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Your guide to a winning display. (TABLES, CHARTS, AND GRAPHS.

How do you keep track of the data from your science experiment? And how do you turn the collected information into something visually interesting, such as charts and graphs? First, read "Hit the Waves" on p. 18. Then, follow this step-by-step guide to practice making tables, graphs, and charts.

1. Data Table

Use a data table to record your experiment findings. An organized data table should list your independent variables clearly. It should also have blank spaces Noun 1. blank space - a blank area; "write your name in the space provided"
space, place

surface area, expanse, area - the extent of a 2-dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary; "the area of a rectangle"; "it was about 500 square feet in area"
 for you to fill in the data from your experiment. Suppose you want to find out how Atlantic hurricane Atlantic hurricane refers to a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean usually in the Northern Hemisphere summer or autumn, with one-minute maximum sustained winds of 74 mph (64 knots, 33 m/s, 119 km/h).  strength has varied from year to year. Hurricanes are categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.

 on a strength level scale of 1 through 5. The stronger the storm is, the higher is its category number. The category numbers are your independent variables. And the number of hurricanes is your dependent variable.

To make a data table:

1. Draw a blank data table.

2. Give your table a title that identifies your variables ("The Yearly Change in Hurricane hurricane, tropical cyclone in which winds attain speeds greater than 74 mi (119 km) per hr. Wind speeds reach over 190 mi (289 km) per hr in some hurricanes.  Strength").

3. Label the column on the left as the independent variable (Category). Underneath, list the category numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5).

4. Label the columns to the right as the dependent variable (Number of Hurricanes). Draw boxes under these columns in which you can record the results in each year for each category.

5. Include columns at the far right to record the average number of hurricanes for each category. To calculate the average, simply find the total number of hurricanes in each category. Then divide the total by the number of years.

Your Turn: Complete the data table by calculating the average number of hurricanes for categories 2, 3, 4, and 5. Round your answers to the nearest tenth.

2. Bar Graph

Use a bar graph to compare your variables.

A bar graph is a great way to show how the independent variables stack up stack  
1. A large, usually conical pile of straw or fodder arranged for outdoor storage.

2. An orderly pile, especially one arranged in layers. See Synonyms at heap.

 against each other. The graph below compares the number of hurricanes for each category in 2004.

To make a bar graph:

1. On graph paper, draw a set of axes axes

[L., Gr.] plural of axis. The straight lines which intersect at right angles and on which graphs are drawn. Usually the horizontal axis is the x-axis and the vertical one the y-axis. Called also axes of reference.
 (x and y).

2. Give your bar graph a title ("Hurricane Strengths in 2004").

3. Label the horizontal (x) axis with your independent variable (Category), including a label of each category number (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5).

4. Label the vertical (y) axis with your dependent variable (Number of Hurricanes) and a scale from 0 to at least the highest number in your dependent variable results.

5. For each independent variable, draw a solid bar to the height of the corresponding value of the dependent variable. Example: The number of category 1 hurricanes is 2. Draw a bar above the "1" label on the x-axis See x-y matrix.  to the "2" mark on the y-axis See X-Y matrix. .

Your Turn: Use the information in the data table on the previous page to complete the bar graph.


3. Line Graph In graph theory, the line graph L(G) of an undirected graph G is a graph such that
  • each vertex of L(G) represents an edge of G; and
  • any two vertices of L(G

Use a line graph to pinpoint changes in your data. Choose a line graph when you want to see how continuous changes to the independent variable affect the dependent variable. For example, instead of comparing hurricane categories, you choose to focus on how the number of hurricanes in category 4 changed from year to year. The independent variable is now the year, and the dependent variable is the number of hurricanes.

To make a line graph:

1. On graph paper, draw a set of axes (x and y).

2. Give your line graph a title (The Number of Category 4 Hurricanes From 2002 to 2004).

3. Label the x-axis with your independent variable (Year) with the values of the independent variable (2002, 2003, and 2004).

4. Label the y-axis with your dependent variable (Number of Hurricanes). Use a scale from 0 to at least the highest number in your dependent variable results.

5. Plot a point on the graph for each piece of data. Example: The number of category 4 hurricanes in 2002 was 1. To locate this point on your graph, draw an imaginary Imaginary can refer to:
  • Imaginary (sociology), a concept in sociology
  • Imaginary number, a concept in mathematics
  • Imaginary time, a concept in physics
  • Imagination, a mental faculty
  • Object of the mind, an object of the imagination
  • Imaginary enemy
 vertical line from the "2002" mark on the x-axis. Then, draw an imaginary horizontal line (Descriptive Geometry & Drawing) a constructive line, either drawn or imagined, which passes through the point of sight, and is the chief line in the projection upon which all verticals are fixed, and upon which all vanishing points are found.

See also: Horizontal
 from the "1" mark on the y-axis. Plot the point where the imaginary lines In general, an imaginary line is any sort of line that has only an abstract definition, and does not exist in fact.

As a geographical concept, an imaginary line may serve as an arbitrary division (such as a border).
 intersect In a relational database, to match two files and produce a third file with records that are common in both. For example, intersecting an American file and a programmer file would yield American programmers. .

6. Once you've you've  

Contraction of you have.

you've you have
you've have
 plotted the points for all your data, connect the points.


4. Pie Chart A graphical representation of information in which each unit of data is represented as a pie-shaped piece of a circle. See business graphics.

Use a pie chart to illustrate numbers expressed in percentages of a whole,

A pie chart is a circle divided into wedge-shaped sections. The circle represents 100 percent. Wedges inside that circle represent data that are percentages of the whole.

Suppose you decide to graph the percentage of hurricanes in each category that occurred during 2004. The total number of hurricanes in 2004 represents 100 percent. And each hurricane category represents a different wedge of the pie chart.

To make a pie chart:

1. Use a compass to draw a circle.

2. Give your pie chart a title ("Profile of Hurricane Strengths in 2004").

3. Mark the center of the circle with a point; this is where each pie "slice," or wedge, will start.

4. Measure a wedge for each independent variable (Category 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5). First, convert your data into percentages. Do so by dividing the number of hurricanes in each category in 2004 by the total number of hurricanes in that same year.

Example: Two of nine hurricanes in 2004 were Category 1 hurricanes. 2 / 9 = .22 or 22% when rounded to the nearest tenth. Then convert your data from percentages to angle degrees. Example: 22 percent of the total number of hurricanes in 2004 were a category 1, so the pie wedge for category 1 would be 22 percent of the 360[degrees] circle, or 79[degrees] (360 x .22 = 79.2, rounded to 79). Position a protractor protractor

Instrument for constructing and measuring plane angles. The simplest protractor is a semicircular disk marked in degrees from 0° to 180°. A more complex protractor, for plotting position on navigation charts, is called a three-arm protractor, or station
 at the center point of the circle. Mark 0[degrees] and 79[degrees] angles with points on the edge of the circle. Draw a line from these points to the center of the circle.

5. Label the wedge (include its percentage).

6. Measure your next wedge from the edge of the first. When finished, the entire circle should be filled and the angles of the wedges should add up to 360[degrees].*

Your Turn: Calculate the percentages of hurricanes in 2004 for the other categories in the data table. Use this information to complete the pie chart.



Category 2: 1; Category 3: 1.3; Category 4: 1.7; Category 5:07





Profile of Hurricane Strengths in 2004

Category 1      22%
Category 2      11%
Category 3      22%
Category 4      33%
Category 5      11%

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Publication:Science World
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 18, 2006
Previous Article:Science News.
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