Wendy J. Deichman Edwards and Carolyn De Swarte Giffors (Eds.), Gender and the Social Gospel.Wendy J. Deichman Edwards and Carolyn De Swarte Giffors (Eds.), Gender and the Social Gospel Social Gospel, liberal movement within American Protestantism that attempted to apply biblical teachings to problems associated with industrialization. It took form during the latter half of the 19th cent. . Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press The University of Illinois Press (UIP), is a major American university press and part of the University of Illinois. Overview
According to the UIP's website: , 2003. $49.95 hardcover, $21.95 papercover.
Students of social welfare institutions in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. often fail to examine the influence of religion on the careers of social reformers and on the creation of a broad array of social services. This important book examines the Social Gospel movement and its influence on social reform and social service activity well beyond the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the usual temporal boundaries of the Social Gospel. Traditional Social Gospel scholarship held that middle class white, male Protestants such as Walter Rauschenbusch, Josiah Strong, and William Gladden glad·den
v. glad·dened, glad·den·ing, glad·dens
To make glad. See Synonyms at please.
To be glad.
Verb 1. exemplified Social Gospel thought. These influential men argued that Christians should actively work to achieve the Kingdom of God on earth by pursuing social reform and social justice. Many scholars agree that their work influenced many religious and secular reformers. This book presents convincing evidence that there were tensions resulting from the class and gender bias of Social Gospel leaders. Creation of a just society required connecting across class lines with working class Americans which was generally prohibited by class bias. Furthermore, a truly "Social" Gospel suggested that work would have to be carried on in a civic or community framework which was difficult given the strength of laissez faire Laissez Faire
An economic theory from the 18th century that is strongly opposed to any government intervention in business affairs. Sometimes referred to as "Let it be economics. and Social Darwinist notions of individualism in American Protestantism. Widespread acceptance of attitudes concerning women's appropriate "spheres" also limited women's roles in the Social Gospel movement.
Many of the essays in this book were first presented as papers at conferences on the Social Gospel at the Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School is a theological college of Baptist origins. The present day school, which sits on the top of a hill in the beautiful setting of Highland Park in Rochester, New York is a product of several mergers. or at the American Society of Church History. This book's diverse research demonstrates the value of careful historical analysis in revising understanding of the Social Gospel movement by documenting its influence in the social welfare work of women, Canadians, Catholics and African Americans from the late nineteenth to the close of the twentieth century. These essays "restore(s) women and reclaim(s) gender in social gospel studies" as the editors rightfully claim.
The religious motives and contributions of women as diverse as Mary Bynon Reese, who worked at a grass roots level among loggers in the Pacific Northwest to spread the work of the Women's Christian Temperance Union; Dorothy Day, the radical Catholic activist who worked directly with the urban poor in Catholic Worker houses of hospitality; Mary Richmond, prominent in the development of social work; and late twentieth century African American activists Faye Waddleton, prominent in women's health Women's Health Definition
Women's health is the effect of gender on disease and health that encompasses a broad range of biological and psychosocial issues. advocacy and Marion Wright Edleman of the Children's Defense Fund The Children's Defense Fund (CDF) is a national organization that is committed to the social Welfare of children. Founded in 1973, the nonprofit group uses its annual $9 million budget to lobby legislators and to speak out publicly on a broad array of issues on the law, the family, and , are examined. Each of these women's social welfare contributions work is placed within the broad and inclusive conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: of the Social Gospel and its influence.
Other essays include Carolyn De Swart swart
[Middle English swarte, from Old English sweart.]
Adj. 1. Gifford's study of Frances Willard, the influential leader of the Women's Christian Temperance Union in the late nineteenth century, whose belief in the equality of men and women put her at odds with other social gospelers. She was deeply disappointed when her own Methodist Episcopal Church The Methodist Episcopal Church, sometimes referred to as the M.E. Church, officially began at the Baltimore Christmas Conference in 1784. Francis Asbury and Thomas Coke were the first bishops. would not grant laywomen ecclesiastical suffrage. It was the failure of many male proponents of the Social Gospel to accept equality between the sexes and their perpetuation of traditional assumptions about women's appropriate spheres that so disappointed Willard. Wendy J. Deichmann Edwards assesses the Christian socialist Josiah Strong's assumptions about women's appropriate roles and finds him to have been progressive for his advocacy of equality for women in the workplace but conservative for his opposition to women's ordination to the ministry. Eleanor J. Stebner explores the many contributions of middle and upper class white women Social Gospelers in Canada through their work in settlement houses, missions and deaconess dea·con·ess
1. A Protestant woman who assists the minister in various functions.
2. Used as a title prefixed to the surname of such a woman: Deaconess Brown.
Noun 1. societies. Her study of Beatrice Brigden, whose labor activism led her to grow disillusioned dis·il·lu·sion
tr.v. dis·il·lu·sioned, dis·il·lu·sion·ing, dis·il·lu·sions
To free or deprive of illusion.
1. The act of disenchanting.
2. The condition or fact of being disenchanted. with the Methodist Church, shows as only good historical research can, how complex events and personalities shape the destiny of social reformers and that the social gospel movement was not limited to the United States. Janet Forsythe Fishburn's examination of Walter Rauschenbusch, a leading proponent of the Social Gospel, finds that while he shared the progressive belief that women should be given opportunities to be educated, he remained committed to middle class beliefs that women's proper sphere was the home. This demonstrates a paradox within Social Gospel thought which could argue for the realization of God's Kingdom on Earth through social reform but cling to traditional gender role norms even though there were women who were carrying out the Social Gospel mission through there work in settlement houses and other social reformist organizations by acting in non traditional leadership roles.
Paul William Harris' study of Emma Rauschenbusch Clough, sister of Walter Rauschbusch, wife of John Everett Clough, a Baptist missionary to India, shows how the Social Gospel movement influenced the progressive work and thought of a women who did important missionary work in India. R.A.R. Edwards offers a critical, comparative study of Jane Addams, Walter Rauschenbusch and Dorothy Day, arguing that Addams and Rauschenbusch naively equated social progress and optimism with watered down versions of Christianity while Day's unwavering adherence to Catholic teaching and practice imbued her with Christian hope based on the gospels and informed her advocacy for radical social change. He contends that Day's strict adherence to Catholicism led inexorably to a radical social critique since the Catholic Workers knew that their religion set them apart from the dominant and powerful secular society. Kendal P. Mobley's study of Helen Barrett Montgomery Helen Barrett Montgomery (July 31, 1861 - October 19, 1934) She was a social reformer, church leader, women’s activist, missions activist. Helen Barrett was the oldest of three children born to Adoniram Judson Barrett and Emily Barrows Barrett, both of whom were teachers at the time. , a Rochester New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of social reformer, committed Baptist and proponent of women's missionary work in the late nineteenth century, asks if the Social Gospel movement should be redefined to include her gender-based theology which assumed women should be emancipated e·man·ci·pate
tr.v. e·man·ci·pat·ed, e·man·ci·pat·ing, e·man·ci·pates
1. To free from bondage, oppression, or restraint; liberate.
2. both in the United States and internationally. The book's last section shows that the Social Gospel movement must be defined broadly to understand its significance. Susan Hill Lindley's reprinted essay on women in Social Gospel novels finds them to have been important for their popularization pop·u·lar·ize
tr.v. pop·u·lar·ized, pop·u·lar·iz·ing, pop·u·lar·iz·es
1. To make popular: A famous dancer popularized the new hairstyle.
2. of women's religiously inspired social reform activities at a time when most women were barred from active ministerial roles. Ingrid Overacker's study of African American Women Christian activists in Rochester, New York This article is about the city of Rochester in Monroe County. For the town in Ulster County, see Rochester, Ulster County, New York.
Rochester, once known as The Flour City, and more recently as The Flower City or , shows again how good history can revise popular understanding. She finds that African American Christian women were active in social reform such as antislavery activity well before the Social Gospel movement and that they worked effectively during the first four decades of the twentieth century to address urban social problems in keeping with the spirit of the Social Gospel.
The provocative research included in this book does, indeed, expand traditional notions of the Social Gospel movement. These essays shows that women as well as men were active particularly at grass roots community levels in working for Social Gospel objectives, that the Social Gospel movement had international dimensions, that African Americans did important Social Gospel related work in cities and that Catholics as well as Protestants were involved. It reveals that the Social Gospel held great appeal for many beyond the walls of seminaries and that its legacy lives on today. It is recommended for students of the Social Gospel movement and anyone interested in the intersections of religion, gender, class and race with nineteenth and twentieth century social reform.
John M. Herrick
Michigan State University Michigan State University, at East Lansing; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1855. It opened in 1857 as Michigan Agricultural College, the first state agricultural college.