White on Black: Images of Africa and Blacks in Western Popular Culture.The original impetus for this book was a request to conduct research on a collection of images of Africa and Blacks for an exhibition first held at the Tropical Museum in Amsterdam in 1989-90. The book grew out of Pieterse's initial report, and it is a well written, lavishly illustrated addition to the study of the ways in which Africans and diasporic Blacks have been represented in Western cultures. In his introduction, Pieterse claims that what makes the book distinct is its focus on visual images. This is not entirely the case, for although enquiries into representations of 'otherness' have indeed been predominantly based on the analysis of written texts, one can point to studies such as Nicolas Monti's on African photography during the colonial period Colonial Period may generally refer to any period in a country's history when it was subject to administration by a colonial power.
The book is a comparative historical analysis of visualized stereotypes of Blacks This article discusses stereotypes of Americans of African descent present in American culture. Overview
The idea of "race" in the United States is based on physical characteristics and skin color and has played an essential part in shaping American constructed by white people, generally with the consequence of producing and affirming the subordinate economic and cultural position of black people within particular societies as well as on the world stage. It ranges across the varieties of stereotypes as they have been deployed in different cultural contexts in Western Europe Western Europe
The countries of western Europe, especially those that are allied with the United States and Canada in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (established 1949 and usually known as NATO). and North America North America, third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. , and it examines their historical contingency and relativity, the ways in which these simplistic sim·plism
The tendency to oversimplify an issue or a problem by ignoring complexities or complications.
[French simplisme, from simple, simple, from Old French; see simple images have changed from one period to another. The book is in three parts. The first concentrates on images of Africa, while the second looks at representations of Blacks in the West. These constitute the bulk of the text; the third part compares images of Blacks with those of other ethnic groups, explores the relations between stereotypes of class, gender and 'race', and offers a useful summary of the main analytical principles on which the book is based. The section on Africa traces the development of an 'imaginative geography' of the 'Dark Continent', and the processes of 'othering' which have operated in the racialized imagery of its peoples. Pieterse examines these processes at work in the historically specific discourses of slavery and abolitionism abolitionism
(c. 1783–1888) Movement to end the slave trade and emancipate slaves in western Europe and the Americas. The slave system aroused little protest until the 18th century, when rationalist thinkers of the Enlightenment criticized it for violating the , missionary activity, exploration, colonialism and apartheid. Two chapters focus on the stereotypical confinement of black people to two social roles, apart from that of labourer. In both Europe and the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , Blacks have been largely relegated to the occupations of service and entertainment (including sport as well as dance and music). Given the enormous consequences of the logic of exclusion and containment which lay behind these stereotypical roles, I would have liked to have seen more attention paid to them. These two chapters are fine so far as they go, but they are disappointingly short. No doubt the author was confined by his publisher's required word-length, but I continued to feel frustrated at the length of treatment given to the ideological use of Blacks in children's literature children's literature, writing whose primary audience is children.
See also children's book illustration. The Beginnings of Children's Literature
The earliest of what came to be regarded as children's literature was first meant for adults. , and to the discursive construction of the sexuality of black men and black women. This means that certain points are rather too easily glided over, and at times the book takes on the texture of a panoramic survey rather than a critical interrogation interrogation
In criminal law, process of formally and systematically questioning a suspect in order to elicit incriminating responses. The process is largely outside the governance of law, though in the U.S. . Yet despite this, the quality of the analysis is high. Much of what Pieterse has to say is acute in its perception, illuminating in its critical examination of the material of black memorabilia, and solidly supported by its empirical detail and scholarly reference.
Image-formation of outgroups is determined primarily by the historically conditioned dynamics of those involved in such formation, rather than by the characteristics of outgroups themselves. The ways in which subordinated outsiders are represented constitute a means of playing out tensions and contradictions in the internal relations of dominant groups and hegemonic cultures. It should almost be regarded as axiomatic ax·i·o·mat·ic also ax·i·o·mat·i·cal
Of, relating to, or resembling an axiom; self-evident: "It's axiomatic in politics that voters won't throw out a presidential incumbent unless they think his challenger will in historical cultural analysis that representations of Blacks tell us more about white Europeans and Americans than about Blacks. Recognition of this is one of the real strengths of Pieterse's study. As he puts it, "images of Africa and of blacks in western cultures must be interpreted primarily in terms of what they say about those cultures, not in terms of what they say about Africa or blacks". At the same time, one should not underestimate the damaging consequences of the stereotypes of 'negritude' as being close to nature, deficient in the faculty of reason, naturally prone to indolence, and unpossessed of history. Indeed, it was being dispossessed of history which followed the primitivization of Africans. Throughout the period of European colonialism and imperialism, the image of Africa was the negative obverse of white cultural identities, and the polarization of Africans to a position of cultural and psychological inferiority obscured and distorted black self-images over two centuries and more. That is the pathology of cultural 'difference' which modernity has bequeathed to us, and black people today are still not free from the taint taint
an unpleasant odor and flavor in a human foodstuff of animal origin. Caused by the ingestion of the substance, commonly a plant such as Hexham scent, or while in storage, e.g. milk stored with pineapples, or as a result of animal metabolism, e.g. boar taint. of being 'niggered'. As Pieterse puts it, "past fears and antagonisms are encoded in images and symbols" which "form part of our ambience and cultural baggage The term cultural baggage refers to the tendency for one's culture to pervade thinking, speech, and behavior without one being aware of this pervasion. Cultural baggage becomes a factor when a person from one culture encounters a person from another, and unconscious " in Western societies. He describes his book as a contribution to "a spring cleaning of intercultural images, of alienating images between cultures and 'races' which have long since outlived their relevance". As such, it performs its allotted al·lot
tr.v. al·lot·ted, al·lot·ting, al·lots
1. To parcel out; distribute or apportion: allotting land to homesteaders; allot blame.
2. task well.
Michael Picketing Loughborough University