Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,710,190 articles and books

Who is creative? Identifying children's creative abilities.

Some schools use measures of creative abilities in addition to measures of intellectual and academic abifities to identify children of varied talents. The question remains, to what extent can we identify children with high potential to be creatively productive when they have not yet demonstrated creative talent? Can we have confidence in such decisions? This article compares strengths and weaknesses of methods of assessing creativity and lists more than 60 standardized standardized

pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.

standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.

standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate.
 measures used to assess children's creativity. Procedures for using formal and informal measures in the decision-making decision-making,
n the process of coming to a conclusion or making a judgment.

decision-making, evidence-based,
n a type of informal decision-making that combines clinical expertise, patient concerns, and evidence gathered from
 process are also discussed.

This article examines assessment instruments, measurement considerations, and factors that impact understanding of a child's demonstrated and potential creativity. Its purpose is to examine the major categories of standardized measures and also alternative measures that may be used to assess children's creativity, and discuss issues of assessing such complex behaviors. In addition, the authors list a variety of commonly used and promising methods of assessment and discuss appropriate practices to incorporate data from multiple measures in order to make eligibility decisions.

Applying a Definition of Creativity to Youth

It is important for researchers and educators to first clarify their theoretical position or understanding of creativity prior to selecting assessment instruments. Otherwise, they might select assessments that are inconsistent with their own implicit (Runco, 1993a) idea of creativity or inconsistent with needed adjustments to the students' curriculum (Hunsaker & Callahan Callahan, an Irish surname, can refer to: People
In sports
  • Ben Callahan, baseball player
  • Bill Callahan, American football coach
  • Gerry Callahan, sports writer
  • Henry Callahan, ultimate player
  • Nixey Callahan, baseball player and manager
, 1995). For example, an educator who implicitly views creativity as talent in the visual arts visual arts nplartes fpl plásticas

visual arts nplarts mpl plastiques

visual arts npl
 may plan a program in which children with budding budding, type of grafting in which a plant bud is inserted under the bark of the stock (usually not more than a year old). It is best done when the bark will peel easily and the buds are mature, as in spring, late summer, or early autumn.  literary or musical talent are overlooked. Likewise, a researcher's theoretical perspective and definition of creativity influences the behaviors and subjects selected for study as well as methods of data analysis.

Definitions of creativity reflect a host of diverse characteristics of creative adults and creative children. Many definitions recognize the complexity of creativity (e.g., Davis, 1997; Isaksen, 1987; Treffinger, 1987). Isaksen (1987) noted that creativity occurs in many people, in differing degrees and manners, and should be viewed as "a multi-faceted phenomenon rather than as a single unitary unitary

pertaining to a single object or individual.
 construct capable of precise definition" (p. 8).

MacKinnon (1961) proposed that clarity may be achieved when a researcher develops an operational definition of creative behavior from one or more of four perspectives: personality, process, press (situation), or product. Rhodes (1961/1987) indicated that it was only in the intertwining and unity of the strands of the four P's of creativity that the com plexity of creative behavior occurred. More recently, Murdock and Puccio (1993) recommended that researchers might enhance the generalizability of their findings by studying creative behavior in the combinations or interactions of the four P's. That is, they would reframe Re`frame´   

v. t. 1. To frame again or anew.
 their questions to ask how at least one of the four P's would interact meaningfully with at least one other P. "For instance, when considering how person overlaps with press, a researcher can examine the ways in which motivation, abilities, or personality characteristics interact with physical environment, psychological atmosphere, or task demands" (p. 265). Other recent multidimensional mul·ti·di·men·sion·al  
Of, relating to, or having several dimensions.

 models (e.g., Magyari-Beck, 1993; Hong & Milgram, 1996) and conceptualizations of creativity support its multi-faceted nature, apply to various disciplines, and allow multiple measurements of creative phenomena (Magyari-Beck, 1993; Murdock & Puccio, 1993; Rogers, 1998).

Creative behavior may be viewed as a process resulting in a product unique to the individual who produced it; this product also may be unique and valuable to society (Pames, 1972). However, when the primary interest is to identify children with the potential to demonstrate significant adult creativity, we must examine evidence of less obviously identifiable creative acts. Fishkin (1998) has proposed the phrase, germinal Germinal

conflict of capital vs. labor: miners strike en masse. [Fr. Lit.: Germinal]

See : Riot


portrays the sufferings of workers in the French mines. [Fr. Lit.
 creativity(1), as useful to describe children's budding creative potential. For example, a young child's possibly poorly skilled rendition ren·di·tion  
1. The act of rendering.

2. An interpretation of a musical score or a dramatic piece.

3. A performance of a musical or dramatic work.

4. A translation, often interpretive.
 of a creative idea may show promise of later full-flowered creativity. The child, however, may not yet have the skill to adequately express or fully communicate the unique idea. In addition, children who show such germinal creativity are likely to display creative behavior only on tasks in which they are interested.

In order to identify children with germinal creativity, those with the potential to be creatively productive adults, it is important to consider information derived from multiple sources. There are unsolved difficulties in determining a child's likelihood to be a creative producer during the developmental years, and greater uncertainty in predicting potential for future creative productivity. Broad parameters must be used to identify children's creativity, because creativity is a complex construct. Children's emerging creativity may not clearly correspond with creative behavior in mature, creatively productive adults. Most important, the degree to which children may exhibit their creativity can vary markedly depending upon numerous factors such as their developing skills, the response requirements of a task, and their interest in the task at a given time. Therefore, it is critical to deliberately examine a variety of methods to assess a child's creativity, and to use a combination of measures to make decisions.

Methods of Assessing Creativity

Methods of assessing creativity may be grouped into categories representing the four P's: process, personality, product, and press or situation (MacKinnon, 1961). We developed Table 1 to categorize cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.

 the variety of instruments used to assess creative behaviors and to distinguish the characteristics, uses, strengths, and weaknesses often found in instruments representing each category. Measures in the personality category are further differentiated as self-report or as reported by others. Four additional categories of assessment methods are examined: combination measures, informal or alternative methods, personality measures associated with creativity, and methods used to assess talent. Unlike the preceding categories, a category labeled systems consists of procedures that enable practitioners to make appropriate eligibility decisions by using information from multiple assessments. Examples of a variety of instruments representing each category are listed in Table 2.
Categories of Measures Used to Assess Creativity in School-Aged

Category                                 Uses

Process                     estimate creative potential; use
Divergent thinking          recognized constructs (fluency,
                            originality, flexibility, elaboration);
                            used to measure effects of creativity

Personality                 examine affect related to creativity,
(Self-Report)               supplement data from other
Self-Perception/Attitude    sources; different instruments
                            assess traits or affective states

Personality                 assess accomplishments and
(Self-Report)               performance; trait measures

Personality                 examine affect related to creativity;
(Report by others)          used to measure effectiveness of
Personality, Attitude,      creativity training; supplement data
Biographical                from other sources

Products                    assess quality of self-initiated,
                            complex product, nontest

Press                       assess creativity of environment

Combination Measures        a single instrument incorporates
                            divergent thinking, self-report, and
                            ratings by others

Alternative Measures        performance-based observations,
                            product measures/scales, complex
                            and open-ended behaviors

Personality or Attitude     study changes in constructs such as
Indirectly Related to       self-concept, locus of control,
Creativity                  leadership

Talent-Visual and           identify giftedness in specific
Performing Arts             domain

Systems for Decision        mechanisms to examine information
Making                      from several of the above measures

Category                               Strengths

Process                     yield quantifiable data; some
Divergent thinking          measures use broad scoring
                            categories, and have current norms;
                            considerable validity evidence

Personality                 evidence of children's selfperception
(Self-Report)               and feelings toward their own
Self-Perception/Attitude    creativity

Personality                 high predictive validity for adults;
(Self-Report)               based on data representing
Biographical/Interest       observable behaviors

Personality                 may be standardized, group
(Report by others)          administered; frequently uses a
Personality, Attitude,      forced choice or likert-type scale

Products                    assess products in varied domains

Press                       research tool to study creativity of
(Situation)                 classroom

Combination Measures        input from diverse sources
                            regarding the child's likelihood to be

Alternative Measures        input from informal observations,
                            portfolios, teacher anecdotes, etc.,
                            responsive to real world tasks

Personality or Attitude     reflect changes in divergent thinking
Indirectly Related to       resulting from creativity training

Talent-Visual and           domain specific; varied procedures,
Performing Arts             e.g., nominations, observations,

Systems for Decision        eligibility decisions use data from
Making                      multiple sources of information;
                            utilizes a broad definition of

Category                              Weaknesses

Process                     influenced by other variables;
Divergent thinking          measured under contrived
                            circumstances; may not reflect
                            personal commitment; scores may
                            be interdependent
Personality                 subjective; limited sensitivity to
(Self-Report)               influences of creativity training over
Self-Perception/Attitude    time; limited evidence of validity

Personality                 more useful with adolescents and
(Self-Report)               adults

Personality                 information reflects opinions of
(Report by others)          persons who may not be well-
Personality, Attitude,      acquainted with subject or unfamiliar
Biographical                with the construct; limited evidence
                            of validity

Products                    often lack a well-designed matrix,
                            agreed-upon criteria, and interrater

Press                       lack of well-researched instruments
(Situation)                 and procedures

Combination Measures        available combination measure is
                            based on few observations; has
                            inadequate reliability

Alternative Measures        classroom opportunities for creative
                            behavior are prerequisite; few
                            validity studies of performance
                            measures of creativity

Personality or Attitude     limited evidence of degree of
Indirectly Related to       relationship between
Creativity                  personality/attitude and creativity;
                            not normed

Talent-Visual and           expertise of judges' and consistency
Performing Arts             of judgments may be variable

Systems for Decision        time consuming, users often prefer
Making                      a simpler solution, e.g., a single
                            measure and narrow definition of
                            creativity; users must be trained

Table 1

Some Measures Used to Assess Creativity in School-Aged Children

Author, Publication Date (Earliest and Most Recent), Instrument Title, Review Source(2)(a,b,c,d,)

Process -- Divergent Thinking Noun 1. divergent thinking - thinking that moves away in diverging directions so as to involve a variety of aspects and which sometimes lead to novel ideas and solutions; associated with creativity
out-of-the-box thinking

Getzels & Jackson Jackson.

1 City (1990 pop. 37,446), seat of Jackson co., S Mich., on the Grand River; inc. 1857. It is an industrial and commercial center in a farm region.
 (1962) Creativity and intelligence (Davis, 1989)

Guilford, Gershon, Gardner, & Merrifield Mer·ri·field , R(obert) Bruce Born 1921.

American biochemist. He won a 1984 Nobel Prize for developing a method of synthesizing peptides and proteins from amino acids.
 (1971; 1976) Creativity Tests for Children (Davis, 1989)(a, b, c)

Hoepfner & Hemenway (1973) Monitor Tests of Creative Potential (Davis, 1989)

Jellen & Urban (1986) Test./or Creative Thinking-Drawing Products (Davis, 1989)

Meeker Meeker may refer to: Places
  • Meeker, Colorado
  • Meeker, Louisiana
  • Meeker, Oklahoma
  • Meeker County, Minnesota
  • Howie Meeker, Canadian sports personality
 et al. (1975; 1985) Structure of Intellect A natural language query program for IBM mainframes developed by Artificial Intelligence Corporation. The company was later acquired by Trinzic Corporation, which was acquired by Platinum, which was acquired by Computer Associates.  Learning Abilities Test-Creativity Subtests(a, b)

Schaefer (1971 a) Similes(a,b)

Torrance (1966, 1990) Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Verbal and Figural fig·ur·al  
Of, consisting of, or forming a pictorial composition of human or animal figures.

figur·al·ly adv.


Torrance 1 (1981) Thinking Creatively in Actions and Movement (a,b)

Torrance et al. (1973; 1990) Thinking Creatively With Sounds and Words(a,b)

Wallach & Kogan (1965) Modes of thinking in young children (Davis, 1992; Milgram & Hong, 1993; Runco, 1993)

Attitude, Personality, or Biographical bi·o·graph·i·cal   also bi·o·graph·ic
1. Containing, consisting of, or relating to the facts or events in a person's life.

2. Of or relating to biography as a literary form.
 Measures Self-Perception or Attitude -- Self-Report

Fishkin (1990) How Many Ideas? (10 item creative self-concept self-concept
An individual's assessment of his or her status on a single trait or on many human dimensions using societal or personal norms as criteria.
 scale in Fishkin, 1990)

Gough & Heilbrun (1983) Adjective adjective, English part of speech, one of the two that refer typically to attributes and together are called modifiers. The other kind of modifier is the adverb.  Check List (Domino Key of ACL See access control list.

1. ACL - Access Control List.
2. ACL - Association for Computational Linguistics.
3. ACL - A Coroutine Language.

A Pascal-based implementation of coroutines.

["Coroutines", C.D.
, Domino, 1994; Davis, 1992)(a,b)

Khatena & Torrance (1976) Khatena-Torrance Creative Perception Inventory(a,b)

Kirschenbaum (1989) Creative Behavior Inventory (Callahan, 1991)(b)

Piechowski & Cunningham (1985) Overexcitability Questionnaire (Piirto, 1994)

Rimm (1980) Group Inventory for Finding Creative Talent(a,b)

Schaefer (1971 b) Creativity Attitude Survey (Callahan, 1991; Davis, 1989)(a,b)

Torrance et al. (1988) Style of Learning and Thinking(a)

Torrance (no date) Creative Motivation Scale (the youth scale, What Makes Me Run, norms Grades 3-8, used by the Creative Scholars Program [G. Lewis, personal communication, January 26, 1996)

Autobiographical au·to·bi·og·ra·phy  
n. pl. au·to·bi·og·ra·phies
The biography of a person written by that person.

 and Self-Report Interest Measures

Davis & Rimm (1980) Group Inventory for Finding Interests I & II(a,b)

Institute for Behavioral behavioral

pertaining to behavior.

behavioral disorders
see vice.

behavioral seizure
see psychomotor seizure.
 Research in Creativity (1978, 1990) Biographical Inventory-Form U(a,b) [most recent research version is the Student Development System]

Milgram (1988) Tel-Aviv Activities Inventory: Primary Grades thong, Milgram, & Gorsky, 1995)

Milgram (1973, 1990) Tel-Aviv Activities and Accomplishments Inventory: Adolescent ad·o·les·cent
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.

A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager.
 Form thong, Whiston, & Milgram, 1993; Milgram, Dunn, & Price, 1993)

Renzulli (1977) Interestalyzer

Schaefer (1970) Biographical Inventory-Creativity (Callahan, 1991; Treffinger, 1995)

Attitude, Personality, or Biographical Measures -- Report by Others

Eichenberger (1978) Judging Criteria Instrument (Callahan, 1991)

Johnson (197%) Gifted and Talented Screening Form (see Lavoie, 1984; Tallent, 1987)(b)

Kingore (1990) Kingore Observation Inventory (Vaughn-Neely, no date)

Ohio Department of Education (1992) Rating scales

Renzulli et al. (1976) Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students(a)

Rimm (1976) Preschool and Kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be  Interest Descriptor (1) A word or phrase that identifies a document in an indexed information retrieval system.

(2) A category name used to identify data.

(operating system) descriptor

Udall (1987) Peer Nomination Form (Cunningham, Callahan, Roberson, & Rapkin, 1994)

Assessment of Self-Initiated Creative Products

[also see Systems below and discussion in text of consensual CONSENSUAL, civil law. This word is applied to designate one species of contract known in the civil laws; these contracts derive their name from the consent of the parties which is required in their formation, as they cannot exist without such consent.
 assessment procedures, as in Amabile, 1990]

Besemer & O'Quin (1986) Creative Product Semantic See semantics. See also Symantec.  Scale

Besemer & Treffinger (1981) Creative Product Analysis Matrix

Kingore (1993) Portfolios: Enriching and assessing all students, identifying the gifted, grades K-6

Reis (1981) Student Product Assessment Form (Reis & Renzulli, 1991; Sayler, 1993)

Treffinger (1988) Student Invention Evaluation Kit.

Press (or Situation)

Branch (1975 dissertation dis·ser·ta·tion  
A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.


) Classroom Observation Checklist (cited by Kaltsounis, & Honeywell, 1980)

Denny (1969) Classroom creativity observation schedule (cited by Kaltsounis, & Honeywell, 1980) c

Dunn et al. (1976, 1987) Learning Style Inventory (Treffinger, 1995)(a,b,c)

Johnson (1979b) Social Interaction and Creativity in Communication System (Johnson, 1977)(a)

Renzulli & Smith (1978) Learning styles inventory : A measure of student preference for instructional techniques (teacher form)

Slosson (1986) SCALE: Scales of Creativity and Learning Environment (a,b)

Combination Measures

Williams (1980) Creativity Assessment Packet (a,b)

Personality/Attitude Indirectly Related to Creativity

Bialer-Cromwell (1961) Locus of Control locus of control
A theoretical construct designed to assess a person's perceived control over his or her own behavior. The classification internal locus indicates that the person feels in control of events; external locus
 Scale (Tetenbaum & Houtz, 1978)

Colangelo et al. (1992) Iowa Inventiveness Inventiveness

(287–212 B. C.) invented military engine which saved Syracuse. [Gk. Hist.: Hall, 31]

Bell, Alexander Graham

(1847–1922) inventor of telephone (1876). [Am. Hist.

Guglielmino (1977/1978). Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale: Version A. (Carter, 1992; Sayler, 1993)

Karnes & Chauvin (1984) Leadership Skills Inventory (Karnes, Meriweather & D'Llio, 1987; Sayler, 1993)

Kirton (1976, 1987) Kirton Adaptor-Innovator Scale (for adults; recent research with youth, S. Keller-Mathers, personal communication, October, 1994)(b,c)

Murphy & Meisgeier (1987) Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children(b)

Renzulli & Smith (1978) Learning styles inventory: A measure of student preference for instructional techniques (student form)

Roets (1982, 1992) Rating Scale for Leadership (Piirto, 1994)

Rydell-Rosen AT20 (1966) (tolerance for ambiguity Ambiguity
Delphic oracle

ultimate authority in ancient Greece; often speaks in ambiguous terms. [Gk. Hist.: Leach, 305]

Iseult’s vow

pledge to husband has double meaning. [Arth.
 scale cited by Tetenbaum & Houtz, 1978)

Sears (1975) Sears Self-Concept Inventory (Fishkin, 1990)

Talent in Visual and Performing Arts

Note: Nontest procedures as alternatives to standardized art tests, e.g. portfolios, work samples, and biographical inventories are essential components of identification procedures for talented students (Clark & Zimmerman, 1993).

Gorder (1980) Measures of Musical Divergent di·ver·gent  
1. Drawing apart from a common point; diverging.

2. Departing from convention.

3. Differing from another: a divergent opinion.

 Production (Davis, 1989)

Gordon Primary Measures of Music Audiation (1979): Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation (1982) (Haroutounian, 1993)(a)

Kulp & Tarter (1986) The Creative Process Rating Scale (Callahan, 1991: Davis, 1989)

Parke & Byrnes (1984) Detroit Public Schools Detroit Public Schools (DPS) is a school district that covers all of the city of Detroit, Michigan, United States. The student population of the Detroit Public Schools is 116,800.  Creativity Scales (Byrnes et al., 1982; Callahan, 1991)

Seashore, Lewis, & Saetveit (1960) Seashore Measures of Musical Talents (Abeel et al., 1994; Piirto, 1994)(a,b)

Welsh (1980) Barren-Welsh Art Scale (Abeel et al., 1994)(a,b)

Systems for Decision Making

(see text for discussion of these procedures)

Baldwin Identification Matrix (1984)

Frasier Talent Assessment Profile (Frasier, 1994)

Kranz (1978) Multi-dimensional Screening Device for the Identification of Gifted/Talented Children (Abeel et al., 1994: Clark, 1992)

Lazear (1994) Multiple intelligence approaches to assessment (Lazear, 1994)

Model for the Identification of: Creative-Thinking Ability (Ohio Department of Education, 1992)

Profiling for creative problem solving Creative problem solving is the mental process of creating a solution to a problem. It is a special form of problem solving in which the solution is independently created rather than learned with assistance. Creative problem solving requires more than just knowledge and thinking.  (Isaksen et al., 1993)

Renzulli Talent Pool (Renzulli, 1978)

Note: A complete list of references for Table 2, published in Johnson and Fishkin (1998), is available from A. S. Fishkin, Marshall University Graduate College Marshall University Graduate College is a branch of Marshall University located in South Charleston, West Virginia. Unlike Marshall University and West Virginia University (the other post-graduate degree institutions in West Virginia, Marshall University Graduate College has no , 100 Angus Angus (ăng`gəs), council area (1993 est. pop. 111,020), 842 sq mi (2,181 sq km), and former county, NE Scotland. Under the Local Government Act of 1973, the county of Angus became part of the Tayside region in 1975.  E. Peyton Drive, South Charleston South Charleston, city (1990 pop. 13,645), Kanawha co., W W.Va., on the Kanawha River, in a highly industrialized area; settled 1782, inc. 1917. Machinery, electrical products, chemicals, transportation and dental equipment, and foods are manufactured. , WV, 25303.

Table 2

Standardized Measures of Creativity

Divergent Thinking Measures - Standardized Measures of Creative Process

Divergent thinking measures yield observable ob·serv·a·ble  
1. Possible to observe: observable phenomena; an observable change in demeanor. See Synonyms at noticeable.

, quantifiable Quantifiable
Can be expressed as a number. The results of quantifiable psychological tests can be translated into numerical values, or scores.

Mentioned in: Psychological Tests
 data representing the individual's likelihood of responding creatively to real life situations (Runco, 1991; Torrance, 1987). These products or ideas as responses to divergent thinking test items are restricted to the behaviors being elicited e·lic·it  
tr.v. e·lic·it·ed, e·lic·it·ing, e·lic·its
a. To bring or draw out (something latent); educe.

b. To arrive at (a truth, for example) by logic.

. Thus, they are not as fully representative of the individual's creativity as a finished creative product of by artist, scientist, or even a young child. Moreover, performance elicited by divergent thinking measures is unlikely to reflect a high degree of personal commitment that is typical for self-initiated products.

Many of the early measures were developed and normed in the 1960s before the advent of better psychometric psy·cho·met·rics  
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and
 procedures (Hong & Milgram, 1991; Michael & Wright, 1989; Runco, 1993a). One of these, the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT TTCT Tactical Team Coordination Training , Torrance, 1990; Torrance & Ball, 1984) is the most extensively researched (Cramond, 1994, 1998; Davis, 1997), and provides adequate updated norms. In addition, both the TTCT and the Wallach-Kogan (Wallach & Kogan, 1965) have shown evidence of long-term Long-term

Three or more years. In the context of accounting, more than 1 year.


1. Of or relating to a gain or loss in the value of a security that has been held over a specific length of time. Compare short-term.
 predictive validity In psychometrics, predictive validity is the extent to which a scale predicts scores on some criterion measure.

For example, the validity of a cognitive test for job performance is the correlation between test scores and, for example, supervisor performance ratings.
 with measures of adult productivity as much as 18 to 22 years later (Milgram & Hong, 1993; Torrance & Salter salt·er  
1. One that manufactures or sells salt.

2. One that treats meat, fish, or other foods with salt.

Noun 1.
, 1989).

Measures of divergent thinking have been criticized for sampling only a narrow range of creative behaviors (Borland, 1989). However, reviews of research studies (Runco, 1993b; Torrance, 1987) and two meta-analyses (Rose & Lin, 1984; Pyryt, 1998) show that divergent thinking measures provide quantitative evidence of the effectiveness of varied creativity training programs.

Divergent production scores typically assess quantitative indicators of the theoretical constructs of fluency flu·ent  
a. Able to express oneself readily and effortlessly: a fluent speaker; fluent in three languages.

 and originality o·rig·i·nal·i·ty  
n. pl. o·rig·i·nal·i·ties
1. The quality of being original.

2. The capacity to act or think independently.

3. Something original.

Noun 1.
, and sometimes also elaboration, flexibility, or examples of transformations (Meeker, Meeker, & Reid, 1985). Resulting scores are heavily dependent on the amount of ideational i·de·ate  
v. i·de·at·ed, i·de·at·ing, i·de·ates
To form an idea of; imagine or conceive: "Such characters represent a grotesquely blown-up aspect of an ideal man . . .
 fluency (the total number of responses). Other promising systems of analyzing the scores assess the quality of the responses, e.g., the TTCT figural streamlined scoring procedures which includes abstractness of titles, resistance to premature closure, and other creative strengths (Torrance & Ball, 1984) or the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (Jellen & Urban, 1986) which also assesses a variety of creative strengths. An alternative method, proposed by Hong and Milgram (1991) eliminates the confounding confounding

when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.

confounding factor
 of the fluency and originality categories by scoring each item as either popular or original.

Attitude, Personality, Interest, and Biographical Measures

Attitudes and personality, like divergent thinking behaviors, are also observable and measurable. Information about a child's creativity can be obtained from ratings by teachers and others who have had sufficient opportunity to observe the child in situations when creative behavior may emerge (Ohio Department of Education, 1992; Renzulli, Smith, White, Callahan, & Hartman, 1976).

Self-report measures, such as inventories or autobiographical accounts of past creative accomplishments, or reflective Refers to light hitting an opaque surface such as a printed page or mirror and bouncing back. See reflective media and reflective LCD.  statements may provide a broad perspective related to creative behavior. A typical self-report item might be, "I like to make up new games." Self-report measures that examine affective affective /af·fec·tive/ (ah-fek´tiv) pertaining to affect.

1. Concerned with or arousing feelings or emotions; emotional.

 behaviors related to creativity include the Group Inventory for Finding Talent (Rimm, 1980), and the two self-rating scales of the Khatena-Torrance Creative Perception Inventory, What Kind of Person Are You? and Something About Myself which measure perception of the creative self for adolescents (Khatena & Torrance, 1990). Biographical inventories are commonly comprised of autobiographical statements of past creative accomplishments. In the case of very young children, anecdotal anecdotal /an·ec·do·tal/ (an?ek-do´t'l) based on case histories rather than on controlled clinical trials.
anecdotal adjective Unsubstantiated; occurring as single or isolated event.
 reports completed by parents are valuable sources of information. However, since young children are less likely to have sufficient opportunities to display significant creative achievements, biographical inventories are less useful for preschool and primary grade students than are ratings or alternative assessments of children's work.

Interest inventories may yield useful information related to a child's likelihood to be creative toward specific stimuli or within a given domain (Cohen cohen
 or kohen

(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male.
 & Gelbrich, 1998). Other personality constructs such as learning or thinking style also may influence creative productivity (Milgram, Dunn, & Price, 1993; Kirschenbaum & Armstrong, 1998). In addition, affective (emotional) states have been linked to creative production (Shaw, 1994).

Although there is general agreement on typical characteristics of creative people (Tardif & Sternberg Stern·berg , George Miller 1838-1915.

American army physician who was US surgeon general (1893-1902) and organized (1900) the Yellow Fever Commission.
, 1988), researchers who examine performance on creative and affective measures in relation to creativity training observe stronger effects for the divergent measures (see Johnson & Fishkin, 1998; Vaughn, Feldhusen, & Asher, 1991). The lack of significant effects of creativity training on related affective behaviors may be due to: lower sensitivity of affective measures; low reliability; or remoteness of content of the measures to creative behavior. Perhaps the instruments were insensitive in·sen·si·tive  
1. Not physically sensitive; numb.

a. Lacking in sensitivity to the feelings or circumstances of others; unfeeling.

 to change because they measured stable personality traits whereas another instrument may have phrased test items which elicited a person's feelings at the time of response. For some purposes, researchers might prefer attitude or personality measures that are sensitive to changes in the individual's present state; however, those whose primary purpose is to identify creative youth would prefer measures that assess stable personality traits.

Assessment of Creative Products

Product assessment reflects an emerging trend in program evaluation Program evaluation is a formalized approach to studying and assessing projects, policies and program and determining if they 'work'. Program evaluation is used in government and the private sector and it's taught in numerous universities.  and identification of students for creatively gifted programs. Product assessments typically use rating scales that require judgments of specific indicators of creativity. Concerns with product evaluation relate to the appropriateness of the judging criteria and the judges' competence for accurate assessment. A promising modification to product assessment is the "consensual assessment technique" (Amabile, in press) that uses judges who are familiar with the domain to independently evaluate products and then reach consensus.

Complex creative products have been assessed by product evaluation scales. Besemer and O'Quin (1987) developed procedures to assess sophisticated creative products in many domains. Their methods of rating complex creative products use three clearly defined criteria: novelty Novelty is the quality of being new. Although it may be said to have an objective dimension (e.g. a new style of art coming into being, such as abstract art or impressionism) it essentially exists in the subjective perceptions of individuals. , resolution of the problem to be solved, and synthesis/evaluation. The Student Product Assessment Form (Reis & Renzulli, 1991) provides ratings of the quality of a child's process of working, such as early statement of purpose and appropriateness of resources used. It also rates excellence of the final product on such variables as originality of the idea, quality beyond grade level, and time and effort invested in the work.

Alternative Assessment Procedures

Standardized measures have recently been supplemented and replaced by the use of informal, alternative (or authentic) methods of assessing student achievement. Performance assessment techniques are often recommended as alternatives to traditional fixed-response rating scales and to standardized tests A standardized test is a test administered and scored in a standard manner. The tests are designed in such a way that the "questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, and interpretations are consistent" [1]  of achievement (Aschbacher, 1991) and creativity (Baer, 1994). Performance assessment has been defined to consist of such measures of understanding and skill of higher-order, complex tasks as "direct writing assessments, open-ended written questions, hands-on experiments, performances or exhibits, and portfolios" (Aschbacher, 1991, p. 277). Other alternative or performance procedures have been developed to measure process and product in situations where students have generated complex and varied responses (Lazear, 1994; Piirto, 1994). These procedures include assessments of responses to real world tasks and check lists or other reliable informal measures to report children's actual performances (Jatko, 1995; Runco, 1993a).

Alternative assessments must be based upon sufficient and representative samples of the subject's work to insure Insure can mean:
  • To provide for financial or other mitigation if something goes wrong: see insurance or .
  • Or you may be looking for ensure or inshore.
 reliability of such informal observational procedures. When evaluating students' work, accurate, stable, and consistent ratings require clear standards and knowledgeable judges (Amabile, in press; Baer, 1994). Children's creativity may be reliably evaluated by informal measures that sample a broad variety of behaviors and complex work (Frasier, 1994; Jatko, 1995; Ohio Department of Education, 1992; Runco, 1993a; Treffinger, 1987; 1995) if there have been enough opportunities to fully elicit e·lic·it  
tr.v. e·lic·it·ed, e·lic·it·ing, e·lic·its
a. To bring or draw out (something latent); educe.

b. To arrive at (a truth, for example) by logic.

 creative production.

Assessments that include engaging materials and activities that are very similar to the child s actual working conditions are termed "ecologically e·col·o·gy  
n. pl. e·col·o·gies
a. The science of the relationships between organisms and their environments. Also called bionomics.

b. The relationship between organisms and their environment.
 valid" (Ramos-Ford & Gardner, 1997). For example, Jatko (1995) used a "whole classroom tryout technique" to give every child an equal opportunity to display creative traits such as eagerness, imagination, and ability to solve problems. Children selected to work on Future Problem Solving problem solving

Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error.
 teams by this alternative approach performed as well as others selected for the gifted program by the school district's academic achievement criteria. The tryout procedure was consistent with the activities in the gifted program and was an "effective tool for increasing the number of economically disadvantaged This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.

Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007.
 children in the school system's talented and gifted Talented and Gifted or Gifted and Talented may refer to:
  • Intellectual giftedness, an intellectual ability significantly higher than average
  • National Association for Gifted Children, a UK organization
 program" (p. 101).

Portfolio assessment procedures are increasingly recommended to document student performance in school and in extra-curricular activities. During the past decade, the use of portfolios to assess creativity and giftedness gift·ed  
1. Endowed with great natural ability, intelligence, or talent: a gifted child; a gifted pianist.

 has become more widely accepted due to the development of explicit, well-defined procedures for their use (Johnsen & Ryser, 1997; Ohio Department of Education, 1992).

Recent performance assessments consistently assess the creativity and complexity of children's work (Plucker pluck  
v. plucked, pluck·ing, plucks
1. To remove or detach by grasping and pulling abruptly with the fingers; pick: pluck a flower; pluck feathers from a chicken.
, Callahan, & Tomchin, 1996). However, Plucker et al. (1996) caution that the reliability, validity and appropriateness of norms of performance assessments are not sufficient for "high-stake purposes such as identifying potentially talented students"(p. 87). Because such difficulties are common to measures of creativity and similar complex behaviors (e.g., Wakefield, 1987) any single procedure is an insufficient source of information about the child.

Assessment of Talent

This section briefly addresses issues and procedures useful in identifying youth who are talented in specific domains, e.g., writing, art, music, or dance. Examples of the student's work are typically reviewed by knowledgeable individuals (Davis, 1997). Authentic measures such as portfolios, work samples, and biographical information are essential components in identifying talent, for example in the visual arts. Indicators of interest, learning styles, motivation, and performance on divergent thinking measures have also been used to support the domain specific measures and provide additional data for the identification process (Clark & Zimmerman, 1993).

Nonstandardized observation and nomination measures are also used to identify children who are talented in the performing arts (Haroutounian, 1993). These procedures include nomination instruments similar to the music and drama scales of the Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students (Renzulli et al., 1976) or assessments that use Gardner's (1983) multiple intelligences model (e.g., Lazear, 1994). Talent assessment instruments recommended by others (e.g., Abeel, Callahan, & Hunsaker, 1994; Davis, 1992; Piirto, 1994) are among the measures listed in Table 2.

Systems or Procedures for Identifying Creative Youth

Decision makers must select specific instruments and informal procedures, and also determine how to integrate the data to identify children who may show high creative potential. The use of a single creativity measure based on a restricted definition of giftedness will not adequately represent the child's range of creative behaviors. Similarly, systems that collect data from multiple measures while relying mainly on a cut score from one measure fail to effectively use all the available data to determine student eligibility for gifted or talented programs (Hunsaker, 1994). A system to assist educators to consider and to use the information from observations and scores from multiple measures is an equitable equitable adj. 1) just, based on fairness and not legal technicalities. 2) refers to positive remedies (orders to do something, not money damages) employed by the courts to solve disputes or give relief. (See: equity)

 method for making decisions about children. Ample opportunities should be provided for creative behaviors to emerge, to be observed, and to be considered in determining children's potential for creative productivity (Frasier, 1994; Lazear, 1994; Ohio Department of Education, 1992; Renzulli, 1978).

Matrix systems assign numerical numerical

expressed in numbers, i.e. Arabic numerals of 0 to 9 inclusive.

numerical nomenclature
a numerical code is used to indicate the words, or other alphabetical signals, intended.
 values to discrete scores obtained from multiple and varied measures. However, when matrix scores from diverse measures are combined to yield a simplified, single numerical score, problems frequently occur. Matrix procedures that compress the full range of scores from standardized tests to a simpler scale substantially reduce the sensitivity of the scale to distinguish among students. Moreover, this cumulative matrix score does not adequately reflect contributions of the different measures to indicate a child's specific and varied strengths (Borland, 1989). Indefensible identification and placement decisions are likely to result if the scores are compressed into a restricted range and information necessary for decision making is lost.

The Frasier Talent Assessment Profile (Frasier, 1994) is a promising system that relies on teacher training in its screening phases to insure that teachers provide opportunities to elicit and to observe children's creativity and to consistently describe gifted behaviors in anecdotal records. Renzulli's (1978) approach to selecting students for a talent pool also assesses a child's intellectual, academic, and creative abilities. This approach uses data from standardized (formal) measures and informal parent, teacher, or self-ratings, performance assessments, and teacher observations.

Gardner's (1983) multiple intelligence perspective provides the structure for some commonly used authentic assessment Authentic assessment is an umbrella concept that refers to the measurement of "intellectual accomplishments that are worthwhile, significant, and meaningful,"[1] as compared to multiple choice standardized tests.  procedures. These procedures use many methods for eliciting, observing, and systematically recording a wide range of children's complex behaviors. The multiple intelligences approach also suggests that teachers focus on describing children's interests and strengths (Lazear, 1994). The Ohio Performance-Based Assessment for Gifted Identification is another model that uses authentic assessments in the screening and eligibility phases of decision making including data from activities at home and at school such as participation in Future Problem Solving or Odyssey of the Mind Odyssey of the Mind often called OM,is a creative problem-solving competition involving students from kindergarten though college. Team members work together at length to solve a predefined problem (the Long Term problem); and present their solution to the problem at a  (Ohio Department of Education, 1992).

Technical Issues in Creativity Assessment

Some issues pertinent PERTINENT, evidence. Those facts which tend to prove the allegations of the party offering them, are called pertinent; those which have no such tendency are called impertinent, 8 Toull. n. 22. By pertinent is also meant that which belongs. Willes, 319.  to creativity assessment relate to reliability, validity, usability How easy something is to use. Both software and Web sites can be tested for usability. Considering how difficult applications are to use and Web sites are to navigate, one would wish that more designers took this seriously. See user interface and usability lab. , and normative nor·ma·tive  
Of, relating to, or prescribing a norm or standard: normative grammar.

 data (Treffinger, 1987). The unique technical concerns for measuring creative behaviors are discussed elsewhere (e.g., Johnson & Fishkin, 1998; Michael & Wright, 1989; Runco, 1993a). Given the complex nature of creative behavior that is commonly expressed in a variety of ways (e.g. by writers, musicians, dancers, engineers), it is not surprising that measures of these behaviors are seldom adequate as the primary basis for decisions about individuals. Creativity instruments have been criticized for weak evidence of reliability and validity and inadequate norms. For many of the instruments presented in Table 2, the norm population is poorly described, is not representative of the grade/age level nor of the specific subpopulation sub·pop·u·la·tion  
A part or subdivision of a population, especially one originating from some other population: microbial subpopulations.

Noun 1.
 with whom the measure will be used, and is frequently not current. Norming procedures should be based upon a representative sample throughout the age/grade range (floor to ceiling) of each subtest (Michael & Wright, 1989). Despite these limitations, Wakefield (1987) stated that creativity instruments should be evaluated by the quality of existing creativity measures and should not be judged by the standards applied to intelligence or achievement tests.

Since instruments differ widely in the scores they yield, test users must also have sufficient knowledge of the meaning and value of available scores in order to select those scores most appropriate to their purposes. For example, Chase (1985) recommended that researchers use an average of the separate fluency, flexibility, and originality scores of the verbal TTCT to avoid the confounding effects that occur with such excessively high intercorrelations. However, these subscales are sufficiently reliable for diagnosticians and educators to interpret the pattern of a child's abilities on the individual subscale scores (Cramond, 1998).

Sources of Variability on Divergent Thinking Measures

The testing environment affects test scores and scores on divergent thinking measures are sensitive to such influences (Torrance, 1987). Variations in instructions and other administration conditions, task unfamiliarity, and differences in the richness of cues in the testing environment have all been shown to affect optimal performance. An individual's level of motivation, persistence (1) In a CRT, the time a phosphor dot remains illuminated after being energized. Long-persistence phosphors reduce flicker, but generate ghost-like images that linger on screen for a fraction of a second. , and self-confidence, and the perceived relevance of testing tasks to real life activity also may influence test scores. Other studies indicate that higher scores are attained at·tain  
v. at·tained, at·tain·ing, at·tains
1. To gain as an objective; achieve: attain a diploma by hard work.

 when warm-up warm-up

pre-race exercise by a horse.
 exercises set a climate for reflection and incubation incubation /in·cu·ba·tion/ (in?ku-ba´shun)
1. the provision of proper conditions for growth and development, as for bacterial or tissue cultures.

 of ideas (Torrance, 1987). Scores on a divergent production test are viewed as measures of a person's creative potential (Runco, 1993a). However, such scores on a one-time set of responses to a standardized task should not be construed as the upper limits of a person's native creativity. Even with individuals who possess the ability and skill to behave creatively, without motivation they are unlikely to do so (Torrance, 1979).

Validity and Reliability

"Validity of creativity assessment is the single most important consideration" when selecting a test (Michael & Wright, 1989, p. 34). Concurrent validity concurrent validity,
n the degree to which results from one test agree with results from other, different tests.
 coefficients are generally lower for creativity measures than validity coefficients found in other domains, such as achievement or intelligence. However, this is not surprising given the many facets of creativity and the variety of definitions from which creativity measures are derived (Davis, 1997; Michael & Wright, 1989). Moreover, a threshold level Noun 1. threshold level - the intensity level that is just barely perceptible
intensity, intensity level, strength - the amount of energy transmitted (as by acoustic or electromagnetic radiation); "he adjusted the intensity of the sound"; "they measured the
 of the relationship between creativity and intelligence has been interpreted to indicate that other variables contribute to these two constructs differently throughout the range of abilities (e.g., Davis, 1997; Haensley & Reynolds, 1989). For example, motivational influences, suprarational and intuitive thought, and different domains of talent contribute differentially at the highest ranges of creative abilities.

When tests are the major source of data to identify students for gifted programs, procedures must be in place to establish a high degree of consistency between multiple scorers of student performance. For example, consistent use of a single rater rat·er  
1. One that rates, especially one that establishes a rating.

2. One having an indicated rank or rating. Often used in combination: a third-rater; a first-rater. 
 or a scoring service that maintains high inter-rater reliability Inter-rater reliability, Inter-rater agreement, or Concordance is the degree of agreement among raters. It gives a score of how much , or consensus, there is in the ratings given by judges.  would insure consistency of scores within a single study or school district (Rosenthal, DeMers, Stillwell, Graybeal, & Zins, 1983).

A Sampling of Varied Instruments

Table 2 presents a selection of 60 well-known and varied instruments. The list is limited to measures that have been used for creativity research with school-aged children. These include commercially published measures and a variety of instruments available in the public domain from journal articles, books, dissertations, or other sources of nonpublished tests. Most have been reviewed by at least one of the referenced sources: Mental Measurements Yearbook, (e.g., Kramer & Conoley, 1992); Test Critique (e.g., Keyser & Sweetland, 1992); Callahan (1991); Isaksen, Fierstien, Murdock, Puccio and Treffinger (1994); or Davis (1989). However, inclusion in this list should not be construed as a recommendation of any of these measures for identification of creative youth. Some are older measures, some may be outdated out·dat·ed  
Out-of-date; old-fashioned.


old-fashioned or obsolete

Adj. 1.
 or without norms, and some are of limited validity. Despite such limitations, many have been useful for research purposes, and, in conjunction with other measures, some have been useful as one of several indicators to estimate a child's potential for creative productivity. The table provides a sampling of the variety of measures available in each of the categories established in this review.


As is true for any situation requiring decisions regarding placement and programming, selection and use of assessment instruments and procedures should depend on the purpose of measuring child performance or achievement (Treffinger, 1987). Implicit and explicit definitions of creativity will greatly influence the user's decisions about procedures for assessing creativity (Hunsaker & Callahan, 1995; Runco, 1993a). The intended use of instruments influences selection of procedures and measures for eligibility decisions, research, or diagnostic purposes (see Cramond, 1998).

In conclusion, any single measure of creativity is rarely sufficient by itself. Hocevar and Bachelor (1989) recommended use of past activities and achievement, as evidenced in inventories or past products, as the most valid method of predicting future creativity for older subjects. Personality inventories, self-report instruments, and ratings by others (teachers, peers, or parents) are highly subjective measures whose results depend on accuracy of perceptions of the respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. , on their understanding of creativity and its manifestations, and on their willingness to give thoughtful responses. The validity of teacher ratings is greatly improved by providing adequate training (Frasier, 1994; Renzulli et al., 1976). However, because teachers and parents vary widely in their ability to evaluate students' creativity (Dawson, 1997), reliance on ratings as the only source of information is not recommended. A child's potential as a creative producer may be predicted by divergent thinking tasks (Runco, 1993a; Torrance & Salter, 1989), particularly when these measures are used to determine strengths of children who earn high scores rather than to exclude those who earn lower scores (Treffinger, 1987).

The use of one single measure to predict an individual's potential to engage in complex creative behavior is overly simplistic sim·plism  
The tendency to oversimplify an issue or a problem by ignoring complexities or complications.

[French simplisme, from simple, simple, from Old French; see simple
 (Feldhusen & Goh, 1995; Hunsaker & Callahan, 1995). Responsible decisions to assess children's potential for creative behavior require a minimum of two measures, such as an attitude and a divergent thinking measure (Davis, 1989), or a divergent thinking and an alternative assessment procedure, that together show evidence of creative productivity (Ohio Department of Education, 1992). The most defensible de·fen·si·ble  
Capable of being defended, protected, or justified: defensible arguments.

 identification practice is to use a systems approach based on information from multiple measures in order to make eligibility decisions.

Note: Many of these measures have been recommended only for research uses and may not be appropriate for identification purposes (see discussion in text).

(1) This use of the term "germinal" differs from Besemer and O'Ouin's (1987) term used to describe one of nine dimensions of a creative product.

(2) See a Mental Measurements Yearbook,b Test Critiques,c and/or Isaksen et al. (1994) for a review of the respective measures.


Abeel, L. B., Callahan, C. M., & Hunsaker, S. L. (1994). The use of published instruments in the identification of gifted students. (Monograph). Washington, DC: National Association for Gifted Children The National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC) is an association in the United Kingdom for gifted and talented children, and their parents. They offer training and courses, and publish academic research in relevant areas of education. .

Amabile, T. M. (in press). Within you, without you: The social psychology of creativity, and beyond. In M. A. Runco & R. S. Albert (Eds.), Theories of creativity. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Aschbacher, P. R. (1991). Performance assessment: State activity, interest, and concerns. Applied Measurement in Education, 4, 275-288.

Baer, J. (1994). Performance assessments of creativity: Do they have long-term stability The long-term stability of an oscillator, the degree of uniformity of frequency over time, when the frequency is measured under identical environmental conditions, such as supply voltage, load, and temperature. ? Roeper Review, 17, 7-11.

Besemer, S. P., & O'Quin, K. (1987). Creative product analysis: Testing a model by developing a, judging instrument. In S. G. Isaksen (Ed.), Frontiers of creativity research: Beyond the basics, (pp. 341-357). Buffalo, NY: Bearly Limited.

Borland, J. H. (1989). Planning aim implementing programs for the gifted. NY: Teachers College Press.

Callahan, C, M. (1991). The assessment of creativity. In N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook
For the handbook about Wikipedia, see .

This article is about reference works. For the subnotebook computer, see .
"Pocket reference" redirects here.
 of gifted education Gifted education is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. Programs providing such education are sometimes called Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) or  (pp. 219-236). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Chase, C. I. (1985). [Review of the test Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking]. In J. V. Mitchell Mitchell, city (1990 pop. 13,798), seat of Davison co., SE S.Dak.; inc. 1881. Mitchell is a trade, distribution, and shipping center for a dairy and livestock area.  (Ed.), The ninth mental measurements yearbook: Vol. 2 (pp. 1630-1634). Lincoln Lincoln, city and district, England
Lincoln, city (1991 pop. 79,980) and district, Lincolnshire, E England, in the Parts of Kesteven, on the Witham River.
: NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurement.

Clark, G., & Zimmerman, E. (1993). Issues and practices related to identification of gifted and talented students in the visual arts, Spotlight Spotlight can refer to at least three types of lighting:
  • a searchlight;
  • stage lighting used in theatre to focus an audience's attention on a performer or event, known as a Followspot;
, Newsletter of the Visual and Performing Arts Division of the National Association for Gifted Children, 3 (2), 1-7.

Cohen, L., & Gelbrich, J. (1998). Early childhood interests: Seeds of adult creativity. In A. S. Fishkin, B. Cramond, & P. Olszewski-Kubilius (Eds.), Investigating creativity in youth: Research and methods. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Cramond, B. (1994). The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: From design through establishment of predictive validity. In R. F. Subotnik & K. D. Arnold (Eds.), Beyond Terman Ter·man , Lewis Madison 1877-1956.

American psychologist who developed the intelligence quotient (IQ) as a measure of intelligence and created an English version of the tests used in the Binet-Simon scale.
: Contemporary longitudinal studies longitudinal studies, the epidemiologic studies that record data from a respresentative sample at repeated intervals over an extended span of time rather than at a single or limited number over a short period.
 of giftedness and talent (pp 229-254). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Cramond, B. (1998). The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Going beyond the scores. In A. S. Fishkin, B. Cramond, & P. Olszewski-Kubilius (Eds.), Investigating creativity in youth: Research and methods, Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Davis, G. A. (1989). Testing for creative potential. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 14, 257-274.

Davis, G. A. (1992). Creativity is forever (3rd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Davis, G. A. (1997).Identifying creative students and measuring creativity. In N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds.) Handbook of gifted education (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Dawson, V. L. (1997). In search of the wild bohemian: Challenges in the identification of the creatively gifted, Roeper Review, 19, 148-152.

Feldhusen, J. F., & Goh, B. E. (1995). Assessing and accessing creativity: An integrative review of theory, research, and development. Creativity Research Journal, 8, 231-247.

Fishkin, A. S. (1998). Issues in studying creativity in youth. In A. S. Fishkin, B. Cramond, & P. Olszewski-Kubilius (Eds.), Investigating creativity in youth: Research and methods. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Frasier, M. M. (1994). The Frasier Talent Assessment Profile (FTAP FTAP Fair and Transparent Arbitration Process (NGO item concerning debt arbitration)
FTAP First Term Alignment Program (USMC)
FTAP Fault Tolerant Array Processor(s) 
): A multiple criteria model for the identification and education of gifted students. (University of Georgia Organization
The President of the University of Georgia (as of 2007, Michael F. Adams) is the head administrator and is appointed and overseen by the Georgia Board of Regents.
, Torrance Center for Creative Studies).

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences Multiple intelligences is educational theory put forth by psychologist Howard Gardner, which suggests that an array of different kinds of "intelligence" exists in human beings. . New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: Basic.

Haensley, P. A., & Reynolds, C. R. (1989). Creativity and intelligence. In J. A. Glover Glov´er

n. 1. One whose trade it is to make or sell gloves.
Glover's suture
a kind of stitch used in sewing up wounds, in which the thread is drawn alternately through each side from within outward.
, R. R. Ronning, & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 33-52). New York: Plenum In a building, the space between the real ceiling and the dropped ceiling, which is often used as an air duct for heating and air conditioning. It is also filled with electrical, telephone and network wires. See plenum cable. .

Haroutounian, J. (1993). Identifying talent in the performing arts, Spotlight, Newsletter of the Visual and Performing Arts Division of the National Association for Gifted Children, 3 (2), 1-7.

Hocevar, D., & Bachelor, P. (1989). A taxonomy taxonomy: see classification.

In biology, the classification of organisms into a hierarchy of groupings, from the general to the particular, that reflect evolutionary and usually morphological relationships: kingdom, phylum, class, order,
 and critique of measurements used in the study of creativity. In J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, & C. R. Reynolds, (Eds.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 53-75). New York: Plenum.

Hong, E., & Milgram, R. M. (1991). Original thinking in preschool children: A validation See validate.

validation - The stage in the software life-cycle at the end of the development process where software is evaluated to ensure that it complies with the requirements.
 of ideational fluency measures. Creativity Research Journal, 4, 253-260.

Hong, E., & Milgram, R. M. (1996). The structure of giftedness: The domain of literature as an exemplar ex·em·plar  
1. One that is worthy of imitation; a model. See Synonyms at ideal.

2. One that is typical or representative; an example.

3. An ideal that serves as a pattern; an archetype.

. Gifted Child gifted child

Child naturally endowed with a high degree of general mental ability or extraordinary ability in a specific domain. Although the designation of giftedness is largely a matter of administrative convenience, the best indications of giftedness are often those
 Quarterly, 40, 31-40.

Hunsaker, S. L. (1994). Adjustments to traditional procedures for identifying underserved students: Successes and failures. Exceptional Child, 61, 72-76.

Hunsaker, S. L., & Callahan, C. M. (1995). Creativity and giftedness: Published instrument uses and abuses. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39, 110-114.

Isaksen, S. G. (1987). Introduction: An orientation to the frontiers of creativity research. In S.G. Isaksen (Ed.), Frontiers of creativity research: Beyond the basics (pp. 1-26). Buffalo, NY: Bearly Limited.

Isaksen, S. G., Fierstien, R. L., Murdock, M. C., Puccio, G. J., & Treffinger, D. J. (1994). The assessment of creativity: An occasional paper from the Creativity Based Information Resources (1) The data and information assets of an organization, department or unit. See data administration.

(2) Another name for the Information Systems (IS) or Information Technology (IT) department. See IT.
 Project. Buffalo, NY: Center for Studies in Creativity.

Jatko, B. P. (1995). Using a whole class tryout procedure for identifying economically disadvantaged students in three socioeconomically diverse schools. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 19, 83-105.

Jellen, H. G., & Urban, K. K. (1986). The TCT-DP (Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production): An instrument that can be applied to most age and ability groups. Creative Child and Adult Quarterly, 11, 138-155.

Johnsen, S. K., & Ryser, G. K. (1997). The validity of portfolios in predicting performance in a gifted program. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 20, 253-267.

Johnson, A. S., & Fishkin, A. S. (1998). Assessment of cognitive and affective behaviors related to creativity. In A. S. Fishkin, B. Cramond, & P. Olszewski-Kubilius (Eds.), Investigating creativity in youth: Research and methods. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Keyser, D. J. & Sweetland, R. C. (Eds.) (1992). Test critiques (Vol. 9). Austin, TX: ProEd.

Khatena, J., & Torrance, E. P. (1990). Manual for Khatena-Torrance Creative Perception Inventory. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic Testing Service.

Kirschenbaum, R. J., & Armstrong, D. (1998). Diagnostic assessment of creativity in students. In A. S. Fishkin, B. Cramond, & P. Olszewski-Kubilius (Eds.), Investigating creativity in youth: Research and methods. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Kramer, J. J., & Conoley, J. C. (Eds.) (1992). The eleventh In music or music theory an eleventh is the note eleven scale degrees from the root of a chord and also the interval between the root and the eleventh.

Since there are only seven degrees in a diatonic scale the eleventh degree is the same as the subdominant and the interval
 mental measurement yearbook. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.

Lazear, D. (1994). Multiple intelligence approaches to assessment: Solving the assessment conundrum conundrum A problem with no satisfactory solution; a dilemma . Tucson, AZ: Zephyr Zephyr or Zephyrus: see Eos.  Press. MacKinnon, D. W. (1961). The study of creativity. In D. W.

MacKinnon (Ed.), The creative person (pp. I-1 - I-15) [Proceedings of Conference at the Tahoe Alumni Center, October, 1961]. Berkeley: Institute of Personality Assessment Research, University of California The University of California has a combined student body of more than 191,000 students, over 1,340,000 living alumni, and a combined systemwide and campus endowment of just over $7.3 billion (8th largest in the United States). .

Magyari-Beck, I. (1993). Creatology: A potential paradigm for an emerging discipline. In S. G. Isaksen, M. C. Murdock, R. L. Firestien, & D. J. Treffinger (Eds.), Understanding and recognizing creativity: The emergence of a discipline (pp. 48-82). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Meeker, M., Meeker, R., & Roid, G. H. (1985). Structure of Intellect Learning Abilities Test Manual, Los Angeles Los Angeles (lôs ăn`jələs, lŏs, ăn`jəlēz'), city (1990 pop. 3,485,398), seat of Los Angeles co., S Calif.; inc. 1850. : Western Psychological Services.

Michael, W. B., & Wright, C. R. (1989) Psychometric issues in the assessment of creativity. In J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 33-52). New York: Plenum.

Milgram, R. M., Dunn, R., & Price, G. E. (Eds.). (1993). Teaching gifted and talented learners for learning style: An international perspective. New York: Praeger.

Milgram, R. M., & Hong, E. (1993). Creative thinking and creative performance in adolescents as predictors of creative attainments in adults: A follow-up follow-up,
n the process of monitoring the progress of a patient after a period of active treatment.



follow-up plan
 study after 18 years. Roeper Review, 15, 135-139.

Murdock, M. C., & Puccio, G. J. (1993). A contextual organizer for conducting creativity research. In S. G. Isaksen, M. C. Murdock, R. L. Firestien, & D. J. Treffinger (Eds.), Understanding and recognizing creativity: The emergence of a discipline (pp. 249-280). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Ohio Department of Education (1992). Model for the identification of creative-thinking ability. Columbus, OH: Author.

Parnes, S. J. (1972). Creative potential and the educational experience. In Creativity: Unlocking human potential (pp. 6-30). Buffalo, NY: D.O D.O.,
n See Doctor of Osteopathy (or Osteopathic Medicine).
.K. (Reprinted from paper presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. Description and history
The association has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m.
, Washington, D.C., April, 1967).

Piirto, J. (1994). Talented children and adults: Their development and education. New York: Merrill.

Plucker, J. A., Callahan, C. M., & Tomchin, E. M. (1996). Where art thou, multiple intelligences? Alternative assessments for identifying talent in ethnically diverse and low income students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 40, 81-92.

Pyryt, M. (1998). Effectiveness of training children's divergent thinking: A meta-analytic review. In A. S. Fishkin, B. Cramond, & P. Olszewski-Kubilius (Eds.), Investigating creativity in youth: Research and methods. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Ramos-Ford, V., & Gardner, H. (1997). Giftedness from a multiple intelligences perspective. In N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds.) Handbook of gifted education (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Reis, S. M., & Renzulli, J. S. (1991). The assessment of creative products in programs for gifted and talented students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 35, 128-134.

Renzulli, J. S. (1978). What makes giftedness: Reexamining a definition, Phi Delta Kappan, 60, 180-84, 261.

Renzulli, J. S., Smith, L. H., White, A. J., Callahan, C. M., & Hartman, R. K. (1976). Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students. Mansfield Center Mansfield Center can refer to:
  • Mansfield Center, Connecticut
  • Mansfield Center, Massachusetts
, CT: Creative Learning Press.

Rhodes, M. (1961/1987) An analysis of creativity. In S. G. Isaksen (Ed.), Frontiers of creativity research: Beyond the basics (pp. 216-222). Buffalo, NY: Bearly Limited.

Rimm, S.B. (1980). Group Inventory for Finding Creative Talent. Watertown, WI: Educational Assessment Service.

Rogers, K. (1998). Is creativity quantitatively measurable? A paradigm for creativity research. In A. S. Fishkin, B. Cramond, & P. Olszewski-Kubilius (Eds.), Investigating creativity in youth: Research and methods. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Rose, L. H., & Lin, H. T. (1984). A meta-analysis meta-analysis /meta-anal·y·sis/ (met?ah-ah-nal´i-sis) a systematic method that takes data from a number of independent studies and integrates them using statistical analysis.  of a long-term creativity training program. Journal of Creative Behavior, 18, 11-22.

Rosenthal, A., DeMers, S. T., Stillwell, W., Graybeal, S., & Zins, J. (1983). Comparison of inter-rater reliability on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking for gifted and nongifted students. Psychology in the Schools, 20, 35-40.

Runco, M.A. (1991). Divergent thinking. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Press.

Runco, M. A. (1993a). Cognitive and psychometric issues in creativity research. In S. G. Isaksen, M. C. Murdock, M. L. Firestien, & D. J. Treffinger (Eds.), Understanding and recognizing creativity: The emergence of a discipline. (pp. 331-368). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Runco, M. A. (1993b). Divergent thinking, creativity, and giftedness. Gifted Child Quarterly, 37, 16-22.

Shaw, M. P. (1994). Affective components of scientific creativity. In M. P. Shaw & M. A. Runco (Eds.) Creativity and affect. (pp. 3-43). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Tardif, T.Z., & Steinberg, R.J. (1988). What do we know about creativity? In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of creativity: Contemporary psychological perspective (pp. 429-440). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). .

Torrance, E. P. (1979). The search for satori sa·to·ri  
n. Buddhism
A spiritual awakening sought in Zen Buddhism, often coming suddenly.


Noun 1.
 and creativity. Buffalo, NY: Creative Education Foundation.

Torrance, E. P. (1987). Teaching for creativity. In S. G. Isaksen (Ed.), Frontiers of creativity research: Beyond the basics (pp. 189-215). Buffalo, NY: Beady bead·y  
adj. bead·i·er, bead·i·est
1. Small, round, and shiny: beady eyes.

2. Decorated or covered with beads.

Torrance, E. P. (1990). Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Norms-technical manual Figural (Streamlined) Forms A & B. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic Testing Service.

Torrance, E. P., & Ball, O. (1984). Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Directions manual Figural (Streamlined) Forms A & B. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic Testing Service.

Torrance, E. P., & Safter, H. T. (1989). The long range predictive validity of the Just Suppose Test. Journal of Creative Behavior, 23, 219-223.

Treffinger, D. J. (1987). Research on creativity assessment. In S. G. Isaksen (Ed.), Frontiers of creativity research: Beyond the basics. (pp. 103-119). Buffalo, NY: Bearly Limited.

Treffinger, D. J. (1995, July-September). Assessing creativity in educational settings. Creative Learning Today 5 (3), 2-5. (Available from Center for Creative Learning, 4152 Independence Court, Suite C-7, Sarasota, FL 34234).

Vaughn, V.L., Feldhusen, J.F., & Asher, J.W. (1991). Meta-analyses and review of research on pull-out programs in gifted education. Gifted Child Quarterly, 35, 92-98.

Wakefield, J. F. (1987, November). The outlook for creativity tests. Paper presented at Council for Exceptional Children's Topical topical /top·i·cal/ (top´i-k'l) pertaining to a particular area, as a topical antiinfective applied to a certain area of the skin and affecting only the area to which it is applied.

 Conference on the Future of Special Education, Orlando, FL.

Wallach, M. A., & Kogan, N. (1965). Modes of thinking in young children. New York: Holt holt  
n. Archaic
A wood or grove; a copse.

[Middle English, from Old English.]


the lair of an otter [from

Anne S. Fishkin, a research specialist in education at Marshall University Graduate College, South Charleston, West Virginia South Charleston is a city in Kanawha County, West Virginia, U.S. The population was 12,700 at the 2005 census estimate. South Charleston was established in 1906, but not incorporated until 1919 by special charter enacted by the West Virginia Legislature. , is director of its Community Clinical Service Center. Aileen S. Johnson is professor and chair of the reading department at the University of Texas at Brownsville.

Manuscript manuscript, a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C.  submitted May, 1997. Revision accepted July, 1998.
COPYRIGHT 1998 The Roeper School
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1998, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

 Reader Opinion




Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Johnson, Aileen S.
Publication:Roeper Review
Date:Sep 1, 1998
Previous Article:The death of creativity measurement has been greatly exaggerated: current issues, recent advances, and future directions in creativity assessment.
Next Article:Creativity, the arts, and madness.

Related Articles
The Creativity Classification System: an assessment theory.
The Torrance Creative Scholars Program.
Is creativity nurtured in Finnish classrooms?
Thinking for the future: developing higher-level thinking and creativity for students in Japan - and elsewhere.
Encouraging young children's critical and creative thinking skills: an approach in one English elementary school.
Creative children in Romanian society.
Creativity Workshops in the Regular Classroom.
The Transition from Childhood Giftedness to Adult Creative Productiveness: Psychological Characteristics and Social Supports.
The child's right to creative thought and expression. (A Position Paper of the Association for Childhood Education International).
Comparing creative thinking abilities and reasoning ability of deaf and hearing children.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters