Witchcraft, female aggression, and power in the early modern community.I. Introduction
Almost a generation ago the study of European witchcraft European witchcraft is witchcraft and magic that is practised primarily in the locality of Europe. History of European witchcraft
was revolutionized by a "paradigm shift A dramatic change in methodology or practice. It often refers to a major change in thinking and planning, which ultimately changes the way projects are implemented. For example, accessing applications and data from the Web instead of from local servers is a paradigm shift. See paradigm. ," as Wolfgang Behringer has termed it, that involved the adoption of anthropological and sociological methodologies, a greater attention to archival sources, and an interest in focusing on history "from below." (1) Part of the larger shift to social, and more recently cultural, history, it has led to the emergence of a broad consensus on many aspects of the topic over the past three decades. The early modem discourse on witchcraft, it is generally agreed, developed out of the interplay of Europe's learned and popular cultures. (2) Individual trials, too, involved an interplay between government officials and local communities; while some spectacular hunts may have been driven by officials obsessed ob·sess
v. ob·sessed, ob·sess·ing, ob·sess·es
To preoccupy the mind of excessively.
v.intr. with a diabolical conspiracy, most trials took place because of complaints brought to the authorities by ordinary peasants and townspeople-- rumors uncovered in local or church courts, requests that such rumors be quashe d, or outright accusations. (3) These complaints manifested both long-standing folk beliefs and the hard times that stemmed from population pressures, socioeconomic change, and the climatic downturn of the "Little Ice Age." (4) Once started, witch trials took on a life of their own because the tortured testimony appeared to validate the discourse as the victims constructed narratives corresponding to the expectations of their interrogators. (5) Sometimes torture resulted in an ever-expanding chain of denunciations, however, and as the accusations spread farther and farther from the stereotyped suspects and closer and closer to the magistrates and their families, the elite suffered a crisis of confidence that brought the trial to an end. On a larger scale, a similar sort of "crisis of confidence" is thought to have been at work as well, supported and stimulated by growing legal concerns, religious scruples, and an increasing propensity to medicalize med·i·ca·lize
To characterize a behavior or condition as a disorder requiring medical treatment. the problem. The resultant decline in prosecutions reflected not a sudden denial that witchcraft was possible but a gradually increasing skepticism within the elite about its power and importance. While the traditional belief in malevolent ma·lev·o·lent
1. Having or exhibiting ill will; wishing harm to others; malicious.
2. Having an evil or harmful influence: malevolent stars. (as opposed to diabolical) witches survived among the peasants, the change began a more fundamental paradigm shift that set the basic framework for educated understanding of witchcraft down to today. (6)
II. Women and Witchcraft in Historical Understanding
The existence of this broad consensus naturally has not precluded new investigations to develop new angles of interpretation, and marked disagreement about certain issues remain. One area that has remained particularly controversial is the role of gender in the witch discourse and trials. (7) The advocates of the trials asserted that "the fragile feminine sex ... feebler in both mind and body" was particularly prone to witchcraft, and their skeptical opponents used this very predominance pre·dom·i·nance also pre·dom·i·nan·cy
The state or quality of being predominant; preponderance.
Noun 1. predominance - the state of being predominant over others
predomination, prepotency of "poore, sullen sul·len
adj. sul·len·er, sul·len·est
1. Showing a brooding ill humor or silent resentment; morose or sulky.
2. Gloomy or somber in tone, color, or portent: sullen, gray skies. , superstitious su·per·sti·tious
1. Inclined to believe in superstition.
2. Of, characterized by, or proceeding from superstition.
su " women to argue against them. (8) Historians thereafter have taken the association pretty much for granted, and a large number of local studies during the last generation have confirmed that most of the time women did in fact predominate heavily among the suspects. (9) While in some regions and certain trials men predominated, overall women constituted about 80% of the people tried. (10)
Most of the earlier historians acknowledged the special association of women and witchcraft without making it a significant part of their discussion, either ignoring it in constructing their explanations or dismissing it as a product of late Medieval clerical misogyny misogyny /mi·sog·y·ny/ (mi-soj´i-ne) hatred of women.
Hatred of women.
mi·sog . (11) The first social and anthropological historians offered some tentative hypotheses about how gender relations and the changing circumstances of women contributed to the trials, suggesting that increasing numbers of widows and spinsters threatened a society based on patriarchal family units, or that people increasingly resisted helping to support poor elderly women in the village. (12) Women's historians moved gender relations into the forefront of explanations for the persecutions by drawing on the insight that the trials were part of a larger campaign by governments to Christianize the countryside (and in the process expand their own authority), and linking them to a general strengthening of patriarchy patriarchy: see matriarchy. during the same period. (13) Some fem inist accounts, seizing on an estimate of 9 million victims, cast the trials as "the persecution of a whole sex ... the second phase of the patriarchal seizure of power at the beginning of the bourgeois era," while others pointed more specifically to midwives and "wise women" as the chief targets of persecutions, and drew a connection to the specific interests of a particular male group, doctors. (14) Subsequent local studies have found that neither midwives nor wise women played an especially prominent role in most areas, however, while syntheses of local studies now suggest that the figure of nine million deaths is two orders of magnitude too large, but historians of women nevertheless give the persecutions an important place in women's history ''This article is about the history of women. For information on the field of historical study, see Gender history.
Women's history is the history of female human beings. Rights and equality
Women's rights refers to the social and human rights of women. as part of the larger campaign to erect an increasingly patriarchal society and culture in early modern Europe The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies which spans the two centuries between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution. . (15) Europe's male leaders considered patriarchal families to be the foundation of society, and used their administrative powers and the power of the pulpi t to build it up. (16) "Assertive and aggressive" women challenged this order, and could be beaten by their husbands, punished for moral offenses ranging from scolding to adultery, or, at the extreme, burned for witchcraft. (17)
This view of witchcraft is generally acknowledged to convey some important truths about the evolving position of women in early modern society, but historians of witchcraft have recently begun bridling at the implications this interpretation has for our understanding of witchcraft itself. (18) Noting that 20% of the suspects in the trials were not women, and that in certain times and places men outnumbered Outnumbered is a British sitcom that aired on BBC One in 2007. It stars Hugh Dennis and Claire Skinner as a mother and father who are outnumbered by their three children. women by a wide margin, some historians of witchcraft point to Christina Larner's statement that the witch hunts were gender related, but not gender specific, arguing that while the witch trials may have hit women particularly hard, they were "not some complicated mechanism for persecuting women." (19) Different historians have pointed out that the witch literature did not generally emphasize the role of women, that the laws tended to be written in gender-neutral language, that torture and execution were common elements of criminal trials which affected men far more often then women, and that women played a significant role in formulating and supporting accusations. (20) Stuart Clark Stuart Rupert Clark (born 28 September 1975, Sutherland, New South Wales) is an Australian Test cricketer who plays for the New South Wales Blues and Hampshire. He bowls right-arm fast medium deliveries. has gone so far as assert that the view that "witch-hunting was in reality women-hunting," and social-functionalist explanations in general, do not show, "and given their logic ... cannot show ... why the accusations should have concerned witchcraft ... [for] there is no necessary link between being anomalous and being a witch." (21) Clark's criticism can be extended to the most recent direction in feminist interpretation, which links witchcraft suspicions to tensions within the female sphere. (22) While the variants of this interpretation shed interesting light on why and how the female witch stereotype was applied once it existed, it does not really explain how or why the image of the evil magician came to be feminized in the first place.
For his part, Clark proposes that the explanation for the association of women and witchcraft lies in the "linguistic structures of contrariety con·tra·ri·e·ty
n. pl. con·tra·ri·e·ties
1. The quality or condition of being contrary.
2. Something that is contrary.
Noun 1. ;" the "dualism dualism, any philosophical system that seeks to explain all phenomena in terms of two distinct and irreducible principles. It is opposed to monism and pluralism. In Plato's philosophy there is an ultimate dualism of being and becoming, of ideas and matter. characterizing early modern thought," as Allison Coudert put it. (23) Early moderns linked a whole series of polar opposites like men and women, "public / private, dominant / subordinate, aggressive / passive" and so on. Women, presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. because they weren't the ones devising the system, simply ended up on the wrong side of the divide. (24)
Clark's critique of functionalist func·tion·al·ism
1. The doctrine that the function of an object should determine its design and materials.
2. A doctrine stressing purpose, practicality, and utility.
3. explanations has considerable merit, but his own explanation has some problems itself. For one thing, Heidi Wunder has asserted that "'man' and 'woman' were defined ... in terms of comparative differences ... not ... dichotomies," while Manuel Simon has disputed the notion that the witch and the dutiful du·ti·ful
1. Careful to fulfill obligations.
2. Expressing or filled with a sense of obligation.
du housewife were considered a pair of opposites, since they also stood in relation to the virgin on one side and the "disobedient and disorderly woman" on the other. (25) For another, early modern dichotomous di·chot·o·mous
1. Divided or dividing into two parts or classifications.
2. Characterized by dichotomy.
di·chot thinking is inadequate to explain the popular element in witchcraft belief. (26) The popular association of woman and witchcraft was both ancient and widespread, common to many cultures worldwide and far back into antiquity, and popular concern was not with the nature of evil or even the danger of the Devil, but rather with specific harms attributed to a neighbor's malefic ma·lef·ic
1. Having or exerting a malignant influence.
2. Evil; malicious.
[Latin maleficus : male, ill; see mel-3 powers. (27) The learned theologians who wrote the witch tracts drew from several sources, but the ass ociation of women with witchcraft, in particular, came from experience in the field. (28) The most fundamental question is not why early modern male elites thought women were particularly susceptible to the Devil's blandishments, but why early modern common people--female as well as male--thought women were particularly likely to use magical powers against them.
III. Women and Violence in Early Modern Society
To begin answering this question, we will first look in more detail at current treatments of the relationship of women and witchcraft in popular culture and then evaluate them in light of both a systematic sample of cases drawn from the archives of the Duchy of Wurttemberg and a recent reassessment Reassessment
The process of re-determining the value of property or land for tax purposes.
Property is usually reassessed on an annual basis. You may request a "reassessment" if you disagree with your assessment. of the most common form of malefic magic associated with witchcraft.
To begin with, recent investigations have emphasized that the women most likely to be accused of witchcraft tended not to be poor, marginal outsiders, but integral members of their communities: married, not single; part of the broad middling peasantry, not the poorest of the poor. (29) Certainly some witch accusations stemmed from conflicts between poor old widows and their better--off neighbors, but others involved well-to-do women accused by poorer villagers, and still others, probably the majority, involved people of roughly equal station. The conflicts were often economic, but they could arise "from a wide variety of interpersonal conflicts." (30) Indeed "nearly every human relationship which went wrong might lead to a charge of witchcraft." (31)
Furthermore, these conflicts were not isolated incidents; they were part of a pervasive pattern of interpersonal conflict that permeated early modern village society. Crowded, riven rive
v. rived, riv·en also rived, riv·ing, rives
1. To rend or tear apart.
2. To break into pieces, as by a blow; cleave or split asunder.
3. by increasing economic inequalities, "characterized by constant positioning for control of, and access to, resources, and by unwritten LAW, UNWRITTEN, or lex non scripta. All the laws which do not come under the definition of written law; it is composed, principally, of the law of nature, the law of nations, the common law, and customs. rules governing intra-group behavior ... acrimony ac·ri·mo·ny
Bitter, sharp animosity, especially as exhibited in speech or behavior.
[Latin crim , fractiousness, 'existential jealousy,' and conflict were endemic." (32) Modes of conflict included gossip, insults, scolding, threats, curses, ritual magic, legal action, and various forms of physical assault. (33) Early modern village life certainly included warm friendships and peaceful coexistence Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. This was in contrast to theories, such as those implied by some interpretations of antagonistic contradiction, that Communism and , but any attempt to understand early modern witchcraft must start by recognizing that the "internal viciousness of village interactions ... and the brutality of interpersonal conflict" drove some members "to pursue personal quarrels with a degree of persistence and ruthlessness" that might "harass harass (either harris or huh-rass) v. systematic and/or continual unwanted and annoying pestering, which often includes threats and demands. This can include lewd or offensive remarks, sexual advances, threatening telephone calls from collection agencies, hassling by an enemy even unto death." (34)
In this "community of terror," as Reiner Walz has termed it, women played as important a role as men. (35) However, Walz's research has cast doubt on the conventional understanding of what that role was. (36) Most accounts have assumed that women specialized in verbal combat and have treated witch accusations as the culmination of an escalating series of interactions in which the woman moved from scolding to threats to curses, and was denounced when one of these was coincidentally co·in·ci·den·tal
1. Occurring as or resulting from coincidence.
2. Happening or existing at the same time.
co·in followed by some harm supposedly associated with witchcraft. Walz has studied witch accusations in the context of all judicial activity in a set of German villages, however, and surprisingly found that far more men ended up in court as a result of verbal exchanges, and that eventual witch suspects were seldom among the women. (37) The reason for the low number of women among verbal abusers is unclear--it could be that women were less verbally abusive, or it could be that women simply did not move from verbal exchanges to litigation An action brought in court to enforce a particular right. The act or process of bringing a lawsuit in and of itself; a judicial contest; any dispute.
When a person begins a civil lawsuit, the person enters into a process called litigation. as readily as men,--while the absence of witch suspects suggests that either people suspected women who were actually fairly passive or that village roles were relatively stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.
Arranged in the form of layers or strata. , that some people were known as yellers, while others were suspected of more dangerous things.
Walz favors the passive interpretation, arguing that once a suspect was identified, people retroactively ret·ro·ac·tive
Influencing or applying to a period prior to enactment: a retroactive pay increase.
[French rétroactif, from Latin interpreted incidents to support the new accusation. (38) The sampled trials from the Duchy of Wurttemberg, however, do not support this conclusion. While some people undoubtedly did alter their memories and stories as Walz suggests, many of the prior incidents and suspicions mentioned had left some public record or involved some explicit comment at the time. (39) Given the well-known importance of reputation in defining a witch, the history of suspicions going in many cases back years or even decades, it seems more likely that suspects had not been in court for verbal excesses either because it was not their style or because people were already too fearful to tangle with Verb 1. tangle with - get involved in or with
change state, turn - undergo a transformation or a change of position or action; "We turned from Socialism to Capitalism"; "The people turned against the President when he stole the election" them in a situation where the victory would be minor and the consequences could, in their minds anyway, be deadly. (40)
The village witch, then, appears to have been a different role than the village scold SCOLD. A woman who by her habit of scolding becomes a nuisance to the neighborhood, is called a common scold. Vide Common Scold. . (41) Both roles, however, could bestow be·stow
tr.v. be·stowed, be·stow·ing, be·stows
1. To present as a gift or an honor; confer: bestowed high praise on the winners.
2. real power. A scold could get her way by wearing people down, while a suspected witch could gain considerable deference by scaring them. (42) Reginald Scot Reginald Scot (circa 1538 - 1599) was the English author of The Discoverie of Witchcraft, which was published in 1584. It was written to show that witches did not exist, by exposing how (apparently miraculous) feats of magic were done. , for example, reported how "these miserable wretches are so odious unto their neighbors, and so feared, as few dare offend them, or denie them anie thing they ask." (43) Another English observer reported that one reputed witch "had so powerful a hand over the wealthiest neighbors about her, that none of them refused to do anything she required, yea, unbesought they provided her with fire, and meat from their own tables." (44) In France, "even substantial laboureurs who crossed a suspected witch were liable to be reproached by their own kin for running unnecessary risks," while in Germany "women, who were known as sorceresses" were equally feared for their readiness to "use their magical powers as weapons in conflicts" with their nei ghbors. (45)
That some people accepted or even cultivated a reputation for possessing "magical powers" has long been recognized, although its importance has generally been minimized. Trevor-Roper spoke of "a scattered folk-lore of peasant superstitions ... universal, in time and place," while William Monter speculated about solitary women's need "to rely on magical means of revenge for their injuries because nothing else was open to them ... and perhaps to introduce, in a drugged sleep, some excitement into their monotonous and wretched lives." (46) More recently, however, historians have begun to treat peoples' witch beliefs more seriously, and put more emphasis on the lengths to which people would go in acting out the role of sorcerer (tool) SORCERER - A simple tree parser generator by Terence Parr <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
SORCERER is suitable for translation problems lying between those solved by code generator generators and by full source-to-source translator generators. or witch. (47) Clark Garrett, for example, has recounted an incident where a cunning man identified a shepherd as the cause of animals' deaths, and "the authorities found books of magic and quantities of arsenic and other drugs in the home of the suspect." (48) In another example, from the Vorarlberg region of Germany, Hubert Vogel reported on a suspect whose home was searched, and the authorities found, among other things, a variety of herbs, powders and salves; "an old sealed case with an old communion Host in it;" a "horseshoe horseshoe, narrow plate, commonly of iron or steel, shaped to fit a horse's hoof and attached to the hoof by nailing it to the inner edge of the horny wall of the hoof. nail bound in a handkerchief;" a small "locket" in which was "a lump of wax in the middle of which a piece of wood was stuck;" a small pillow with various things sewn into it, including "human skin;" and "a small wooden horse, whose hindquarters were bound together with string." (49) Ingrid Ahrendt-Schulte has made one of the strongest arguments along these lines, based on her research in the city of Horn. "When general or gender-based inequalities blocked legal possibilities for protection" of women's interests, "malefic magic could take their place." (50) She acknowledges that women had a broad range of magical means of attack according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. contemporary culture, but she focuses on poisoning, arguing that a "the word for magical means is 'Vergift,' or in the language of the protocols, 'venenum.'" (51) Her focus on poison emphasizes that witchcraft was not just some sort of idle fantasy or imaginary compensation, but an active assertion of power; poisons could be used to kill an abusive husband or, in one specific case she discusses, a powerful male relative involved in a property dispute.
Ahrendt-Schulte's focus on poison is seconded by the example of Giovanna Bonanno, an "old Vinegar lady" who has been shown to have supplied poison to a number of dissatisfied wives in Palermo, and by the cases contained in the sample of small trials in Wurttemberg as well. (53) Allegations of poison were, in fact, the most common accusation leading to these trials, and they also comprised a number of supporting denunciations registered once a trial had begun. In some cases the allegations appear to have been spurious, and in a few the "poison" was actually a remedy or herbal potion po·tion
A liquid medicinal dose or drink.
a large dose of liquid medicine. offered for its beneficial effect, but in many the accusations were plausible, and in some the suspect's intentions were clear. In one example, a young boy, Jakob Endris, fell ill after eating a soup prepared by his step-grandmother, Maria Schneider, the mother of his father's second wife. (54) A doctor "found ... that something wrong had been given to him in his food," and Jakob said that Maria had earlier threatened to "feed him lye." When the officials questioned her, "at first she did not want to admit any knowledge of a soup" at all. Confronted by the testimony of other witnesses showing up this lie, she "finally... acknowledged her guilt."
The problem with focusing on poisoning and other explicit forms of sorcery sorcery: see incantation; magic; spell; witchcraft.
Sorrow (See GRIEF.)
finds a spell that makes objects do the cleanup work. [Fr. , however, is that they were factors in only a minority of cases. Among the sampled trials from Wurttemberg, of the 94 accusations that were made, 73, over 75%, alleged malefic crimes, crimes that involved a specific injury, while 21, one-quarter, involved diabolism di·ab·o·lism
1. Dealings with or worship of the devil or demons; sorcery.
2. Devilish conduct or character.
di·ab , Devil-worship not involving a specific harm to a specific victim. (55) However, while poisoning was the single most frequent allegation precipitating a trial, it accounted for only seven of the 22 primary accusations involving maleficium, and only six of the 51 secondary (supporting) accusations involving it. Allegations of ritual magic or cursing were even less significant numerically: just two trials involved allegations of some sort of ritual action, while only three accusations involved some sort of explicit verbalization. (56) Among the 24 allegations of harm to animals, two specified poisoning as the form and three some sort of occult influence, so the total allegatio ns of malefic crimes that specified poisoning and sorcery came to 23 of the total of 73, or about one third. (57)
In addition to these means of attack, though, the records from Wurttemberg contain evidence of other, less formal, forms that were also associated with witchcraft. One of these was physical assault, which accounted for another ten of the 73 allegations. The one case that was precipitated by an assault occurred after Katharina Masten, a 71 year old wife of a carter and citizen of the village of Metzingen, went to a neighbor's house to collect a debt he owed. (55) Since he was not home, she tried to take food as compensation. A servant girl in the household, Catharina Baitinger, stopped her, and the next day, when Catharina was walking alone on a secluded path in the woods, Katharina approached her, demanding the money once again. Catharina said that she would get it after her chores were done, but Katharina became angry and began to berate and hit her, knocking her down. When the magistrates investigated, Katharina denied that the incident had taken place, but witnesses placed her at the scene of both the argu ment and the subsequent assault, while a smith reported that "she had told him she had given the girl what she deserved." In the other nine instances the assaults were recounted during the course of trials that started for other reasons.
In addition to physical assaults against people, physical violence could also be directed against animals. Farmsteads in Wurttemberg's villages, as in many other agricultural societies, were often crowded together, and it was impossible to lock the animals away or keep them under constant supervision. (59) Most peasants could afford to support at most a few animals, so the death or injury of one was a major economic blow. In a minority of cases, as we have seen, allegations specified sorcery as the means by which damage was supposed to have been inflicted, and Ahrendt-Schulte argues that poisons were the primary means by which witches might have injured animals. However, as many of the 24 sampled allegations specified mechanical injury as chemical, and the great majority of the allegations did not attempt to explain how the damage had been done at all. (60) Of course, some of the alleged injuries, like some of the human illnesses blamed on witchcraft, were undoubtedly naturally contracted, but the earliest of the sampled cases involved a confession A Confession is a short work on questions of religion by Leo Tolstoy. It was first distributed in Russia in 1882.
Consisting of autobiographical notes on the development of the author's belief, A Confession rather than an accusation, which showed that attacks on animals did, in fact, take place. (61) In this instance, an elderly woman named Magdelena Horn spontaneously confessed that she had injured her neighbors' pigs and a cow, and when the magistrates investigated, the people confirmed that the animals had sickened at the time Magdelena said, although they said they had not suspected her. (62) She also claimed to have struck a boy so hard he subsequently died, and, when asked, his mother confirmed that he had complained of this before he expired.
Another case from the duchy's archives provides even more remarkable evidence that some suspects had deliberately inflicted injuries, and that simple physical violence was as likely as (and less complicated than) some sort of poison. The case is contained in the transcript of the tortured testimony of Margretha, Jung Michael Stainer's wife from Rosenfeld. While Carlo Ginzberg has advocated "teasing" the reality out of such testimony by searching for anomalies and Lyndal Roper Lyndal Roper is Fellow and Tutor in History at Balliol College, University of Oxford and author of Witch Craze. (Yale University Press, 2004) Witch Craze - Summary has used tortured testimony to explore the interplay of the interrogators' expectations and the suspects' psychocultural repertoire, no such subtlety is needed here, for the magistrates checked into the 27 malefic acts she confessed to and noted the results of their investigation in the margins of the transcript. (63) They also followed the more routine practice of reviewing her confessions with her after the torture session and noting which she confirmed and which she retracted re·tract
v. re·tract·ed, re·tract·ing, re·tracts
1. To take back; disavow: refused to retract the statement.
2. . She claimed to have killed and lamed eleven horses, three cows and one goose, specifying that she hit many with a stick or a stone, poisoned one teenage girl, hit three children so hard that they died, caused three more children to die by kissing or blowing on them, slew one woman by throwing a stone at her head, and killed two other people. In many of these instances, she described the specific motives that led her to perpetrate per·pe·trate
tr.v. per·pe·trat·ed, per·pe·trat·ing, per·pe·trates
To be responsible for; commit: perpetrate a crime; perpetrate a practical joke. these acts: a man "refused to carry her wood" in his wagon; a woman dishonored dis·hon·or
1. Loss of honor, respect, or reputation.
2. The condition of having lost honor or good repute.
3. A cause of loss of honor: was a dishonor to the club.
4. her by asserting that she had "had born a bastard child;" an employer had "beat her badly."
Outside of the torture chamber, Margretha retracted six of her stories: the last three she confessed to, two of the injuries to animals, and one other. When the magistrates investigated the stories she left standing, most of the people interviewed confirmed the conflicts and the damages. A few confirmed some but not all the details, while in one instance the person denied any knowledge of what she said. Some of the people said that they had suspected her at the time, but others reported that they "had no idea it was her." Margretha also confessed to a number of stereotyped details of contact with the devil, use of a salve salve (sav) ointment.
An analgesic or medicinal ointment.
ointment. , and participation in a witches' dance, but in the realm of malefic crimes the combination of partial retraction In the law of Defamation, a formal recanting of the libelous or slanderous material.
Retraction is not a defense to defamation, but under certain circumstances, it is admissible in Mitigation of Damages. Cross-references
Libel and Slander. and partial confirmation, substantial corroboration but sporadic disagreement, lack of prompting on the part of the interrogators, detailed discussions of motives, and simple, for the most part directly physical violence set in the context of what we know about the intensity of co nflict that was possible in early modem villages, makes it likely that Margretha did in fact do many of the things she said Things She Said is single CD by the band Kent. Track listing
IV. Occult Injury and Psychosocial psychosocial /psy·cho·so·cial/ (si?ko-so´shul) pertaining to or involving both psychic and social aspects.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior. Factors in Disease
Most of Margretha's confessions specified very mundane mechanical means by which she inflicted injuries, but what are we to make of her claim to have killed children by kissing or blowing on them? We could just take the position that it doesn't matter whether magical attacks had any intrinsic efficacy, that all that matters is just that the people involved thought they did. However, this position is inadequate, because it marginalizes what was for the participants the very heart of the matter, the conviction that these cases involved an extraordinary malevolent power. (64) On the one hand, the demonologists (and, following them, generations of historians) may have emphasized the pact with the Devil, but in general the law put equal emphasis on harmful magic, while commoners, as already noted, were far more interested in this aspect of the crime than its theological implications. (65) On the other hand, early modem people--commoners as well as the elite--understood that use of poisons did not necessarily invol ve a pact with the Devil or other witchcraft, and prosecuted some people for the secular crime alone at even as they prosecuted others as witches. Similarly, they knew that assault and battery need not involve some sort of magical power to cause harm and accused some of their neighbors for the physical act alone, yet accused other batterers of witchcraft. (66) And some people were accused of manifesting this malevolent power quite independent of any specific physical contact. A few were accused of manifesting it through some ritual or verbal means, while others were accused of simply manifesting it.
Twenty-three of the 73 malefic accusations in the sampled trials, almost one-third, concerned some sort of occult bewitchings, ailments attributed to people without any physical medium being specified. (67) While a few were vague enough that a physical means may have been assumed but not mentioned, most imply that some sort of intangible force, some extraordinary malevolent power, was at work. (68) In one example, a woman named Anna Rueff said another woman, Catharina Ada, stood "to her right side [and] without a word" ripped a loaf of bread in half, which caused her "head to hurt somewhat [and] the next day" she "became lame on her right side" and hurt so badly that she seemed to be losing her mind. (69) In a second example, a young man claimed that at his wedding an older woman named Anna Gebhard made lewd comments and grabbed his trousers, until "suddenly such a fright came over him," that "he lost his manhood MANHOOD. The ceremony of doing homage by the vassal to his lord was denominated homagium or manhood, by the feudists. The formula used was devenio vester homo, I become you Com. 54. See Homage. and thereby became impotent im·po·tent
1. Incapable of sexual intercourse, often because of an inability to achieve or sustain an erection.
2. Sterile. Used of males. ." (70) In a third case, a man named Andreas Leichten said that his el derly neighbor Agnes Langjahr "frequently" harassed his family, distressing his daughter that so much that she refused to go out and eventually died. (71)
In all three cases, there is good evidence that, intentionally or not, the suspects' actions may well have played an important role in the maladies blamed on them. In the first case, both the timing and nature of Anna Rueff's symptoms suggest that they were caused by her distress over Catharina Ada's actions. Pain and paralysis are common forms of conversion disorder conversion disorder
In psychology, a neurosis marked by extreme emotional excitability and disturbances of psychic, sensory, vasomotor, and visceral functions. , and "there is a strong association between somatic somatic /so·mat·ic/ (so-mat´ik)
1. pertaining to or characteristic of the soma or body.
2. pertaining to the body wall in contrast to the viscera.
adj. symptoms and psychological distress psychological distress The end result of factors–eg, psychogenic pain, internal conflicts, and external stress that prevent a person from self-actualization and connecting with 'significant others'. See Humanistic psychology. ," so it seems suggestive that Anna's symptoms appeared while Catharina was with her and on the side where she stood. (72) In the second example, fact that Konrad ascribed his impotence impotence (im`pətəns), inhibited sexual excitement in a man during sexual activity that, despite an unaffected desire for sex, results in inability to attain or maintain a penile erection. to the "fright" that "came over him" is very significant, for according to modern psychologists men's "erectile problems" are a psychophysical psychophysical /psy·cho·phys·i·cal/ (-fiz´i-k'l) pertaining to the mind and its relation to physical manifestations.
1. Of or relating to psychophysics. reaction which "tend to be associated with fear." (73) If he just made up the story to save face, it seems more likely that he would have talked about a spell or curse rather than his own, dishonorable dis·hon·or·a·ble
1. Characterized by or causing dishonor or discredit.
2. Lacking integrity; unprincipled.
dis·hon , fear. In the third example, the gir l's refusal to go out of the house suggests that Agatha's harassment Ask a Lawyer
Country: United States of America
I recently moved to nev.from abut have been going back to ca. every 2 to 3 weeks for med. had bothered her a great deal, and the stress this engendered could have contributed to a fatal cardiac arrhythmia cardiac arrhythmia
See cardiac dysrhythmia.
An irregular heart rate or rhythm.
Mentioned in: Holter Monitoring, Stress Test
cardiac arrhythmia , or, more likely for a young girl, reduced her immune competence immune competence Competence Immunology The ability of the immune system to respond appropriately to an antigenic stimulation, and unleash an immune response 'cascade'. Cf Anergy, Antigenic competence. and thereby made her more vulnerable to some other disease. (74)
The accusers in these cases may well have had psychological or organic problems that also contributed to their distress, but their allegations that the maladies were caused or at least strongly influenced by disturbed interpersonal relations were not unreasonable in light of the circumstances described in the trial records. These and many other alleged occult bewitchings appear to have been manifestations of the considerable power of interpersonal relations on physical health. (75) This is the effect popularly referred to as "psychosomatic psychosomatic /psy·cho·so·mat·ic/ (-sah-mat´ik) pertaining to the mind-body relationship; having bodily symptoms of psychic, emotional, or mental origin.
1. ," although physicians have abandoned the term because of its connection with Freudian and neo-Freudian psychodynamics psychodynamics /psy·cho·dy·nam·ics/ (-di-nam´iks) the interplay of motivational forces that gives rise to the expression of mental processes, as in attitudes, behavior, or symptoms. , which have not been supported by experimental evidence or clinical experience in this respect. (76) In their place, current medical understanding includes four primary means by which psychological processes influence physical health. (77) The first, somatoform disorders Somatoform Disorders Definition
The somatoform disorders are a group of mental disturbances placed in a common category on the basis of their external symptoms. , involves somatic symptoms that either cannot be attributed to organic disorder Noun 1. organic disorder - disorder caused by a detectable physiological or structural change in an organ
disorder, upset - a physical condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning; "the doctor prescribed some medicine for the disorder"; "everyone or whose severity cannot be accounted for by organic damage. The second, psychophysical disorders, are fully organic disorders that are nevertheless strongly affected by emotional and psychosocial influences. These disorders usually result from the physiological effects of prolonged stress, which also cause the third form of psychological influence on physical health, suppression of the immune system immune system
Cells, cell products, organs, and structures of the body involved in the detection and destruction of foreign invaders, such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. Immunity is based on the system's ability to launch a defense against such invaders. . Finally, psychological processes can cause actions that lead to somatic harm, including, most significantly in regard to witchcraft, misjudgments that result in accidents.
We cannot conclusively diagnose diseases from old trial records, of course, but since psychological distress does have a real potential to contribute to a wide range of maladies, accusers often did have some real basis for their suspicion that the suspects' actions or attitudes had caused or contributed to their ailments. Naturally, in some cases the psychological influences that affected their bodily health were probably generated purely by their own internal psychological processes, but in others it seems probable that interpersonal conflict triggered the psychologically mediated physiological effects. Furthermore, while in some cases interpersonal tensions probably exacerbated the accuser's pre-existing psychological or physiological problems, in other cases interpersonal conflict could have had an independent effect, for pre-existing psychological or physiological problems are not necessary in order for physiological effects to occur. (78) Nor is it necessary for a person to have a cultural expectation th at other peoples' actions can affect their health to be affected, although such an expectation can naturally contribute to psychological distress. (79) Similarly, the other party in the conflict does not have to intend to cause injury or even believe that this is possible to trigger the stress reaction, and her actions do not even have to cause fear, for any negative feelings that are strong enough--fear, anxiety, anger, depression, despondency de·spon·den·cy
Depression of spirits from loss of hope, confidence, or courage; dejection.
Noun 1. despondency - feeling downcast and disheartened and hopeless
despondence, disconsolateness, heartsickness , resentment, or frustration--will do. (80)
The key words here are "strong enough," for this would seem to be the source of the malevolent power in many witchcraft cases. Deliberately or inadvertently, it appeared that a threshold had been crossed when interpersonal antipathy burst forth in physiological symptoms. This was true not only of the explicitly occult accusations, but of most of the assault cases and at least some of the allegations of poison as well. (81) Most instances of assault result in cuts and bruises Bruises Definition
Bruises, or ecchymoses, are a discoloration and tenderness of the skin or mucous membranes due to the leakage of blood from an injured blood vessel into the tissues. Pupura refers to bruising as the result of a disease condition. , but these sorts of injuries seldom led to witch accusations. Instead, accusations resulting from physical contact generally involved some sort of paralysis, severe pain, or, in one of the sampled cases, such intense distress that the person killed herself. It is possible in some of the cases of paralysis the damage resulted from purely mechanical trauma since the suspects were young adults, and one was male, but even these instances most likely involved a significant psychosocial component, and most of the injuries caused by the other ph ysical attacks almost certainly resulted primarily from the victim's stress response rather than the direct bodily effect of the suspect's action.
In some instances, the accusation did not even involve a blow, but instead some sort of touch, grabbing or stroking of the victim. In these cases, physical trauma
Physical trauma refers to a physical injury. is unlikely or impossible, so psychological factors would seem to be paramount. However, during some trials the possibility was raised of a powder or ointment ointment /oint·ment/ (oint´ment) a semisolid preparation for external application to the skin or mucous membranes, usually containing a medicinal substance.
n. that witches were said to rub onto their victims. One suspect, Anna Maria Rothin, was said to have smeared Conrad Herwick's wife with something that caused her to become lame and then die, for example. (82) Another woman, Agatha Weil, confessed to having smeared people with an ointment that caused them to become lame and even to die, and when the magistrates investigated people confirmed most of the injuries. The hallucinogenic hal·lu·ci·no·gen
A substance that induces hallucination.
[hallucin(ation) + -gen.]
hal·lu ointments ointments,
n.pl semisolid, non–water-based treatments that are not water-soluble and that create protective films to prevent dehydration of the skin. that people in the region are known to have used on themselves included alkaloids alkaloids,
n alkaline phytochemicals that contain nitrogen in a heterocyclic ring structure. They can have powerful pharmacological effects and are more often used in traditional medicine than in herbal treatments. that block neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters
Chemicals within the nervous system that transmit information from or between nerve cells.
Mentioned in: Bulimia Nervosa, Impotence, Pain, Withdrawal Syndromes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems peripheral nervous system: see nervous system. , so they or something similar could have been used to cause a loss of sensation and possibly contr ol of a limb. (83) Their chemical effects in such a limited, local, and topical application would not likely have caused death, however, so the frightening effects of the perceptual and motor distortions on unwitting victims must have also played an important part. In the same way, the victim's fears appear to have played an important role in some of the poison cases as well. (84) The effects of salves and poisons, like many other somatic disorders, probably involved a complex interplay between physiology, psychology, and cultural expectations.
A final type of accusation in which the psychophysical connection appears to have played an important role was harm to animals. Ahrendt-Schulte ascribes these cases, to the extent that they were founded, to the use of poisons, and we have seen that they could also involve physical blows. (85) Some accusations, however, specified an occult influence, as when one suspect was said to have used "her witchcraft," to cause a horse to throw its rider, and when another suspect was said to have cured a cow by grabbing its horns and saying "up, up," and then later killing it by throwing "a bucket of water on it." (86) The idea that a person could affect an animal so strongly may seem implausible im·plau·si·ble
Difficult to believe; not plausible.
im·plausi·bil , but it is supported by recent studies of animal psychology and of farm animals' relations with humans. Animals have been used as subjects in many of the experimental investigations of psychological factors in disease, and these have shown that the dynamics of their social groups can affect a variety of types of animals' health . (87) It has even been demonstrated that dominant animals can cause sudden death through cardiac arrhythmias in submissive sub·mis·sive
Inclined or willing to submit.
sub·mis animals by harassing them. (88) Humans' influence on the health and behavior of animals has not been as well studied, but a growing number of investigations indicate "that farm animals may be very fearful of humans, with adverse consequences for the animals." (89) This would explain the occult powers some suspects were reported to have exercised over animals, and also clarify the dramatic consequences of some physical assaults on animals which, like some of the physical assaults on people, do not seem to have left noticeable bruises or curs. Margretha Stainer's attacks on her neighbors' animals, for example, may have worked not purely or even primarily through their physical force, but instead through their psychological power, their exploitation of animals' subordinate place in the farmyard dominance hierarchy A dominance hierarchy or social hierarchy is an organizational form by which individuals within a community control the distribution of resources within the community. Dominance hierarchies are formed when a group of individuals belonging to the same species share a territory. .
Ahrendt-Schulte has raised an important issue by pointing to the reality of poisonings as a source of belief in and fear of witches. The analysis here suggests that her insight should be extended dramatically, for poisoning was only the most obvious, and far from the most frequent, form of aggression associated with witchcraft. Assault, occult injury, and harm to animals accounted, along with poisoning, for the great bulk of accusations, though, and as we have seen they were just as real dangers to early modem people as poisoning. Furthermore, the residual accusations among the sampled cases in Wurttemberg, theft and arson, were equally mundane. (90) The more exotic accusations against witches like causing storms, keeping butter from churning, and the like obviously present a different problem of interpretation, one which the classic understanding of magic as the rationalization of inexplicable misfortune seems more on point, but even where these forms of maleficium were reported, they were either far less si gnificant than the types of health-related issues encountered in the sampled cases in Wurttemberg or, in the case of weather magic, played a prominent role only temporarily, in special circumstances special circumstances n. in criminal cases, particularly homicides, actions of the accused or the situation under which the crime was committed for which state statutes allow or require imposition of a more severe punishment. . (91) For the most part, witchcraft fears centered on problems of health and disease (including accidents), and far from being the misguided rationalization of inexplicable misfortune, they were in many cases reasonable if not necessarily correct attempts to specify the source of a malady malady /mal·a·dy/ (-ah-de) disease.
A disease, disorder, or ailment.
a disease or illness. . The charge of witchcraft was certainly abused, both cynically and naively, but the fear not only that malefic magic was being practiced, but also that malevolent power was in fact being projected, was not inherently unreasonable. It was perfectly consistent with a full understanding of both the role of magic in early modem popular culture and the actual interplay of interpersonal relations, psychology, and physiology in human health and well being.
Ahrendt-Schulte and others' insistence that poisonings and other acts of sorcery were real acts which conferred real power on women has opened the way for a new, more realistic understanding of witchcraft, but because these explicit acts were only practiced by a minority of suspects, they remained secondary in our understanding of the phenomenon, overshadowed by the need to explain the majority of "implausible" accusations. (92) Recognizing that many of these were not implausible at all shifts the emphasis in what needs to be explained: not why people believed in an impossible set of crimes, but why their belief in this set of possible crimes got so out of hand, causing greater social problems than the crimes themselves appear to have done in the first place.
While many of the traditional explanations for the witch trials--the importance of elite demonology de·mon·ol·o·gy
1. The study of demons.
2. Belief in or worship of demons.
3. A list or catalog of one's enemies: , the self-validating nature of torture, the cynical manipulation of a vague and elusive set of beliefs by self-interested parties, and the subconscious subconscious: see unconscious. reversal of guilt by people who felt guilty--work at that level, this revised understanding contains in itself a new insight that helps explain it as well, for it not only broadens the range of offenses that potentially caused people harm, it also broadens the range of people who could have caused it. Just as a person does not have to believe in witchcraft or magic for their stress reaction to be triggered by other peoples' displays of hostility, a person does not have to consciously intend to cause harm in order to cause it. Poison and sorcery require premeditation premeditation n. planning, plotting or deliberating before doing something. Premeditation is an element in first degree murder and shows intent to commit that crime. (See: malice aforethought, murder, first degree murder)
PREMEDITATION. , and verbal curses require a conscious articulation of a desire for harm, but a look, gesture, or inarticulate inarticulate /in·ar·tic·u·late/ (in?ahr-tik´u-lat)
1. not having joints; disjointed.
2. uttered so as to be unintelligible; incapable of articulate speech. exclamation of rage can be made with no conscious, or even unconscious, thought of its e ffect on its recipient, and even physical blows can be made without a serious expectation that they will be traumatic or fatal. (93) This aspect of the connection between interpersonal relations, psychology, and physiology--what E.E. Evans-Pritchard distinguished as "witchcraft" as opposed to deliberate acts of "sorcery"--helped make the early modem judicial process so potentially damaging, for it came to include not just people who appeared to be practitioners of harmful magic, but also people who were seen to have exerted a spontaneous harmful power. (94) The phrase "came to" is used deliberately here, for the witch hunters This article is about the playable army in the tabletop miniature wargame, Warhammer 40,000. For other uses see witch hunter.
Witch Hunters are one of the playable armies in the tabletop miniature wargame, Warhammer 40,000. generally thought they were dealing with diabolical sorcerers and sorceresses, but by their use of torture compelled people who had never practiced sorcery to admit to it.
The commoners who brought charges were generally reacting to specific incidents in which they perceived that specific harms had been done. Most of the time, they perceived that women were the ones who caused harms through the mechanisms associated with witchcraft. More specifically, they perceived that women more frequently took that extra step, crossed the threshold in their relations, where consciously or unconsciously, through some covert action Covert action may refer to:
Covert Action or through the spontaneous expression of emotion they manifested their anger in a way that caused physiological damage to their antagonist antagonist /an·tag·o·nist/ (an-tag´o-nist)
1. a substance that tends to nullify the action of another, as a drug that binds to a cell receptor without eliciting a biological response, blocking binding of substances that could . (95) Stuart Clark has suggested that "we may be faced with nothing more significant than a correlation between the sex of most 'witches' and the sex of most of the practitioners," of sorcery and the present analysis indicates that he may be right on the money, but with one caveat. (96) The suspects did not have to practice sorcery more, but instead could just manifest baleful interpersonal power more. The crucial question about the relationship of women and witchcraft may not be why early modern women practiced harmful magic more often than men, but why they seemed to manifest the malefic power ascribed to witches more often than men.
V. Female Aggression in Cross-Cultural and Biological Perspective
The sampled trials in Wurttemberg, as research elsewhere, give plenty of evidence that some women did consciously practice sorcery, while other women did act in ways that spontaneously expressed their anger so vehemently that it caused physical harm to other people. However, it is difficult to tell from the early modern records alone whether women acted in these ways more often than men, or whether they were just expected to act these ways more often than men. (97) We know that women were involved in far fewer violent crimes than men, but this leaves open the question of whether they were simply less aggressive, or whether they acted out their aggression in different ways, in ways associated with witchcraft. (98) Therefore, we will turn to cross-cultural psychology The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking.
Cross-cultural psychology and biology to see if they can shed any light on the issue. (99) They cannot by themselves provide solid answers, but they can provide context and highlight broader human tendencies that can make one answer more probable than another.
I have already examined the connection between old age and witchcraft in an earlier article, and in it I found evidence from the historical record, from cross-cultural sociological and anthropological studies, and from the biology of aging that the stereotyped old woman as witch did correspond to cross-cultural patterns of behavior, which were rooted in the interplay of sociocultural so·ci·o·cul·tur·al
Of or involving both social and cultural factors.
soci·o·cul and biological influences during the life transition known as the climacteric climacteric: see menopause. . (100) Elderly women were beset by socioeconomic problems like poverty and marginality and frustrated frus·trate
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart: by sociocultural restrictions like limited legal rights and restricted outlets for sexuality. Across cultures, women tend to exhibit irritable and other socially disruptive behaviors during this phase of life due to the combination of psychological and biological adjustments the end of reproductive potency triggers, and in the conditions of early modern Europe some elderly women accepted and even cultivated these patterns of behavior in order to enforce respect and obedience.
However, elderly female witches had the same relationship to female witches that female witches had to witches: they made up a majority, but there was a significant minority who also must be taken into account. Furthermore, the statistics on age tend to reflect the point at which a woman was tried, but witch suspicions built up over years, so the statistics exaggerate the median age of suspected witches in the community. (101) Significantly, the Malleus Maleficarum The Malleus Maleficarum(Latin for "The Hammer of Witches", or "Hexenhammer" in German) is one of the most famous medieval treatises on witches. It was written in 1486 by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger, and was first published in Germany in 1487. discussed the supposed reasons why older women were especially prone to witchcraft, but it also discussed the reasons why younger women were attracted to it as well. (102) The particular problems of elderly women in early modern Europe, and the general characteristics of elderly women, were important, but they do not account for the overall association of women and witchcraft.
Early cross-cultural psychological studies of female aggression concluded that women are less aggressive than men, a conclusion that fit comfortably with the prevailing Western notion of "natural" female character at the time. (103) Critics, however, have suggested that the studies' definition of aggression was biased toward male forms, and more recent studies suggest that both genders have similar capacities for aggression, but that they manifest them rather differently. (104) Across cultures, males are more likely than females to use direct physical aggression; the two genders tend to be roughly equal in their propensity toward verbal aggression; and females are more likely than males to use indirect aggression: spreading gossip, manipulating surrogates, and other forms of covert attack. (105) When women do commit acts of direct aggression, like murder, they tend to use surreptitious SURREPTITIOUS. That which is done in a fraudulent stealthy manner. means that minimize the actual violence, like poison or battery against a sleeping foe, although when they have power and thi nk they are unobserved (as when they care for children and aged people) they are less reticent about resorting to direct physical violence. (106) While the correspondence between these modern findings and early modern suspicions about witches is not exact--the witches were thought to, and in some trials were shown to, use more direct violence (poisons, ritual magic, and battery) than the females in the modern studies, the parallels are certainly suggestive. (107) Furthermore, on the other side of the gender equation, the propensity for direct physical violence of early modern men documented by Wurttemberg's court records is strikingly consistent with the general patterns observed for men. (108) On balance, the cross-cultural evidence seems to support the conclusion that early modem witch feats did reflect a real tendency for women to engage in witch-related practices and exhibit witch-like behaviors more often than men. (109)
The reasons for these different styles of aggression are discussed in many of the cross-cultural studies Cross-cultural comparisons take several forms. One is comparison of case studies, another is controlled comparison among variants of a common derivation, and a third is comparison within a sample of cases. , and there is general agreement that sociocultural forces play a strong role. (110) Modern studies emphasize modern women's greater degree of social integration to account for both their reluctance to openly aggress ag·gress
intr.v. ag·gressed, ag·gress·ing, ag·gress·es
To initiate an attack, war, quarrel, or fight: "America . . . and their reliance on indirect means, while early modern historians discuss the importance of women's social space as the arena in which witch-related activities took place. (111) However, it is becoming clearer that the either-or division between sociocultural influences and biology, nature and nurture, is an oversimplification o·ver·sim·pli·fy
v. o·ver·sim·pli·fied, o·ver·sim·pli·fy·ing, o·ver·sim·pli·fies
To simplify to the point of causing misrepresentation, misconception, or error.
v.intr. ; sociocultural and biological factors interact in complex ways to influence human behavior, including gendered behavior. (112) And while they sometimes exist in tension or conflict, sociocultural structures "commonly" reinforce or exaggerate biological differences. (113) This seems to be the case in regards to aggressive behaviors, for while women tend to utilize indire ct and covert aggression in part because they have internalized sociocultural images of appropriate female behavior, they also do this because of a conscious or unconscious recognition that they are at a disadvantage physiologically in confrontations with men, because men on average are larger and heavier and have more muscle-mass in their upper bodies. (114) On the one hand, this difference in biology to some degree underlies the difference in sociocultural images, for males have specialized in hunting and physical combat since Paleolithic times, and have augmented this basic biological difference with individual training in fighting, the use of increasingly complex and lethal weapons, and an expanding scale of group cooperation, further magnifying the differential coercive power of men and women. (115) It seems significant that in many simple societies men and women are thought to have similar, if not always the same, propensities to use magical powers, while in Western civilization Noun 1. Western civilization - the modern culture of western Europe and North America; "when Ghandi was asked what he thought of Western civilization he said he thought it would be a good idea"
Western culture , dominated by male viole nce, male government, and male religion, females have come to be seen as particularly likely to rely on occult forms of power. On the other hand, this difference in biology is itself in part a product of social forces, for it was the existence of effective social groups that enabled human beings to evolve specialized physiologies to this degree. (116)
The role of gross anatomical differences between women and men in predisposing them to certain modes of aggression, both directly, through conscious or unconscious calculation of optimum conflict strategies, and indirectly, through sociocultural expectations and restrictions, would seem relatively unproblematic. Other, more subtle, biological differences are more controversial, but also seem to play a role. The best known gender difference in behavior directly linked to physiological differences is the effect of male sex hormones sex hormone
Any of various steroid hormones, such as estrogen and androgen, affecting the growth or function of the reproductive organs and the development of secondary sex characteristics. (androgens Androgens
Male sex hormones produced by the adrenal glands and testes, the male sex glands.
Mentioned in: Acne, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Finasteride, Homocysteine, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Salpingo-Oophorectomy
) in stimulating aggression in men. (117) While recent research has challenged the simplistic sim·plism
The tendency to oversimplify an issue or a problem by ignoring complexities or complications.
[French simplisme, from simple, simple, from Old French; see simple notion that surges of testosterone testosterone (tĕstŏs`tərōn), principal androgen, or male sex hormone. One of the group of compounds known as anabolic steroids, testosterone is secreted by the testes (see testis) but is also synthesized in small quantities in the cause uncontrollable fits of aggression in males, it is well established that prenatal prenatal /pre·na·tal/ (-na´tal) preceding birth.
Preceding birth. Also called antenatal.
preceding birth. exposure to androgens produced in response to the presence of the Y chromosome Y chromosome,
n a sex chromosome that in humans and many other species is present only in the male, appearing singly in the normal male. It is carried as a sex determinant by one half of the male gametes. None of the female gametes contain a Y chromosome. causes the hypothalamus hypothalamus (hī'pəthăl`əməs), an important supervisory center in the brain, rich in ganglia, nerve fibers, and synaptic connections. It is composed of several sections called nuclei, each of which controls a specific function. to develop differently in males than females. (118) Because of this difference, testosterone affects males' brains differently than females' brains, and while some researchers argue that it simply makes men more capable of violence rather than compelling them to it, in either case this difference does appear to be a biological contributor to the differential levels of direct aggression observed across cultures. (119) The absolute levels of violence manifested by both sexes vary widely from one culture to the next, but the relatively greater readiness of males to resort to overt violence appears to be a constant, and appears to be attributable to this genetic and hormonal difference as well as to gross anatomical differences and differences in social roles and acculturation acculturation, culture changes resulting from contact among various societies over time. Contact may have distinct results, such as the borrowing of certain traits by one culture from another, or the relative fusion of separate cultures. . (120)
While the different prenatal development This article is about prenatal development in humans. For other animals, see prenatal development (non-human).
Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo or fetus (or foetus) gestates during pregnancy, from fertilization until birth. of females makes them less responsive to the influence of androgens, it would be a mistake to conclude that their behavior is simply a reflection of their lack of something males have. In the first place, the presence of estrogen has been shown to promote composure, even in men, so women's greater restraint also reflects their possession of something men lack (or at least have far less of). (121) Furthermore, the evidence suggests that the forms of aggression women do tend to favor are positive adaptations that maximize their natural strengths. Specifically, across cultures women have been shown to be on average more emotionally responsive, more socially attuned at·tune
tr.v. at·tuned, at·tun·ing, at·tunes
1. To bring into a harmonious or responsive relationship: an industry that is not attuned to market demands.
2. , and more verbally gifted than men. (122) While socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. undoubtedly accounts for much of that difference, both because girls are encouraged to foster these skills in order to take on their role as nurturers and because subordinate groups in society generally cultivate a greater awareness of the nuances of behavior and expression than dominant groups, the evidence suggests that the tendency has biological roots as well. (123) One study, for example, has shown newborn girls to be more responsive to sounds of other peoples' distress than newborn boys, while another has shown that at four months girls are already better at recognizing faces than boys. (124) Furthermore, women appear to be biologically equipped to hear better, see better in the dark, have better visual memories, differentiate tastes better, and smell more acutely than men. (125) Women's brains are structurally different from men's: they are 15% smaller (even accounting for differences in body size), with proportionately the same number of neurons Neurons
Nerve cells in the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord that connect the nervous system and the muscles.
Mentioned in: Speech Disorders , but more tightly packed. (126) There is some evidence that the corpus callopsum, the nerve bundle that connects the right and left hemispheres, is bigger in women than men, and it has been suggested that this enables women to integrate the cognitive activities of the two hemispheres more quickly than men . (127) More solidly established is that women process emotion in more regions of the brain than men; both hemispheres of women's brains recognize the emotional content of visual messages, whereas only the right hemisphere of a men's brains do. (128) As a consequence some of women's emotional processing is located in the same hemisphere as the areas responsible for verbal activity, which suggests a reason why women may express emotions more readily than men, in whom emotional processing and verbal activity occur in different halves of the brain. (129) Furthermore, women's verbal dexterity may be further enhanced by the fact that their language centers are consolidated in one region of the brain, while men's are scattered. (130) Finally, there is some evidence that estrogen plays a role in the full development of verbal fluency, memory, and the recognition of emotion in faces. (131) Indirect aggression (the infliction in·flic·tion
1. The act or process of imposing or meting out something unpleasant.
2. Something, such as punishment, that is inflicted.
Noun 1. of harm through the manipulation of third parties) and the infliction of harm through verbal or gestural emotional signaling are thus conflict strategies that exploit abilities that women tend to be good at while, like covert violence, they avoid contests women tend to be less well equipped for. (132)
None of these physiological attributes impels women to behaviors associated with witchcraft, of course; what the cross-cultural and biological evidence suggests is not that some or all women have some innate drive to act like witches, but instead that they have innate characteristics that make them more likely than men to adopt conflict strategies in violent cultures or moments of anger that are characterized as witchcraft (or, more specifically, malefic magic). (133) Early modern women certainly lived in a society permeated by violence, and the cross-cultural and biological evidence suggests that it is no wonder that some of them acted in ways that made them seem like witches to their neighbors, particularly in the increasingly difficult demographic and socioeconomic circumstances of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Even then, most women, like most men, lived either non-violently or within socially acceptable bounds of aggressiveness, but some early modern women, like some early modem men, aggressed beyond acceptable limits. The difference was, the men tended to aggress with fists or knives, while the women tended to aggress with poisons, rituals, or raw emotional onslaughts. (134) In so doing, they were manifesting both their culture's expectations and their own psychophysical endowments. (135)
VI. Consequences of the Witch Trials for Early Modern Women
Psychological studies have shown that not only does the absolute amount of aggression displayed by both genders vary tremendously according to culture, but also that it can vary within a culture over time. (136) One study in Finland, for example, has shown a measurable increase in aggressiveness in girls over the past few decades, presumably because of some combination of changes in social circumstances and in cultural values. (137) This finding is particularly important for a consideration of witchcraft in early modern Europe, because it points to a relatively neglected aspect of the early modern witchcraft persecutions: their results. Traditional discussions of the witch persecutions uniformly ended on a note of relieved discontinuity dis·con·ti·nu·i·ty
n. pl. dis·con·ti·nu·i·ties
1. Lack of continuity, logical sequence, or cohesion.
2. A break or gap.
3. Geology A surface at which seismic wave velocities change. , implying that for all their horror and violence, the main result of the trials was to discredit magical beliefs by taking them to their extreme. The first historians to work in the new paradigm New Paradigm
In the investing world, a totally new way of doing things that has a huge effect on business.
The word "paradigm" is defined as a pattern or model, and it has been used in science to refer to a theoretical framework. gave the trials a role in the process of modernization, enabling prosperous citize ns to repudiate TO REPUDIATE. To repudiate a right is to express in a sufficient manner, a determination not to accept it, when it is offered.
2. He who repudiates a right cannot by that act transfer it to another. the obligations of communal charity, and in the growth of the state, asserting that they gave the central government entree into local affairs. An extension of this last argument was to portray them as a form of acculturation, part of the larger process of confessionalization by which elite culture attempted to assert its dominance over popular culture. Feminist historians redirected this line of reasoning Noun 1. line of reasoning - a course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning; "I can't follow your line of reasoning"
logical argument, argumentation, argument, line by portraying the trials as part of the larger process of the construction of patriarchy, but, as noted above, their assertion that they were used to suppress women's' traditional medical knowledge and practices has been substantially discredited by recent studies showing that trials generally did not target midwives or beneficent be·nef·i·cent
1. Characterized by or performing acts of kindness or charity.
2. Producing benefit; beneficial.
[Probably from beneficenceon the model of such pairs as healers, while the larger assertion that the trials were used to punish women who strayed beyond the boundaries prescribed for their sex has been subjected to the criticism that the need for this roundabout approach has not been demonstrated. Furthermore, the exact mechanism by which essentially arbitrary accusations and punishments were supposed to have changed the status and activities of women, and exactly what the nature of those changes was, have never been systematically explained.
Some critics have gone so far as to question whether acculturation worked at all. Gerald Straus has said that if the "central purpose" of the Reformation "was to make people ... think, feel, and act as Christians ... it failed." (138) Heidi Wunder says that "the endless repetition of gender norms ... makes it doubtful whether authorities were really so successful," while Susan Karent-Nunn has claimed that preachers' exhortations got people to "pay lip service lip service
Verbal expression of agreement or allegiance, unsupported by real conviction or action; hypocritical respect: " but questions if they "won a significant amount of conformity." (139)
Nevertheless, there is a significant body of evidence suggesting that both exhortation and repression can be a powerful forces in reshaping "not only behavior but feeling as well." (140) Norbert Elias Norbert Elias (June 22, 1897 — August 1, 1990) was a German sociologist of Jewish descent, who later became a British citizen.
His work focused on the relationship between power, behavior, emotion, and knowledge over time. first pointed to them as a part of the early modern "civilizing process," and Po-Chia Hsia has cited specific evidence that in Calvinist territories assaults declined while suicides increased, suggesting that that religion's insistence on self control succeeded in redirecting people's aggression, even if it could not eliminate it altogether. (141) Mary Elizabeth Perry cites the power of "consciousness of shame" as the source of "sexual control over women" in Seville, for "women imposed it on themselves," while Ajay Skaria asserts that Indian witchcraft beliefs cause "most women" to take "routine precautions to reduce the chance of being identified." (142) Reiner Walz has reported his impression that the suspects in the earliest cases from the villages he studied exhibited "a particular threatening power" that wa s lacking in later suspects, and there is evidence from Wurttemberg that the trials there exerted a real influence on women's aggressiveness as well. (143)
It must be acknowledged at the outset that this evidence is not conclusive, for demonstrating that behaviors as diverse and diffuse as those associated with witchcraft changed over time because of specific legal and social pressures, and then generalizing across a much larger cultural area, is beyond the scope of this article. However, given the insight that the analysis in this paper gives into the connection between gender specific traits and witchcraft beliefs in general, and the logic of a specific connection between the intensifying struggle for resources in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries and an increased reliance on witch-like behaviors by some women as one stimulus to the intensifying concern about witchcraft, it seems worth considering the possibility that along with the usual explanations for the decline in the persecutions--improvements in Europe's socioeconomic situation and changes in attitudes toward tortured testimony, confessions by marginal social actors, the power of the D evil, the proper response to misfortune, and the plausibility of supernatural causation in ordinary affairs,--the persecutions led to changes in women's behavior and attitudes that also contributed to the decline in concern about witchcraft. (144) The early suspects from Wurttemberg, from before 1660, in any case, did include a significant number of women whose words and behavior were quite violent. As we have seen, in 1603 Margretha Stainer confessed to numerous acts of violence that were confirmed by investigation. In another case we have seen, in 1621 Katharina Masten physically assaulted a servant girl, and in 1628 Maria Schneider poisoned her step-grandson. Another sampled suspect, Magdelena Kochen, was tried in 1629 after hurling hurling, outdoor ball and stick game similar to field hockey (see hockey, field). The national pastime of Ireland, it was played for many centuries before the Gaelic Athletic Association standardized the rules in 1884. abuse at those who denied her favors, and Magdelena Horn freely confessed in 1563 to harming the animals of those who rebuked her. (145) Agatha Sacher threatened her ex-boyfriend's fiancee in 1611, while Catharina Ada assaulted people, cursed, them, and carried out a ritual att ack on a neighbor in 1628. Her daughter, Margaritha, followed in her footsteps. Few of the later suspects manifested such overtly violent behavior. To be sure, change was gradual, and some exhibited strong anger, but these women appear to have been more retrained and they constituted a smaller proportion of the suspects. None of the later sampled suspects was initially denounced for assault, for example, and only a few of the secondary allegations involved physical contact, with as many alleging stroking or grabbing as hitting. Overall, only three out of the fourteen late suspects exhibited the quickness to express anger that had characterized about half of the earlier ones. (146)
More indirect evidence of the change in women's behavior is suggested by the rising concern for male violence during the late seventeenth century, precisely the time when official concern about female violence was waning. In Wurttemberg, "some time around the middle of the seventeenth century there was more concern about husbands behaving badly Behaving Badly is a thoroughbred racing mare born on April 5, 2001 in New York and a top sprinting distaffer. Sired by Pioneering, a Mr. Prospector son (going back to Secretariat), out of Timeleighness (by Sir Raleigh), she was bred by Thomas and Lakin, and owned by Patti and Hal J. " than there had been before. (147) By the eighteenth century, the provincial church court "distanced itself from the notion that women were intrinsically evil, that they harbored hidden malice which could erupt at any time," and "on the whole ... judges were more inclined to see marital violence grow out of the impetuousness im·pet·u·ous
1. Characterized by sudden and forceful energy or emotion; impulsive and passionate.
2. Having or marked by violent force: impetuous, heaving waves. and willfulness of men then out of the anger of women." (148) Peasant women, in fact, came to be seen as "strong proponents of disciplined behavior," an attitude that also characterized the pietist pi·e·tism
1. Stress on the emotional and personal aspects of religion.
2. Affected or exaggerated piety.
3. movement that also, significantly, spread widely, particularly among women, in the region during the same period. Finally, in literature, it has been no ted that "only in the last decades of the [seventeenth] century do we find increasing reference to women's 'softness.'" (150)
The role of the witch persecutions in this process is suggested by considering the way the majority of trials were conducted. Close analysis of the conduct of trials has revealed that in general they focused on one or at most a few individuals and they essentially constituted their selective punishment by ordeal. (151) Relatively few suspects were actually put to death. Rather more underwent excruciating torture, and still more had time to contemplate these fates while languishing lan·guish
intr.v. lan·guished, lan·guish·ing, lan·guish·es
1. To be or become weak or feeble; lose strength or vigor.
2. in jail. Others were banished, fined, or confined in poor houses. Still others escaped torture, conviction, and incarceration Confinement in a jail or prison; imprisonment.
Police officers and other law enforcement officers are authorized by federal, state, and local lawmakers to arrest and confine persons suspected of crimes. The judicial system is authorized to confine persons convicted of crimes. , but lived for the rest of their lives under the watchful eyes of local notables and neighbors. And beyond those drawn into the legal process, a much larger circle of women lived amid vague rumors and unspoken suspicions. These threats remained long after the torture and executions ceased, and affected women in areas that never saw mass panics or even many small trials. Far more insidious than a homicidal hom·i·cid·al
1. Of or relating to homicide.
2. Capable of or conducive to homicide: a homicidal rage. pathology, the early modem witch persecutions constituted a wide-ranging and multifaceted mul·ti·fac·et·ed
Having many facets or aspects. See Synonyms at versatile.
Adj. 1. multifaceted - having many aspects; "a many-sided subject"; "a multifaceted undertaking"; "multifarious interests"; "the multifarious repression of individuals exhibiting certain behaviors and attitudes, basically women who exhibited strong sexual, physical, or psychological aggressiveness. (152)
In simple behaviorist Behaviorist
1. One who accepts or assumes the theory of behaviorism (behavioral finance in investing.) 2. A psychologist who subscribes to behaviorism.
When it comes to investing, people may not be as rational as they think. terms, the witch persecutions constituted a schedule of negative reinforcement for disapproved patterns of female behavior. (153) In many areas, at least three successive generations lived amid pervasive suspicions and periodic trials, which could be expected to have had a profound impact on popular practices by creating a sharp discontinuity between those who existed before, and those who came after. (154) For example, a woman born in Wurttemberg in 1567, the year the government adopted its statute against witchcraft, would have grown up amid the stirring of concern, and would have lived her entire adult life surrounded by a rising tide Noun 1. rising tide - the occurrence of incoming water (between a low tide and the following high tide); "a tide in the affairs of men which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune" -Shakespeare
flood tide, flood of persecutions. Her daughter, born just before 1600, would have grown up during the first height of the persecutions, and she would have lived her whole life in the shadow of the stake. The formative experience of her daughter, the third generation, born around 1630, would have been the relative tranquillity of the 1640s, when land was plentiful, grain prices were high, and trials for witchcraft infrequent, but the belief remained, and as economic conditions worsened and the government increased its policing of public morals, the witch persecutions rose to a new height that would have dominated her middle years.
The fourth generation, a great-granddaughter born in 1660, would never have known the grim cruelty of the government's prosecutions, but she would have grown up amidst widespread popular concern and frequent rumors and accusations. She might, at age eight or fourteen, have been caught up for a brief spell in one of the late, child-centered trials, the result of a child's fantasy or bad dream. While she was likely to have gotten off with no more than a scare and a scolding, the incident would likely have had a significant influence on the girl and on other girls in the community, warning them of sanctions against women who acted in ways that brought to them suspicion of witchcraft.
The fact that the persecutions took the form of both generations of suspicions and small trials and occasional mass panics could be expected to have heightened their effect. The suspicions, rumors, and small trials focused on a particular type of woman and specific forms of behavior, and everyone knew who and what was particularly suspect. Yet, suspicions and small trials could easily involve quite innocent women, and panics engulfed them by the dozens. The persecutions combined a relentless specificity with sudden, blind generality that might force any woman to confront the asocial a·so·cial
1. Avoiding or averse to the society of others; not sociable.
2. Unable or unwilling to conform to normal standards of social behavior; antisocial. , immoral side of being human. This dual focus meant that one type of female suffered endless persecution, while all other women lived in danger that the small ways in which they acted or felt like that type might lead to ostracism ostracism (ŏs`trəsĭz'əm), ancient Athenian method of banishing a public figure. It was introduced after the fall of the family of Pisistratus. , jail, the torture chamber, or even the stake.
Thus, it seems reasonable to suggest that the persecutions declined in the later part of the century in part because of their very success. (155) Educated men in the mid-sixteenth century could look around and see numerous women who seemed to act like witches, openly practicing magic or expressing their anger without restraint; a century later their great-grandsons could see only isolated and furtive fur·tive
1. Characterized by stealth; surreptitious.
2. Expressive of hidden motives or purposes; shifty. See Synonyms at secret. examples of these behaviors, a residuum That which remains after any process of separation or deduction; a balance; that which remains of a decedent's estate after debts have been paid and gifts deducted. that scarcely warranted the violence and disruption of the witch trials. Peasant beliefs could survive their crisis of confidence in the witch demonology and the end of the legal persecutions because they were sustained by the power of even subtle, unconscious expressions of anger to cause harm (as well as their usefulness in explaining misfortune and victimizing enemies), but the days when village women openly coerced their neighbors through unbridled spontaneous displays and consciously deployed magic rituals and articles were over. The change was not total or complete, o f course, affecting the middle and upper classes of provincial society and women in towns more strongly than women on the land, and women in the core areas of the witch persecutions more strongly than those in the peripheral ones, but it seems that a critical turning point had been reached in the evolution of European culture, and the next two centuries would see substantial extension and consolidation of this "civilizing process." (156) Certainly there were many forces during this time contributing to the process by which European women went from being a feared source of violence and disorder to a presumptive pre·sump·tive
1. Providing a reasonable basis for belief or acceptance.
2. Founded on probability or presumption.
pre·sump fount of gentle succor, but the repression of witchcraft--official and unofficial; protracted pro·tract
tr.v. pro·tract·ed, pro·tract·ing, pro·tracts
1. To draw out or lengthen in time; prolong: disputants who needlessly protracted the negotiations.
2. , brutal, and pervasive--would seem to have been on the cutting edge. (157)
The foregoing analysis supports the importance of the witch trials in the history of women, and also reasserts the importance of women in the history of witchcraft. The conscious and unconscious behaviors associated with witchcraft were a source of power, and late Medieval and early modern women utilized that power more readily than men. The power of the behaviors stemmed in part from people's belief in their efficacy, but that belief itself reflected the fact that to a much greater degree than the paradigm inherited from the Enlightenment recognized these behaviors were, in fact, efficacious ef·fi·ca·cious
Producing or capable of producing a desired effect. See Synonyms at effective.
[From Latin effic . Specifically, the entire range of "magical" attacks on the health and well-being of people and animals, from poisons through curses and symbolic rituals to raw displays of intense emotion, which formed the primary concern of the commoners who denounced witches, had the potential to cause real injury through chemical and/or psychophysical effects. Women were particularly likely to utilize this source of power in part bec ause significant elements of it fell into female social space (food preparation and the tending of social relations), in part because they were at a disadvantage in utilizing other sources of power (overt violence and legal processes), and in part because it played to their innate and learned strengths (sensitivity to and manipulation of emotional signals). (158)
The campaign against witchcraft certainly victimized innumerable women innocent of inflicting harm consciously or unconsciously, but the central dynamic of witchcraft was not this process of victimization victimization Social medicine The abuse of the disenfranchised–eg, those underage, elderly, ♀, mentally retarded, illegal aliens, or other, by coercing them into illegal activities–eg, drug trade, pornography, prostitution. . (159) Instead, it was a struggle for power. "Witches" used the power of the range of behaviors from unconscious expressions of anger to premeditated pre·med·i·tat·ed
Characterized by deliberate purpose, previous consideration, and some degree of planning: a premeditated crime. use of poisons to compel compliance or punish defiance; accusers used the coercive power of the state as the most extreme step in a series of countermeasures That form of military science that, by the employment of devices and/or techniques, has as its objective the impairment of the operational effectiveness of enemy activity. See also electronic warfare. that included appeasement appeasement
Foreign policy of pacifying an aggrieved nation through negotiation in order to prevent war. The prime example is Britain's policy toward Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in the 1930s. and counter-magic to check these tactics or get revenge. (160) Accusers could be women as well as men, but since the suspects were overwhelmingly female, on balance the trials served to diminish women's power and strengthen men's. (161) In fact, it seems that by literally disarming disarming
removal of the crown of the canine teeth in primates. Includes denervation of the pulp cavity. women they helped increase the differential in coercive power between the genders in European society, and thereby may have made a critical contribution to the "domestication domestication
Process of hereditary reorganization of wild animals and plants into forms more accommodating to the interests of people. In its strictest sense, it refers to the initial stage of human mastery of wild animals and plants. " of women in the early mode rn period.
I would like to thank Ingrid Ahrendt-Schulte, Willem de Blecourt, and Virginia Reinburg as well as the two anonymous readers for the Journal of Social History for their helpful critiques of earlier drafts of this article.
(1.) Wolfgang Behringer, "Zur Geschichte der Hexenforschung," in: Hexen und Hexenforschung in deutsche Sudwesten, ed. Sonke Lorenz (Karlsruhe, 1994), p. 122.
(2.) Christina Larner, "Crimen Exceptum? The Crime of Witchcraft in Europe," in: Crime and the Law, ed. V.A.C. Gatrell, et. al. (London, 1980), p. 60; Clive Holmes, "Popular Culture? Witches, Magistrates, and Divines in Early Modern England," in: Understanding Popular Culture in Early Modem Europe from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century, ed. Stuart Kaplan (Berlin, 1984), pp. 86, 88, 92, 94, 103-4; Eva Labouvie, "Hexenspuk, und Hexenabwehr: Volksmagie und volkstumlichen Hexenglaube," in: Hexenwelt: Magi und Imagination von 16-20 Jahrhunderts, ed. Richard van Dulmen (Frankfurt a.M., 1987) p. 89; Karl Kramer, "Schaden- und Gegenzauber in Alltagsleben des 16.-18. Jahrhunderts nach Archivalischen Quellen aus Holstein," in: Hexenprozesse: Deutsche und Skandinavische Beitrage, ed. Christian Degen, et. al. (Neumunster, 1983), p. 234; William Monter, "The Pedestal and the Stake: Courtly Love courtly love, philosophy of love and code of lovemaking that flourished in France and England during the Middle Ages. Although its origins are obscure, it probably derived from the works of Ovid, various Middle Eastern ideas popular at the time, and the songs of the and Witchcraft," in: Becoming Visible: Women in European History, ed. Renate Bridenthal and Claudia Koonz Claudia Ann Koonz is an American feminist historian of Nazi Germany. Her principle area of interest is the experience of women during the Nazi era.
Koonz first came to fame in 1969 with a dissertation on Walther Rathenau. She was awarded a PhD from Rutgers University in 1970. (Boston, 1977), p. 128; Ingrid Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse," in: Frauen in der Geschichte des Rechts: Von der Fruhen Neuzeit bis Second version. It means twice in Old Latin, or encore in French. Ter means three. For example, V.27bis and V.27ter are the second and third versions of the V.27 standard. zur Gegenwart, ed. Ute Gerhard (Munich, 1997), p. 199; Robin Briggs, "Many Reasons Why: Witchcraft and the Problem of Multiple Explanations," in: Witchcraft in Early Modem Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief, ed. Jonathan Barry, et. al. (Cambridge, 1996), p. 59; Gerd Schwerhoff, "Die Erdichtung der weisen Manner: Gegen falsche Ubersetzungen von Hexenglauben und Hexenverfolgungen," in: Hexen und Hexenverfolgungen in deutschen Sudwest, p. 405; Robin Briggs, "Witchcraft and the Community," in: Robin Briggs, Communities of Belief: Culture and Social Tension in Early Modern France For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see .
Early Modern France is that portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of (Oxford, 1989), p. 58; Wolfgang Behringer, "Weather, Hunger, and Fear: Origins of the European Witch-hunts in Climate, Society, and Mentality" German History, 13 (1995), p. 19; Wolfgang Behringer, "Witchcraft Studies in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland," in: Witchcraft in Early Modem Europe, p. 89; Rainer Walz, Hexengl aube und Magische Kommunikation im Dorf der Fruhen Neuzeit (Paderborn, 1993), p. 512. Heidi Wunder, "Gender Norms and Their Enforcement in Early Modem Germany," in: Gender Relations in German History: Power, Agency, and Experience from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century, ed. Lynn Abrams and Elizabeth Harvey (Durham, 1997), p. 47 points out social subdivisions even more complex than this polar divide suggests.
(3.) On defamation cases, Peter Rushton, "Women, Witchcraft, and Slander slander: see libel and slander.
See also Gossip.
Slaughter (See MASSACRE.)
calumniating, niggardly bigot. [Fr. Lit. in Early Modern England: Cases from the Church Courts of Durham, 1560-1675," Northern History, XVIII (1982), pp. 128, 130-2. Critique of stare-sponsorship, Briggs, "Victims," pp. 440-1; Ulinka Rublack, The Crimes of Women in Early Modern Germany (Oxford, 1999), p. 47 describes Wurttemburg's annual or semi-annual "Vogtgericht."
(4.) On general conditions, Robert Jutte, Poverty and Deviance in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 195-196; Thomas Robischeaux, Rural Society and the Search for Order in Early Modern Germany (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 70-72; Rublack, pp. 93, 95; on general consequences for social relations, Bruce Tolley, Pastors and Parishioners in Wurttemberg during the Late Reformation, 1581-1621 (Stanford, 1995), p. 3; Malcom Gaskill, "Witchcraft and Power in Early Modem England: the Case of Margaret Moore Margaret Moore is an award-winning Canadian author of romance novels. Biography
The USA Today bestselling author of over 40 historical romance novels and novellas, Margaret Moore graduated with distinction from the University of Toronto with a degree in English literature. ," in: Women, Crime, and the Courts, p. 129; for specific link to witch trials Behringer, "Weather," pp. 3-5, 7, 14, 18, 26; R. Po-Chia Hsia, Social Discipline in the Reformation (London, 1989), p. 160; Edward Bever, "Witchcraft in Early Modern Wurttemberg" (Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University Princeton University, at Princeton, N.J.; coeducational; chartered 1746, opened 1747, rechartered 1748, called the College of New Jersey until 1896. Schools and Research Facilities
, 1983), pp. 93-95; Jurgen Schmidt, "Die Kurpfalz, die Hexen und die Frage der Gelehrten, warum der Teufel mehr Weyber in diesem Fall dann Manner versucht und verfuhert," unpublished paper presented to the 91st Sitzung of the Arbeitskreis fur Landes- und Ortsgeschichte, 3/28/98, p. 34.
(5.) H. C. Eric Midelfort, Witch Hunting in Southwestern Germany, (Stanford), p. 194; Lyndal Roper, Oedipus and the Devil: Witchcraft, Sexuality, and Religion in Early Modern Europe (London, 1994), pp. 227, 230-1.
(6.) On survival of beliefs in populous, Ian Bostridge, "Witchcraft Repealed," in: Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe, p. 311; Willem de Blecourt, "On the Continuation of Witchcraft," in: Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe, p. 343; David Sabean, Property, Production, and Family in Neckarhausen, 1700-1870 (Cambridge, 1990), p.135; Karl Wegert, Popular Culture, Crime, and Social Control in Eighteenth-Century Wurttemberg (Stuttgart, 1994), p. 57 contends that some diabolical elements remained.
(7.) Willem de Blecourt, "The Making of the Female Witch," Gender & History 12 (2000), pp. 289-90.
(8.) Heinrich Kramer Heinrich Kramer (also known under Latinised name Heinrich Institoris, c. 1430 – 1505) was a German churchman and inquisitor.
Born in Schlettstadt, Alsace, he joined the Dominican Order at an early age and while still a young man was appointed Prior of the and James Springer, Malleus Maleficarum, trans. Montague Summers Augustus Montague Summers (10 April, 1880 - 10 August, 1948) was an eccentric English author and clergyman. He is known primarily for his 1928 English translation of the medieval witch hunter's manual, the Malleus Maleficarum , (New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , 1971), pp. 41, 44; Susanna Burghartz, "The Equation of Women and Witches: A Case Study of Witchcraft Trials in Lucerne Lucerne (lsûrn`), Ger. Luzern (ltsĕrn`), canton (1993 pop. and Lausanne in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries," in: The German Underworld, ed. Richard Evans Richard Evans could be:
See also wizard. : Der Wandel des Frauenbildes durch die Medizin in sechzehnten Jahrhundert (Berlin, 1993), pp. 45, 50, 136; Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse," p. 220.
(9.) Elspeth Whitney, "International Trends: the Witch 'She' / The Historian 'He,"' Journal of Women's History The Journal of Women’s History is an academic journal founded in 1989. It is the first journal devoted exclusively to the field of international women’s history. It explores multiple perspectives of feminism rather than promoting a single unifying form. 7 (1995), p. 78.
(10.) Brian Levack, The Witch-Hunt in Early Modern Europe (London, 1995), pp. 133-5; Richard Godbeer, The Devil's Dominion: Magic and Religion in Early New England New England, name applied to the region comprising six states of the NE United States—Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. The region is thought to have been so named by Capt. (Cambridge,1992), p. 20, n. 30 for America.
(11.) Sigrid Brauner, Fearless Wives and Frightened Shrews: The Construction of the Witch in Early Modern Germany, ed. Robert Brown Noun 1. Robert Brown - Scottish botanist who first observed the movement of small particles in fluids now known a Brownian motion (1773-1858)
Brown (Amherst, 1995), p. 13; Burghartz, p. 57.
(12.) Midelfort, pp. 183-6; William Monter, Witchcraft in France and Switzerland (Ithica, 1976), p. 197; Monter, "Pedestal," p. 133; Burghartz, p. 66; Brauner, pp. 5, 17; Manfred Tschaikner, "Also schlecht ist das Weib von Natur: Grundsatzliches zur Rolle der Frau in den Vorarlberger Hexenverfolgungen," in: Hexe oder Hausfrau haus·frau
[German : Haus, house (from Middle High German h : Das Bild der Frau in der Geschichte Vorarlbergs, ed. Alis Niederstatter und Wolfgang Scheffknecht (Sigmarungendoff, 1991), p. 71; Barbara Becker-Cantarino, "'Feminist Consciousness' and 'Wicked Witches:' Recent Studies on Women in Early Modem Europe," Signs 20 (1994), p. 169. Keith Thomas Keith Thomas may refer to several people, including:
(13.) Behringer, "Weather," p. 23; Diana Purkiss, The Witch in History: Early Modern and Twentieth Century Representations (London, 1996), p. 153; Lynn Abrams and Elizabeth Harvey, "Introduction: Gender and Gender Relations in German History," in: Gender Relations, p. 6; Robin Briggs, "Women as Victims? Witches, Judges, and the Community," French History, 5, 4 (December, 1991), p. 444 on expansion of judiciary; Beate Popkin, "Wives, Mothers, and Witches: The Learned Discouse about Women in Early Modem Europe," Journal of Women's History 3 (1997), p. 193.
(14.) Andrea Dworkin, Woman Hating (New York, 1974), p. 149; Silvia Bovenschen, "The Contemporary Witch, the Historical Witch, and the Witch Myth," New German Critique, 5 (1978), pp. 102, 106; Marianne Hester, Lewd Women and Wicked Witches (London, 1992), pp. 199, 115; Gunnar Heinsohn An editor has expressed concern that this article or section is .
Please help improve the article by adding information and sources on neglected viewpoints, or by summarizing and and Otto Steiger, Die Vernichtung der Weisen Frauen (Herbstein, 1985), pp. 15, 193.
(15.) Not midwives or healers: Burghartz, p. 67; J.A. Sharpe, "Witchcraft and Women in Seventeenth Century England: Some Northern Evidence," Continuity and Change, 6 (1991), pp. 179-80; Walz, 513; Anita Raith, "Von den bosen Weibem, die man nennt Hexen--Mannerphantasie und Frauenverachtung in wurttembergischen Hexenprozess," unpublished paper delivered to the 91st Stitzung of the Arbeitskreis fur Landes- und Ortsgeschichte, 3/28/98, p. 15; Tschaikner, p. 68; Clive Holmes, "Women: Witnesses and Witches," Past and Present, 140 (1993), p. 72; Briggs, "Victims," p. 439; Richard Horsley, "Who were the Witches? The Social Roles of the Accused in the European Witch Trials," The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 9 (1979), p. 709. Role in women's history: Merry Wiesner, Women and Gender in Early Modem Europe (Cambridge, 1993), pp. xx, 229; Allison Coudert, "The Myth of the Improved Status of Protestant Women: the Case of the Witchcraze," in: The Politics of Gender in Early Modem Europe, ed. Jean Brink, et. al., vo l. XII, Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies, 1987, p 77; Brauner, pp. 113, 117; Rublack, p. 7; Susan Karant-Nunn, "'Fragrant Wedding Roses:' Lutheran Wedding Sermons and Gender Definition in Early Modem Germany," German History, 17 (1999), p. 28; Abrams and Harvey, p. 7; Becker-Cantarino, pp. 153-155. An American variant is presented in Carol Karlsen, The Devil in the Shape of a Woman (New York, 1987).
(16.) Po-Chia Hsia, pp. 138, 146-7; Robischeaux, pp. 96, 105; Bob Schribner, "The Mordbrenner Fear in Sixteenth Century Germany: Political Paranoia or the Revenge of the Outcast out·cast
One that has been excluded from a society or system.
outcast ?" in: The German Underworld, p.48; Tolly, p. 87; Wegert, pp. 12, 35-7, 143; Karant-Nunn, "Weddings," p. 25.
(17.) Behringer, "Geschichte," pp. 132-3; Alison Rowlands, review of Sabine Alfin and Christine Schedensack, Frauenaltag im fruhneuzeitlichen Munster, in: German History, 16 (1998), p. 249; Stuart Clark, Thinking with Demons Demons
See also devil; evil; ghosts; hell; spirits and spiritualism.
one who denies the existence of the devil or demons.
recognition of the existence of demons and goblins. : The Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe (Oxford, 1997), p. 109; Burghartz, p. 68. Thomas Safley, Let No Man Put Asunder a·sun·der
1. Into separate parts or pieces: broken asunder.
2. Apart from each other either in position or in direction: The curtains had been drawn asunder. : The Control of Marriange in the German Southwest: A Comparative Study, 1550-1600 (Kirksville, MO, 1984), p. 167; Brauner, pp. 113, 115; Claudia Opirz, "Hexenvervolgung als Frauenverfolgung? Versuch einer vorlaufiger Bilanz," in: Der Hexenstreit: Frauen in der fruhneuzeitlichen Hexenverfolgung, ed. Claudia Opitz (Freiburg, 1995), p. 260; Coudert, pp. 63, 78; David Sabean, Power in the Blood: Popular Culture and Village Discourse in Early Modem Germany (Cambridge, 1984), p. 109; Abrams and Harvey, p. 7.
(18.) Opitz, p. 248; Purkiss, p. 92; Elizabeth Reis, Damned Women: Sinners and Witches in Puritan New England (Ithica, 1997), p. xi; Holmes, p. 95; Roper, p. 37.
(19.) Percentage is in Sallmann, p. 450. Quote from Briggs, "Victim," p. 443; David Hall David Hall may refer to:
Of, relating to, or being a society or an economic system that is not or has not yet become industrialized.
of a time before the mechanization of industry Europe (New Brunswick New Brunswick, province, Canada
New Brunswick, province (2001 pop. 729,498), 28,345 sq mi (73,433 sq km), including 519 sq mi (1,345 sq km) of water surface, E Canada. , NJ, 1991), p. 117; Malcolm Gaskill, "The Devil in the Shape of a Man: Witchcraft, Conflict, and Belief in Jacobean England," Historical Research, 71 (1998), pp. 161, 170; Clark, p. 110; Stuart Clark, "The 'Gendering' of Witchcraft in French Demonology: Misogyny or Polarity (1) The direction of charged particles, which may determine the binary status of a bit.
(2) In micrographics, the change in the light to dark relationship of an image when copies are made. ?" French History, 5 (1991), p. 427; Larner, "Crimen," p. 66; Opitz, p. 251. On some areas involving men more than women, Behringer, "Witchcraft Studies," p. 93; William Monter, "Women and the Italian Inquisitions," in: Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: Literary and Historical Perspectives, ed. Mary Beth Rose (Syracuse, 1986), pp. 80-81; Gaskill, "Devil," p. 147; Gustav Henningsen and Bengt Ankarloo, "Introduction," in: Early Modern Eu ropean Witchcraft: Centers and Peripheries, ed. Bengt Ankarloo and Gustav Henningsen (Oxford, 1990), p. 13; Tschaikner, pp. 59, 69; Burghartz, pp. 61-4.
(20.) Gaskill, "Devil," p. 159; Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse," pp. 209-10 (law); Helga Schnabel-Schule, "Frauen im Strafrecht von sechzehnten bis zum achtzehnten Jahrhundert," in: Frauen in der Geschichte des Rechts, ed. Ute Gerhard (Munich, 1997) pp. 190, 198 (law); Sallmann, p. 453 (theory); Clark, pp. 112, 115 (theory); Schmidt, p. 30 (theory); Brauner, p. 38 (theory); Raith, p. 13 (torture); Rublack, p. 51 (torture); Wegert, pp. 12, 94 (torture); Richard Evans, "Introduction: The 'Dangerous Classes' in Germany from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century," in: The German Underworld, p.4 (torture); Heidi Wunder, He is the Sun, She is the Moon: Women in Early Modern Germany, trans. Thomas Dunlap (Cambridge, 1998), p. 14 (torture); Wolfgang Behringer, Witchcraft Persecutions in Bavaria, trans. J.C. Grayson and David Lederer (Cambridge, 1997), p. 20 (torture); Rublack, p. 81 (death); Schnabel-Schule, p. 193 (death); Andrew Finch, "Women and Violence in the Later Middle Ages: the Evidence of the Officialit y of Cerisy," Continuity and Change, 7 (1992), p. 29 (punishment). On women making accusations, Sharpe, "Northern," p. 189; Wunder, p. 149; Martin Ingram Martin Ingram is the pseudonym of an ex-British Army soldier who served in the Intelligence Corp and Force Research Unit (FRU). He has made a number of allegations about the conduct of the British Army, its operations in Northern Ireland via the FRU, and against figures in the , "'Scolding Women Cucked or Washed:' A Crisis in Gender Relations in Early Modern England?" in: Women, Crime, and the Courts in Early Modern England, eds. Jennifer Kermode and Garthine Walker (Chapel Hill, 1994), p. 67; Ronald Sawyer, "'Strangely Handled in All Her Lyms:' Witchcraft and Healing in Jacobean England," Journal of Social History, 22 (1989), p. 464; Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse," p. 215; Raith, p. 45; Reis, p. 122; Adrian Pollock, "Social and Economic Characteristics of Witchcraft Accusations in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Kent," in: Witchcraft, Women, and Society, ed. Brian Levack (New York, 1992), p. 199; Hugh McLachlan and J.K. Swales, "Witchcraft and Anti-Feminism" Scottish Journal of Sociology, 4 (1980), p. 147; Holmes, "Women," pp. 51, 74, 77; Jim Sharpe, "Women, Witchcraft, and the Legal Process," in: Women, Crime, and the Courts, p. 107.
(21.) Clark, "Gendering," p. 427; see also Walz, p. 515.
(22.) Diana Purkiss, "Women's Stories of Witchcraft in Early Modern England: The House, the Body, the Child," Gender and History 7 (1995), pp. 410-11; Lyndal Roper, "Witchcraft and Fantasy in Early Modern Germany," History Workshop Journal, 32 (1991), pp.30-1.
(23.) Clark, p. 122; Coudert, p. 66.
(24.) Karant-Nunn, p. 37; Coudert, p. 66.
(25.) Wunder, "Norms," p. 43; Simon, p. 136; Ulinka Ruback, "Gender in Early Modern German History: An Introduction," German History, 17 (1999), p. 5.
(26.) Holmes, "Women," p. 51.
(27.) On ubiquity Ubiquity
See also Omnipresence.
their signs seen as “verses of the wayside throughout America.” [Am. Commerce and Folklore: Misc. of association: Andrew Sanders, A Deed without a Name: The Witch in Society and History (Oxford, 1995), p. 95; A.D.J. Macfarlane MacFarlane or Macfarlane is a surname shared by:
The Stuart period was an important stage of English history. It represented the time frame from James I of England (or James VI of Scotland) all the way to the reign of Queen Anne. James I came to the throne in 1603. (New York, 1970), p. 230; Burghartz, p. 58; Bovenschen, p. 97; Schmidt, p. 29; Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse," p. 214; Schwerhoff, pp. 410-11; Tschaikner, p. 69; Katherine Morris, Sorceress or Witch? The Images of Gender in Medieval Iceland and Northern Europe (Lanham, 1991), p. 3; Elizabeth Tucker, "Antecedents of Contemporary Witchcraft in the Middle Ages," in: Popular Culture in the Middle Ages, ed. Josie Campbell (Bowling Green Bowling Green.
1 City (1990 pop. 40,641), seat of Warren co., S Ky., on the Barren River; inc. 1812. It is a shipping and marketing center for an area producing tobacco, corn, livestock, and dairy items. , 1986), p. 41; Richard Kieckhefer, Magic in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 29-33, 39; Sallmann, p.. 453; Spierenburg, p. 114; Behringer, "W. Studies," p. 80; Behringer, p. 161, n. 176; Ajay Skaria, "Women, Witchcraft, and Gratuitous Bestowed or granted without consideration or exchange for something of value.
The term gratuitous is applied to deeds, bailments, and other contractual agreements. Violence in Colonial Western India," Past and Present, 155 (1997), p. 131; Holmes, p. 94; Opitz, p. 259; Kramer, p. 234; Marianne Hester, "Patriarchal Reconst ruction and Witch Hunting," in: Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe, p. 293. On popular concerns, Briggs, "Victim," p. 445; Clark, p. 110; Ursula Bender-Wittman, "Frauen und Hexen--feministische Perspektiven der Hexenforschung," in: Hexenverfolgung und Frauengeschichte, ed. Regina Pramann (Bielefeld, 1993), p. 26; Sawyer, p. 464; Ingrid Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse als Spiegel von Altagskonflikten," in: Hexen und Hexenverfolgungen, pp. 349, 351; Reis, p. xvi points out that the Puritans explicitly did not cast women as more evil than men, yet still cast women more often as witches; Behringer, pp. 161, n. 176; Behringer, "Weather," p. 2; Po-Chia Hsia, p. 160; Annabel Gregory, "Witchcraft, Politics, and 'Good Neighborhood' in Early Seventeenth Century Rye," Past and Present, 133 (1991), p. 32 Burghartz, p. 63; Horsley, p. 693; Labouvie, "Hexenspuk," pp. 90-91; Walz, p. 522; Goodare, p. 295. Note that commoners did express some concerns about Devil: Larner, "Crimen," pp. 645; Roper, p. 44; Roper, "Fantasy," p. 230; Po-Chia Hsia, p. 153; Reis, p. 12; Holmes, p. 92.
(28.) Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse," p. 203; Malleus Maleficarum, pp. 41-2; Holmes, "Women," p. 67.
(29.) Clark, p. 111; Labouvie, "Hexenspuk," pp. 90-1; Walz, pp. 214, 512-514; Pollock, pp. 202, 205; Spierenburg, p. 118; Bender-Wittman, p. 18; Behringer, "Witchcraft Studies," p. 91; Gaskill, "Power" p. 126; McLachlan & Swales, p. 150; Holmes, p. 95; Reis, p. 7; Malcolm Gaskill, "Witchcraft in Early Modern Kent: Stereotypes and the Background to Accusations," in: Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe, p. 285.
(30.) Gaskill, "Power," p. 125;
(31.) Behringer, "Weather", p. 13; Gaskill, "Devil," p. 165.
(32.) Wegert, p. 32; Eva Lacour, "Faces of Violence Revisited," Journal of Social History, 34 (2001), p. 649; Gaskill, "Kent," p. 287; Rainer Walz, "Schimpfende Weiber: Frauen in lippischen Beleidigungsprozessen des siebzehnten Jahrhunderts," in: Weiber, Menschen, Frauenzimmer: Frauen in der landlichen Gesellschaft, 1500-1800, ed. Heide Wunder and Christina Varija (Gottingen, 1996), p. 190; Po-Chia Hsia, p. 165. On economic gaps widening, Robischeaux, p. 85; Behringer, p. 20. On crowding, Beate Popkin, "Marriage, Social Discipline, and Identity in Eighteenth Century Wurttemberg (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburg, 1994), p. 58; Wegert, p. 143. On honor as generator of conflict as well, Walz, "Schimpf," p. 183. On hatred and anger these engendered, see Walz, p. 521, Walz, "Schimpf," pp. 185, 192; Wegert, p. 151; Pocock, pp. 310, 324; Brauner, p 17.
(33.) On gossip, Walz, "Schimpf, p. 177; Tolly, p. 94; Rublack, pp. 18-19. On insults and violence, Nichole Castan, "Criminals," trans. Arthur Goldhammer, in: A History of Women in the West, p. 480; Wegert, p. 32; Walz, pp. 520-521. On violence, Susanna Burghartz, "Tales of Seduction Seduction
See also Flirtatiousness.
Selfishness (See CONCEIT, STINGINESS.)
modern Circe; sorceress who seduces Rinaldo. [Ital. Lit.: Jerusalem Delivered]
nobleminded would-be seducer. , Tales of Violence: Argumentative Controversial; subject to argument.
Pleading in which a point relied upon is not set out, but merely implied, is often labeled argumentative. Pleading that contains arguments that should be saved for trial, in addition to allegations establishing a Cause of Action or Strategies before the Basel Marriage Court," German History, 17 (1999), p. 55; Wegert, pp. 127-128, 520; Walz, "Schimpf," p. 190. On insults, Walz, p. 513; Sabean, "Property," pp. 336-8. On scolding, Ingram, pp. 51, 68-69.
(34.) Behringer, "Witchcraft Studies," pp. 90-1; Gaskill, "Kent," p. 286; Walz, "Schimpf," p. 185.
(35.) Walz, p. 182; Wegert, p. 86; Sabean, "Property," p. 138.
(36.) Walz, "Schimpf," p. 192. On the view his undercuts, see Matalene, p. 61; Gregory, p. 55; Finch, p. 38; Ingram, p. 67.
(37.) Walz, "Schimpf," p. 179; Walz, p. 513. Note that in England and Scotland, scolds were generally women, Goodare, p. 299.
(38.) Walz, p. 213.
(39.) Bever, "Wurttemberg," Appendix (especially cases 4, 11, 15, 17, 22, 24, 27); Walz, p. 516 acknowledges this himself.
(40.) Holmes, "Women," p. 55; Jonathan Barry, "Introduction," in: Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe, p. 13; Sabean, p. 109; Briggs, "Victim,", p. 449; Wiesner, "Early Modern," p. 231. On general reluctance to use courts, Rublack, pp. 27, 31.
(41.) Ingram, p. 65 notes the difference in age.
(42.) On scolds' power, Ingram, p. 52; Anne Barstow, Witchcraze (San Francisco San Francisco (săn frănsĭs`kō), city (1990 pop. 723,959), coextensive with San Francisco co., W Calif., on the tip of a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay, which are connected by the strait known as the Golden , 1996), p. 28. On witches', Holmes, "Women," p. 52; Wiesner, "Early Modern," p. 231; Skaria, pp. 134-135.
(43.) Pollock, p. 206.
(44.) Holmes, p. 52.
(45.) Robin Briggs, "Ill Will and Magical Power in Lorraine Witchcraft," in: Briggs, Communities, p. 103; Bender-Wittman, p. 27.
(46.) Trevor-Roper, 91; Monter, pp. 197-200; Robert Muchembled, Popular Culture and Elite Culture in France, 1400-1750, trans. Lydia Cochrane (Baton Rouge Baton Rouge (băt`ən rzh) [Fr.,=red stick], city (1990 pop. 219,531), state capital and seat of East Baton Rouge parish, SE La. , 1985), p. 157.
(47.) Gabor Klaniczay, The Uses of Supernatural Power: The Transformation of Popular Religion in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, trans. Susan Singerman (Princeton, 1990), p. 166; Gaskill, "Power," pp. 126-7, 129; Hester, "Patriarchal Reconstruction," pp. 299, 301; Wunder, p. 150; Evans, p. 5; Skaria, p. 133; Purkiss, p. 145; Edward Bever, "Old Age and Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe," in: Old Age in Preindustrial Society, ed. Peter Stearns Peter Stearns is a professor of history at George Mason University, where he is currently provost (since January 1, 2000) with almost 40 years of experience as a teacher and administrator behind him. (New York, 1982), p. 177; Gaskill, "Power," p. 129; Horsley, p. 713; Wiesner, "Early Modern," p. 225; Holmes, "Women, pp. 53, 57; Opitz, p. 261.
(48.) Clarke Garrett, "Witches and Cunning Folk In English history, the cunning man or cunning woman is a professional or semi-professional folk magic user up until the 20th century. Such people were also frequently known as wizards, wise men, wise women, witch doctors or conjurers. in the Old Regime," in: The Wolf and the Lamb: Popular Culture in France from the Old Regime to the Twentieth Century, ed. Jacques Beauroy, et. al. (Saratoga, CA, 1977), p. 59.
(49.) Hubert Vogel, Der gro[beta]e Schongauer Hexenproze[beta] und seine Seine (sān, Fr. sĕn), Lat. Sequana, river, c.480 mi (770 km) long, rising in the Langres Plateau and flowing generally NW through N France. Opfer: 1589-1592, published by the city of Schongau, 1989, p. 23.
(50.) Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse," pp. 211-212, 200.
(51.) Ahrendt-Schulte, "Alltag," p. 352; on range of magic, Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse," p. 200.
(52.) Ahrendt-Schulte, "Alltag," p. 358.
(53.) Giovanna Fiume, "The Old Vinegar Lady, or the Judicial Modernization of the Crime of Witchcraft," in: History of Crime, ed. Edward Muir and Guido Ruggiero, trans. Corrada Curry, et. al. (Baltimore, 1997), pp. 65, 67, 74; also Sabean, "Power," p. 110. The sample is discussed in Bever, "Wurttemberg," pp. 125-6.
(54.) Bever, "Wurttemberg," p. 263.
(55.) Ibid., Table 7.1, Appendix. Note that there are slight discrepancies between the numbers given in Table 7.1 and those given in this paper, based on a reassessment of several cases.
(56.) Ritual action, Wurttemberg Staatsarchiv Stuttgart, A209, b. 1856, b. 11; verbal harassment, A209, b. 873, b. 1856, b. 852. All archival references are to this source.
(57.) Poison, A209, b. 1884, b. 11; occult: A209, b. 1856, b. 2096, b. 1431.
(58.) A209, b. 1223.
(59.) Rublack p. 126 on the vulnerability of farms generally.
(60.) A209, b. 782, b. 1884.
(61.) Rublack, p. 220.
(62.) A209, b. 719 (1562)
(63.) Roper, "Fantasy," p. 215; A209, b. 1253.
(64.) Wiesner, "Early Modern," p. 225; Gregory, pp. 65-8 on the belief that quarrelsomeness Noun 1. quarrelsomeness - an inclination to be quarrelsome and contentious
disagreeableness - an ill-tempered and offensive disposition causes misfortune. Briggs, "Victim," p. 443; Purkiss, p. 411 for a forceful statement of the agnostic position.
(65.) Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse," pp. 206, 214.
(66.) Rublack, p. 100.
(67.) Bever, "Wurttemberg," pp. 209-221, 228, 259, Appendix.
(68.) Horsley, pp. 695, 701.
(69.) A209, b. 1856.
(70.) A209, b. 873.
(71.) A209, b. 11.
(72.) Gregory Simon, et. al., "Somatic Symptoms of Distress: An International Primary Care Study," Psychosomatic Medicine psychosomatic medicine (sī'kōsōmăt`ĭk), study and treatment of those emotional disturbances that are manifested as physical disorders. , 57 (1996), p. 481.
(73.) Julia Heiman Dr Julia R. Heiman is an American sexologist and psychologist, the fifth Director of The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction at Indiana University from 2004 to present time. and John Hatch Dr. John Keith Hatch (born November 7,1940) is an American economic development expert and a pioneer in modern day microfinance. He is the founder of FINCA International and the Rural Development Services (RDS), and is famous for innovating village banking, arguably the , "Conceptual and Therapeutic Contributions of Psychophysiology psychophysiology /psy·cho·phys·i·ol·o·gy/ (-fiz?e-ol´ah-je) physiologic psychology.
The study of correlations between the mind, behavior, and bodily mechanisms. to Sexual Dysfunction sexual dysfunction
Inability to experience arousal or achieve sexual satisfaction under ordinary circumstances, as a result of psychological or physiological problems. ," in: Psychosomatic Disorders Psychosomatic disorders
Disorders characterized by physiological changes that originate, at least in part, from emotional factors. The classical psychosomatic symptoms and their theorized causes are shown in the table. : A Psychophysiological Approach to Etiology and Treatment, eds. Stephen Haynes and Linda Gannon (New York, 1981), p. 223.
(74.) Benjamin Natelson, "Cardiac Arrythmias and Sudden Death," in: Haynes and Gannon, pp. 412, 421-2; Brent Hafen, et. al., Mind/Body Health: The Effects of Attitudes, Emotions, and Relationships (Boston, 1996), p. 71.
(75.) Edward Bever, "Witchcraft Fears and Psychosocial Factors in Disease," The Journal of interdisciplinary History, 30 (2000), pp. 573-90 contains a fuller discussion of the reassessment of the role of "psychosomatic" ailments in witchcraft fears outlined here.
(76.) Helmut Adler and Leonore Adler, "From Hippocrates to Psychoneuroimmunology Psychoneuroimmunology
The study of the interactions among behavioral, neural and endocrine, and immune functions. This convergence of disciplines has evolved to achieve a more complete understanding of adaptive processes. : Medicine as Art and Science," in: Spirit vs. Scalpel scalpel /scal·pel/ (skal´p'l) a small surgical knife usually having a convex edge.
A small straight knife with a thin sharp blade used in surgery and dissection. : Traditional Healing and Modern Psychotherapy psychotherapy, treatment of mental and emotional disorders using psychological methods. Psychotherapy, thus, does not include physiological interventions, such as drug therapy or electroconvulsive therapy, although it may be used in combination with such methods. , ed. Lenore Adler and Runi Mikherji (Westport, CT, 1995), p. 7; C. Richard Chapman At the time of Queen Elizabeth I, Richard Chapman (born 1620) was the owner of a private shipyard at Deptford, had the title of 'Queen's Master Shipwright,' and had been involved in the construction of river defences along the Thames, along with Peter Pett and Mathew Baker, two and Margo Wyckoff, "The Problem of Pain: A Psychobiological Perspective," in: Haynes and Gannon, p. 52; Barbara Walker There have been some public figures named Barbara Walker, including:
induces sleep by sprinkling sand in children’s eyes. [Folklore: Brewer Dictionary, 966]
See : Sleep
Sandman - The DoD requirements that led to APSE. , "Disregulation of the Gastrointestinal System gastrointestinal system: see digestive system. ," Haynes and Gannon, p. 164; Hafen, p. 105.
(77.) Bever, "Fears," pp. 577-80.
(78.) Bever, "Fears," p. 580; Robin Kowalski, "Aversive aversive /aver·sive/ (ah-ver´siv) characterized by or giving rise to avoidance; noxious.
adj. Interpersonal Behaviors: An Overarching o·ver·arch·ing
1. Forming an arch overhead or above: overarching branches.
2. Extending over or throughout: "I am not sure whether the missing ingredient . . . Framework," in: Aversive Interpersonal Behaviors, ed. Robin Kowalski (New York, 1997), p. 217 here on power of response to others' aversive behavior; Anita Vangelisti, "Messages that Hurt," in: The Dark Side of Interpersonal Communications, ed. William Cupach and Brian Spitzberg (Hillsdale, NJ, 1994), p. 53 on power of words to hurt "in every bit as real a way as physical objects."
(79.) Bever, "Fears," p. 581; Garrett, "Old Regime," p. 61 credits psychological influence on impotence, but only because of "a belief in the possibility ... could easily lead to the fact of impotence."
(80.) Bever, "Fears," pp. 589, 581.
(81.) Ibid., p. 586.
(82.) A209, b. 1486; A209, b. 1258.
(83.) Bever, "Wurttemberg," pp. 296-7.
(84.) Ibid., pp. 260-3.
(85.) Ahrendt-Schulte, "Alltag," p. 352.
(86.) A209, b. 2096; A209, b. 1856.
(87.) Richard Totman, Social Causes of illness (New York, 1979), p. 91; Herbert Weiner, Psychobiology psychobiology /psy·cho·bi·ol·o·gy/ (-bi-ol´o-je)
1. biopsychology; a field of study examining the relationship between brain and mind, studying the effect of biological influences on psychological functioning or mental and Human Disease (New York, 1977), pp. 76, 364, 474.
(88.) Natelson, p. 425.
(89.) D.H. Hemsworth, et. al., "Fear of Humans and its Consequences for the Domestic Pig The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) is normally given the scientific name Sus scrofa, though some taxonomists use the term S. domestica, reserving S. scrofa for the wild boar. ," in: The Inevitable Bond: Examining Scientist-Animal Interactions, ed. Hank Davis and Dianne Balfour (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 264-5, 272 (hens), 275-8 (pigs), 274 (cows).
(90.) Bever, "Wurttemberg," Table 7.1.
(91.) Ahrendt-Schulte, "Alltag," p. 351; Behringer, p. 4 stresses weather magic, but only in major panics.
(92.) Briggs, "Why," p. 57; see also McLachlan and Swales, p. 146; Hester, "Patriarchal Reconstruction," p. 300.
(93.) Wegert, pp. 33 and 86 stresses that popular violence in general was spontaneous rather than premeditated.
(94.) That this distinction held for early modern Europe, Bender-Wittman, p. 12. An example of this type of malefic power is in Walz, "Schimpf," p. 186. Note that Turner, p. 324, critiqued Evans-Pritchard's dichotomy, but he did not dispute widespread recognition of the specific phenomena it describes (innate and learned magical powers), just the artificial imposition of these two categories as overriding organizing principles when "these components are varyingly clustered and separated" in different cultures.
(95.) This is why ill-will was one of the defining characteristics of the witch; Briggs, Witches and Neighbors (New York, 1998), p. 23, seconded by Gaskill, "Devil," p. 170, n. 115. Note that ill-will only an issue, though, when it appeared to be cause harm: Walz, p.515; Walz, "Schimpf," p. 185
(96.) Clark, p. 110.
(97.) Brauner, p. 21.
(98.) Weigert, pp. 122, 124, 137; For other areas, see Walz, "Schimpf," p. 189; Abrams and Harvey, p. 7; Finch, pp. 27, 29; Goodare, p. 294. For the corresponding under-representation of women, Schnabel-Schule, p. 195; Castan, pp. 476, 486-487; Ingram, p. 49.
(99.) Note that recourse to biology does not imply acceptance of a simplistic bipolar biological division between males and females; for critique of simplistic biological division of sexes, see Marianne van den Wijngaard, Reinventing the Sexes: Feminism and Biomedical bi·o·med·i·cal
1. Of or relating to biomedicine.
2. Of, relating to, or involving biological, medical, and physical sciences. Construction of Femininity and Masculinity, 1959-1985 (Delft Delft (dĕlft), city (1994 pop. 91,941), South Holland prov., W Netherlands. It has varied industries and is noted for its ceramics (china, tiles, and pottery) known as delftware. Founded in the 11th cent. , 1991), p. 46; and Thomas Laqueur, Making Sex (Cambridge, MA, 1990), esp. p. 243.
(100.) Bever, "Old Age and Witchcraft." The basic cross-cultural patterns and interplay of social and biological factors have been supported by more recent research; see Ellen Holmes and Sowell Holmes, Other Cultures, Elder Years, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks Thousand Oaks, residential city (1990 pop. 104,352), Ventura co., S Calif., in a farm area; inc. 1964. Avocados, citrus, vegetables, strawberries, and nursery products are grown. , 1995); Judith Brown Judith S. Brown (1931 – 1992) was a dancer as well as a sculptor, she was drawn to images of the body in motion and its effect on the cloth surrounding it. She welded crushed automobile scrap metal into energetic moving torsos, horses, and flying draperies. , "Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Middle Aged Women," in: Cultural Constructions of 'Women', ed. Pauline Kolenda (Salem, WI, 1988)
(101.) Goodare, p. 300.
(102.) Malleus Maleficarum, p. 97.
(103.) On greater physical aggression of males, Margot Duley, et. al., "Biology Versus Culture," in: The Cross-Cultural Study of Women: A Comprehensive Guide, ed. Margot Duley and Mary Edwards (New York, 1986), p. 8; Kaj Bjorkqvist and Pirkko Niemela, "New Trends in the Study of Female Aggression," in: Of Mice and Women: Aspects of Female Aggression, ed. Kaj Bjorkqvist and Pirkko Niemela (San Diego San Diego (săn dēā`gō), city (1990 pop. 1,110,549), seat of San Diego co., S Calif., on San Diego Bay; inc. 1850. San Diego includes the unincorporated communities of La Jolla and Spring Valley. Coronado is across the bay. , 1992), p. 7; Marshall Segall, et. al., Human Behavior in Global Perspective: An Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology (New York, 1990), p. 244; Kaj Bjorkqvist, Karin Osterman, and An Kaukiainen, "The Development of Direct and Indirect Aggressive Strategies in Males and Females," in: Mice and Women, p. 51; Robert Pool, Eve's Rib: The Biological Roots of Sex Differences (New York, 1994), p. 54.
(104.) On flaws in early studies, Sue Rosser, Biology and Feminism: A Dynamic Interpretation (New York, 1992), pp. 71-72; Claudia Heyne, Taterin: Offene und versteckte Aggression von Frauen (Kreuz), pp. 80-82; Segall. pp. 263-265. On women's equal capacity for aggression, Bjorkqvist and Niemela, p. 14; Adrienne Zihlmar, "Sex Differences and Gender Hierarchies among Primates," in: Sex and Gender Hierarchies, ed. Barbara Miller (Cambridge, 1993), p. 40; Loraleigh Keashly, "Gender and Conflict: What Does Psychological Research Tell Us?" in: Conflict and Gender, ed. Anita Taylor and Judi Miller (Cresskill, NJ, 1994), pp. 185-186; David Adams David Adams may refer to:
(105.) Bjorkqvist, Osterman, and Kaukiainen, p. 55; Bjorkqvist and Niemela, pp. 6-7; Jacquelynne Parsons Parsons, city (1990 pop. 11,924), Labette co., SE Kans.; inc. 1871. It is a shipping point for dairy products, grain, and livestock. Manufactures include ammunition, wire and paper products, plastics, and appliances. , "Psychosexual psychosexual /psy·cho·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al) pertaining to the mental or emotional aspects of sex.
Of or relating to the mental and emotional aspects of sexuality. Neutrality: Is Anatomy Destiny?" in: The Psychobiology of Sex Differences and Sex Roles, ed. Jacquelynne Parsons (Washington, DC, 1980), p. 19. On female emotional manipulation, Deborah Blum Deborah Blum (born October 19 1954) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author.
As a science writer for the Sacramento Bee, Blum (rhymes with gum , Sex on the Brain: The Biological Differences between Men and Women (New York, 1997), pp. 80-1; Jacob Rabbie, et. al., "Sex Differences in Conflict and Aggression in Individual and Group Settings," in: Mice and Women, p. 223; Adam Fraczek, "Patterns of Aggressive-Hostile Behavior Orientation among Adolescent Boys and Girls boys and girls
mercurialisannua. ," in: Mice and Women, p. 111. On females use of indirect aggression, Bjorkqvist and Niemela, pp. 8, 14; Bjorkqvist, Osterman, and Kaukiainen pp. 52, 61; Deborah Richardson and Laura Green, "Circuitous cir·cu·i·tous
Being or taking a roundabout, lengthy course: took a circuitous route to avoid the accident site. Harm: Determinants and Consequences of Nondirect Aggression," in: Aversive Interpersonal Behavior, pp. 173, 178. On the equal use of verbal aggression by both genders, Anne Moir and David Jessel David Jessel is a news presenter on BBC World, the BBC's international news and current affairs channel.
He was educated at The Dragon School, an independent school in Oxford and Eton College, an independent school near Windsor, Berkshire. , Brain Sex: The Real Difference between Men and Women (New York, 1991), p. 82.
(106.) Bjorkqvist and Niemela, p. 14; Heyne, pp. 11-12; Miriam Hirsch, Women and Violence (New York, 1981), p. 152.
(107.) That modern Western women are not notable as poisoners, Walter Feulner, Zum Giftmord und seinem Nachweis (Inaugural-Dissertation, Medical Faculty of the Free University of Berlin, 1983), p. 106. That early modern women were, Rublack, pp. 227-229, and women are generally: Liselotte Herx, Der Giftmord, inbesondere der Giftmord durch Frauen (Emsdetten, 1937), p. 3. Other connections are the importance of conflicts in women's space in early modern Europe and cross-cultural tendency of women to conflict particularly bitterly with other women: Bjorkqvist and Niemela, p. 12; Luise Eichenbaum and Susie Orbach, Between Women: Love, Envy, and Competition in Women's Friendships (New York, 1988), p. 137; especially in patrilocal pat·ri·lo·cal
Of or relating to residence with a husband's kin group or clan.
pat societies like early modern Europe, Ilsa Glazer, "Interfemale Aggression and Resource Scarcity in Cross-Cultural Perspective," in: Mice and Women, p. 170.
(108.) Weigert, pp. 122, 124, 137; For other areas, see Walz, "Schimpf," p. 189; Abrams and Harvey, p. 7; Finch, pp. 27, 29; Goodare, p. 294. On the corresponding under-representation of women: Schnabel-Schule, p. 195; Castan, pp. 476, 486-487; Ingram, p. 49. For a caveat that women could be brutal, Schnabel-Schule, p. 196; Rublack, p. 203; Walz, "Schimpf," pp. 190-191 (but not as often as men). For modern studies of violent crime, Pool, p. 54; David Barash and Judith Lystin, Making Sense of Sex: How Genes and Gender Influence our Relationships (Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 86; Blum, p. 72 (who reports that chimps show even more sex differentiation in aggression [95:5 male: female vs. 80:20 for humans]).
(109.) The connection between indirect aggression and witchcraft is drawn specifically for Zapotec women in Douglas Fry Douglas Fry (1872 – 9 July 1911) was an Australian artist.
Fry was born at Ipswich, Suffolk, England. He was educated at Ipswich Grammar School and studied art at Julien's, Paris, and in London. He did some illustrative work in London and in 1899 came to Australia. , "Female Aggression among the Zapotec of Oaxaca, Mexico," in: Mice and Women, pp. 194-195. Kowalski, p 216 notes use of aversive interpersonal behaviors to influence others' behavior.
(110.) Linda Carli, "Biology Does Not Create Gender Differences in Personality," in: Women, Men, and Gender: Ongoing Debates, ed. Mary Walsh
Walsh had a difficult childhood with alcoholic parents. (New Haven New Haven, city (1990 pop. 130,474), New Haven co., S Conn., a port of entry where the Quinnipiac and other small rivers enter Long Island Sound; inc. 1784. Firearms and ammunition, clocks and watches, tools, rubber and paper products, and textiles are among the many , 1997), p. 44; Rabbie, et. al., p.223; Ute Frevert Ute Frevert is professor of German history at Yale University. She is a specialist in modern Germany, with a interest in social history. She was previously on the faculty of the University of Berlin, the University of Konstanz, and the University of Bielefeld in Germany, and also , "The Taming of the Noble Ruffian: Male Violence and Dueling in Early Modern and Modern Germany," in: Men and Violence: Gender, Honor, and Rituals in Modern Europe and America, ed. Pieter Spierenburg (Ohio State University Press The Ohio State University Press, founded in 1957, is a university press and a part of The Ohio State University. External links
The Ohio State University , 1998), p. 37; Segall, p. 266. Anthony Walsh, Biosociology: An Emerging Paradigm (Westport, CT, 1995), p.34, however, argues that metastudies "did not provide strong evidence for early gender-role socialization."
(111.) On modern women's social integration, Rosaldo and Lamphere, pp. 55-56; Nancy Chodorow Nancy Julia Chodorow is a feminist sociologist and psychoanalyst born 20 January 1944 in New York City. She graduated from Radcliffe College in 1966 and later received her PhD in sociology from Brandeis University. , "Family Structure and Feminine Personality," in: Women, Culture, and Society, ed. Michelle Rosaldo Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo (1944, New York - 1981, Philippines), known to her friends and colleagues as Shelly, was a social, linguistic, and psychological anthropologist famous for her studies of the Ilongot tribe in the Philippines and for her pioneering role in women's studies and Louise Lamphere (Stanford, 1974), P. 55. On the connection to aggression, Rabbie, et. al., p. 225. On women's space: Behringer, "Witch Studies," p. 94 (citing Wunder und Labouvie); Briggs, "Victim," p.447; Sharpe, "Northern," pp. 120, 187, 188, 192; Opitz, p. 262; Ulinka Rublack, "The Public Body: Policing Abortion in Early Modern Germany," in: Gender Relations, p. 62; Ahrendt-Schulte, "Alltag. p. 353; Raith, p. 15; Purkiss, p. 414.
(112.) On interplay of nature and nurture, van den Wijngaard, p. 47; Pool, pp. 109, 200; Robert Lustig, "Sex Hormonal Modulation of Neural Development The study of neural development draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life. in Vitro in vitro /in vi·tro/ (in ve´tro) [L.] within a glass; observable in a test tube; in an artificial environment.
In an artificial environment outside a living organism. : Implications for Brain Sex Differentiation," in: Males, Females, and Behavior: Toward a Biological Understanding, ed. Lee Ellis and Linda Ebertz (Westport, CT, 1998), p. 24; June Reinisch, et. al., "Sex Differences Emerge during the First Year of Life," in: Women, Men, and Gender, pp. 37, 42; Leonard Eron Leonard David Eron (pronounced EE-rahn) (April 221920–May 3 2007) was an American psychologist best known for his Columbia County Longitudinal Study that concluded television viewing led to violence. , "Gender Differences in Violence: Biology and/or Socialization?" in: Mice and Women, p. 96; Rosser, p. 73; Sega11, p. 251-2. On ubiquity of gender specialization but variability of specific roles among primates, Barbara Miller, "The Anthropology of Sex and Gender Hierarchies," in: Sex and Gender Hierarchies, p. 3. On twin studies measuring role of genetics in masculinity and femininity. Pool, p. 216. A recent account stressing the importance of biology, Moir and Jessel, p. 75. That some recent feminists accept this: Rosser, p. 65. Among historians ad vancing this view, Roper, p. 48; Peter Weingart, et. al., "Shifting Boundaries between the Biological and the Social: The Social and Political Contexts," in: Human by Nature: Between Biology and the Social Sciences, ed. Peter Weingart, et. al. (Mahwah, NJ, 1997), pp. 151-3; Abrams and Harvey, p. 9. For statements defending traditional historical "sociocultural" exclusiveness see Garrett, "Old Regime," p. 56 (on Durkheim); Clark, pp. 6-7; Weingart, et. al., p. 66 (quoting Richard Hofstadter Richard Hofstadter (August 6, 1916 - October 24, 1970) was an American historian and DeWitt Clinton Professor of American History at Columbia University. One of the leading public intellectuals of the 1950s, his works include The Age of Reform (1955) and ); Brauner, p. 21; Schnabel-Schule, p. 195; Ulinker Rublack, "Gender in Early Modern German History," German History, 17 (1999), p. 1 states that "the theoretical question to all research on gender is whether sex differences is socially and culturally constructed, or to some extent rooted in a pre-discursive body."
(113.) Reinisch, pp. 41-2.
(114.) On the role of socialization, Jan-Erik Ruth and Peter Oberg Born in 1953, Peter Oberg is a musician, composer, and luthier living in San Diego, California. He has been playing and composing for the classical guitar for over 40 years. , "Expressions of Aggression in the Life Stories of Aged Women," in: Mice and Women, p. 144; Thomas Ruble and Joy Schneer, "Gender Differences in Conflict-Handling Styles: Less than Meets the Eye?" in: Conflict and Gender, p. 165; Fraczek, p. 108; Glazer, p. 163; Rabbie, et. a., p. 223; Bjorkqvist and Niemela p. 14; Segall, p 243. On the role of gross physical differences, Parsons, pp. 18-19; Heyne, pp. 82-3, 89; David Stoddart, The Scented Ape: the Biology and Culture of Human Odour (Cambridge, 1990), p. 214. On the calculation of danger, Richardson and Green, p. 176.
(115.) Marvin Harris This is the current Anthropology Collaboration of the month!
Please help to improve it to match the quality of an ideal Wikipedia Anthropology article.
Marvin Harris (August 18, 1927 – October 25, 2001) was an American anthropologist. , "The Evolution of Human Gender Hierarchies," in: Sex and Gender Hierarchies, pp. 60-63, 69.
(116.) For example, Rhawn Joseph, Neuropsychiatry neuropsychiatry /neu·ro·psy·chi·a·try/ (noor?o-si-ki´ah-tre) the combined specialties of neurology and psychiatry.
n. , Neuropsychology neuropsychology
Science concerned with the integration of psychological observations on behaviour with neurological observations on the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain. , and Clinical Neuroscience neu·ro·sci·ence
Any of the sciences, such as neuroanatomy and neurobiology, that deal with the nervous system.
the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology of the nervous system. (Baltimore, 1996), p. 66-9.
(117.) Pool, p. 53.
(118.) Walsh, p. 87; Pool, p. 108; Moir and Jessel, p. 76; Blum, pp. 42, 43, 74; Freda Newcombe and Graham Ratcliff, "The Female Brain: A Neuropsychological neu·ro·psy·chol·o·gy
The branch of psychology that deals with the relationship between the nervous system, especially the brain, and cerebral or mental functions such as language, memory, and perception. Viewpoint," in: Defining Females: The Nature of Women in Society, ed. Shirley Ardener (New York, 1978), p. 186; Lustig, p. 23; Barash, pp. 85, 175, 177.
(119.) On capability vs. compulsion, see Gail Vines, Raging Hormones: Do They Rule Our Lives? (Berkley, 1993), p. 79. Segall, pp. 268-268, and David Benron, "Hormones and Human Aggression," in: Mice and Women, p. 46 reluctantly concede a role to testosterone. Van den Wijngaard, p. 46 endorses the sensitization sensitization /sen·si·ti·za·tion/ (sen?si-ti-za´shun)
1. administration of an antigen to induce a primary immune response.
2. exposure to allergen that results in the development of hypersensitivity. interpretation.
(120.) On primacy of culture as predictor of violence of both genders, Bjorkqvist and Niemela, p. 6; on consistency of gender roles but variability of magnitude of difference, Segall, p. 250.
(121.) Moir and Jessel, p. 79. Rosser, p. 74 emphasizes that both sexes have both hormones in body.
(122.) On emotional responsiveness and social atunement, Walsh, p. 89; Segall, p. 250; Pool, p.53. On verbal superiority, Pamela Reid and Michele Paludi, "Developmental Psychology developmental psychology
Branch of psychology concerned with changes in cognitive, motivational, psychophysiological, and social functioning that occur throughout the human life span. of Women: Conception to Adolescence," in Psychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and Theories, ed. Florence Denmark and Michele Paludi (Westpot, CT, 1993), p. 204; Newcombe and Ratcliff, p. 194.
(123.) On social responsiveness, Reid and Paludi, p. 204; Lindfors, p. 230; Walsh, p. 90; Moir and Jessel, p. 19. On role as caregivers and response to subordination, Barash, pp. 189-190. On socialization to social orientation, Segall, p. 244; Brown, 87. On the role of biological factors, Pool, p. 107; Barash, p. 185; Newcombe and Ratcliff, p. 187; Douglas Kerrick and Robert Hogan Robert Hogan can refer to:
The study of the biological determinants of social behavior, based on the theory that such behavior is often genetically transmitted and subject to evolutionary processes. Imagination, ed. Mary Maxwell
(124.) On the response to distress, Blum, p. 66. On face recognition, Pool, p. 204.
(125.) According to Blum, p. 67, these differences are not found to the same degree in females with a male fraternal twin Noun 1. fraternal twin - either of two twins who developed from two separate fertilized eggs
twin - either of two offspring born at the same time from the same pregnancy (and who were hence exposed to higher levels of androgens in urero than other females); Walsh, p. 88; Moir and Jessel, p. 18. Stoddart, p. 135.
(126.) Blum, p. 37; Marianne Legato (Legato Systems, Inc., Mountain View, CA, www.legato.com) A leading provider of storage management and high-availability software founded in 1988 and acquired by EMC Corporation in 2003. Legato software, including Celestra data management (data mining, data migration, etc. , Gender-Specific Aspects of Human Biology Human biology is an interdisciplinary academic field of biology, biological anthropology, and medicine which focuses on humans; it is closely related to primate biology, and a number of other fields. for the Practicing Physician (Armonk, NY, 1997), p. 22.
(127.) Moir and Jessel, pp.46, 48; Pool, pp. 111, 119.
(128.) Walsh, p. 89; Newcombe and Ratcliff, p. 189; Moir and Jessel, p. 48.
(129.) On women's superiority at interpreting facial expressions facial expression,
n the use of the facial muscles to communicate or to convey mood. and body language, Blum, p. 78; Significantly, early modern women were commonly thought to exhibit both greater facility with as well as greater reliance on verbal power; see Brauner, p. 19, Sabcan, pp. 137, 142; Pocock, p. 336, 353; Ingram, pp. 49, 50; Raith, p. 15 (citing Wunder).
(130.) On women's greater fluency, Pool, pp. 55-56. On regionalization regionalization Managed care The subdivision of a broadly available service–eg, a blood bank, into quasi-autonomous regional centers, capable of making decisions and providing more cost-effective and/or faster service to hospitals and health care facilities, of brain, Moir and Jessel, p. 46; Merrill Hiscock, et. al., "Is There a Sex Difference in Human Laterality laterality
or hemispheric asymmetry
Characteristic of the human brain in which certain functions (such as language comprehension) are localized on one side in preference to the other. ? IV. An Exhaustive Survey of Dual-Task Interference Studies From Six Neuropsychology Journals," Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 23 (2001), p. 137.
(131.) Pool, p. 108.
(132.) Moir and Jessel, p. 49, quote Sandra Witlesan on women's "'preferred cognitive strategy ... [of] playing to your mental strengths."'
(133.) Similar to lack of specific psychology of poisoners, as earlier psychologists posited, Herx, pp. 112-113; Inge Weiler, Giftmordwissen und Giftmorderinnen: Eine diskursgeschichte Studie (Tubingen: Max Niemeyer, 1998), p. 1. On witchcraft as female conflict strategy, Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse," p. 213.
(134.) Pocock, p. 339; Rublack, p. 202; Sabean, "Property," p. 317; Ingram, p. 51; Wegert, pp. 137-8; Bender-Wittman, p. 27; Sharpe, "Northern," p. 194 citing Larner. Whitney, "International," p. 91 on differences in non-violent use of magic and religious symbols.
(135.) On cultural stereotypes, Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse," p. 212; Hester, "Patriarchal Reconstruction," p. 298; Schnabel-Schule, p. 192 on the incorporation of this in the "Carolina" legal code.
(136.) Lea Pulkkinen, "The Path to Adulthood for Aggressively Inclined Girls," in: Mice and Women, p. 113.
(137.) Viennero, p. 104.
(138.) Gerald Strauss, Luther's House of Learning: Indoctrination in·doc·tri·nate
tr.v. in·doc·tri·nat·ed, in·doc·tri·nat·ing, in·doc·tri·nates
1. To instruct in a body of doctrine or principles.
2. of the Young in the German Reformation (Baltimore, 1978), p. 307; 290 extends this conclusion to the Counter Reformation Counter Reformation, 16th-century reformation that arose largely in answer to the Protestant Reformation; sometimes called the Catholic Reformation. Although the Roman Catholic reformers shared the Protestants' revulsion at the corrupt conditions in the church, there .
(139.) Wunder, "Norms,", p. 50; Karant-Nunn, p. 39; point also stated by Abrams and Harvey, p. 8.
(140.) Pocock, p.6; Rublack, pp. 182,223; Mary Lindeman, Health and Healing in Eighteenth Century Germany (Baltimore, 1996), p. 23; Tolley, p. 99; Po-Chia Hsia, p. 165 notes a rise in melancholy in women in late 1 7th century.
(141.) Pocock, p. 18; Po-Chia Hsia, pp. 163-5.
(142.) Mary Perry, Gender and Disorder in Early Modern Seville (Princeton, 1990), p. 122; Skaria, p. 133
(143.) Walz, p. 513.
(144.) On the late seventeenth century as a transitional period in women's roles, Rublack, p. 259; Simon, pp. 169, 173; Schnabel-Schule, p. 197. On the general decline in civil violence in Europe during this time, Eric Johnson
Eric Johnson (born August 17, 1954) is a guitarist and recording artist from Austin, Texas. and Eric Monkjove, "Introduction," The Civilization of Crime: Violence in Town and Country since the Middle Ages, ed. Eric Johnson and Eric Monkjoven (Urbana, 1996), pp. 4, 6-8; Monter, "Pedestal," p. 134. On the difference in modern from early modern women's attitudes toward violence, Schnabel-Schule, p. 195 (citing Wunder). See also Behringer, "Witch Studies," p. 88; Castan, p. 481; Rublack, p. 15; Becker-Cantarino, p. 173; Goodare, p. 303; Whitney, "International," p. 89-all on women's internalization Internalization
A decision by a brokerage to fill an order with the firm's own inventory of stock.
When a brokerage receives an order they have numerous choices as to how it should be filled. of new norms. Allison Rowland poses this as an "intriguing question" in her review of Ingrid Ahrendt-Schulte, Zauberinnen in der Stadt Horn, in: German History, 17 (1999), p.287. On the displacement or repression of aggressive impulses as alternatives to indirect aggression, Bjorkqvist and Niemela, p. 14.
(145.) Bever, "Wurttemberg," pp. 385-6.
(146.) Bever, "Wurttemberg," Appendix; Sabean, "Property," p. 133 reports that 18-19th century men almost never complained of their wives' violence; Popkin, p. 38 also notes lack of concern about female violence in the 18th century.
(147.) Rublack p. 4; Karant-Nunn p. 26, 35-6; Wegert, p. 137; Lacour, p. 660.
(148.) Pocock, pp. 353-4. This change might reflect simply a growing awareness of male violence as concern about female aggression waned, or it might reflect a rise in male violence in response to women's lessened ability to retaliate; in either case it suggests that the problem of female violence had receded.
(149.) Popkin, pp. 3, 13, n. 23.
(150.) N. H. Keeble, The Cultural Identity of Seventeenth-Century Woman (London, 1994), p. 71; see also Joy Wiltenburg, Disorderly Women and Female Power in the Street Literature of Early modern England and Germany (Charlottesville, 1992), P. 266.
(151.) The roots of judicial torture Noun 1. judicial torture - torture that is sanctioned by the state and executed by duly accredited officials; "the English renounced judicial torture in 1640" were in the use of ordeal as a means of ascertaining truth; see Wegert, pp. 116-117. In practice the test itself was a punishment; Bever "Wurttemberg," p. 193.
(152.) On the systematic nature of trials, Wegert, p. 21; Rublack, pp. 41-2, 52; Bever, "Wurttemberg," p. 193; Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse," p. 213. On the role of trials as a warning, Brauner, p. 39; Coudert, p. 78.
(153.) Popkin, p. 17 emphasizes role of fear in the transition from control to self control.
(154.) Ahrendt-Schulte, "Alltag," p. 353 emphasizes the role of oral transmission from individual to individual, a process particularly vulnerable to disruption by generations of persecution. On the importance of role-models in the transmission of aggressive behavior patterns, see Bjorkqvist and Niemela, p. 14; Pappu Viemero, "Changes in Patterns of Aggressiveness among Finish Girls over a Decade," in: Mice and Women, p. 105; Blum, p. 80.
(155.) Wegert, p. 22, citing Marc Raeff, The Well Ordered Police State (New Haven, 1983), puts the watershed in social control in general in the 16th century.
(156.) Rublack, pp. 259-260 on upper and middle class women; Simon, p. 170 on the extension to lower class women.
(157.) On pervasiveness, Monter, "Pedestal,", p. 130; Briggs, "Why," p. 61. Some historians now emphasize the limitations of the persecutions, Behringer, "Weather," p. 2; Clarke Garrett, "Women and Witchcraft: Patterns of Analysis," Signs 3 (1977), p. 462 (who calls them endemic not epidemic); Sallmann, p. 451. What this point overlooks is that suspicions, rumors, warnings, and so on were far more prevalent than trials; see Walz, p. 515.
(158.) On poison and food preparation, Schnabel-Schule, p. 196; Ahrendt-Schulte, "All-tag," p. 352; Ahrendt-Schulte, "Hexenprozesse," p. 211; Herx, p. 182; Behringer, p. 161, n. 176 (citing Wunder); on women's orientation to social relations, Behringer, "Witchcraft Studies," p. 94 (citing Wunder).
(159.) Critics of victimization theory for its de-emphasis on female agency include Gaskill, "Devil," p. 144; Sharpe, "Northern," pp. 185, 192; Bender-Wittman, p. 19; Carolyn Matalene, "Women as Witches," in: Levack, Women and Witchcraft, p. 19; Abrams and Harvey, pp. 4-5; Sallmann, p. 457; Purkiss, p. 170.
(160.) Gaskill, "Devil," p. 168; Bender-Wittman, pp. 13, 23. On other steps, Holmes, "Women," p. 57; Walz, p. 516; Labouvie, "Hexenspuk," p. 91.
(161.) Although Gaskill, "Devil," p. 144 says more women benefited from the suppression of witches than were hurt by it.