to ten, with one for manual stimulation and ten for intercourse, two-thirds of the group rated their behaviour between five and ten--with boys from seven to ten and gifts five to seven, which meant sexual stimulation Sexual stimulation is any stimulus that leads to sexual arousal or orgasm. The term often implies stimulation of the genitals but may also include stimulation of other areas of the body, stimulation of the senses (such as sight or hearing), and mental stimulation (such as that  without undressing. Gifts said that they engaged sexually because of feelings of love, desire for pleasure and curiosity to try something they had heard or read about. Most gifts only stopped sexual activities from concern about the risks of pregnancy, abortion, punishment by parents or social exclusion social exclusion
Noun

Sociol the failure of society to provide certain people with those rights normally available to its members, such as employment, health care, education, etc.
. Only a few thought they should maintain their virginity until marriage. Only one refrained from sex for religious reasons. The boys said their sexual activities were motivated by affection, physical desire, curiosity and the search for creativity in trying out something new. Religion did not play a role for them. Boys said that they reduced the risks of pregnancy by coitus interruptus coitus in·ter·rup·tus
n.
Sexual intercourse deliberately interrupted by withdrawal of the penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation. Also called onanism.
, anal sex Noun 1. anal sex - intercourse via the anus, committed by a man with a man or woman
anal intercourse, buggery, sodomy

sexual perversion, perversion - an aberrant sexual practice;
 or use of contraceptives.

Their sources of information on sexual activity and contraception were friends, youth journals, blue movies and mimeographed erotic magazines, and also parents and the sex education package at school. Interestingly, none of them had read a publication about sexuality or contraception from official government sources or NGOs, nor was the Internet mentioned. In educational sessions at school, they had learned about the reproductive organs Reproductive organs
The group of organs (including the testes, ovaries, and uterus) whose purpose is to produce a new individual and continue the species.

Mentioned in: Choriocarcinoma
, menstruation menstruation, periodic flow of blood and cells from the lining of the uterus in humans and most other primates, occurring about every 28 days in women. Menstruation commences at puberty (usually between age 10 and 17). , hygiene and the dangers of intercourse, and also about the contraceptive pill and condoms. One participant said that warnings had not affected him; on the contrary, he wanted to have sex, but safe sex.

The youth in our sample did not seem to be impressed by proscriptions by state and religious sources; they relied on their own will and found the information they needed. They were not activists for sexual rights, but young citizens living a right that officially is denied to them.

Content of popular youth magazines

Exposure to the media, especially to Western music on television and radio, radio news and popular science reports, and science and health programmes on television are "strong predictors of the behaviour and attitudes of young people" according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 Utomo and McDonald. (21) In a small survey of four popular youth magazines, * we did not find preachy remarks of the prohibitive kind nor permissive remarks from nanny-like parent-figures who treat youth as objects incapable of taking care of themselves. Those magazines are about celebrities from film, music, sports, fashion and recreation, and invite readers to write in about their lives, events in school, problems with family and friends, and ask questions regarding (heterosexual) relationships. A number of letters to the editor were from young people asking explicit questions about sexuality, e.g. same-sex practices and anal sex. Our sense was that the magazines, being commercial, had appraised the demands of their readers and responded to them (Interview by Oetomo with editors of Hai, March 2001).

Discourses of citizenship, competence and rights

When youth are recognised and respected as a social group, the issue of citizenship comes to the fore. Citizenship means first and foremost rights and entitlements as well as responsibility. The Convention on the Rights of the Child The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, often referred to as CRC or UNCRC, is an international convention setting out the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children.  ascribes to children the right to freedom of expression and information (Article 13), while the ICPD ICPD International Conference on Population and Development
ICPD Institute for Counselling and Personal Development (Northern Ireland)
ICPD Institute for Conflict Management Peace and Development
ICPD International Conference on the Prevention of Dementia
 Programme of Action 1994 says that adolescents have a right to reproductive health education, information and care, and calls on countries to establish appropriate programmes to respond to these needs and to strive to reduce STDs and pregnancy among adolescents (Paras. 7.46 and 7.47).

The International Planned Parenthood Federation The International Planned Parenthood Federation is a global non-governmental organization with the broad aims of promoting sexual and reproductive health, and advocating the right of individuals to make their own choices in family planning.  (IPPF IPPF International Planned Parenthood Federation
IPPF Independent Power Producers Forum (Hong Kong)
IPPF Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility
IPPF International Penal and Penitentiary Foundation
) Youth Manifesto, developed by young people from all six IPPF world regions in 1998, states three goals:

* Young people must have information and education on sexuality and the best possible sexual and reproductive health services (including contraceptives).

* Young people must be able to be active citizens in their society.

* Young people must be able to have pleasure and confidence in relationships and all aspects of sexuality. (22)

On the basis of these rights, young people could claim, for example, the right to contraceptive services, irrespective of irrespective of
prep.
Without consideration of; regardless of.

irrespective of
preposition despite 
 their marital status marital status,
n the legal standing of a person in regard to his or her marriage state.
. This position is taken by Utamadi, a reproductive health activist with PKBI in Yogyakarta, in an article in Kompas, the biggest national newspaper. He points out the failure of the Indonesian state to protect children from hazardous work and trafficking, and the fact that pregnant teenage girls are forced to marry and leave school. He contends that adolescents must know their rights in order to be able to lobby for them. (23)

A non-prohibitive sexuality discourse for youth builds on a belief in their ability to balance needs with rights. Yet, ascribing sexual and reproductive rights Reproductive rights or procreative liberty is what supporters view as human rights in areas of sexual reproduction. Advocates of reproductive rights support the right to control one's reproductive functions, such as the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced  to adolescents cannot be separated from ensuring they have the competence to live out those rights. In our view, competence regarding sexuality has several dimensions: factual knowledge about the physical processes of one's own body and the body of a partner, fertility and contraception and the existence of and protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Interactive knowledge would mean respectful communication and empathy with a partner. Such knowledge cannot be generated only by often under-informed peers or commercial youth magazines. It requires education that includes discussion and reflection and services that provide access to condoms, contraceptives and safe abortion.

The Indonesian Consumer Association has published on these matters for the NGO community in Indonesia, (24) and elaboration of reproductive and sexual rights was the subject of exposure tours for 22 representatives of Indonesian NG0s to the Netherlands in 2002. (12) The Lentera initiative of PKB PKB Protein Kinase B
PKB Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (Indonesia)
PKB Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (National Awakening Party, Indonesia)
PKB Pot, Kettle, Black
1 has the potential to provide services for adolescents in a non-repressive manner. The volunteers who started Lentera reached out to marginalised groups such as street children, female sex workers and gay-identified and transvestite trans·ves·tite
n.
One who practices transvestism.


transvestite Sexology A person with a compulsion to dress as a member of the other sex, which may be essential to maintaining an erection and achieving orgasm. See Transsexual.
 men in a non-patronising way and worked with them to advocate sexual rights. (25, 26) Interestingly, a large number of progressive NGO activists have begun standing for election to local, provincial and national legislatures, and this will eventually affect policy, as they engage with more conservative sectors.

In September 2003, a spokesman for the Indonesian Ministry of Justice and Human Rights announced on behalf of the Minister that a new draft Criminal Code would be tabled in Parliament:

"The planned sexual behaviour laws ... include prohibitions against adultery and cohabitation A living arrangement in which an unmarried couple lives together in a long-term relationship that resembles a marriage.

Couples cohabit, rather than marry, for a variety of reasons. They may want to test their compatibility before they commit to a legal union.
 between adults, and oral sex and homosexual acts between youths under the age of 18. Punishment for these sexual crimes would be up to 12 years in jail." (27)

The reaction to this by all but a few ultraconservative Islamic media was refreshingly strong. Human rights activists criticised the Minister's attempt to bring sharia rules into national Indonesian law. Journalists and their interviewees were outraged, and headlines such as "We don't want the state in our bedrooms" were splashed across the front pages of the newspapers. (28)

Non-prohibition or allowance of sex is not based on a concept of drives and instincts determining behaviour but rather on a holistic concept of the capacity to be rational about sexual interests. Non-prohibition does not mean "you must have sex"; on the contrary, it means having information and the acceptance of desire, dialogue, negotiation and pleasure. This is the meaning of empowering young people in relation to sexuality.

Conclusions

Until a political agenda is developed that dares to turn the discourse of prohibition into one of honesty and respect for adolescents' needs and rights, young women and men, whether heterosexual or homosexual, will be confronted with expectations that they should remain innocent and abstinent at a time when they are seeking to understand the sexual functions of the body and act respectfully towards partners.

In our study of the literature and discussions with young people, we found them to be rather active sexually. They were curious, experimenting and unafraid, but also careful. Young people know quite a lot and want all the information they can get--and they want to be recognised as responsible beings. The images of young people we encountered in discussions and popular magazines are contrary to those representing youth as frightened of the terrible consequences of sexuality and needing protection. Rather, we found young people who are exploring an experimental field of pleasure for themselves--with some caution and with responsibility--a field segregated from adults. If prohibition does not prevent young Indonesians from experiencing their sexuality, what discourse about adolescent sexuality is of value?

If sexuality is a form of knowledge-seeking that creates identity and connectivity, then sexuality is not something dangerous that should be suppressed. Young people can have a healthy, informed and responsible sexual life. Information should be available concerning the complexities of different sexualities, respecting the spectrum of diversity. The means to stay healthy and be responsible--contraceptives and condoms--should be available at strategic sites where youth feel comfortable about accessing them. Meanwhile, young Indonesians are engaging in different forms of sexual relationship and finding their own sources of information, independent of government, religion and international organisations.

By providing information and the means to sexual health, we actually reduce the risk of young people inflicting harm on themselves. The ideal, in our opinion, are sexually street-wise youth who know when not to engage in sex, and when they are engaging, know how to protect themselves from unwanted outcomes, whether pregnancy, STIs or HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. , and for gay youth from futile experimentation with heterosexual relationships. Popular youth media have an especially important role to play in putting knowledge in the hands of youth, to help them to be responsible. In addition, policy on adolescent sexual activity should conceptualise v. t. 1. same as conceptualize.

Verb 1. conceptualise - have the idea for; "He conceived of a robot that would help paralyzed patients"; "This library was well conceived"
conceive, conceptualize, gestate
 youth as a life stage in which more than just sexuality is at issue.

In many ways, young Indonesians are fortunate to be living in a country with one of the freest presses in Asia and where the freedom to discuss sexuality is growing, at least in urban areas. International donors have also woken up to the complex realities of sexuality, and have felt less constrained to fund programmes for educating different sectors of society, including government itself, about sexuality. By far the most advanced are the HIV/AIDS and STI STI systolic time intervals.  prevention and care programmes now operating in almost half the country's provinces. Young people are an important target of these programmes, not only heterosexual youth but also young people who are sex workers (female, male and transgender), homosexuals, transgenders and transexuals. In many instances, it is young people who are educating programme managers and funders about different sexualities. Other organisations, including those working on reproductive health and women's organisations, are not responding as quickly to these new perspectives, but trends in the media and amongst funders are slowly affecting them as well.

Acknowledgements

This paper is a revised version of a paper presented at the European Social Science Java Network Conference on Youth and Identity, Universite de Provence, Marseilles, 2-5 May 2002. Our thanks to Danny M Goenawan and Kholid Fathirius, who facilitated focus group discussions. Translation of text from Indonesian to English was by the authors.

* Aneka Yess! (No. 20, 25 Sept-8 Oct 2003), Gadis (Vol. 30, No. 26, 26 Sept-6 Oct 2003), Kawanku (Vol. 27, No. 37, 15-21 Sept 2003), and two issues of Hai, one for young women (Vol. 27 No. 37, 15-21 Sept 2003) and one for young men (Vol. 27 No. 38, 22-28 Sept 2003).

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Resume

Depuis la Conference internationale sur la population et le developpement en 1994, on a articule le besoin d'une education sexuelle pour les jeunes et beaucoup beau·coup   also boo·coo or boo·koo Chiefly Southern U.S.
adj.
Many; much: beaucoup money.

n. pl.
 d'activites a Java, Indonesie, se sont adressees aux adolescents. Neanmoins, de nombreux parents, enseignants et dirigeants religieux ont juge que cette education devait supprimer la sexualite des jeunes. Cet article reflechit aux discours actuels sur la sexualite des jeunes a Java par rapport au comportement sexuel reel des jeunes. A l'aide d'exemples de magazines populaires et de publications educatives, et de discussions de groupe avec des jeunes gens gens (jĕnz), ancient Roman kinship group. It was the counterpart of what is known in other societies as a patrilineal clan or sib, and the word has been used in social science as a generic term for such groupings.  et jeunes filles a Surabaya, Java-Est, nous avancons que le discours dominant d'interdiction decrit la sexualite des jeunes comme malsaine, et pratique pra·tique  
n.
Clearance granted to a ship to proceed into port after compliance with health regulations or quarantine.



[French, from Old French practique, from Medieval Latin
 l'intimidation en chant les dangers des rapports sexuels. Pourtant, un discours de competence et de citoyennete est plus adapte au comportement reel des adolescents et fixe de nouvelles taches pour l'education sexuelle. Les jeunes doivent disposer d'informations sur differentes sexualites, en respectant la diversite des comportements. Les medias populaires parmi les jeunes ont un role particulierement important a jouer dans ce domaine. Les moyens de demeurer en bonne n. 1. A female servant charged with the care of a young child.  sante et d'etre responsables--contraceptifs et preservatifs--devraient etre disponibles dans des endroits ou les jeunes se sentent a l'aise. Entretemps, les jeunes Indonesiens pratiquent differentes formes de relations sexuelles et trouvent leurs propres sources d'information, independantes des organisations etatiques, religieuses et internationales.

Resumen

Desde la CIPD CIPD Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (UK)
CIPD Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo (Mexico)
CIPD Center for Innovation in Product Development
 de 1994, se ha expresado la necesidad de impartir educacion sexual a la juventud y, con este fin, se han realizado numerosas actividades en Java, Indonesia. Sin embargo, muchos padres, maestros y lideres religiosos piensan que esta educacion debe suprimir la sexualidad de la juventud. En este articulo articulo /ar·tic·u·lo/ (ahr-tik´u-lo) [L.] at the moment, or crisis.

articulo mor´tis  at the point or moment of death.
 se reflexiona sobre los discursos actuales que estan en contra del comportamiento sexual de los jovenes de Java. Mediante ejemplos de revistas populares y publicaciones educativas, asi como discusiones en grupos focales con hombres y mujeres jovenes de Surabaya, Java Oriental, se argumenta ar·gu·men·ta  
n.
Plural of argumentum.
 que el discurso prohibitivo dominante en Java denuncia la sexualidad de la juventud como no saludable, reforzada mediante la intimidacion en torno a los peligros del sexo. En cambio, un discurso de competencia y ciudadania reflejaria mas adecuadamente el verdadero comportamiento sexual de los jovenes, y plantearia nuevos retos para la educacion sexual. La juventud debe disponer de informacion sobre las diferentes modalidades de la sexualidad, que respete el espectro de diversidad. Los medios de comunicacion populares dirigidos a los jovenes desempefian un papel de particular relevancia al respecto. Los metodos para conservar la salud y ser responsable (p. ej., anticonceptivos como el condon) deben estar disponibles en lugares donde la juventud se sienta comoda accediendolos. Mientras tanto Tanto may refer to several things. Please see:
  • Tantō - A Japanese weapon
  • Tanto, Stockholm - A district of Stockholm, Sweden.
See also: Tonto.
, los jovenes indoneses estan participando en diferentes tipos de relaciones sexuales y encontrando sus propias fuentes de informacion, independiente del gobierno, la religion y las organizaciones internacionales.

Brigitte M Holzner, (a) Dede Oetomo (b)

(a) Senior Lecturer, Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: Holzner@iss.nl

(b) Special Reader in Social Sciences, Postgraduate Programme, University of Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia
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Author:Holzner, Brigitte M.; Oetomo, Dede
Publication:Reproductive Health Matters
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Date:May 1, 2004
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