Why some Field Artillerymen will make excellent BCT commanders.
As articles in this magazine have documented since the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) began, Field Artillerymen have been commanding not only maneuver BCTs in the war, but also maneuver task forces very successfully along side their maneuver brethren. In fact, the majority of FA battalion commanders in Central Command (CENTCOM) are commanding/have commanded maneuver task forces Some of those task forces have been responsible for the most dangerous sections of their brigades' areas of operations (AOs).
This article discusses the experiences and professional development of Field Artillerymen that prepare them to command BCTs successfully. I understand that many Engineers also have commanded motorized infantry units in GWOT--hence the CSA's directive. However, a discussion of the Engineers' command experience in GWOT and professional development preparing them for BCT commands is out of my expertise and a subject for another article in another magazine.
The CSA's decision to expand the eligibility for BCT commands to FA and Engineer officers supports his philosophy of developing Pentathletes and giving them wider opportunities to use their skills and talents for the good of the Army.
There are a number of reasons why some Field Artillerymen will make excellent BCT commanders, not the least of which is, they already have made excellent BCT commanders.
Field Artillerymen have commanded motorized infantry BCTs and task forces successfully in CENTCOM. Four division artillery (Div Arty) commanders served successfully in recent times as BCT commanders, one in Afghanistan and three in Iraq--BCTs in the 4th Infantry, 25th Infantry, 1st Infantry and 1st Cavalry Divisions. (1) In addition, the 82d Airborne Div Arty commander recently stood up and commanded the 4th BCT in the at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. (2)
I comfortably can say that the majority of FA and fires battalion commanders in CENTCOM in the past two years have commanded infantry task forces, one of the most important qualifiers for selection to command BCTs. See Figure 1 on Page 6. The senior FA observer/controllers (O/Cs) at the National Training Center (NTC), Fort Irwin, California, and Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC). Fort Polk, Louisiana, report that 100 percent of the FA units rotating through their training centers are performing maneuver missions--most with dual responsibilities for their BCTs' fires and other missions. (3)
These are unusual times, and the Army is using unusual measures to execute today's challenging missions. The Army's leaders and Soldiers, once again, have demonstrated remarkable, resourcefulness, adaptability and depth of combat arms skills to rise to the challenges in difficult times.
The officer education system (OES) and FA assignments provide a sound foundation for Field Artillerymen to command BCTs. Field Artillery officers are developed from lieutenant on up to operate in a maneuver environment at all levels. Understanding maneuver capabilities and limitations is the foundation of the Field Artilleryman's education and assignments. And the young Artilleryman's education and experience focus not only on combined arms operations, but also on joint fires and effects--the latter much earlier than most branches. This is an advantage in the contemporary operating environment (COE).
As fire supporters. Field Artillery men are habitually associated with maneuver units, notably at the company, battalion task force and brigade levels. Their responsibilities and experiences as fire supporters integral to the maneuver units grow them as leaders and in the knowledge of the nuances, challenges and rewards of life in the combat arms unit. Being intimately involved in planning and executing combat operations provides them unique perspectives of both fires and maneuver.
Serving as fire support officers (FSOs) for the maneuver company, battalion and brigade commanders, as fire support coordinators (FSCOORDs) for brigade and division commanders, and as O/Cs at the combat training centers (CTCs) gives Field Artillerymen a thorough understanding of combined arms operations on the battlefield. In counterinsurgency operations, such as those in GWOT, Field Artillerymen frequently are the ones planning, coordinating and synchronizing both lethal and nonlethal effects for the company, battalion, BCT, division or corps commander, often working with a deputy commanding officer (DCO) or chief of staff.
Field Artillerymen also are serving as S3s and executive officers (XOs) in FA or fires battalions, both in and out of the CENTCOM theater. Second only to serving in actual maneuver staff positions--as some Field Artillerymen are doing--all these jobs develop the Artillery officer's scope and understanding of tactical operations across the spectrum of conflict.
The Artillery officer's education and development parallel those of the Armor and Infantry officers. Figure 2 compares the macro skills of the maneuver officer to the Field Artillery officer as they develop in parallel through OES, promotions and assignments.
In the figure, note that they get the same instruction in the Basic Officer Leadership Course (BOLC) II, Intermediate-Level Education (ILE) and the Senior Service College/Army War College (SSC/AWC). In the Pre-Command Course (PCC), instruction on the art of command, combined arms tactics, the opposing force (OPFOR) in the COE--all skills and knowledge needed for commanding a tactical maneuver unit--are the same for both maneuver and Field Artillery officers.
In BOLC III and the Captain's Career Courses (CCCs), maneuver and FA officers get similar instruction but on different systems. For both, the emphasis is on warfighting and incorporating lessons learned from GWOT.
Like the maneuver officer, the Field Artillery officer is considered for commands at all levels--platoon, battery and battalion/TF--preparing him for command at the brigade level.
FA officers have specific education, experience and skills that allow some to intuitively understand the art and science of battle command. In short, they "get it." And those around them know they get it-depend on their expertise and leadership to make things happen at the right time in the battlespace. Hence you get division commanders selecting Field Artillerymen to command BCTs.
In recent times, Field Artillery men have risen to the highest ranks, commanding divisions, corps, and an army--not to mention General (Retired) Tommy R. Franks who commanded all forces in combat operations in Operation Iraqi Freedom. (4) Although all these military leaders commanded Div Artys, without question, these senior military leaders would have made excellent BCT commanders.
Additionally, because several of our most senior Army and joint leaders have risen to their ranks through Div Arty commands, it is fair to assume that BCTs also will be a gateway for talented, capable FA leaders to continue through the ranks to serve the US military and the nation in the future as they have in the past. These are four-star leaders who have held numerous high joint and national positions, including Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and advisors to US Presidents. (5)
Clearly, some Field Artillerymen fall into this "capabilities" zone. The key is to identify those with the potential for BCT command and ensure our most talented officers are fully prepared to command BCTs and truly competitive for selection.
Even at an early age, leaders with the potential for future commands stand out. Who are those guys? They are the Field Artillerymen chosen by their BCT commanders to serve in traditional maneuver positions, such as BCT XOs in the 2nd BCT, 82 Airborne Division; 3rd BCT, 25th Infantry Division; 4th BCT, 1st Cavalry Division; 1st BCT, 10th Mountain Division; and others. (6) These young, talented Field Artillerymen could go on to command infantry TFs very successfully. Their serving as fires battalion S3s and brigade FSOs further develops their skills and leadership talent for command.
Field Artillery, as a branch, fosters adaptable, flexible Pentathletes with traits that are ideal in BCT commanders. Without question, all branches serving in GWOT are performing unique, nonstandard missions. But Field Artillerymen are performing more nonstandard missions in GWOT than any other branch--or certainly as many as any other branch.
Field Artillerymen have served and are serving in GWOT as military policemen, motorized infantrymen (patrols, raids, cordons and searches, convoy operations, quick-reaction forces, forward operating base security, etc.), transporters, coordinators/synchronizers of non-lethal effects (information operations, civil-military operations, civil affairs, etc.), and as infantry task force and BCT commanders and command sergeants major. That is not to mention their serving as Field Artillerymen, delivering lethal FA--thousands of FA rounds a year in Iraq and Afghanistan--and joint fires for their BCTs. (7)
So, what's involved when a fires battalion becomes a motorized infantry task force? The battalion fire support element (FSE) also must be the fire direction center (FDC) for the TF. The FA battalion staff must transform into a maneuver TF staff. The maneuver TF commander must command subordinate maneuver units, remain the FSCOORD for the BCT, remain responsible for the BCT's fires and the force FA headquarters and, all the while, control his own sizeable battlespace--many in very intense urban environments and most comparable to those controlled by brother maneuver TF commanders. And, the fires battalion commander must execute his maneuver task force mission with fewer assets than his combined arms task force counterpart. (8)
What that means is that from the top to bottom of the FA battalion, not just the TF commander, Field Artillerymen have adapted, flexed and "done it."
Same-same with variations for the FA BCT commands.
They sound like Pentathletes to me.
The future combat system (FCS) force will "flatten" branches for future commands--the Army is moving toward less emphasis on branch skills and capabilities to more emphasis on broader Pentathlete skills and capabilities. As the Army continues transformation, clearly branches will become less important and capabilities more important. Witness the new uniforms with no branch insignia. Read the articles written by senior leaders about merging branches and other articles discussing the number of military occupational specialties (MOS) to be combined across the Army. How about the Army's establishing centers of excellence (CoEs) to consolidate and enhance functional areas--such as the Fires CoE at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, consolidating the FA and Air Defense Artillery Schools, or the Maneuver CoE at Fort Benning, Georgia, consolidating the Infantry and Armor Schools. Then listen to the Chief of Staff of the Army outline his vision for Pentathletes to serve as multi-capable warriors and flex their talent and skills across the spectrum of conflict--Pentathletes who see service in the Army as a series of opportunities, not limitations.
The Army is making pervasive changes to meet the demands of the COE and the coming FCS force--all while at war--and breaking sacred "rice bowls" right and left as it makes those changes. The "handwriting is on the wall"--Pentathletes will command at all levels in the FCS force.
Now if I haven't convinced you with current events, then look ahead at the impact of just one aspect of the FCS force on our future leaders: networked systems. Our networked systems will mean that the combined arms commander will have to be a leader and decision maker vice a Field Artilleryman, Infantry man, Tanker, Engineer, etc.
Although the BCT level demands leaders exercise both the art and science of command, it calls for more art than science. Art depends less on the BCT commander's mastery of technical branch-specific skills and more on his ability to make effective decisions. Battle command puts a premium on leader skills and actions that contribute to effective decisions. (9)
Our future networked systems will aid the BCT commander in the art of command. In the FCS force, he will have access to an advanced, networked command and control system that will allow him to have a common operational picture (COP) with superiors and subordinates and shared situational awareness of not only his battlespace, but also the battlespace of those around him, plus the big picture of the entire campaign. This advanced command and control system of systems also will allow him to communicate his commander's intent throughout his BCT with more fidelity, including to the lowest levels.
The network will enhance his tactical decision making and increase his tactical agility while reducing associated risks. The command and control information "hierarchy" will be flattened, and the BCT commander will spend less time directing information and more time using it.
In the networked FCS force, Pentathletes, not members of specific branches, will command BCTs, perhaps even combined arms battalions one day.
Field Artillerymen as proven maneuver commanders and Pentathletes will make excellent BCT commanders.
Now, having said all that, do I think all Field Artillery lieutenant colonels (promotable) and colonels are qualified and capable of commanding BCTs? Certainly not. But then, neither are all Armor, Infantry or Engineer lieutenant colonels (promotable) and colonels.
The point is some will make excellent BCT commanders. So our most capable Field Artillery officers who have related knowledge and experience and have demonstrated tactical combined arms and leadership skills will be eligible for DA selection to command BCTs, starting with the 2008 board. As a branch, our job is to ensure we identify these talented leaders and develop them via training, education and assignments to make them competitive for selection to command BCTs.
It's a win-win--for the Field Artillery and the Army.
Colonel Annie Baker took command of the Field Artillery Training Center (FATC), Fort Sill, Oklahoma, on 17 May as the first woman to command the FATC. In her previous assignment, she was the Director of the Directorate of Training and Doctrine (DOTD) and G3for the Field Artillery Center and Fort Sill. In that capacity, she was the FA lead for designing the Fires Center of Excellence with the Air Defense Artillery's move to Fort Sill. She deployed to Iraq for six months in 2005 as the Senior Liaison Officer for the new Counter Rocket, Artillery and Mortar (C-RAM) multi-branch program. She was Commander of the 1st Battalion, 19th Field Artillery (1-19 FA) in the FATC where she also was the brigade's Deputy Commander Officer (DCO) and S3. She is a graduate of the Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, and holds an MA in Geography from Syracuse University in New York.
1. Colonel Kevin P. Stramara, 4th Infantry Division Artillery (Div Arty) Commander, commanded Task Force Gunner with an area of operations in northern Baghdad from April 2003 until March 2004 during Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) I (email from Colonel Stramara dated 3 May 06). Colonel Gary H. Cheek, Commander of the 25th Infantry Div Arty, commanded the Combined Task Force Thunder for 12 months in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) ("So You Want to Be a Maneuver Commander? CTF Thunder in Afghanistan," March-April 2005, Field Artillery); Colonel Richard C. Longo, 1st Infantry Div Arty Commander, commanded a coalition and combined arms brigade for six weeks in the hotly contested region of An Najaf. Iraq, to cover the gap between the 1st Armor Division's departure and the 11th Marine Expeditionary Force's (MEF's) arrival ("1st ID in Iraq: The FFA HQ Mission Endures," May-June 2005 Field Artillery); and Colonel Stephen R. Lanza, 1st Cavalry Div Arty Commander, commanded the 5th BCT in OIF II from January 2004 to March 2005 ("Red Team Goes Maneuver--1st Cav Div Arty as a Maneuver BCT" May-June 2005 Field Artillery.)
2. Colonel Victor Petrenko, former 82nd Div Arty Commander, stood up and, until June of this year, commanded the 4th BCT in the 82nd Airborne Division, Fort Bragg, North Carolina. He was selected for that mission and command by Major General William B. Caldwell IV, the Commanding General of the 82nd Airborne Division. Colonel Petrenko currently is the Chief of Staff of Staff of the 82nd Airborne Division.
3. Lieutenant Colonel David J. Brost, Chief of the FA Proponency Office, in phone conversations with Lieutenant Colonel James L. Miller and Lieutenant Colonel Joseph R. Connell, Senior FA Observers/Controllers (O/Cs) at the National Training Center (NTC) Fort Irwin. California, and Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC), Fort Polk, Louisiana, respectively. In his article "Observations from the Wolf's Den: Training to be a Maneuver (and Fires) Task Force," November-December 2005 Field Artillery, Page 30, Lieutenant Colonel Miller reports that in the past 18 months, all FA units rotating through the NTC have had maneuver and fires missions. Lieutenant Colonel Connell of the JRTC reports that 100 percent of FA units rotating through the JRTC have maneuver missions and 95 percent of the units have maneuver and fires missions.
4. Examples of recent senior commanders spawned by Field Artillery are Lieutenant General Raymond T. Odierno, who soon will command III Corps in Iraq and was the former CG of the 4th Infantry Division, deploying the division to Iraq; Major General Kenneth W. Hunzeker, CG of the 1st Infantry Division; and General Tommy R. Franks, Commander of Central Command (CENTCOM) and all forces in OIF and who also commanded Third Army.
5. These leaders include General (Deceased) Maxwell D. Taylor, Ambassador to Vietnam, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Chief of Staff of the Army; General (Retired) John W. (Jack) Vessey, Jr., Vice Chief of Staff of the Army and Commander-in-Chief of the Republic of Korea-US Combined Forces Command; General (Retired) John M.D. Shalikashvili, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; General (Retired) Walter T. (Dutch) Kerwin, Jr., Vice Chief of Staff of the Army: General (Retired) Jack Merritt, Senior US Military Representative to NATO; Generals (Retired) Carl E. Vuono and Dennis J. Reimer, Chiefs of Staff of the Army; and General (Retired) J.H. Binford Peay, Commander-in-Chief of Central Command and Vice Chief of Staff of the Army. Space limits me to naming only a few of these four-star leaders' most senior assignments.
6. Without having conducted a survey, these are the FA executive officers (XOs) of maneuver brigades who I am aware of: Major (Promotable) Jeffrey M. Sanborn, 2nd BCT, 82nd Airborne Division: Major Andrew A. Preston, slated to be the XO of the 3rd Brigade, 25th Infantry Division; Major Tony Hammes, slated to be the XO of the 4th Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division; and Major (Promotable) Glenn A. Waters, 1st Brigade, 10th Mountain Division.
7. In his column "Modularity Update: Transforming the FA" for the March-April edition of Field Artillery, the Chief of FA Major General David C. Ralston said, "Our incredible Field Artillerymen 'keep on keeping on,' firing literally thousands of rounds in Iraq and Afghanistan last year and continuing today." He went on to give several specific examples of units in Iraq and Afghanistan firing thousands of rounds each year.
8. See the article "Battlekings Return to Baghdad as a Maneuver Battalion: Doing More with Less" by Lieutenant Colonel Steven M. Merkel and Major John G. Clement in the July-August edition. The author deployed to Iraq with the 1st Battalion, 9th Field Artillery, the fires battalion organic to the 2nd Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division, and, with minimal additional assets, transformed the battalion into a maneuver battalion for operations in OIF III.
9. Field Manual 3-0 Operations, June 2001, Paragraph 5-2, Page 5-1.
By Colonel Annie Baker
RELATED ARTICLE: 6-52 ADA--First ADA Unit on Fort Sill
On 14 July, the 6th Battalion, 52d Air Defense Artillery (6-52 ADA), the Ironhorse Battalion, part of the 31st ADA Brigade at Fort Bliss, Texas, uncased its guidon in ceremonies at its new home on Fort Sill, Oklahoma. The battalion came from Ansbach, Germany, where it had been assigned operationally to the 69th ADA Brigade, part of V Corps. It now has been reassigned to the 31st ADA Brigade, III Corps. The 31st ADA Brigade is scheduled to move to Fort Sill over the next several years as part of the Base Realignment and Closures (BRAC) directives for establishing the Fires Center of Excellence there.
6-52 ADA has 605 Soldiers, approximately 220 of whom were at the ceremony with the others to follow. The battalion's equipment includes Patriot missile launchers, radars and support equipment. 6-52 ADA will be housed in temporary facilities while renovations are being done for its permanent home on Fort Sill. The command team for the battalion is Lieutenant Colonel Artice Scott and Command Sergeant Major Michael Banes.
The battalion was first organized on 1 June 1917 with fixed fortifications at Fort Washington, Maryland, and traces its origins to the days of the Coast Artillery. In World War I, it transformed into a mobile anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) battalion and served in Europe. As an AAA battalion in World War II, the unit fought in the Pacific Theater from 1941 to 1945. During the Cold War, it provided air and missile defense protection in Germany 24/7. It then transformed into a Hawk battalion, deploying two batteries to Operations Desert Shield and Storm in the Gulf. It was the last for ward-deployed Hawk battalion until its deactivation in 1993. Then in 1996, 6-52 ADA was reactivated as a Patriot battalion in Germany.
The Army must have an environment in which we develop leaders, all leaders, and take advantage of their capabilities and potential. It must be an environment of opportunities, one that leverages experiences and talents that is not constrained by narrowness of MOS or branch designation. LTG James J. Lovelace, Jr. Deputy Chief of Staff of the Army, G3 "Today's Army in Change--And Exciting Place to Be" Interview, May-June 2006 Field Artillery We must pick the most capable, qualified person to command our troops-- regardless of branch. Branch designations should not be inhibitors for BCT commands. MG William B. Caldwell IV Former CG of the 82nd Airborne Division "Pentathletes in the 82nd Airborne Division: Developing Critical Capabilities for the Army" Interview, July-August 2006 Field Artillery Simply stated, these Field Artillerymen performed the same jobs [as infantry task force commanders in Iraq] as well as their fellow combat arms officers who wore Armor or Infantry brass. MG Martin E. Dempsey as CG of the 1st AD "Fires and Effects for the 1st Armored Division in Iraq" Interview, January-February 2005 Field Artillery Every one of my artillery battalions owned its own battlespace. My FA battalions were just like my maneuver battalions [with] Bradleys and tanks working for them. MG Raymond T. Odierno as CG of the 4th ID "Division Operations Across the Spectrum--Combat to SOSO in Iraq" Interview, March-June 2004 Field Artillery * 1-17 FA, 75th FA Brigade, attached to the 4th Infantry Division, Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) I * 2-82 FA, 1st Cavalry Division, OIF II * 1-5 FA, 1-6 FA and 1-7 FA, 1st Infantry Division, OIF II * 1-37 FA, 3rd Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT), 2nd Infantry Division, OIF II * 4-27 FA, 1st Armored Division, OIF II * 1-9 FA and 1-10 FA, 3rd Infantry Division, OIF III * 3-319 Airborne FA Regiment (AFAR), 82nd Airborne Division, Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) * 1-37 FA, 3/2SBCT, OIF III * 3-29 FA, 1st Infantry Division, Currently in Iraq * 4-11 FA, 172nd SBCT, Currently in Iraq Figure 1: Sample FA Battalions as Maneuver Task Forces in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). This list is not comprehensive. Maneuver Platoon (Plt) Company (Co) Officer ** Plt Leader ** Co Commander ** Ranger Regiment ** Battalion/Brigade ** Co Executive (Bn/Bde) Staff Officer (XO) ** CTC O/C BOLC II BOLC III CCC ** Shoot: BRM, Target ** Gunnery ** Offense/Defense: Engagement, Indirect ** Offense/Defense Light Co/Team and Call-for-Fire ** Conduct Recon Light Bn ** Communicate: Tactical ** Urban Ops ** Offense/Defense: Radios, Visual Signals ** Stability/ Mechanized Team, ** Advanced Land Nav: Reconstruction Mechanized TF Map, GPS, One Point to (SR) Ops ** SBCT Ops Another (Mounted and ** Plt Fight ** Combined Arms Bn in Dismounted). Lead a the Offense Convoy ** Recon, Surveillance/ ** Urban Ops: Enter/Clear Target Acquisition a Room ** HBCT Ops ** Medical: First Aid, ** Security/Recon Evacuation ** Urban Ops ** Physical Fitness: Similar Instruction Combatives, Road Different Systems Marches, Confidence BOLC III CCC* Course, Battle Focus, ** Plt Leader: RSOP, ** Cdr: FOB Security, Student Led Battery Defense, ROE Application, Tactical Mounted/Dismounted Employment Patrols, ORF ** FSO: Integration Missions, Target of Fires and Engagement Effects, Adjust ([D.sup.3]A), SWEAT- Fire Mission, MS Assessments, FSCOORD, CO Detainee Ops, Combined Arms Personnel Recovery, Ops, Offense/ Troop-to-Task Defense Development ** FDO: FDC Ops, ** FSO: Fires & Effects Technical Coordination/ Firing Solution Integration, COE/ Computation/ COIN Ops, Urban Ops/ Trouble Shooting, IPB, Fire Support in Ballistic Theory Urban Ops, Lethal/ Nonlethal Targeting, Collateral Damage Assessment, Clearance of Fires, [A.sup.2][C.sup.2] ** FDO: Accurate Fires and Effects, Collateral Damage Assessment, Clearance of Fires ** All: Full-Spectrum Ops, Cultural Understanding, JIIM Ops *Reflects the newly revised FA CCC. FA Company Battalion Officer ** Delivery/Radar ** Battery Cdr Plt Leader ** Bn FSCOORD ** Co FSO ** Bn Assistant S3 ** Battery XO Maneuver Bde/Division Commander Commander Officer (Div) Staff (Cdr) ** BCT Cdr ** Bn XO/S3 ** Bn Cdr ** Corps/MA-COM ** Bde/Div Staff ** Bde/Div XO Staft ** MACOM/DA/Joint ** CTC Senior O/C ** Div Chief of Staff Staff ILE PCC SSC/AWC ** Full-Spectrum Ops ** Art of Command ** Joint, ** Battlespace ** Combined Arms Interagency, Appreciation Tactics Intergovernmental, ** Asymmetric Ops ** Force Updates Multinational ** COE ** Institutional Operations ** Urban Ops Training ** Problem Solving Updates ** Performance- ** OPFOR in the Oriented Training COE and Education ** Doctrine ** Shaping Decisive, Updates Enabling Ops ** TTP Updates ** Effects Synchronization ** Component Roles and Responsibilities FA Bde/Div Staff Commander Commander Officer ** Bde FSO ** Div FSCOORD ** Fires Bde/BCT Cdr ** Bn XO/S3 ** Fires Bn Cdr ** BCD Cdr ** Bde Assistant S3 ** Deputy BCT Cdr ** Corps/Army ** CTC O/C ** BCT FSCOORD FSCOORD ** BCT DCO/S3 ** CTC Senior O/C Legend: [A.sup.2][C.sup.2] = Army Airspace Command and Control BCD = Battlefield Coordination Detachment BCT = Brigade Combat Team BOLC = Basic Officer Leadership Course BRM = Basic Rifle Marksmanship CCC = Captain's Career Course COE = Contemporary Operating Environment COIN = Counterinsurgency CTC = Combat Training Center [D.sup.3]A = Decide, Detect, Deliver and Assess DA = Department of the Army DCO = Deputy Commanding Officer FDC = Fire Direction Center FDO = Fire Direction Officer FOB = Forward Operating Base FSCOORD = Fire Support Coordinator FSO = Fire Support Officer GPS = Global Positioning System HBCT = Heavy Brigade Combat Team HUMINT = Human Intelligence IPB = Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield ILE = Intermediate Level Education JIIM = Joint, Interagency/Intergovernmental Multinational MACOM = Major Command O/C = Observer/Controller OPFOR = Opposing Force Ops = Operations PCC = Pre-Command Course QRF = Quick-Reaction Force ROE = Rules of Engagement RSOP = Reconnaissance, Selection and Occupation of Position SBCT = Stryker Brigade Combat Team SSC/AWC = Senior Service College/Army War College SWEAT-MS = Sewer, Water, Electricity, Academics, Trash, Medical and Security TF = Task Force TTP = Tactics, Techniques and Procedures Figure 2: Comparison of Maneuver and Field Artillery Skills at the Macro Level. Note the early focus on joint warfighting in FA BOLC III and FA CCC.