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When children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder become adults. (Featured CME Topic: Pediatrics).

HISTORICALLY, ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) has been viewed as a disorder confined primarily to pediatric patients, with only a small percentage persisting into adulthood. (1) Recently, it has been reported that up to 50% of children with ADHD will continue to have manifestations of this disorder as adults. (2) The sex disparity seen in childhood is much less pronounced than in adults; while the male-to-female ratio of ADHD in childhood is as high as 10:1, the ratio may only be 2:1 in the adult population. (3) Primary care physicians who care for adults must be prepared to assume care of patients previously diagnosed with ADHD as children and to make the diagnosis in adults in whom it has not previously been diagnosed.

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF ADHD IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

There are not standard, uniform criteria for diagnosis and management of the child or adolescent with ADUD. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) defines 3 subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: combined, predominant inattentive, and predominant hyperactive/impulsive, (4) based upon the predominant symptom pattern over the previous 6 months. Symptoms must be present before age 7 years and there must be some documented impairment of social, academic, or occupational function. More pervasive developmental disorders, schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorders must be excluded. The Classification of Child and Adolescent Mental Diagnosis in Primary Care, Child and Adolescent (DSM-PC) defines ADHD more broadly as a developmental variation, problem, and disorder, (5) with ADHD variation and problem being of lesser severity than the ADHD disorder, which uses DSM-IV criteria. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, (6,7) the American Academ y of Pediatrics, (8,9) and the National Institutes of Health (10) have written practice guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of the child/adolescent with ADHD, and recommend evaluations which include: 1) parent/child interviews, 2) school assessments, 3) a comprehensive physical examination, 4) speech/language evaluations, and 5) occupational/recreational testings. These guidelines for the child with ADHD do not apply to young people with mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders, moderate to severe sensory deficits, or those taking drug therapies that affect behavior.

Treatment recommendations include medication, particularly stimulants, as well as psychosocial and educational interventions. (6,7,9) Caution is necessary in the use of stimulant medications because they are controlled substances which may be abused by family and patients, particularly adolescents or their peers. (7,8,10) Psychosocial interventions include parent behavior-modification training, support groups, family psychotherapy, social skills training, individual therapy, and day treatment programs. Educational interventions include token economies, time-out procedures, response-cost programs, and homework notebooks. (6) Combined modality treatment is generally recommended (ie, medication and psychosocial interventions). The efficacy of medications, mainly stimulants, in the treatment of ADHD symptoms for up to 14 months has been established. Similarly, the effect of psychosocial interventions on symptoms particularly related to ADHD comorbidity has been established for this time period. There have not bee n studies to demonstrate long-term efficacy of medication or behavioral interventions. Most research has been performed in structured, academic, clinical settings, but has not been demonstrated in clinical practice. Furthermore, the short-term and long-term improvement in ADHD symptoms, academic/occupational functioning, and social/mental health have not been shown to be sustained if medication and/or psychosocial educational interventions are stopped. (6,9,10)

Some authors recommend that medications be prescribed based upon likely family compliance with psychosocial/educational recommendations and that drug holidays or definite plans to discontinue medication be formulated. (11,12) Behavioral counseling is also recommended in family setting. (13) The primary care physician should seek consultation if there are comorbid mental disorders, a developmental delay, if the child is very young, or if there is not the expected response to given interventions. (14)

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF ADHD IN ADULTS

The DSM-IV outlines the criteria necessary to make the diagnosis of ADHD in both children and adults. The diagnosis of adult ADHD is usually a difficult one to make, because it requires integration of a broad range of information in the absence of a definitive diagnostic tool. A large differential diagnosis and a high rate of comorbid conditions further complicate making this diagnosis. Attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder in an adult can only be diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria if the individual had ADHD symptoms as a child. If no diagnosis of ADHD was made in childhood, a retrospective determination of ADHD symptoms is required to make the diagnosis in adulthood. By strict adherence to the requirements of the DSM-IV, symptoms would have had to be present before the age of 7 years, although this specific age-of-onset criterion has been questioned. (2) In order to establish a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD, obtaining a thorough history is paramount. The history should include parental reports of ADHD symptoms in a variety of settings, objective accounts of school conduct and performance, and previous psychiatric therapies. (15,6)

The triad of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity symptoms are usually not present in adults with ADHD. Inattention is the most prominent symptom, seen in over 90% of adults with this disorder, (3) while hyperactivity is less often a problem and is possibly the reason adult ADHD initially went unrecognized. The effects of adult ADHD can be strikingly similar to those seen in children (eg, school failure, occupational failure, legal problems, difficulty with interpersonal relationships). Bresnahan et al (17) compared electroenceophalogram (EEG) findings in children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with ADHD, and found that the changing symptoms in these age groups correlated with subtle differences in their EEGs.

There are several self-reporting tools used to screen for adult ADHD. Examples of these scales include the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Copeland Symptom Checklist for Adult Attention Deficit Disorders. Although use of self-reporting scales in adults has been shown to accurately describe ADHD symptomatology, (18) the scales lack specificity. Additional measures are needed to assist in making the diagnosis of adult ADHD. (19,20) Rating scales may aid in monitoring the symptoms and course of the disease.

The differential diagnosis of ADHD must exclude comorbid psychiatric conditions, such as major depression and substance abuse. Medical conditions in the differential diagnosis include hyperthyroidism, hepatic disease, intoxications, and sleep-disordered breathing. (21) A thorough medical evaluation, including a thyroid panel, serum lead level, and urine drug screen, are indicated to rule out these disorders. No specific neuropsychologic testing is recommended for the diagnosis of ADHD, but it may be useful when the diagnosis is uncertain. The testing should be individualized for each patient. (20)

Personality traits have been associated with adults who have ADHD, (22) particularly an increased incidence of mild histrionic traits.

Adults with ADHD and comorbid disorders demonstrated avoidant and dependent personality styles. When oppositional defiant disorder occurs with ADHD, avoidant, narcissistic, antisocial, aggressive-sadistic, and negativistic traits are often found.

Adults with ADHD frequently have comorbid disorders, including substance abuse, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, and panic disorder. Whether incidence of substance abuse is increased in adults with ADHD is unclear. Biederman et al (23,24) have published several articles implicating ADHD as a risk factor, but Lynskey et al (25) question this association without a concomitant diagnosis of a conduct disorder.

Treatment for adults includes medication and psychosocial interventions. Medication continues to be the mainstay of treatment in adults because of its demonstrated short-term benefits; however, medication has not been shown to improve the long-term outcome of ADHD. (26) Stimulant medications, such as methyiphenidate hydrochloride, amphetamine, and pemoline, have been the most popular. Weight-adjusted doses of methylphenidate hydrochloride had a 74% efficacy in adults, similar to what has been found in children. (27) Treatment with desipramine hydrochloride, a tricyclic antidepressant, showed a similar efficacy of 68%, and may be a good alternative for adults who cannot tolerate or have a contraindication to stimulants. (28,29) Buproprion hydrochloride therapy showed good efficacy in adults with ADHD in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (30)

The role of psychosocial interventions in adults is less clearly defined. The main form of therapy used in adults with ADHD is cognitive behavioral therapy, which includes problem-solving strategies, self-monitoring, self-reinforcement, and skills training. The goal of these therapies is to improve self-control. Psychosocial interventions, like medication, have not been shown to improve the long-term outcome of ADHD. (26)

Hechtman (31) describes 3 outcomes of adult ADHD. Thirty percent of adults with this disorder function well and are not different from adults who do not have ADHD. The majority of adults with ADHD continue to have problems with concentration, impulsivity, and social interactions, resulting in educational, occupational, and social problems. The third group consists of a minority (10%-15%) of adult ADHD patients with frequent hyperactivity who have concomitant significant psychiatric or antisocial symptoms. (31) Peer-controlled, prospective follow-up studies on ADHD in adolescents and adults confirmed the above findings. (32)

TRANSITION OF CARE OF ADHD PATIENTS FROM PEDIATRICIANS TO PRIMARY PHYSICIANS WHO CARE FOR ADULTS

There are 2 circumstances in which primary care physicians of adults may encounter a patient who presents with adult ADHD. The patient may have been previously diagnosed in his youth or never have been previously diagnosed but have the disorder. A primary care physician may also have cared for the pediatric patient and may continue care for that patient in adulthood.

Diagnosing ADHD is challenging because of the large differential diagnosis, the many possible comorbidities, and the lack of a definitive diagnostic test. (4-6,8,10) Since the majority of children who are diagnosed with ADHD show no evidence of any mental disorder in adulthood, (32) those who continue to have the disorder are a select group. Some possible explanations are that an incorrect diagnosis of ADHD was made, (33) a comorbid diagnosis was missed or has subsequently occurred, treatment has been ineffective (possibly because of poor compliance), and/or the patient has a more complicated form of ADHD with persistent morbidity.

The physician who assumes care of an adult with a previous diagnosis of ADHD should determine how the initial diagnosis was made. Careful review of the record is necessary to determine the presenting symptoms, the evaluators, physical examination findings, medication use, prior medical disorders, and family history. The background of the diagnostician(s) must also be determined. Results of diagnostic tests (particularly psychoeducational testing and speech and language testing) should be reviewed. Records should also be reviewed to determine what medications and psychosocial and educational interventions have been tried, and what impact the interventions had.

A comprehensive medical and psychosocial history, as well as a complete physical examination, should be performed. An attempt should be made to obtain a medical history from a spouse or significant other, parents, other close relatives, teachers, employers, and/or friends. The updated assessment will likely take 2 or 3 visits to complete. Based upon the expertise of the primary care physician and the complexity of the case, consultation with a behavioral subspecialist should be considered. The primary care physician who is maintaining care of an adult with ADHD should also review how the diagnosis was made and examine previous treatment effects. An updated history, including sources other than the patient, should be taken and physical examination should be done.

Medication and psychosocial interventions continue to be the treatment options in adult ADHD. Unfortunately, no intervention has been shown to improve the long-term outcome of ADHD. (7,9,10) Stimulant medications, particularly methylphenidate hydrochloride and amphetamine, the primary treatment for adult ADHD, are controlled substances. Other kinds of medications, such as desipramine hydrochloride and buproprion hydrochloride, have been found to provide effective treatment in adults. (28-30) Prescribing these medications eliminates the possibility of stimulant abuse. Referral of adults for psychosocial interventions not offered by the primary care physician should be made. Consultation with or referral to a behavioral specialist should occur if increasing doses of stimulant medications are required, if multiple psychoactive drugs are needed, or if social, academic, or occupational functioning does not improve with optimization of pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions.

DISCUSSION

Although ADHD is the mental health disorder in the DSM-IV that has been most extensively studied in children, it continues to generate a great deal of controversy associated with diagnosis and treatment. (10,34) This is true, in parts, because the number of symptoms required by the diagnostic criteria for ADHD has never been empirically validated, generally being defined as "often", which makes judgment of the existence of symptoms subjective. (8) Treatment with stimulant medication is controversial because it has long been known that clinical response is the same in normal children and children with the ADHD diagnosis. (35) It is also known that the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in clinical practice may not reflect what is done in optimal, research-type settings. (36)

A recent commentary in a supplement to Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics highlights the controversy surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in early childhood. (37) An increase of more than 700% in the production of methyiphenidate hydrochloride and of more than 2,500% in amphetamine production occurred in the United States between 1991 and 2000. Although guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of ADHD are available, it has been found that the use of methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) in primary care and community medicine is inconsistently linked to the ADHD diagnosis. The use of methylphenidate hydrochloride, which has escalated in the last decade, varies widely in different communities throughout the United States. Government policy may have affected the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD; the Individuals With Disabilities Act in 1991 made ADHD a covered diagnosis for education disability services, which correlated with the increase in both ADHD diagnosis and stimulant use. (37)

The National Institute of Mental Health multimodal treatment study for ADHD has been touted as the gold standard for research in mental health disorders of children. The detailed analysis of this study by Pelham (38) raises questions about the design of this research and the validity of the authors' conclusion that medication alone is the preferred treatment for childhood ADHD. The multimodal treatment study had 4 treatment groups: 1) medication alone (38 mg/day of methylphenidate hydrochloride); 2) intensive behavioral treatment (including parent training, a summer treatment program, and a school intervention with a short-term classroom aide); 3) a combination of behavioral interventions with medication: and 4) a community control group that received a mean prescribed dose of 23 mg/clay of methylphenidate hydrochloride. Nineteen outcome measures were assessed over a 14-month period. It is noteworthy that the intensive behavioral interventions were reduced 4 to 5 months before the end of this period, while me dication doses remained at maximally tolerable levels throughout the study. (38)

All 4 treatment groups showed striking improvement from the time of baseline measurements to completion of the study 14 months later. Behavioral treatment was as effective as medication alone on 16 of 19 outcome measures, and was generally equivalent to community treatments. The results of combined treatment did not differ appreciably from those of medication management, but were generally superior to those of behavioral treatment. Both medication management and combined treatment were generally superior to community treatments. Although other authors have concluded that medication alone is the preferred treatment for ADHD, Pelham concludes that combined treatment, which "normalized" a higher rate of children than either medication or behavioral intervention alone, is the preferred treatment. He also notes that behavioral improvement is sustained after interventions are withdrawn, whereas medication effects stop. The persistence of improved symptoms may be one of the reasons that parents prefer the inclusion of behavioral treatment in the care of their children, rather than the use of medication alone. (38)

The fact that stimulants are controlled substances with known abuse potential results in middle and high school students being approached to sell or trade their ADHD medications. (39) Although research has indicated that children with ADHD treated with stimulant medication are less likely to abuse drugs than those who were not medicated, (24) these patients are nevertheless using a controlled substance with the potential for abuse. The primary use of a controlled substance to treat ADHD raises philosophic questions, especially in children who may require lifelong treatment, which may explain why this disorder continues to generate heated controversy.

CONCLUSION

The diagnosis and treatment of ADHD are very complex and controversial. Although there is consensus that this disorder exists, professionals continue to struggle to make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe treatments with established long-term efficacy. Thoughtful, comprehensive care, both diagnostically and therapeutically, needs to be provided for patients who present with ADHD symptoms. A thorough reassessment should be done when a patient previously diagnosed with ADHD transitions from pediatric to adult primary care. Physicians must vigilantly monitor the evolving research related to this complex disorder to ensure that they continue to provide the quality of care that children and adults with ADHD symptoms need.

Acknowledgments. We thank Linda Adams, CPS, for her expert assistance in the preparation of this manuscript, and Michele Stanek, MHS, for providing her expert advice identifying references and resources.

Resources

Research

Clinical Trials Involving ADHD. Details and contact information for current studies can be obtained from the National Institute of Mental Health Web site (http://www.nimh.nih.gov) and from the National Institutes of Health clinical trials Web site (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov).

* A Behavioral and Functional Neuroimaging Study of Inhibitory Motor Control: This is an outpatient 2-day evaluation study comparing behavior on a computer game between children (ages 7-10) with and without ADHD.

* Methylphenidate Efficacy and Safety in ADHD Preschoolers: This is an outpatient treatment study of methylphenidate hydrochloride to examine its safety and efficacy in treating ADHD in preschool and school-age children (aged 3-5 years, 6-8 years).

* Brain Imaging of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders, Endocrine Disorders and Healthy Controls: This is an outpatient evaluation study of identical twins, aged 6-16 years, where only one twin has the ADHD diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tests, and psychoeducational batteries will be used to study the twins.

* Genetic Aspects of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders: The purpose of this observational study is to explore the genetic causes of specific neurologic and psychiatric disorders, particularly mental retardation, childhood-onset schizophrenia, ADHD, atypical psychosis of childhood, and bipolar affective disorder. Molecular genetic techniques will be used to identify the areas of chromosomes containing genes responsible for the development of these disorders.

* Anatomic MRI Brain Imaging of White Matter in Children: This observational study will use MRI to examine connections between brain regions in children with and without learning/behavioral problems. The study will focus on twin pairs from 6 to 21 years of age, either with or without ADHD.

* Cortical Correlates of Subtle Motor Signs in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Healthy Controls--A Study Using Single and Paired Pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): This observational trial will use TMS to analyze the association of clinical abnormalities with any delay/abnormality in maturation of areas of the nervous system responsible for motor activity.

* Biological Markers in Childhood Psychiatric Disorders: In this observational study, researchers will examine the anatomy of brain development to better understand the causes of ADHD. This study will further analyze a group of patients previously diagnosed with ADHD by giving them structured psychiatric interviews and neuropsychologic tests. They will have MRI of the brain repeated, as well as further clinical and genetic testing.

* A Behavioral and Functional Neuroimaging Study of Inhibitory Motor Control: This observational study will examine the brain's control over a motor act, such as pushing a button. This will help to assess whether an inhibitory deficit exists in children with ADHD.

* Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD: This continuation of the MTA Study will track the persistence of intervention-related effects; test hypotheses regarding predictors, mediators, and moderators of long-term outcome in children with ADHD, and study patterns of risk/protective factors. This follow-up extends the study to 36, 60, and 84 months post-treatment.

* Nutrient Intake in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: This observational study will examine the nutrient intake of children with ADHD and study the occurrence of carbohydrate craving in these children.

* Methylphenidate for Hyperactivity and Impulsiveness in Children and Adolescents with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: This interventional study will examine the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate hydrochloride for treating hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and distractibility in children/adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD).

* Psychopharmacology of Adolescents with Alcohol-use Disorder and ADHD: This interventional study will compare the effectiveness of buproprion hydrochloride versus placebo in the treatment of adolescents with ADHD and alcohol-use disorder.

* A Treatment Study of Youth with Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Anxiety Disorder: This interventional study will gather information on the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy for children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with both ADHD and anxiety disorders. Stimulant medication will be studied alone and in combination with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

* Attention Deficit Disorder and Exposure to Lead: This observational study examines lead's possible contribution to ADHD by assessing the past lead exposure of children with and without ADHD. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy will be used to assess bone lead levels.

* Clonidine in ADHD: This interventional study will evaluate the benefits and side effects of clonidine hydrochloride and methylphenidate hydrochloride used alone and in combination in children with ADHD.

Organizations

* The National Institute of Mental Health has a link on its Web site for information for the public (http://www.nimh.nih.gov). This section has information on available books, informational materials, and fact sheets in English and Spanish.

* The National Institute of Mental Health has a link on its Web site for information for practitioners (http://www.nimh.nih.gov).

* Patient handouts on ADHD can be found in English and Spanish at http://www.familydoctor.org, a site sponsored by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

* Attention Deficit Information Network (Ad-IN), 475 Hillsicle Aye, Needham, MA 02194. Telephone: (781) 455-9895. Web site: www.addinfonetwork.com

* National Attention Deficit Disorder Association (ADDA), 1788 Second St, Suite 200, Highland Park, IL 60035. Telephone: (847) 432-ADDA (2332). Web site: http:// www.add.org

* Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Disorders (CHADD), 8181 Professional P1, Suite 201, Landover, MD 20785. Telephone: (800) 233-4050, (301) 306-7070. Web site: http://www.chadd.org

Books

* Alfutis S: Inside Attention Deficit Disorder: A Collection of Thoughts and Feelings on ADD by an Adult Who has Been There. Toledo, Ohio, ADDult Support Network, 1991. Available from ADDult Support Network, 2620 Ivy Place, Toledo, 0H 43613. $16.00

* Barkley RA: Hyperactive Children: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, Guilford Press, 1981

* Barkley RA: Defiant Children: A Clinician's Manual for Assessment and Parent Training. New York, Guilford Press, 2nd Ed, 1997

* Barkley RA: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, Guilford Press, 1998

* Barkley RA, Murphy KR: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Workbook New York, Guilford Press, 1998

* Goldberg R: Sit Down and Pay Attention: Coping with ADD Throughout the Life Cycle. Washington, DC, PIA Press, 1991

* Weiss L, Hechtman L: Hyperactive Children Grown Up: ADHD in Children, Adolescents and Adults. New York, Guilford Press, 1993

* American Academy of Pediatrics: The Classification of Child and Adolescent Mental Diagnoses in Primary Care. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Primary Care (DSM-PC) Child and Adolescent Version. Elk Grove Village, Ill, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1996

Practice Guidelines

* Dulcan M: Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. J Am Acad Adolesc Psychiatry 1997; 36(suppl 10):85S-121S

* Greenhill LL, Pliszka S, Dulcan MK, et al: Practice parameter for the use of stimulant medications in the treatment of children, adolescents, and adults. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001; 41(suppl 2):265-495

* American Academy of Pediatrics: Clinical practice guideline: diagnosis and evaluation of the child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 2000; 105:1158-1170

* American Academy of Pediatrics: Clinical practice guideline: treatment of the school-aged child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 2001; 108:1033-1044

* Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement: Diagnosis and Management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Primary Care, Bloomington, Minn, Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement, 2000. Available at http://www.icsi.org

* National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel on Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. NIH Consens Statement 1998; 16:1-37. Available at: http://consensus.nih.gov

References

(1.) Hill J, Schoener E: Age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153:1143-1146

(2.) Faraone SV, Biederman J, Spencer T, et al: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults: an overview. Biol Psychiatry 2000; 48:9-20

(3.) Millstein RB, Wilens TE, Biederman J, et al: Presenting ADHD symptoms and subtypes in clinically referred adults. J Allent Disorders 1997; 2:159-166

(4.) American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. (DSM-IV). Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994, pp 78-85

(5.) Wolraich M, Felice ME, Drotar D: The Classification of Child and Adolescent Mental Diagnoses in Primary Care. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Primary Care (DSM-PC) Child and Adolescent Version. Elk Grove Village, Ill, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1996, pp 93-102

(6.) Dulcan M: Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997; 36 (suppl 10):85S-121S

(7.) Greenhill LL, Pliszka S, Dulcan MK, et al: Practice parameter for the use of stimulant medications in the treatment of children, adolescents, and adults. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2002; 41 (suppl 2):26S-A9S

(8.) American Academy of Pediatrics: Clinical practice guideline: diagnosis and evaluation of the child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 2001; 105:1158-1170

(9.) American Academy of Pediatrics: Clinical practice guideline: treatment of the school-aged child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 2001; 108:1033-1044

(10.) National Institutes of Health: Diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). NIH Consens Statement 1998; 16:1-37

(11.) Taylor MA: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on the frontlines: management in the primary care office. Compr Ther 1998; 25:313-325

(12.) Gordon N: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: possible causes and treatment. Int J Clin Pract 1999; 53:524-528

(13.) Cipkala-Caffin JA: Diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Perspect Psychiatr Care 1998; 34:18-25

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(15.) Searight HR, Burke JM, Rottnek F: Adult ADHD: evaluation and treatment in family medicine. Am Fam Physician 2000; 62:2077-2086,2091-2092

(16.) Troller JN: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: conceptual and clinical issues. Med J Aust 1999; 171:421-425

(17.) Bresnahan SM, Anderson JW, Barry RJ: Age-related changes in quantitative EEG in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 46:1690-1697

(18.) Murphy P, Schachar R: Use of self-ratings in the assessment of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157:1156-1159

(19.) McCann BS, Scheele L, Ward N, et al: Discriminate validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2000; 12:240-245

(20.) Schweitzer JB, Cummins TK, Kant CA: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: advances in the pathophysiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders: implications for internal medicine. Med Clin North Am 2001; 85:757-777

(21.) Fargason RE, Ford CV: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. South Med J l994; 87:302-309

(22.) May B, Bos J: Personality characteristics of ADHD adults assessed with the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II: evidence of four distinct subtypes. J Pers Assess 2000; 75:237-248

(23.) Biederman J, Wilens TE, Mick E, et al: Does attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder impact the developmental course of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence? Biol Psychiatry 1998; 44:269-273

(24.) Biederman J, Wilens T, Mick E, et al; Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder reduces risk for substance use disorder. Pediatrics 1999; 104:E20

(25.) Lynskey MT, Hall W: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders: is there a causal link? Addiction 2001; 96:815-822

(26.) Pelham WE Jr, Wheeler T, Chronis A: Empirically supported psychosocial treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Child Psychol 1998; 27:190-205

(27.) Spencer T, Wilens T, Biederman J, et al: A double-blind, crossover comparison of methylphenidate and placebo in adults with childhood-onset attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995; 52:434-443

(28.) Wilens TE, Biederman J, Mick E, et al: A systematic assessment of tricyclic antidepressants in the treatment of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 1995; 183:48-50

(29.) Wilens TE, Biederman J, Prince J, et al: Six-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of desipramine for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153:1147-1153

(30.) Wilens TE, Spencer TJ, Biederman J, et al: A controlled trial of buproprion for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158:282-288

(31.) Hechtman L: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: predictors of long-term outcome in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatr Clin North Am 1999; 46:1039-1052

(32.) Mannuzza S, Klein RG: Long-term prognosis in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2000; 9:711-726

(33.) Giedd JN: Bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61 (suppl 9):31-34

(34.) Carey WB: Problems in diagnosing attention and activity. Pediatrics 1999; 103:664-667

(35.) Rapoport JL, Buschbaum MS. Zahn TP, et al: Dextroamphetamine in normal boys. Science 1978; 199:560-563

(36.) Jensen PS: Current concepts and controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2000; 2:102-109

(37.) Diller LH: Lessons from three-year-olds. Devel Behav Pediatr 2002; 23:S10-S11

(38.) Pelham WE Jr: The NIMH multimodal treatment study for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: just say yes to drugs alone? Can J Psychiatry 1999; 44:981-990

(39.) Moline S, Frankenberger W: Use of stimulant medication for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A survey of middle and high school students' attitudes. Psychol Schools 2001; 38:569-584

KEY POINTS

* Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder persists in adults more often than was previously hypothesized, but with a lesser male predominance.

* Reassessment of an adult previously diagnosed with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is recommended.

* Primary diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adulthood is complicated and usually requires consultation.

* The diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adults continues to be problematic because of the lack of definitive diagnostic tests and difficulty in evaluating long-term clinical outcomes.

From the Department of Pediatrics, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City; Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of South Carolina--Columbia; and Internal Medicine/Pediatrics, Charleston, SC.

Reprint requests to H. Patrick Stern, MD, Department of Pediatrics, East Tennessee State University, PO Box 70578, Johnson City, TN 37614-1708.
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Author:Stern, Thomas P.
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