Voting with their feet: family friendliness and parent employment in Australian industries, 1981-2001.Abstract
Most Australian industries have instigated some family-friendly provisions, but these vary. In some industries, the span of ordinary work hours has also changed, requiring work on evenings, weekends and holidays. Have these changes affected where parents work? Charting 1981 to 2001 Census data, we found that fathers showed an overall decline as a proportion of employed men, with little difference among industries. Mothers also declined as a proportion of employed women, but with divergent di·ver·gent
1. Drawing apart from a common point; diverging.
2. Departing from convention.
3. Differing from another: a divergent opinion.
4. industry trends. Retail showed a steep (7 per cent) drop in mothers, following the deregulation Deregulation
The reduction or elimination of government power in a particular industry, usually enacted to create more competition within the industry.
Traditional areas that have been deregulated are the telephone and airline industries. of shopping hours Customs and regulations for shopping hours (times that shops are open) vary from country to country. Shopping days and impact of holidays
Some countries do not allow Sunday shopping. In Islamic countries some shops are closed on Fridays during noon. . By contrast, the industry with the most family-friendly conditions at the start of the study period (public service) increased its share of mothers by 6 percent. Minimal family-friendly provisions and a wide span of hours may make it harder to recruit or retain mothers and could be a disincentive dis·in·cen·tive
Something that prevents or discourages action; a deterrent.
something that discourages someone from behaving or acting in a particular way
Noun 1. for mothers' employment.
In February of 2005, the voters of Western Australia Western Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,409,965), 975,920 sq mi (2,527,633 sq km), Australia, comprising the entire western part of the continent. It is bounded on the N, W, and S by the Indian Ocean. Perth is the capital. rejected a referendum referendum, referral of proposed laws or constitutional amendments to the electorate for final approval. This direct form of legislation, along with the initiative, was known in Greece and other early democracies. that would have extended trading hours in the Perth metropolitan area. Campaigning against the referendum, unions and community groups argued that Sunday and evening trading would disrupt the family life of retail employees. This debate defined when employees could be required to work (their span of ordinary work hours) as part of family-friendliness alongside part-time jobs, childcare, flexible hours, maternity leave maternity leave n → baja por maternidad
maternity leave maternity n → congé m de maternité
maternity leave maternity n , and time off to care for sick children.
Nationally, the past two decades have encompassed dramatic demographic and labour market change. Efforts to reform industrial relations industrial relations
Relations between the management of an industrial enterprise and its employees.
the relations between management and workers have redoubled re·dou·ble
v. re·dou·bled, re·dou·bling, re·dou·bles
1. To double.
2. To repeat.
3. Games To double the doubling bid of (an opponent) in bridge.
v. , as have demands for work to become more family friendly. But changes have been uneven. Not all industries have been equally affected by the shift to around-the-clock work times or have introduced the same family-friendly conditions, and it is unclear what impacts these changes may have had on parent work choices.
In this paper we briefly describe the countervailing influences on Australian parents' employment over the two decades 1981-2001. We use Australian Bureau of Statistics The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia and its people. Population and Housing
The agency undertakes the Australian Census of Population and Housing. (ABS (Automatic Backup System) See backup program. ) Census data to describe employed parents as a proportion of all employed people (i.e., mothers as a proportion of employed females and fathers as a proportion of employed males), and then across seven industry groupings (i.e., within each industry's workforce, mothers as a proportion of female employees and fathers as a proportion of male employees) (1). Parents are defined as those who had at least one dependent child aged 15 years or younger in their household. Our definition includes single and couple parents. For the industry-specific trends, we ask if the proportion of employed mothers (or fathers) relative to employed females (or males) in their workforce has changed over time, and if the same trends are observed for both mothers and fathers. We argue that any shifts observed could reflect changes in the relative family friendliness of the industry. Examining this possibility, we chart parent employment in retail and in the public service (two industries showing distinctive trends) against milestones in trading hours and other family-friendly conditions (defined as work conditions that can benefit workers with family responsibilities, DEWRSB DEWRSB Department of Employment, Workplace Relations and Small Business (Australian Federal Government Department) 1998, p. 5). The milestones are drawn from previous research, government documents, industry and union websites, and permit a more in-depth analysis of working conditions, work times and changes in where parents are employed.
Workforce Participation of parents
Attention to the family friendliness of paid work has been stimulated by mothers' increased participation in the paid workforce. Fifty years ago, Australian mothers who could afford to do so withdrew from paid work upon the birth of their first child. They returned--if at all--only when the youngest child had left home. From the 1960s onwards on·ward
Moving or tending forward.
adv. also on·wards
In a direction or toward a position that is ahead in space or time; forward.
Adv. 1. , that pattern shifted, and it became more more common for mothers to withdraw briefly, returning to work relatively soon after a birth. Now, most mothers in couple families are back in paid work by the time a child goes to school (ABS 2000). Indeed, in the last 20 years, women's employment has increased steadily from 50 per cent to 64 per cent, and the trend is especially marked among mothers with dependent children, with employment rising from 46 per cent to 63 per cent (Cass 2002, p. 145).
The labour force is ageing, and people in their prime reproductive re·pro·duc·tive
1. Of or relating to reproduction.
2. Tending to reproduce.
subserving or pertaining to reproduction. years (2545) have become a smaller percentage of the workforce than previously. Older workers are less likely to have dependent children living with them, and historically low fertility fertility: see infertility.
Ability of an individual or couple to reproduce through normal sexual activity. About 80% of healthy, fertile women are able to conceive within one year if they have intercourse regularly without contraception. (ABS 2005) means that younger workers are also less likely to bear children. Thus, despite the influx of mothers into paid employment, between 1981 and 2001 there was an overall reduction in the proportion of parents in the paid workforce. And indeed, Figure 1 shows a consistent proportional proportional
values expressed as a proportion of the total number of values in a series.
the patient is a miniature without disproportionate reductions or enlargements of body parts. decline in working parents from 1981 from 2001. There has been an 8 per cent decline in fathers as a proportion of male workers, and a 2 per cent decline in mothers as a proportion of female workers, even though relatively more mothers were returning to work.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Industry Changes in Parent Employment
With this overall decline in parental share of the paid workforce, do all industries show the same proportional drop in mothers and fathers, or are there declines in some industries and increases in others? In this section we examine changes in the proportion of parents employed within seven industry groupings (see endnotes for more detail) from 1981 to 2001.
This period provides an ideal context to examine industry-specific changes in parent employment in Australia. These two decades witnessed historic moves in the determination of pay and working conditions: from centrally arbitrated awards to collective and individual bargaining. Casual jobs increased from 19 per cent in 1988 to 27 per cent in 1998 (ABS 1999), union membership declined (Hancock 2002, p. 23), and industrial relations reforms targeted labour flexibility rather than family friendliness. Some reforms to increase flexibility served both functions. For example, the availability of part-time jobs increased. Sixteen per cent of workers were employed part-time in 1978, compared with 27 per cent in 2000 (Industrial Relations Victoria 2005, p. 12). Part-time or reduced-hour work is also a key strategy used by parents to help them combine work with family care (OECD OECD: see Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2002, p. 48).
In contrast to most OECD countries, however, there were no universally legislated family-friendly conditions, with the exception of 12 months unpaid parental leave parental leave
A leave of absence granted to a parent to care for a new baby. . This was granted to Commonwealth public servants in 1973 and to all permanent employees through a test case in 1979, and was set in legislation and extended to all non-casual workers through the Industrial Relations Reform Act 1993. Family-friendly provisions are included in legislation, awards, collective agreements within industries, workplace-specific enterprise-bargaining agreements, and individual agreements. In many workplaces, they are not formalised Adj. 1. formalised - concerned with or characterized by rigorous adherence to recognized forms (especially in religion or art); "highly formalized plays like `Waiting for Godot'"
formalistic, formalized through the workplace relations system but are instead informal arrangements between employers and employees. These differences in implementation have led to variability across industries and between workplaces (Earle 2002; Whitehouse 2001). Although most Australian workplaces introduced at least some family-friendly conditions (Whitehouse 2001), they were most widely implemented in the federal and state public sector (ACIRRT ACIRRT Australian Centre for Industrial Relations Research and Training 2002; Earle 2002) and in private-sector industries with skilled employees. In these private sector industries, family-friendly conditions were most often provided if they were considered cost effective, for example if there was a greater investment in training and the cost of replacing employees was high (Gray and Tudball 2002, p. 31). It is not known whether this uneven implementation of family-friendly conditions altered industry patterns as to where parents worked.
Similarly, the shift to a 24-hour, 7-day-a-week economy affected some industries more than others. Work times reflect the operational requirements (programming) operational requirements - Qualitative and quantitative parameters that specify the desired capabilities of a system and serve as a basis for determining the operational effectiveness and suitability of a system prior to deployment. of the industry, and in Australia the period 1981 to 2001 involved unprecedented deregulation to meet changing demands for services and a desire to increase productivity (Campbell and Brosnan 1999). A series of State and federal reforms were implemented in the late 1980s and early 1990s to deliver more flexibility in when employees worked, and a widened span of work hours was a key feature. Twelve-hour shifts were introduced in primary production and in manufacturing. In retail, manufacturing and hospitality, ordinary work hours were redefined to include early morning, late evening or weekend work with reduced or no penalty rates (Campbell and Brosnan 1999, p. 380). Retail employees were perhaps the most affected by the changes in working time, as this period witnessed the removal of restrictions on shop trading hours, and rostering to cover the extended hours became unavoidable.
Work times are an important consideration for parents who must fit their work around children's school and care. Studies in the US and UK indicate that, while some parents choose evening, night or weekend work times to help with child care, a sizable siz·a·ble also size·a·ble
Of considerable size; fairly large.
siza·ble·ness n. majority of parents find that these nonstandard non·stan·dard
1. Varying from or not adhering to the standard: nonstandard lengths of board.
2. schedules interfere with family routines, meals and time together (La Valle La Valle may refer to:
Our first question is therefore whether, within each industry, the proportion of employed parents has changed between 1981 and 2001 and, if so, whether the same pattern is observed for mothers and for fathers. We expect to see some changes in the proportion of parents within industries, linked to disparities between industries in both the availability of family-friendly conditions and pressures to expand work hours beyond the standard 9-to-5 weekday. We compare percentages (not numbers) of mothers and fathers (calculated as the proportion of mothers to females and fathers to males in the industry workforce) to assess compositional change within each industry's workforce (not growth or shrinkage Shrinkage
The amount by which inventory on hand is shorter than the amount of inventory recorded.
The missing inventory could be due to theft, damage, or book keeping errors. in that industry or in the wider economy). We also expect stronger industry shifts for mothers compared with fathers. Although fathers are expressing an increasing desire to be active parents, the continuing gender divisions in responsibility for children and domestic work may motivate mothers to move industry, seeking family-friendly work if they can (Goward et al. 2005).
Table 1 presents census data on mothers as a proportion of employed females within seven industry groupings. The right hand column presents the percentage change from 1981 to 2001. The overall trend of a 2 per cent decline in mothers as a proportion of employed females is presented at the bottom of the table, and if there were no industry specific factors at play we would expect this 2 per cent decline to be uniform across all industries. Instead, clear industry variations are evident. Goods-producing industries (comprising agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water supply and construction--see appendix) and the retail and hospitality industries show a marked relative loss of mothers (7 to 8 per cent decline). The proportion of mothers in the public service and, to a lesser extent, in finance, property and business services show an opposite trend, with a strong rise (6 and 4 per cent increase respectively).
Changes in where mothers worked over the two decades are further illustrated by comparing across industries in Figure 2. Notably, over this 20 year period, retail and hospitality became the industries with the lowest relative employment of mothers, although they were in the middle ranks at the beginning of the 1980s. In contrast, public service jobs in government administration and defence rose from being the lowest relative employer of mothers to join the middle ranks. Although declining, goods-producing industries (which include manufacturing and primary production) continued to employ relatively high proportions of mothers, as did the health, education and community service industries.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Table 2 and Figure 3, which present comparable information for fathers, indicate less industry shift in fathers' employment. Virtually all industries showed a steady decline that reflects the underlying 8 per cent drop of fathers in the employed male workforce overall (shown in Table 3 as the overall change). The only support for an industry specific trend was for fathers working in retail, where the downward trend was stronger (a loss of 13 per cent). Most other industries hovered around the average decline. There was no evidence of an increase in the proportion of fathers in government administration and defence, or in the finance, property and business services, although there was a slightly mitigated mit·i·gate
v. mit·i·gat·ed, mit·i·gat·ing, mit·i·gates
To moderate (a quality or condition) in force or intensity; alleviate. See Synonyms at relieve.
To become milder. decline in the proportion of fathers working in the government administration and defence (2 per cent less than the average decline). Similarly, industry rankings of fathers as a proportion of male employment remained fairly constant over the 20 year time frame (see Figure 3).
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Public Service and Retail Industry Milestones 1981-2001
The census analysis shows that, over the two decades, Australian industries changed in the proportion of mothers (and to a lesser extent fathers) that they employed. The decline was especially notable for retail, whereas the public service (government administration and defence) went against the overall trend, with a rising proportion of mothers among the employed females in its workforce. Do these contrasting industry patterns correspond to changes in work hours or family-friendly conditions? We assess this possibility by charting historical milestones in family-friendly conditions and hours against the proportion of mothers and fathers employed.
Public service. The Australian public service The Australian Public Service (APS) is the Australian civil service, the group of people employed by Departments and courts under the Government of Australia, to administer the working of the public administration of the Commonwealth of Australia. has the most family-friendly provisions compared to all other industries, and some of these were in place before 1981 (Earle 2002). Although it imposed a 'marriage bar' prohibiting the employment of married women until 1966, the public service was the first to introduce paid maternity leave (1973), providing 12 weeks paid leave to employees in federal government agencies. Flexible start and stop times were considered by the Public Service Board in 1972, and were formally introduced in 1977 (Public Service Board 1977). Many public servants could therefore choose when they worked within a specified bandwidth of hours, adjusting their start and stop times to accommodate family commitments.
Explicit strategies to improve women's employment opportunities were included in the Public Service Reform Act 1984, further extended in 1993, and a series of initiatives to improve family friendliness was introduced subsequently (DEIR DEIR Draft Environmental Impact Report 1998, p. 4). Extending existing family-friendly conditions such as paid maternity leave and flexible start and stop times, parental leave without pay was granted in 1985, giving public servants who took leave for family reasons the right to return to their previous positions. In 1986, the option of permanent part-time work was introduced. Following a test case in 1990, which extended access to maternity MATERNITY. The state or condition of a mother.
2. It is either legitimate or natural. The former is the condition of the mother who has given birth to legitimate children, while the latter is the condition of her who has given birth to illegitimate children. , paternity The state or condition of a father; the relationship of a father.
English and U.S. Common Law have recognized the importance of establishing the paternity of children. and adoption leave, the Australian Public Service developed further reentry reentry n. taking back possession and going into real property which one owns, particularly when a tenant has failed to pay rent or has abandoned the property, or possession has been restored to the owner by judgment in an unlawful detainer lawsuit. provisions for employees who had resigned to have children, with the aim of improving retention (Australian Public Service Commission The Australian Public Service Commission is a central agency that acts to ensure future capability and sustainability within the Public Service. External links
This article or section needs 1998).
For most of the two decades of our study, the public service was at the forefront of family-friendly work (Earle 2002). The 1994-95 Family Leave Test Case (ACTU ACTU Australian Council of Trade Unions
ACTU AIDS Clinical Trials Unit (Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri)
ACTU Association of Catholic Trade Unionists
ACTU Australian Capital Territory Union 1997) followed by the Workplace Relations Act 1996 (WRA WRA Wisconsin Realtors Association (Madison, WI)
WRA War Relocation Authority (US WWII)
WRA Western Reserve Academy (Hudson, Ohio) ) may have narrowed the gap between the public service and other industries. The first part of the test case decision, delivered in 1994, entitled en·ti·tle
tr.v. en·ti·tled, en·ti·tling, en·ti·tles
1. To give a name or title to.
2. To furnish with a right or claim to something: workers to use their own sick leave to care for sick family members. In 1995, the second part of the decision combined sick leave and bereavement Bereavement Definition
Bereavement refers to the period of mourning and grief following the death of a beloved person or animal. The English word bereavement leave into a single personal and carer's leave provision and set an annual limit of five days paid carer's leave that could be accumulated ac·cu·mu·late
v. ac·cu·mu·lat·ed, ac·cu·mu·lat·ing, ac·cu·mu·lates
To gather or pile up; amass. See Synonyms at gather.
To mount up; increase. from one year to the next (Queensland University of Technology 1999). These entitlements were incorporated into the Workplace Relations Act 1996 and extended to include additional unpaid carer's leave to be used when other leave entitlements had been exhausted.
The stated objective of the Workplace Relations Act 1996 was to assist employees to balance their work responsibilities by developing mutually beneficial Adj. 1. mutually beneficial - mutually dependent
dependent - relying on or requiring a person or thing for support, supply, or what is needed; "dependent children"; "dependent on moisture" work practices with employers (DEWRSB 1998, p. 3). Since 1996 some family-friendly provisions were mandated throughout all industry awards, with unpaid parental and personal carer's leave as a minimum. There is evidence of a general convergence in the availability of other provisions across industries since 1996. A survey of Australian industry enterprise agreements in 2001 (the end of our study period), indicates that although the public service was still more likely to provide paid maternity leave, job sharing job sharing
an arrangement by which a job is shared by two part-time workers
job sharing job n → Jobsharing nt, Arbeitsplatzteilung f and the opportunity to work from home, other industries including community services and retail were equally or more likely to contain provisions for part-time employment and paid family or carers leave beyond those provided under legislation (ACIRRT 2002, pp. 9-19).
Figure 4 plots the percentage of mothers and fathers in the public service (government administration and defence personnel) against these milestones. The upward trend in mothers as a proportion of the female public service workforce is apparent from 1981 to 1996. Since 1996 the increase slowed, possibly reflecting the more widespread adoption of family-friendly provisions across other industries or a slow-down in improvements in the public service. Strikingly, the proportion of fathers within the public service appears to be unaffected by these developments.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Retail. Retail is one of the largest industry employers of men and women, so that any change in the family friendliness of retail jobs has widespread impacts on employed parents (ABS 1997; Earle 2002). Unlike the public service, the retail industry lacks paid maternity leave. Like all other Australian employees, retail workers have had access to unpaid maternity leave since 1979, but there is little evidence of industry-specific family-friendly provisions until the 1990s. In the years just prior to the 1994 Parental Leave Test Case a range of family-friendly provisions were introduced into retail awards and agreements, including extended unpaid maternity leave, limited paid family and carer's leave, paid prenatal prenatal /pre·na·tal/ (-na´tal) preceding birth.
Preceding birth. Also called antenatal.
preceding birth. leave (usually as part of paid sick leave), and the right to return to work part-time after maternity leave (personal communication from Therese Bryant, Shop, Distributive and Allied Employees Association The Shop, Distributive and Allied Employees Association (SDA) is the largest trade union in Australia with more than 230,000 members and branches in every state and one in the Newcastle, Hunter Valley and Central Coast region. ). In 1996, following the ACTU family leave test case, basic parental and family or carers leave were available across industries. Since then, retail industry provisions such as part-time employment, work hour averaging and banking, and flexible work hours have become relatively common (ACIRRT 2002, pp.14-19). Unlike the flexitime flex·i·time
a system permitting flexibility of working hours at the beginning or end of the day, provided an agreed total is worked
provisions of many public service agreements, however, much of the work hour flexibility contained in retail agreements allows employers rather than employees to vary when they start or stop work. In 2001, 35 per cent of Federal retail agreements allowed for employer discretion to change hours of work, compared to 8 per cent of public service agreements (ACIRRT 2002, p. 19).
Retail work times changed dramatically during the period 1981-2001. Prior to the 1970s, State and federal laws permitted stores to open 5.5 days per week (Monday to Friday 9am-5pm plus Saturday morning until midday
Noun 1. NSW - the agency that provides units to conduct unconventional and counter-guerilla warfare
Naval Special Warfare initiated one night per week late night trading (until 9pm). By the late 1980s Saturday afternoon trading was introduced and the ordinary span of employee work hours was redefined to include early mornings and late evenings. In some stores retail employees received the same rate of pay whether they started work at 7am or 9am, and whether they they finished work at 5pm or at 10pm on weekdays. Work shifts could be rostered anywhere within these hours. In the 1990s, states began to introduce Sunday trading, and a general phasing-in of deregulated trading hours began. Victoria and NSW continued to be the innovators innovators
people who will try new things.
important figures in the farming or client community because they are the leaders in the introduction of new techniques and management systems. , with Tasmania, South Australia South Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,236,623), 380,070 sq mi (984,381 sq km), S central Australia. It is bounded on the S by the Indian Ocean. Kangaroo Island and many smaller islands off the south coast are included in the state. , Queensland and Western Australia introducing more limited changes, and doing so later than the more populous pop·u·lous
Containing many people or inhabitants; having a large population.
[Middle English, from Latin popul Eastern states Eastern States can refer to several locations:
Figure 5 presents milestones in shop hours and retail work conditions against the proportion of mothers and fathers employed in the retail industry. Mothers' employment remained steady from 1981 to 1986, but from 1986 to 1996 there was a decline in the percentage of mothers corresponding to the deregulation of shop hours in most Australian states Noun 1. Australian state - one of the several states constituting Australia
province, state - the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation; "his state is in the deep south" . A slight flattening
The flattening, ellipticity, or oblateness of an oblate spheroid is the "squashing" of the spheroid's pole, down towards its equator. in the decline appears from 1996 to 2001, corresponding to the introduction of family-friendly conditions during the early 1990s and the widespread incorporation of minimum, family-friendly entitlements in 1996. Interestingly, fathers' share of the male retail workforce began to drop even before work hour deregulation and our chart shows no evidence of responsiveness in fathers' employment to any of the family-friendly milestones or to the widened span of ordinary work hours.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
Perhaps retail changed its hiring practices over the twenty year period, targeting younger workers including those who were studying. These data do not allow us to separate employees by age. We were able to consider the category 'child', defined as an employee aged 15-25 who is living with their parents. Among retail workers there was a slight rise in the percentage of male and female 'children' over the 1981-2001 period, but this would not be enough to account for the drop in either mothers' or fathers' employment. Twenty-five percent of male retail employees were 'children' under this definition in 1981, and the percentage rose to 29 in 2001. Similarly 27 per cent of female retail employees were 'children' in 1981, rising to 29 per cent in 2001.
Census data show that over the period from 1981 to 2001 there were distinct shifts in the proportion of mothers employed within Australian industries. Goods production lost its place as the industry with the highest concentration of mothers, and retail moved from having the third highest to the lowest percentage of mothers among its female workers. In contrast to all other industries, the relative share of mothers rose in public sector administration and defence jobs, and to a lesser extent in finance, property and business services. For fathers, any industry shifts were muted mut·ed
a. Muffled; indistinct: a muted voice.
b. Mute or subdued; softened: muted colors.
2. , although there was also a stronger decline in the percentage of fathers working in retail compared to other industries. Behind the industry specific trends lay an average decline in the proportion of employed mothers and fathers, linked to workforce ageing and declining fertility. The average decline for mothers was relatively slight, however, due to countervailing trends for increased maternal MATERNAL. That which belongs to, or comes from the mother: as, maternal authority, maternal relation, maternal estate, maternal line. Vide Line. workforce participation.
We argue that the shifts in employment within Australian industry reflect changes in the relative family-friendliness of some industries, and our analysis of retail and public service conditions from 1981-2001 supports this view. Family-friendly milestones included the introduction of family leave, re-entry RE-ENTRY, estates. The resuming or retaking possession of land which the party lately had.
2. Ground rent deeds and leases frequently contain a clause authorizing the landlord to reenter on the non-payment of rent, or the breach of some covenant, when the provisions and permanent part-time work. The evolution of 24/7 services was a notable feature of the two decades, reflecting new demands for services on weekends and evenings and global pressures on productivity. We also charted changes in the work hours parents may be expected to cover, especially when they involved weekends, evenings and nights. These times could affect parents' availability and time with children, and make it harder to organise childcare, affecting the family friendliness of the industry.
Employment trends for mothers in the public service and in retail followed industry milestones in hours and family-friendly provisions. In the case of the public service, the introduction of parental leave, permanent part-time work end additional support for return to work were accompanied by an increase in mothers' (but not fathers') share of employment. The upward trend was steady over most of the two decade period, although there was some suggestion of a slowing after 1996, when the Workplace Relations Act 1996 mandated minimum family-friendly conditions across all industries. In retail, the appeal of part-time employment appears to have been offset by the widened span of ordinary work hours to include early morning, evening and weekend work. The clear drop in the proportion of mothers working in retail after shop trading hours were deregulated suggests that this acted as an important disincentive. On the other hand, the decline flattened flat·ten
v. flat·tened, flat·ten·ing, flat·tens
1. To make flat or flatter.
2. To knock down; lay low: The boxer was flattened with one punch. somewhat after 1991, perhaps reflecting the introduction of family-friendly provisions such as extended unpaid maternity leave and the opportunity to return to work part-time after maternity leave.
Our aim was to study trends across industry in parent employment and map these against historical data on availability of family-friendly conditions. We did not track individuals and directly assess individual parent's work choices, so that these results must be interpreted as reflecting changes in employed parents as a group, over time and across industries, rather than as describing the movement of individuals across industries. Because we consider proportions rather than numbers of employed parents, our data reflect changes in workforce composition (that is, changes in mothers as a proportion of female employeesand changes fathers as a proportion of male employees) within each industry, not industry expansion or contraction contraction, in physics
contraction, in physics: see expansion.
contraction, in grammar
contraction, in writing: see abbreviation.
contraction - reduction in numbers in numbered parts; as, a book published in numbers.
See also: Number of employees.
A key question is whether parents move into industries that offer family-friendly conditions or whether industries employing many parents implement family-friendly conditions to serve parents' needs. Over the period studied, the need for family-friendly provisions was widely recognised, as evidenced by test cases and the Workplace Relations Act 1996, which might suggest that conditions are an industry response to their employees. Three aspects of our findings contradict con·tra·dict
v. con·tra·dict·ed, con·tra·dict·ing, con·tra·dicts
1. To assert or express the opposite of (a statement).
2. To deny the statement of. See Synonyms at deny. this interpretation, indicating instead that conditions influence where parents work. First, industries that were the most important employers of parents relative to nonparents at the start of the study period did not have, nor did they subsequently introduce, the most family-friendly conditions. In fact the data show that industries with the most family-friendly conditions at the start of the period (public service) increased their relative share of parents in their workforce over time, and those industries that failed to match these provisions showed a relative loss over time.
Second, economic theories of value would predict that family-friendly conditions drive parent employment, and that although employers may respond to their workforce need, this response is selective (Gray and Tudball 2002, p. 31). This framework would indicate that the business case sets the parameters for family-friendly provisions. Costs and profitability drive employer decisions to implement family-friendly conditions, and these are linked to employee skills and replacement costs. Family-friendly conditions therefore become available in industries with highly skilled and educated employees and, in the case of the public service, where the bottom line is not the only consideration. This availability of provisions in some industries but not others also contours Contours may mean:
A key limitation was the information available on family-friendly milestones within industries. The dismantling dis·man·tle
tr.v. dis·man·tled, dis·man·tling, dis·man·tles
a. To take apart; disassemble; tear down.
b. of the award system and move to workplace-negotiated agreements was a feature of the period we studied, which meant that within industries workplaces could offer different conditions and pay. We were unable to access all agreements for our analysis of either the retail industry or the public service. Furthermore, state and federal awards and agreements varied, as did the extent and the date of shopping hour deregulation. Thus, our capacity to specify when conditions were introduced or when shopping hours changed was limited and some of the milestones were not applicable to all people employed in each industry. Secondly, we could not stratify strat·i·fy
v. strat·i·fied, strat·i·fy·ing, strat·i·fies
1. To form, arrange, or deposit in layers.
2. employed mothers or fathers by the ages or number of children in the household. Our data cover all employed parents with children up to the age of 15 years in their household, and it is possible that parents with infants or preschool aged children may prefer different working times or provisions compared to parents with older, school aged children, leading to lifecourse-specific trends. Finally, we were not able to separate public service employees from defence force personnel. In the Australian Defence Forces
The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. , noncivilian employees do not have the same work conditions as civilian employees (whose conditions are comparable to the Australian Public Service). This probably led to some imprecision im·pre·cise
impre·cisely adv. in the trends for the public service against the milestones on family-friendliness.
There was little evidence that fathers shifted industries over the two decades. Only mothers' employment appeared to be responsive to the conditions offered within industries. An industry shift in mothers' but not fathers' employment suggests that either the task of juggling paid work and children's care remained very much women's work or that fathers could not access family-friendly conditions at work. In line with other analyses, the data indicate little if any gender convergence in reconciling work with children's care (Goward et al 2005).
Despite its comparative family friendliness, the public service was not the largest employer (proportionally pro·por·tion·al
1. Forming a relationship with other parts or quantities; being in proportion.
2. Properly related in size, degree, or other measurable characteristics; corresponding: ) of mothers. Goods producing (mostly manufacturing and primary production) and the health and community service industries (mostly nursing and teaching) still showed the highest concentration of mothers in their female workforce. Historically, both industries have been major employers of women. Although the proportion of mothers declined in the goods producing workforce, very little change was observed for health and community services, perhaps because many of these employees are also covered by State or Federal public service awards and agreements, with similar family-friendly provisions.
We documented increasing availability of family-friendly provisions across Australian industry, especially since 1996. But mandated family-friendly entitlements are still among the most limited in the OECD, and there are likely to be contradictory pressures bearing on their availability in the future. Beyond the guaranteed period of unpaid maternity leave, most other family-friendly provisions are negotiable NEGOTIABLE. That which is capable of being transferred by assignment; a thing, the title to which may be transferred by a sale and indorsement or delivery.
2. and so their availability is dependent upon employees, business and workplaces. Potentially these negotiations are vulnerable to economic and operational pressures on business and the bargaining power of employees.
The findings could help inform government, union and business policy. On the one hand, the ageing population places urgent pressures on governments and business to maximise the participation of all working age adults, including parents, in the paid workforce. On the other, global competition places increasing pressures on business to reduce costs. Our data suggest that any erosion of family-friendly provisions, including widening the span of ordinary work hours, could act as disincentives for parent employment and make it harder for some industries to recruit or retain parents. Policies that broaden access to family-friendly conditions for all parents, especially the less skilled and educated, could be an important step in ensuring that they can sustain workforce participation.
The authors are grateful to Erica Fisher, Mark Clements, Bernadette Loughrey and Elena Nobleza for their advice and help with this manuscript manuscript, a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C. . They gratefully acknowledge the salary support provided by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) is Australia's peak funding body for medical research, with a budget of nearly A$500M a year . The Council was established to develop and maintain health standards and is responsible for implementing the for LS (NHMRC NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council grant number 224215) and SM (NHMRC grant number 224200). BW's contribution was supported by an Australian National University Australian National University, located in Canberra and state-sponsored, founded 1946 as Australia's only completely research-oriented university. Originally limited to graduate studies, it expanded in 1960, merging with Canberra University College (est. 1929). Summer Scholarship. Lyndall Strazdins is the corresponding author.
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Australian Public Service Commission (APSC APSC Arkansas Public Service Commission
APSC Alyeska Pipeline Service Company
APSC Alabama Public Service Commission
APSC African People's Solidarity Committee (Oakland, CA)
APSC Asian Pacific Student Coalition ), (1998), Workplace Diversity Practitioner's Handbook
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In botany, soft tissue that forms over a wounded or cut plant surface, leading to healing. A callus arises from cells of the cambium. , R. and Lansbury, R.D. (eds), Working Futures: The Changing Nature of Work and Employment Relations in Australia, The Federation Press, Annandale, pp. 142-162.
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Goward, P. Mihailuk, T. Moyle, S. O'Connell, K. de Silva sil·va also syl·va
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(1) For the 1981, 1986, and 1991 censuses, Industry was classified using the Australian Standard Industrial Classification (ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) Pronounced "a-sick." A chip that is custom designed for a specific application rather than a general-purpose chip such as a microprocessor. ) (ABS Cat. 1201.0) (466 classes). For the 1996 and 2001 Censuses, Industry (INDP INDP Industrial Production ) was classified according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the Australian and New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland. Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC ANZSIC Australian New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification ) (ABS Catalogue 1292.0) (465 classes). In most cases (close to 70per cent), there was one-to-one matching of 1991 and 1996 data; where the classifications were not identical, we reclassified using recommendations from ABS publications on Australian and New Zealand Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) Concordance concordance /con·cor·dance/ (-kord´ins) in genetics, the occurrence of a given trait in both members of a twin pair.concor´dant
n. , ASIC to ANZSIC and Australian and New Zealand Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) Concordance, ANZSIC to ASIC. Australian and New Zealand Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) Chapter 2.
We then simplified industry groupings following the schema used by Wooden (2002). Goods producing services comprised agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water supply and construction. Goods related services encompassed transport, storage, and wholesale trade industries. Retail encompassed food, household, personal and motor vehicle retailing. Finance, property and business services included the communication, finance, insurance, property and business service industries.
Personal and hospitality services combined cultural and recreational industries with accommodation, cafe and restaurant industries, as well as personal and other services. Government administration and defence comprised public service administration and defence force personnel. Health, education, community and other services combined education, health and community services industries and non-classifiable economic units.
Lyndall Strazdins *, Dorothy H. Broom broom, common name for plants of two closely related and similar Old World genera, Cytisus and Genista, of the family Leguminosae (pulse family). , Shannon Meyerkort * and Belinda Warren **
* National Centre for Epidemiology epidemiology, field of medicine concerned with the study of epidemics, outbreaks of disease that affect large numbers of people. Epidemiologists, using sophisticated statistical analyses, field investigations, and complex laboratory techniques, investigate the cause and Population Health, Australian National University (
** University of the Sunshine Coast The University of the Sunshine Coast, is a public university based on the Sunshine Coast in Queensland, Australia. History
The first discussions of a University for the Sunshine Coast region began in 1973.
Table 1: Mothers as a Percentage of Employed Females by Industry, 1981-2001 Census year Census year % Change Industry 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 1981-2001 Goods Producing Services 42 41 37 36 34 -8 Goods Related Services 32 33 32 30 31 -1 Retail Trade 33 33 29 27 26 -7 Finance, Property & 26 29 30 31 30 4 Business Services Government 27 29 31 33 33 6 Administration & Defence Health, Education, Community Services, Other 36 39 39 38 36 0 Personal & Hospitality 34 34 32 28 27 -7 Services All industries 33 34 33 32 31 -2 Source: Australian census data for 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996 and 2001. Note. Mothers defined as employed females with at least one child 0-15 in household. Within industry percentages refer to mothers as a proportion of employed females within that industry. Industry classification from Wooden (2002). Table 2: Fathers as a Percentage of Employed Males by Industry, 1981-2001 Census year Census year % Change Industry 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 1981-2001 Goods Producing Services 41 40 36 35 34 -7 Goods Related Services 41 40 37 35 34 -7 Retail Trade 38 34 30 27 25 -13 Finance, Property & Business Services 40 40 37 35 33 -7 Government Administration & Defence 39 38 36 35 33 -6 Health, Education, Community Services, Other 42 42 39 36 34 -8 Personal & Hospitality Services 36 34 30 28 27 -9 All industries 40 38 35 33 32 -8 Source: Australian census data for 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996 and 2001. Note. Fathers defined as employed males with at least one child 0-15 in household. Within industry percentages refer to fathers as a proportion of employed males within that industry.