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War on the radio: Tokyo Rose, Axis Sally, and Hanoi Hannah broadcast propaganda aimed at turning the hearts of lonely U.S. soldiers. (times past).



MOST PROPAGANDA IS DESIGNED TO psyche out an enemy. But to do that, you first have to get the enemy's attention. During past wars, propagandists targeted scared, lonely soldiers with what they were often desperate to hear: a female voice. They turned fears of cheating girlfriends into weapons of war.

These weapons were delivered via radio. In World War II, servicemen from the U.S. and other Allied forces found these sexually charged programs of their Axis opponents alluring. "Axis Sally Axis Sally

[Mildred Elizabeth Sisk, (1900–) or Rita Louise Zucca, (1912–)] Nazi broadcaster who urged American withdrawal from WWII. [Am. Hist.: Flexner, 449]

See : Propaganda
" in Germany and "Tokyo Rose Tokyo Rose: see D'Aquino, Iva Toguri.
Tokyo Rose
 orig. Ikuko Toguri

(born July 4, 1916, Los Angeles, Calif., U.S.) U.S. broadcaster. She was visiting Japan when she was stranded at the outbreak of World War II.
" in Japan used popular songs and cooing femininity to try to talk Allied soldiers out of fighting.

Neither made a perceptible dent in Allied morale. But they did get soldiers to listen. So in 1965, when the U.S. entered the Vietnam War Vietnam War, conflict in Southeast Asia, primarily fought in South Vietnam between government forces aided by the United States and guerrilla forces aided by North Vietnam.  in force, North Vietnam's Communist government revived the radio-siren formula with "Hanoi Hannah Trịnh Thị Ngọ[1] was born in Vietnam in 1931. During the Vietnam War in the 1960s and 1970s she became known by American soldiers as "Hanoi Hannah" for broadcasting North Vietnamese propaganda to American troops. Her broadcasts attempted to convince U.S. ."

These are some of their greatest hits.

AXIS SALLY

Axis Sally was the Allied soldiers' name for Mildred Gillars Mildred Gillars (November 29, 1900 – June 25, 1988), also known as "Axis Sally," was a female radio personality during World War II, best known for her propaganda broadcasts for Nazi Germany. , a pro-Nazi American actress with a sultry voice. In 1935, she moved to Germany and worked as an English instructor before taking a job with Radio Berlin, where she polished her drama skills throughout the war. Her Home Sweet Home program was a mix of music and chat aimed at demoralizing de·mor·al·ize  
tr.v. de·mor·al·ized, de·mor·al·iz·ing, de·mor·al·iz·es
1. To undermine the confidence or morale of; dishearten: an inconsistent policy that demoralized the staff.
 GIs in Europe. Gillars' favorite tactic was to talk about unfaithful girlfriends and wives back home.

And what are your girls doing tonight, fellows? You really can't blame them for going out to have some fun, could you? ... You may dislike my repeating this to you, but it's the truth, especially if you boys get all mutilated mu·ti·late  
tr.v. mu·ti·lat·ed, mu·ti·lat·ing, mu·ti·lates
1. To deprive of a limb or an essential part; cripple.

2. To disfigure by damaging irreparably: mutilate a statue.
 and do not return in one piece.

Gillars gave her most prescient pre·scient  
adj.
1. Of or relating to prescience.

2. Possessing prescience.



[French, from Old French, from Latin praesci
 performance on May 11, 1944, less than a month before D-Day, the date when the Allies invaded German-occupied France. She starred in a Nazi radio play called Vision of Invasion as the mother of a GI. In the play, the mother dreams that her son is killed during an Allied landing in France. Realistic sound effects sound effects
Noun, pl

sounds artificially produced to make a play, esp. a radio play, more realistic

sound effects nplefectos mpl sonoros

 of guns firing and men screaming left listeners' blood running cold.

After the war, Gillars was convicted of treason by a U.S. court. Prosecutor John Kelley said of her relationship with the Nazis, "She sold out to them. She thought she was on the winning side, and all she cared about was her selfish fame." Gillars served 12 years in prison.

TOKYO ROSE

Amid battles in the Pacific, most GIs heard one woman spouting spout·ing  
n. Chiefly Pennsylvania & New Jersey
See gutter. See Regional Note at gutter.


spouting
Noun

NZ
a.
 Japanese propaganda and dubbed her Tokyo Rose. There were actually several Tokyo Roses--most of them Japanese-Americans who were back in Japan during the war. They would taunt Americans about facing certain death. The New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
 Times reported that "American fighting men are pretty impervious to propaganda," and that they found the programs entertaining.

One woman, Iva Toguri, who called herself Orphan Ann, had an especially memorable bouncy delivery.

Greetings, everybody! This is your No. 1 enemy, your favorite playmate, Orphan Ann on Radio Tokyo--the little sunbeam whose throat you'd like to cut! Get ready again for a vicious assault on your morale, 75 minutes of music and news for our friends--I mean, our enemies!--in the South Pacific.

Toguri returned to America after the war and was convicted of treason in 1949 for being "the" Tokyo Rose. She was imprisoned im·pris·on  
tr.v. im·pris·oned, im·pris·on·ing, im·pris·ons
To put in or as if in prison; confine.



[Middle English emprisonen, from Old French emprisoner : en-
 for six years. In fact, it was later revealed, Toguri was loyal to the United States. She had been stranded in Japan when the war broke out and had sabotaged her own broadcasts, trying to make them parodies of propaganda. She had also smuggled smug·gle  
v. smug·gled, smug·gling, smug·gles

v.tr.
1. To import or export without paying lawful customs charges or duties.

2. To bring in or take out illicitly or by stealth.
 food and medicine to Allied prisoners of war prisoners of war, in international law, persons captured by a belligerent while fighting in the military. International law includes rules on the treatment of prisoners of war but extends protection only to combatants. . In 1977, she was pardoned by President Gerald Ford.

HANOI HANNAH

As with Tokyo Rose, several women shared the title of Hanoi Hannah, broadcasting for the Voice of Vietnam. But one in particular, Trinh Thi Ngo, served as Hannah's main voice. Ngo was a Vietnamese who learned English as part of her well-to-do upbringing. "I wanted to join the Voice of Vietnam because it was a good opportunity to help my country," she said later. "I was not political; I was patriotic."

Americans listened to her program in part because she played rock songs like "We Gotta Get Out of This Place," which were banned on U.S. Armed Forces Radio.

Hanoi Hannah seemed to magically know where U.S. units were--and the names of U.S. dead. Though most Americans hooted at her scare tactics, they couldn't help feeling that North Vietnamese spies must be everywhere. Ironically, most of Hannah's "intelligence" reports came from publications such as the U.S. military newspaper, Stars and Stripes Stars and Stripes

nickname for the U.S. flag. [Am. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 8567]

See : America
.

Hanoi Hannah was better than either Axis Sally or Tokyo Rose at upsetting U.S. soldiers. In a turbulent American era of war protests and political assassinations, she had more uncertainty to exploit. She played up news of race riots back home, for instance, to set blacks against whites. Mostly, though, she harped on the mixed feelings that many soldiers had about fighting in Vietnam, as in a 1967 broadcast:

How are you, GI Joe? It seems to me that most of you are poorly informed about the going of the war, to say nothing about a correct explanation of your presence over here. Nothing is more confusing than to be ordered into a war to die or to be maimed maim  
tr.v. maimed, maim·ing, maims
1. To disable or disfigure, usually by depriving of the use of a limb or other part of the body. See Synonyms at batter1.

2.
 for life without the faintest idea of what's going on What's Going On is a record by American soul singer Marvin Gaye. Released on May 21, 1971 (see 1971 in music), What's Going On reflected the beginning of a new trend in soul music. .

Ngo continued to work in broadcasting in Vietnam after the war, the only one of these three women who spoke for the winning side.

FOCUS: Enemy Radio Personalities Beam Propaganda to American Soldiers

TEACHING OBJECTIVES

To help students understand how Germany, Japan, and Vietnam used female radio personalities to try to demoralize de·mor·al·ize  
tr.v. de·mor·al·ized, de·mor·al·iz·ing, de·mor·al·iz·es
1. To undermine the confidence or morale of; dishearten: an inconsistent policy that demoralized the staff.
 American troops--and why, at least in the case of the German and Japanese broadcasts, the strategy didn't work.

Discussion Questions:

* Do you think the punishments meted out to Tokyo Rose and Axis Sally were just?

* Why do you think Japanese authorities did not catch on to the fact that Iva Toguri was broadcasting parodies of propaganda?

CLASSROOM STRATEGIES

Critical Thinking/Broadcast Goals: Discuss the broadcasters' goal of demoralizing U.S. troops. What was the likelihood that the broadcasts would cause troops to stop fighting? Was the strategy more subtle? How might forcing soldiers to think about their wives and girlfriends or getting wounded affect their combat efficiency?

Critical Thinking/Censorship: Note that U.S. troops listened to Hanoi Hannah because she played controversial songs banned by Armed Forces Radio. Remind students that U.S. policy in Vietnam was to nurture democracy in the South and prevent the North Vietnamese Communists from seizing power there. Is the goal of promoting democracy compatible with radio censorship?

Radio Writing: Discuss Hanoi Hannah's effort to set whites against blacks. Ask students to create the nickname of a female U.S. radio personality whose job would be to counter Hanoi Hannah's effort to undermine relations between black and white soldiers. Next, have students write 50-word messages that their radio personality might broadcast to promote good relations between black and white soldiers.

Web Watch: For facts on Tokyo Rose and Axis Sally, see www.earthstation1.com/Tokyo_Rose.html and www.thehistorynet.com/WorldWarII /articles/1195_text.htm. For a postwar interview with Hanoi Hannah, see lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML _docs/Texts/Scholarly/North_Hanoi _Hannah_01.html.
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No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2001, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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Author:Price, Sean
Publication:New York Times Upfront
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 10, 2001
Words:1227
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