Winter wonderland: snowmobilers love to play on Montana trails. (Winter Wonderland).The debate over snowmobile snowmobile, vehicle designed to travel over snow, ice, and similar surfaces that offer limited traction and weight-supporting capability. As the performance of the vehicle depends to a large extent on keeping its weight as low as possible, there is no enclosure for use in national parks This is a list of national parks ordered by nation. Africa
A sparsely inhabited rural region. of Montana Montana (mŏntăn`ə), Rocky Mt. state in the NW United States. It is bounded by North Dakota and South Dakota (E), Wyoming (S), Idaho (W), and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan (N). , Wyoming Wyoming, city, United States
Wyoming, city (1990 pop. 63,891), Kent co., W Mich., in the greater Grand Rapids metropolitan area, on the Grand River; settled 1832, inc. 1959. , and Idaho Idaho (ī`dəhō), one of the Rocky Mt. states in the NW United States. It is bordered by Montana and Wyoming (E), Utah and Nevada (S), Oregon and Washington (W), and the Canadian province of British Columbia (N). continues, with the Bush administration hoping to strike a compromise between environmentalists and the snowmobile industry.
In mid-November n. 1. the middle part of November.
Noun 1. mid-November - the middle part of November
period, period of time, time period - an amount of time; "a time period of 30 years"; "hastened the period of time of his recovery"; "Picasso's blue , the National Park Service released a new plan to limit snowmobile use in Yellowstone Yellowstone, river, 671 mi (1,080 km) long, rising in NW Wyo., and flowing NE through Mont. to enter the Missouri River near the N.Dak. line; it drains c.70,400 sq mi (182,340 sq km). The Yellowstone receives the Bighorn, Powder, Tongue, and many smaller rivers. and Grand Teton national parks Grand Teton National Park (tētŏn`, tē`tŏn), 309,993 acres (125,503 hectares), NW Wyo.; est. 1929. The park, which includes Jackson Lake and part of Jackson Hole, embraces the most scenic portion of the glaciated, snow-covered Teton to 1,100 per day. That's more than the 10-year average of 840 snowmobiles per day, but less than the parks' holiday peaks.
In northwestern Montana, much of the debate is focused on high-elevation playgrounds in the Swan swan, common name for a large aquatic bird of both hemispheres, related to ducks and geese. It has a long, gracefully curved neck and an extremely long, convoluted trachea which makes possible its far-carrying calls. Range and the Jewel Basin, outside Glacier glacier, moving mass of ice that survives year to year, formed by the compacting of snow into névé and then into granular ice and set in motion outward and downward by the force of gravity and the stress of its accumulated mass. National Park's western boundary. There, snowmobilers and conservationists are trying to negotiate their own agreement, hoping to preserve the most popular riding spots while assuring non-motorized solitude in other areas.
At issue is the potential for snowmobiles--and the noise and air pollution they produce--to disrupt wildlife and wild places. It is an issue born of an increasingly popular winter sport, and of the greatly increased range and power of modern snowmobiles. For Montanans, it is an issue of considerable consequence--to their economy, their environment and to their enjoyment of winter in the backcountry.
The Bureau of Business and Economic Research's most recent surveys suggest that about 10 percent of Montana households include snowmobilers. Nearly always, the whole family participates. Given an average household size of about 2.5, perhaps as many as 95,000 Montanans recreate with snowmobiles.
The great majority of winter visitors to Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,791 acres (899,015 hectares), the world's first national park (est. 1872), NW Wyo., extending into Montana and Idaho. It lies mainly on a broad plateau in the Rocky Mts., on the Continental Divide, c. , for instance, use snowmobiles. This is true in part because the park's internal roads are otherwise impassable to vehicles in winter. More importantly perhaps, West Yellowstone has successfully promoted itself as "The Snowmobile Capital of the World."
Our estimates suggest that nonresident non·res·i·dent
1. Not living in a particular place: nonresident students who commute to classes.
2. snowmobilers spend about $225 per activity day, including food, lodging Lodging or holiday accommodation is a type of accommodation. People who travel and stay away from home for more than a day need lodging mainly for sleeping. Other purposes are safety, shelter from cold and rain, having a place to store luggage and being able to take a , and often, snowmobile rental costs, amounting to $44 million per year. On average, residents spend much less per activity day than nonresidents; most of their out-of-pocket costs out-of-pocket costs Managed care Health care costs that a covered person must pay out of pocket–eg, coinsurance, deductibles, etc. See Copayment. are for gasoline gasoline or petrol, light, volatile mixture of hydrocarbons for use in the internal-combustion engine and as an organic solvent, obtained primarily by fractional distillation and "cracking" of petroleum, but also obtained from natural gas, by . We estimate that resident and nonresident snowmobilers buy about 4 million gallons of gasoline per season. With a base tax of $.27 per gallon gallon: see English units of measurement. , we estimate that snowmobilers in Montana generate more than $1.2 million a year for the state highway trust fund.
In short, snowmobiling is a popular, revenue-generating winter sport in Montana. It is popular with a solid 10 percent share of households, and is increasingly popular with nonresident tourists.
This project was sponsored by the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Bureau of Business and Economic Research (BBER BBER Bureau of Business and Economic Research
BBER Background Block Error Ratio
BBER Before Viterbi (TV broadcast measurements) ) staff conducted the research, using a two-pronged Adj. 1. two-pronged - having two prongs
divided - separated into parts or pieces; "opinions are divided" approach:
1. The BBER contacted 477 households with registered snowmobiles by telephone. Four hundred sixty households completed a computer-assisted telephone interview for a response rate of 96 percent. Although these characteristics may not be representative of all resident snowmobilers, they do reflect a solid sample of those who register their machines.
2. Information on nonresident snowmobilers was gathered in another way. We obtained the names of visitors to West Yellowstone from lodging facilities, then contacted 100 of these individuals by telephone. Only four people contacted refused to cooperate.
We used several basic assumptions to derive statewide impacts of snowmobile recreation. The following assumptions were applied to data from both resident and nonresident snowmobilers:
* Based on information from AAA AAA: see American Automobile Association.
(Triple A) A common single-cell battery used in a myriad of electronic devices of all variety. Like its double A (AA) cousin, it provides 1.5 volts of DC power. When used in series, the voltage is multiplied. Montana, we assumed an average gasoline price of $1.40 during the winter of 20012002. Prices were much higher in West Yellowstone.
* Fuel usage depends on size and age of machines, as well as terrain and snow conditions; based on information from active snowmobilers, we assumed an average fuel consumption of 10.5 miles per gallon Noun 1. miles per gallon - the distance traveled in a vehicle powered by one gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel
unit, unit of measurement - any division of quantity accepted as a standard of measurement or exchange; "the dollar is the United States unit of of gas.
* According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. officials in Yellowstone National Park, about 51,000 visitors entered the park from West Yellowstone between December December: see month. 2001 and March 2002.
Other assumptions pertained to data analysis of impacts generated by resident snowmobilers only. Based on interviews with Montana snowmobilers, residents travel about 50 miles per activity day on their snow machines, and spend about $8.75 for fuel.
Several important assumptions were made about nonresident patterns of snowmobile use and activity. All the following were derived from interviews with nonresident snowmobilers:
* In Montana, nonresident snowmobilers travel about 85 miles per activity day--more miles than residents because nonresidents tend to come for one purpose and want their money's worth.
* Although they travel more miles, nonresidents spend less per day on fuel (about $5 on average) because gasoline costs are often covered by outfitters as part of snowmobile rental.
* The average length of a nonresident snowmobile vacation is four days.
Snowmobile owners who use their snowmobiles on public lands are required to register with the Montana Department of Justice, Title and Registration Bureau. Figure 1 shows the number of snowmobiles registered since 1990.
Figure 2 shows the distribution by type of ownership as indicated by the Montana Department of Justice, Title and Registration Bureau. Private individuals own about 87 percent of the registered snowmobiles. Another 12 percent are used for rental or demonstration purposes, and nearly three-quarters Noun 1. three-quarters - three of four equal parts; "three-fourths of a pound"
common fraction, simple fraction - the quotient of two integers
three-quarters npl → of the rental machines are located in West Yellowstone. Just over 1 percent of registered snowmobiles are owned by corporate or governmental entities.
In order to estimate total ridership rid·er·ship
The number of passengers who ride a public transport system. , we asked: "Does each trip member ride their own machine?"
The results showed snowmobile riding patterns that aren't aren't
Contraction of are not. See Usage Note at ain't.
aren't are not
aren't be too dissimilar from car commuter patterns. That is, most people ride single (Figure 3). Where resident snowmobilers double up, the primary reason was the second rider's youth.
One measure of the sport's popularity and potential impact is the number of "activity days," a figure roughly defined as the estimated number of snowmobilers and their average number of outings per season. Keep in mind that snowmobiling is a dispersed dis·perse
v. dis·persed, dis·pers·ing, dis·pers·es
a. To drive off or scatter in different directions: The police dispersed the crowd.
b. outdoor activity, so precise counts are virtually impossible. However, we have derived an estimate.
Of those households completing our interview, an average of two members per household were snowmobilers. The median number of outing days per season was reported at 14. The BBER last estimated participation rates for snowmobiling in 1997-1998. Assuming participation has not changed dramatically since 1997-1998, about 10 percent of Montana residents snowmobile. This suggests a total of about 1.2 million activity days per season for Montana snowmobile enthusiasts.
Nonresident snowmobilers flock flock
1. a group of one species of animal or bird which eats or travels or is kept together, e.g. flock of sheep, of wild geese.
2. wool or cotton particles or debris used as stuffing or packing. to West Yellowstone, an area with world-class world-class
1. Ranking among the foremost in the world; of an international standard of excellence; of the highest order: a world-class figure skater.
2. facilities and package tours. Results from previous Bureau studies suggest that more than three-fourths Noun 1. three-fourths - three of four equal parts; "three-fourths of a pound"
common fraction, simple fraction - the quotient of two integers of nonresident snowmobilers spend time in or near West Yellowstone. We use this estimate to derive the nonresident activity days.
About 51,000 snowmobilers entered Yellowstone National Park during the winter of 2001-2002. On average, only about 2 percent of resident snowmobiling took place in Yellowstone Park, while previous Bureau survey data tell us that about 25 percent of all nonresident snowmobile activity took place in the park. Using these percentages, we arrive at 204,000 activity days for nonresident snowmobilers in Montana during the 2001-2002 season.
Other nonresident snowmobiling activity occurs in the Big Hole Valley, where nearby Idaho residents cross over; in and around Lookout Pass Lookout Pass (el. 4425 ft.) is a mountain pass in the Rocky Mountains on the border between Idaho and Montana traversed by Interstate 90.
See Also: Lookout Pass Ski and Recreation Area
, where Idaho and Washington Washington, town, England
Washington, town (1991 pop. 48,856), Sunderland metropolitan district, NE England. Washington was designated one of the new towns in 1964 to alleviate overpopulation in the Tyneside-Wearside area. residents make day trips; and in northwestern Montana, where Marias Pass Marias Pass (el. 5213 ft./1588 m.) is a high mountain pass near Glacier National Park in northwestern Montana in the United States.
The pass traverses the continental divide in the Lewis Range, along the boundary between the Lewis and Clark National Forest and the Flathead and Eureka draw some limited Canadian Canadian (kənā`dēən), river, 906 mi (1,458 km) long, rising in NE New Mexico. and flowing E across N Texas and central Oklahoma into the Arkansas River in E Oklahoma. visitation VISITATION. The act of examining into the affairs of a corporation.
2. The power of visitation is applicable only to ecclesiastical and eleemosynary corporations. 1 Bl. Com. 480; 2 Kid on Corp. 174. . Smaller numbers of nonresident snowmobilers also visit Cooke City, Lincoln Lincoln, city and district, England
Lincoln, city (1991 pop. 79,980) and district, Lincolnshire, E England, in the Parts of Kesteven, on the Witham River. , and Seeley Lake Seeley Lake may refer to:
Thus, combined resident and nonresident snowmobile activity days in Montana amounted to 1.4 million during the winter of 2001-2002.
We estimated snowmobile-related spending for both residents and nonresidents. However, our major interest here is nonresident expenditures because they are part of Montana's important nonresident tourism industry. Like other "basic" industries, tourism brings new dollars into the state economy.
Our estimates of total activity days provided the basis for estimating expenditures per day. We used spending per day rather than per outing, because outings generally take only one day (for residents), or occupy several days (for nonresidents using package deals). We also calculated gasoline usage estimates on a per-day basis, even though for nonresidents, gasoline may be part of a package price.
Table 1 shows that total mean expenditures for nonresidents was almost $225 per activity day. Table 2 compiles total nonresident expenditures for each category for the year, based on the estimate of 204,000 nonresident activity days.
Nonresident snowmobilers spent more than $44 million in Montana during the 2001-2002 season. About $14.6 million of this went for lodging, while another $7.6 million was spent in Montana restaurants and bars.
In comparison, the BBER survey of resident expenditures suggests that residents typically don't don't
1. Contraction of do not.
2. Nonstandard Contraction of does not.
A statement of what should not be done: a list of the dos and don'ts. incur To become subject to and liable for; to have liabilities imposed by act or operation of law.
Expenses are incurred, for example, when the legal obligation to pay them arises. An individual incurs a liability when a money judgment is rendered against him or her by a court. lodging costs and spend less on eating and drinking and other expenses. Most residents don't make expenditures in several of the spending categories. As Table 1 shows, residents' median expenditures were about $25 per day, or about 10 percent the spending by nonresidents.
The impact of snowmobile-related spending can also be understood in terms of jobs and income. About 25 percent of nonresident spending becomes direct labor income for Montanans - income earned by people who work in lodging places, eating and drinking establishments, and other businesses that service tourists. The remaining percentage is spent on items that must be imported into Montana for sale such as film, groceries gro·cer·y
n. pl. gro·cer·ies
1. A store selling foodstuffs and various household supplies.
2. groceries Commodities sold by a grocer. , and clothing.
Overall, we estimate that nonresident snowmobilers generate more than $11 million per year in labor income for Montanans, or about 800 full- and part-time part-time
For or during less than the customary or standard time: a part-time job.
Residents also spend money to snowmobile in Montana, but are not considered part of the economic base since they do not bring new money into Montana. Table 3 summarizes these expenditures. Residents spend about $30 million on trip expenditures, mostly for gasoline, and another $70 million on yearly expenses. More than two-thirds of the yearly expenditures are spent on snowmobiles, trailers, and maintenance.
We reanalyzed data from previous BBER surveys to determine an estimate of the change, if any, in snowmobiling's popularity and impact over the past few years.
Table 4 shows the change. Nonresident snowmobile activity increased by 20 percent over the period, from about 185,000 nonresident activity days in 1993-94 to more than 222,000 activity days in 1997-1998. Nonresident snowmobiling declined to about 204,000 activity days in 200 1-2002. Much of the decline may be attributable to a lack of snow in popular areas and public perception of limited snowmobile access to Yellowstone National Park.
Given the rise in activity days, it's it's
1. Contraction of it is.
2. Contraction of it has. See Usage Note at its.
it's it is or it has
it's be ~have somewhat surprising that nonresident spending did not grow substantially. One reason for this low growth is the increase in single-day trips by snowmobilers on the Montana-Idaho border. These visitors have characteristics similar to Montana residents.
Residents and nonresidents also differed when asked to rate the importance of various snowmobile facilities, enhancements, and regulatory controls of the sport. As Table 5 shows, nonresidents were far more interested than residents in additional snowmobile-related signage, including roadside directions to sites, trail markers, and interpretive in·ter·pre·tive also in·ter·pre·ta·tive
Relating to or marked by interpretation; explanatory.
in·terpre·tive·ly adv. signs. More nonresidents also wished for heated shelters, and outhouses OUTHOUSES. Buildings adjoining to or belonging to dwelling-houses.
2. It is not easy to say what comes within and what is excluded from the meaning of out-house. . Residents, on the whole, placed much less emphasis on such facilities and enhancements.
The two groups differed markedly in the importance each placed on regulatory and safety factors. A much greater share of nonresidents than residents wanted emergency help available at snowmobile sites, law enforcement, user fees, and limited entry.
In short, nonresidents seem more worried about safety and overcrowding overcrowding
overcrowding of animal accommodation. Many countries now publish codes of practice which define what the appropriate volumetric allowances should be for each species of animal when they are housed indoors. Breaches of these codes is overcrowding. , and are much more likely to accept certain controls on the sport. Residents, on the other hand, seem to want unregulated Adj. 1. unregulated - not regulated; not subject to rule or discipline; "unregulated off-shore fishing"
regulated - controlled or governed according to rule or principle or law; "well regulated industries"; "houses with regulated temperature"
2. access, and are more willing to accept undeveloped sites.
Our survey also offered an opportunity for respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. to comment on what they thought was the most important issue facing snowmobilers. Access to snowmobiling areas and the political influence of environmentalists were the most frequently cited issues by residents. Nearly half of the residents surveyed mentioned access issues and about 13 percent mentioned safety, particularly personal responsibility. More than one-fourth of the nonresidents cited the environmental effects of snowmobiles.
Overall, differences in resident and nonresident responses to this open-ended question A closed-ended question is a form of question, which normally can be answered with a simple "yes/no" dichotomous question, a specific simple piece of information, or a selection from multiple choices (multiple-choice question), if one excludes such non-answer responses as dodging a seem to echo other findings in the survey. That is, nonresident snowmobilers as a group seem more amenable AMENABLE. Responsible; subject to answer in a court of justice liable to punishment. to restrictions than do resident snowmobilers.
With the continuing debate over whether the National Park Service should limit snowmobile use in Yellowstone National Park, we asked our West Yellowstone respondents if they would return, even if they could not snowmobile in the park. More than 56 percent said they would return.
This access issue has economic implications for West Yellowstone. About $33 million of the total nonresident expenditures for snowmobiling occur in West Yellowstone. Restricting the number of individuals in Yellowstone Park during the winter could decrease nonresident expenditures by $10 million to $15 million. This decline assumes that some snowmobilers might be replaced by other winter recreationists. These expenditure estimates translate into losses of between $2 million and $4 million in labor income, affecting winter employment opportunities in West Yellowstone; some full-time full-time
Employed for or involving a standard number of hours of working time: a full-time administrative assistant.
full jobs could become part-time and some part-time jobs could be eliminated. As many as 150 jobs could be lost if the National Park Service limits snowmobiling in Yellowstone Park.
Gasoline Used by Snowmobiles
Gasoline usage estimates are important because they suggest taxes contributed to Montana's highway trust fund by snowmobilers. Under existing law, a portion of these revenues are returned to snowmobilers through the trail grooming Combining, consolidating and segregating network traffic using devices such as digital cross-connects, add/drop multiplexers and SONET switches. Grooming is a telephone term that typically refers to managing high-capacity lines between central offices, carriers, ISPs and very large program.
We asked each respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. the average distance traveled on a typical snowmobile outing. Resident snowmobilers travel an average of about 50 miles per day. Nonresidents travel about 85 miles per day on average.
We used several additional items on the questionnaire to estimate and verify (1) To prove the correctness of data.
(2) In data entry operations, to compare the keystrokes of a second operator with the data entered by the first operator to ensure that the data were typed in accurately. See validate. gas usage. Specifically, we asked three questions about each working snowmobile a household owned.
These results were then used to calculate the average amount of gasoline used by a Montana snowmobile in a year, and this average amount was multiplied mul·ti·ply 1
v. mul·ti·plied, mul·ti·ply·ing, mul·ti·plies
1. To increase the amount, number, or degree of.
2. Mathematics To perform multiplication on. by the number of privately owned snowmobiles. Rental machine usage was derived in a similar fashion. Nonresident usage was calculated on a per-day basis. Figure 5 summarizes these calculations.
Snowmobilers in Montana used about 4.5 million gallons of gas during the 2001-2002 season. Privately operated snowmobiles accounted for about two-thirds of the usage, or 2.6 million gallons; rental machines, about 1.3 million gallons; and nonresidents, about 679,000 gallons. Snowmobilers contribute about $1.2 million annually to the highway trust fund.
In summary, snowmobiling is a significant sport in Montana, with significant economic impacts. We estimate that nonresident snowmobilers spent more than $44 million in the state during the winter of 2001-2002. Residents spent about $100 million during the same period.
We estimate that snowmobilers (resident and nonresident alike) paid more than $1.2 million directly into Montana's highway trust fund during the 2001-2002 season via gasoline taxes Noun 1. gasoline tax - a tax on every gallon of gasoline sold
excise, excise tax - a tax that is measured by the amount of business done (not on property or income from real estate) . It's worth remembering, as policy makers and others eye this revenue stream, that resident and nonresident snowmobilers differ markedly in spending patterns, concerns, and desires. Development of facilities and regulation of the sport could satisfy one group at the expense of the other.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Table 1 Expenditures per Person per Day, Montana, 2001-2002 Resident Nonresident Mean Median Mean Median Gasoline for $9.58 $8.75 $5.21 $1.67 snowmobiles Gasoline for 9.63 97.50 17.76 6.33 transportation Lodging 4.03 0.00 71.35 60.00 Eating/ 8.89 5.00 37.44 25.00 Drinking places 4.95 3.75 6.60 4.17 Grocery stores 0.96 0.00 9.32 0.00 Entertainment 19.60 0.00 53.60 15.75 Snowmobile dealers 2.25 0.00 15.08 15.08 Other retail Other outing 0.77 0.00 8.21 0.00 expenses Total $60.66 $25.00 $224.27 $128.00 Table 2 Total Nonresident Snowmobiler Expenditures, Montana, 2001-2002 Millions of Dollars Gasoline for snowmobiles $1.1 Gasoline for transportation 3.6 Lodging 14.6 Eating and drinking places 7.6 Grocery and convenience stores 1.3 Entertainment and recreation stores 1.9 Other retail 3.1 Snowmobile dealers and repairs 10.9 Total $44.1 Table 3 Total Resident Snowmobiler Expenditures, Montana, 2001-2002 Gasoline for snowmobiles $10.5 Gasoline for transportation 9.0 Eating and drinking places 6.0 Grocery and convenience stores 4.5 Total trip expenditures $30.0 Snowmobiles S43.4 Snowmobile trailers 8.6 Snowmobile clothing 3.4 Safety equipment 2.1 Snowmobile repair and maintenance 8.2 Snowmobile registration and licensing 1.2 Other yearly snowmobile expenditures 3.2 Total yearly expenditures $70.1 Total resident expenditures in Montana $100.1 Source: Bureau of Business and Economic Research, The University of Montana-Missoula. Table 4 Comparison of 1988, 1994, 1998, and 2002 Studies, Nonresident Snowmobiler Expenditures, 2002 Dollars 1987-88 1993-94 1997-98 Number of days at destination 4 5 4 Number of days snowmobiling 3 4 4 Number of nonresident activity days 108,000 185,000 222,000 Average daily expenditure per person (2002 dollars) $265 $173 $211 Median daily expenditure per person (2002 dollars) $187 $154 $124 Total expenditures (2002 dollars) $38,803,000 $50,192,000 $46,948,000 2001-02 Number of days at destination 4 Number of days snowmobiling 2 Number of nonresident activity days 204,000 Average daily expenditure per person (2002 dollars) $225 Median daily expenditure per person (2002 dollars) $128 Total expenditures (2002 dollars) $44,137,000 Source: Bureau of Business and Economic Research, The University of Montana-Missoula. Table 5 Factors and Facilities Desirable to Resident and Nonresident Snowmobilers in Montana, Percent Responding Very Desirable 1994 Resident Nonres FACILITIES Plowed parking areas 47.5 50.7 Road sign directions to snowmobile trails 50.0 83.1 Snowmobile loading ramps 17.3 19.7 Heated shelters at the parking areas 8.4 25.4 Groomed trails 53.7 85.3 Nature interpretation along the trails 12.1 45.4 Trail markers and signs 68.7 87.3 Trail maps 71.3 94.4 Long trails 69.0 78.6 Loop trails 63.2 82.1 Shelters along trails 26.1 55.6 Outhouses along trails and parking areas 27.5 63.6 REGULATION Rider certification 19.3 32.6 Emergency help 29.5 48.9 Law enforcement on trails 7.5 33.8 Limits on number of people 5.4 28.6 Entry permits to use an area 2.0 23.9 Volunteer assistants 24.0 38.7 Discourage large groups 8.4 28.4 User fees for groomed trails 10.0 30.5 1998 Resident Nonres FACILITIES Plowed parking areas 66.5 76.2 Road sign directions to snowmobile trails 57.5 75.4 Snowmobile loading ramps 17.4 31.7 Heated shelters at the parking areas 15.8 30.0 Groomed trails 56.5 71.9 Nature interpretation along the trails 21.7 50.0 Trail markers and signs 61.6 83.3 Trail maps 66.6 87.5 Long trails 58.3 81.5 Loop trails 57.6 77.8 Shelters along trails 31.6 54.4 Outhouses along trails and parking areas 35.7 50.8 REGULATION Rider certification 38.0 40.8 Emergency help 45.2 62.7 Law enforcement on trails 17.9 44.8 Limits on number of people 7.4 21.2 Entry permits to use an area 4.4 30.0 Volunteer assistants 46.6 57.4 Discourage large groups 8.2 26.8 User fees for groomed trails 18.8 41.4 2002 Resident Nonres FACILITIES Plowed parking areas 56.6 60.4 Road sign directions to snowmobile trails 36.1 61.8 Snowmobile loading ramps 11.7 13.3 Heated shelters at the parking areas 6.7 34.0 Groomed trails 48.2 71.6 Nature interpretation along the trails 9.6 31.0 Trail markers and signs 43.0 70.3 Trail maps 47.8 75.2 Long trails 35.6 48.5 Loop trails 34.8 53.0 Shelters along trails 14.5 36.7 Outhouses along trails and parking areas 17.6 50.5 REGULATION Rider certification 18.0 26.0 Emergency help 29.8 43.9 Law enforcement on trails 10.3 29.0 Limits on number of people 4.0 13.3 Entry permits to use an area 2.7 21.8 Volunteer assistants 25.2 28.1 Discourage large groups 5.7 13.3 User fees for groomed trails 8.6 19.1 Source: Bureau of Business and Economic Research, The University of Montana-Missoula. Figure 2 Ownership of Registered Snowmobiles, Montana, 2001 Personal 87% Rental 12% Corporate 1% Source: Montana Department of Justice, Title and Registration Bureau. Note: Table made from pie chart Figure 3 Nonresident and Resident Riding Patterns, Montana, 2001-2002 Ride Single 88% Ride Double 12% Source: Bureau of Business and Economic Research, The University of Montana-Missoula. Note: Table made from pie chart Figure 5 Gasoline Used by Snowmobiles, Montana, 1990-2002 Millions of Gallons 90-91 2.6 91-92 2.8 92-93 3.1 93-94 3.2 94-95 3.4 95-96 3.5 96-97 4.1 97-98 4.3 98-99 4.4 99-00 4.3 00-01 4.4 01-02 4.5 Source: Bureau of Business and Economic Research, The University of Montana-Missoula. Note: Table made from bar graph
James James, person in the Bible
James, in the Gospel of St. Luke, kinsman of St. Jude. The original does not specify the relationship.
James, rivers, United States
James. T Sylvester Sylvester
the lisping feline star of film cartoons. [TV: “The Bugs Bunny Show” in Terrace, I, 125]
See : Diction, Faulty is an economist with the Bureau.