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Vulnerability assessment to liquefaction hazard induced by rising sea-levels due to global warming.

This paper describes a procedure for liquefaction liquefaction, change of a substance from the solid or the gaseous state to the liquid state. Since the different states of matter correspond to different amounts of energy of the molecules making up the substance, energy in the form of heat must either be supplied to  hazard mapping that incorporates rising sea levels caused by global warming global warming, the gradual increase of the temperature of the earth's lower atmosphere as a result of the increase in greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution. , along with an application of that mapping procedure to an objective coastal region. Vulnerability to liquefaction hazard in the objective region was assessed by comparison of liquefaction hazard maps before and after sea-level rising caused by global warming.


Ground damage caused by liquefaction is a serious problem. Attention should be given to groundwater level (GWL GWL Great-West Life (Insurance company)
GWL Great Wolf Lodge (Mason, Ohio)
GWL Gesamtwuchsleistung (German: Total Growth Capacity, Forestry) 
) changes because liquefaction potential is sensitive to rising GWL. In this century, sea-level rises (SLR (1) (Scalable Linear Recording) A line of magnetic tape drives from Tandberg Data that evolved from the QIC Data Cartridge format. See QIC.

(2) (Single Lens Reflex) A camera that uses the same lens for viewing and shooting.
) caused by global warming and global climate change have engendered rising GWL in coastal regions. The capabilities of prevention and mitigation against geo-disasters is reduced with rising GWL (Yasuhara et al., 2004). Therefore, it is necessary for sustainable development Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. The linkage between environment and development was globally recognized in 1980, when the International Union  to consider the influence of global climate change on future situations of GWL. This study shows a procedure for liquefaction hazard mapping considering SRL 1. SRL - Bharat Jayaraman.

["Towards a Broader Basis for Logic Programming", B. Jayaraman, TR CS Dept, SUNY Buffalo, 1990].
2. SRL - Schema Representation language.
3. SRL - Structured Robot Language.

C. Blume & W. Jacob, U Karlsruhe.
 and an application of the mapping procedure to Yokohama and Kawasaki cities in Japan This is a list of cities in Japan.

For more information about cities in Japan see Municipality of Japan. Note that Tokyo is actually a special kind of prefecture not a city. Most large cities in Japan are cities designated by government ordinance.
. Vulnerability to liquefaction hazard in the objective region has been assessed through comparison of liquefaction hazard maps before and after SLR caused by global warming.


Liquefaction potential depends upon ground properties, seismic magnitude, and GWL. Spatial distribution of GWL in an objective region depends on characteristics of rainfall, groundwater abstraction, and hydraulic boundary conditions. Where the objective area is a coastal zone, one hydraulic boundary condition is the sea level. Global climate change will influence the balance of water circulation and global warming will cause SLR. The liquefaction potential increases with rising GWL. Therefore, for disaster prevention and mitigation of earthquakes, it is important for coastal regions to consider future situations of GWL subjected to SLR. Such measures should take into account the GWL, not only of the present situation, but also that resulting from future trends.

Figure 1 shows a procedure for liquefaction hazard mapping in consideration of global climate change. Calculating the liquefaction hazard at a location in an objective region usually requires information on soil properties through depth, GWL and seismic shear stress shear stress
See shear.

shear stress

A form of stress that subjects an object to which force is applied to skew, tending to cause shear strain.
. In recent years, geo-information digital databases, including boring logs, N-values, etc. have been made from site investigations in some regions in Japan. The geo-information database is available to predict geo-disasters such as earthquake-induced liquefaction. The database supplies necessary information of soil properties for calculating the liquefaction potential. Seismic shear stress in the ground is predicted considering assumed earthquake events or uses the same value ordained or·dain  
tr.v. or·dained, or·dain·ing, or·dains
a. To invest with ministerial or priestly authority; confer holy orders on.

b. To authorize as a rabbi.

 in a design code. Using groundwater flow analyses, the GWL is predicted on the assumption that global climate change will cause a different water circulation scenario from that of the present situation.


The present study calculates the liquefaction hazard at each location using a method proposed in The Japanese Highway Bridge Code (JHBC; so called "Dorokyoshihousho"), which was established in 1996 by the Ministry of Construction (currently the Ministry of Land and Transportation). This judgment procedure is based on the liquefaction resistance factor, [F.sub.L], which is defined as

[F.sub.L] = R/L R/L Real Life
R/L Return Link
, (1)

where R is the dynamic strength ratio determined by cyclic shear strength For the shear strength of soil, see .

Shear strength in engineering is a term used to describe the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure where the material or component fails in shear.
 of soil and the correction coefficient concerning earthquake movement. Cyclic shear strength is estimated using unit weight and fine content of soil, N-value, and GWL. In addition, L is the seismic shear stress ratio generated during earthquakes; L is determined by seismic intensity, which depends on the ground classification and type of earthquake, just as R does. Liquefaction occurs when [F.sub.L], given by Eq. (1), is below 1.0.

Evaluation of possible liquefaction through depth in an objective location can be performed by integration of the liquefaction potential, [P.sub.L], through depth using

[P.sub.L] = [[integral].sup.20.sub.0] (F(z)w(z)dz, (2)

where F(z) is a function that is F(z) = 1 - [F.sub.L] when [F.sub.L] [less than or equal to] 1.0 and F(z) = 0 when [F.auv.L] >1.0. Here, w(z) is a weighting parameter defined as w(z) = 10.0 - 0.5z (z: GL-m) (Iwasaki et al., 1980).

The GWL is predictable using groundwater flow analyses. The sea level, which is a hydraulic boundary condition, is set as 0.8 m for obtaining simulated results considering SLR resulting from global warming. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 a report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change “IPCC” redirects here. For other uses, see IPCC (disambiguation).
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment
 (2000), 0.8 m is the worst-case scenario worst-case scenario nSchlimmstfallszenario nt  of SLR in 2100.

The objective regions in this study are Yokohama and Kawasaki cities in Japan, as shown in Fig. 2. The figure also shows approximately 700 locations of site investigations in the geo-information database. These data have been used for groundwater flow and liquefaction hazard analyses.



Groundwater flow analyses based on finite element See FEA.  method were performed to obtain the GWL for calculating the liquefaction potential. The solving equation of the analysis is a 2D model for unconfined groundwater flow in a steady condition:

[partial derivative partial derivative

In differential calculus, the derivative of a function of several variables with respect to change in just one of its variables. Partial derivatives are useful in analyzing surfaces for maximum and minimum points and give rise to partial differential
] / [partial derivative]x { k(h - [z.sub.0]) [partial derivative]h /[partial derivative]x } + [partial derivative] / [partial derivative]y { k(h - [z.sub.0]) [partial derivative]h /[partial derivative]y } = 0 (3)

where h is the GWL, k is the coefficient of permeability of the permeable soil layer, [z.sub.0] is the depth of the non-permeable surface and x, y are coordinates of the horizontal plain. Using Eq. (3), distribution of steady GWL subjected to a certain amount of SLR was simulated.

Distributions of the permeable soil layer, impermeable impermeable /im·per·me·a·ble/ (-per´me-ah-b'l) not permitting passage, as of fluid.

Impossible to permeate; not permitting passage.
 rock surface and ground level in the objective region were estimated using spatial interpolation interpolation

In mathematics, estimation of a value between two known data points. A simple example is calculating the mean (see mean, median, and mode) of two population counts made 10 years apart to estimate the population in the fifth year.
 method with a Geographical Information System Geographical Information System - Geographic Information System  (GIS). The coefficient of permeability was calculated using a linearly weighted combination of all soil layers up to the impermeable soil surface in each location. The weighting parameter was determined as the ratio of thickness of the soil layer to the depth of the impermeable rock surface. The coefficient of permeability of soil was assumed by referring to representative values of soils in Japan. Boundary conditions around the analytical area were determined considering not only the sea level, but also the river level affected by SLR.

Groundwater simulations before and after 0.8 m SLR were performed using the numerical method described above. Distributions of the GWL rise subjected to 0.8 m SLR are represented in Fig. 3. The GWL rise in reclaimed islands is regarded as the same value as SLR because the sea surrounds the islands. The rise in GWL is close to 0.8 m when approaching the coastline. However, the GWL rise is not always large near the coastline because the figure shows a larger value of the GWL rise along the Tsurumi River. The GWL rise on each side of the river is different. For that reason and others, it is necessary for investigation of groundwater-related geo-disasters to consider regional characteristics of the ground.


VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT A Department of Defense, command, or unit-level evaluation (assessment) to determine the vulnerability of a terrorist attack against an installation, unit, exercise, port, ship, residence, facility, or other site.  OF LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL IN A COASTAL REGION

Distributions of liquefaction hazard in the objective region before and after SLR were compared to investigate vulnerability to liquefaction disaster induced by SLR caused by global warming. Figure 4 shows liquefaction hazard maps before and after 0.8 m SLR. Estimations of liquefaction potential at all site-investigation locations were calculated by Eq. (2). The geo-information database and simulated results of GWL before and after SLR were used as analytical parameters that are soil properties through the depth and GWL at the locations. For determining the seismic shear stress of the ground, seismic movements were assumed to be TYPE II, with earthquake motion corresponding to the Great Hanshin Earthquake The Great Hanshin Earthquake (阪神・淡路大震災   in 1995, as specified in the JHB JHB Johannesburg
JHB Johor Bahru, Malaysia - Sultan Ismail International (Airport Code)
JHB John Henry Bonham (British drummer, nicknamed Bonzo) 
 design code. Calculating the liquefaction potential at all locations, distributions in the region were represented as liquefaction hazard maps using spatial interpolation method with GIS. Comparing the map after SLR with others at the present situation of GWL, it is recognized that a severe liquefied area expands slightly around the coastline and riverside.


Using the liquefaction-hazard-map procedure considering SLR caused by global warming, the distributions of liquefaction potential were estimated for cases where the SLR is 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 m. Based on these results, Fig. 5 shows the relationship between SLR and area of PL-values over 5 in the objective regions. The area in which liquefaction potential is high increases with the rising sea level. The increment ratio of the area to SLR increases rapidly from 1.0 m. In regions around the coastline and riverside affected by SLR, disaster prevention against earthquake liquefaction is vulnerable to SLR resulting from global warming.



A procedure for liquefaction hazard mapping considering global climate change was proposed and applied to a coastal region in this study. Comparison of liquefaction hazard maps before and after SLR caused by global warming illustrates the changing vulnerability to liquefaction hazard. Those results show that the area of high potential liquefaction increases with rising GWL caused by SLR. Regions in which the liquefaction potential is high are not only those around coastlines and riversides affected by SLR. Therefore, for prevention and mitigation of liquefaction by earthquakes, it is necessary to consider regional variations of GWL caused by SLR attributable to global warming.


This study was partly supported by Grants-in-Aid from the Saneyoshi Fellowship Foundation, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and the Ministry of Environment of the Japanese Government. We wish to express our sincere thanks for financial support from these organizations. Geotechnical information, and support in Yokohama and Kawasaki cities were provided by the Kanagawa Environmental Science Research Institute in Yokohama and the Department of Environmental Protection, Environmental Directorate, Kawasaki City.


IPCC See IMS Forum.  WGI WGI World Games Inc
WGI Winter Guard International
WGI Within Grade Increase
WGI Washington Group International, Inc.
WGI Working Group on Informatics (United Nations) 
 (2001): "Technical Summary, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis", Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). , 83p.

Iwasaki, T., Tatsuoaka, F., Tokita, K. and Yasuda, S. (1980): "Prediction of liquefaction potential during earthquakes", Tsuchi-to-Kiso, J. Japanese Geotechnical Society, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 23-29 (in Japanese).

Japan Road Association (1996) "Specification for Road Bridge V. Earthquake-resistance design" (in Japanese).

Yasuhara, K., Murakami, S. and Fukuda, T. (2004) "GIS Application for Prediction of Liquefaction Potential Caused by Rising Groundwater Level", Proc. Int. Symp. Engineering Practice and Performance of Soft Deposits, pp.433-438.


Department of Urban and Civil Engineering, Ibaraki University Ibaraki University (茨城大学, Ibaraki Daigaku| , 4-12-1 Hitachi, Ibaraki Hitachi (日立市; -shi) is a city located on the Pacific Ocean in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Its name could be directly translated as "sunrise", but probably more appropriately adapted to "prosperous wealth" (the historical kanji name for the area is  316-8511, Japan
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Author:Murakami, S.; Yasuhara, K.; Suzuki, N.; Ni, Wei; Komine, H.
Publication:Geotechnical Engineering for Disaster Mitigation and Rehabilitation
Article Type:Conference news
Geographic Code:9JAPA
Date:Jan 1, 2005
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