What's new in pedagogy research? (Professional Resources).As a pedagogy professor, I often include sessions in class where the students take turns teaching each other a certain concept or skill. I have wondered if this was an effective and efficient use of precious class time, since it was always somewhat artificial, and the "guinea pig guinea pig (gĭn`ē), domesticated form of the cavy, Cavia porcellus, a South American rodent. It is unrelated to the pig; the name may refer to its shrill squeal. " often was much brighter or denser than the average child. A recent study entitled en·ti·tle
tr.v. en·ti·tled, en·ti·tling, en·ti·tles
1. To give a name or title to.
2. To furnish with a right or claim to something: "Preservice Music Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching Effectiveness, Microteaching mi·cro·teach·ing
A method of practice teaching in which a videotape of a small segment of a student's classroom teaching is made and later evaluated. Experiences, and Teaching Performance" (1) by Abby Butler investigated the effectiveness of two, short teaching experiences. Before the microteaching, each of the fifteen undergraduate music education majors received instruction about how to make a concept map. This concept map was a representation of how the student organized and stored knowledge from a particular area. Researchers call this "cognitive schemata" and believe that:
The cognitive schemata of experts are more complex, interconnected, and accessible.... Furthermore, cognitive structures exhibiting a greater degree of organization have been associated with teachers' abilities to respond more effectively to unexpected questions and answers during instruction.... to demonstrate greater capacity for reflective thinking ..., and to perform more effectively during student teaching. (2)
The student teachers each made a concept map on the topic of "effective teaching." Insert 1 shows one student's preteaching map . (3)
The next stage of the experiment began with the microteaching experiences. Each student rote rote 1
1. A memorizing process using routine or repetition, often without full attention or comprehension: learn by rote.
2. Mechanical routine. taught a short portion of a song to their peers, and then they taught the same song to a thirty-five-voice children's choir. After these teaching experiences, the student teachers viewed a videotape videotape
Magnetic tape used to record visual images and sound, or the recording itself. There are two types of videotape recorders, the transverse (or quad) and the helical. of their teaching and wrote an evaluation. The teachers then completed a second concept map on effective teaching and were interviewed by the researcher. During this thirty-minute interview, they were asked to reflect on their microteaching experiences, their two concept maps and whether they felt their concepts had been changed by the experience. The interviews indicated that the participants generally found the experience beneficial and worthwhile. Many of them believed the microteaching experience had directly influenced their thinking about teaching. They generally perceived "... the peer teachings as harder, stating their peers were more critical and judgmental judg·men·tal
1. Of, relating to, or dependent on judgment: a judgmental error.
2. Inclined to make judgments, especially moral or personal ones: ." (4) The field setting also was seen as important and intimidating in·tim·i·date
tr.v. in·tim·i·dat·ed, in·tim·i·dat·ing, in·tim·i·dates
1. To make timid; fill with fear.
2. To coerce or inhibit by or as if by threats. , but necessary in developing their identity as a teacher.
In the "Discussion" section of the publication, the researcher addressed several questions, including:
1. What is the nature of preservice music education teachers' thinking about effective teaching as measured through the use of concept mapping? Overall, the students' maps were fairly simplistic sim·plism
The tendency to oversimplify an issue or a problem by ignoring complexities or complications.
[French simplisme, from simple, simple, from Old French; see simple , but logical. An analysis of the maps indicated the students saw an effective teacher in terms of a "persona persona /per·so·na/ (per-so´nah) [L.] in jungian psychology, the personality mask or facade presented by a person to the outside world, as opposed to the anima, the inner being.
n. ," a teacher with the information, personal characteristics and abilities to teach well. They included elements of "... role, image and personality to create a more cogent COGENT - COmpiler and GENeralized Translator and tangible view of effective teaching.... Perhaps by creating a composite portrait of an effective teacher, participants took the first step toward developing their own identity as a teacher." (5)
2. Does preservice music education teachers' thinking about effective teaching change following two microteaching experiences involving both peer-teaching and field-teaching settings? Some changes in the post-teaching maps indicated that the student teachers had begun to synthesize To create a whole or complete unit from parts or components. See synthesis. the new information and experiences into their cognitive schemata. Their post-maps suggested "... an increase in critical-thinking skills ... [illustrated] an increase in conceptual understanding and a growing awareness of the complexities of teaching. (6)
From this study, Butler drew several conclusions. First, participants appeared to view good teaching as a particular teacher persona. Therefore, it might be helpful for teacher trainers to use this to help preservice teachers develop their own professional identity. Second, the microteaching experiences appeared to have a direct impact on the student teachers' thinking and skill development, and the preservice teachers found the experiences to be highly valuable. Although the two micro experiences were not extensive enough to actually change their teaching behaviors, they did stimulate reflective and critical thinking.
This study would seem to indicate that peer teaching sessions in a pedagogy class (especially when videotaped and self-evaluated) are probably worthwhile. I always hope they are effective in at least preparing the student teacher for the intern intern /in·tern/ (in´tern) a medical graduate serving in a hospital preparatory to being licensed to practice medicine.
in·tern or in·terne
n. teaching experience and will help each student teacher face his or her first "real student" with greater confidence. The use of the concept map might be helpful, and developing an "effective teacher persona" would undoubtedly result in an interesting mix of everyone's best teachers.
(1.) Butler, Abby, "Preservice Music Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching Effectiveness, Microteaching Experiences, and Teaching Performance," Journal of Research in Music Education The Journal of Research in Music Education (JRME) publishes research reports "that enhance knowledge regarding the teaching and learning of music." It is published by the National Association for Music Education. , 49, (2001), pp. 258-272.
(2.) Ibid., p. 259.
(3.) Ibid., p. 267.
(4.) Ibid., p. 265.
(5.) Ibid., p. 268.
(6.) Ibid., p. 269.
FYI "For your information." See digispeak.
FYI - For Your Information :
For her dissertation project, Kathy Winston, a doctoral candidate at The University of Texas at Austin “University of Texas” redirects here. For other system schools, see University of Texas System.
The University of Texas at Austin (often referred to as The University of Texas, UT Austin, UT, or Texas , has compiled a very helpful listing of 160 intermediate-level twentieth-century pieces by fifty-seven composers. You will find this database at www.pianorep.com.--RGJ
--Rebecca Grooms Johnson, NCTM National Pedagogy Chair Columbus, Ohio She directs the keyboard pedagogy program at Capital University in Columbus, Ohio.