Working with the ADHD student.It is estimated that between three and five percent of children--or approximately two million children in the United States--have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), formerly called hyperkinesis or minimal brain dysfunction, a chronic, neurologically based syndrome characterized by any or all of three types of behavior: hyperactivity, distractibility, and impulsivity. (ADHD Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Definition
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by distractibility, hyperactivity, impulsive behaviors, and the inability to remain focused on tasks or ). This means that in a classroom of 25 to 30 students, it is likely that at least one will have ADHD.
Those statistics come from the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH), which also points out that while a child with ADHD faces a difficult task in achieving his or her full potential, the task is not insurmountable. Since ADHD often continues into adulthood, it is important to help children learn to deal with it early on, and that takes teamwork from parents, guidance counselors, teachers and school administration.
According to NIMH, it is the school's obligation to evaluate children it suspects may have ADHD. The diagnosis is becoming more common, however, and children may come into the classroom having already received treatment such as behavior modification behavior modification
1. The use of basic learning techniques, such as conditioning, biofeedback, reinforcement, or aversion therapy, to teach simple skills or alter undesirable behavior.
2. See behavior therapy. and medication--as well as an Individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. Educational Plan (IEP IEP
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Irish Punt.
The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion. ).
The Nemours Foundation, publisher of KidsHealth, puts the estimated rate of ADHD in children even higher than NIMH--four to eight percent. According to Nemours, there are three subtypes of ADHD.
Signs of the inattentive in·at·ten·tive
Exhibiting a lack of attention; not attentive.
inat·ten type include inability to pay attention to details, difficulty with sustained attention, apparent listening problems, difficulty in following instructions, problems with organization, distractibility, and forgetfulness Forgetfulness
See also Carelessness.
Absent-Minded Beggar, The
ballad of forgetful soldiers who fought in the Boer War. [Br. Lit.: “The Absent-Minded Beg-gars” in Payton, 3]
absent-minded professor .
The hyperactive-impulse type exhibits signs such as fidgeting, difficulty remaining seated, excessive running or climbing, excessive talking, difficulty waiting for a turn or in line, and problems with interrupting or intruding.
Signs of a combined type involve a combination of the first two types. The combined type of ADHD is the most common.
The Nemours Foundation offers suggestions for managing ADHD students in the classroom that include reducing seating distractions, breaking down assignments, giving positive reinforcement positive reinforcement,
n a technique used to encourage a desirable behavior. Also called
positive feedback, in which the patient or subject receives encouraging and favorable communication from another person. , teaching good study skills, and being sensitive to self-esteem issues.
The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services/Office of Special Education Programs has several publications that address issues related to the instruction of ADHD students. Among these is Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Resource for School and Home. The publication offers the following tips for teachers:
* Work on the most difficult concepts early in the day.
* Give directions to one assignment at a time instead of directions to multiple tasks all at once.
* Vary the pace and type of activity to maximize the student's attention.
* Structure the student's environment to accommodate his or her special needs (seating the student away from distracting areas such as doors, windows and computers, or seating the student near another student who is working on a shared assignment).
The National Resource Center on ADHD, a program of Children and Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
A persistent pattern of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsiveness; the pattern is more frequent and severe than is typically observed in people at a similar level of development. (CHADD CHADD Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Landover, MD, USA)
CHADD Children with Attention Deficit Disorder
CHADD Change of Address ), is developing a section of its Web site specifically for teachers and other school personnel, but it also has a list of resources that can be helpful in the meantime Adv. 1. in the meantime - during the intervening time; "meanwhile I will not think about the problem"; "meantime he was attentive to his other interests"; "in the meantime the police were notified"
meantime, meanwhile .
Managing a classroom with one or more ADHD students can be a frustrating experience for both the teacher and the other students. As the U. S. Department of Education publication notes, a student with inattention in·at·ten·tion
Lack of attention, notice, or regard.
Noun 1. inattention - lack of attention
basic cognitive process - cognitive processes involved in obtaining and storing knowledge , hyperactivity or impulsivity can present unique challenges, but there are ways teachers can help such students.
According to the publication, "It is important for teachers to be aware of coexisting conditions such as learning disabilities, as well as reinforcing the importance of classroom and instructional structure."
At some point, it is likely that almost every career and technical educator will be faced with the problem of one or more ADHD students in the classroom. It is a difficult situation, but helping improve the educational experience for these students will help them learn to deal with a condition that they will probably carry with them into adulthood.
Help with ADHD
The following resources offer advice and tips on managing a classroom with one or more ADHD students.
The National Institute of Mental Health The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the federal government of the United States and the largest research organization in the world specializing in mental illness.
The U.S. Department of Education Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services/Office of Special Education Programs
Children and Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder