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Voluntary standard for low basis weight paper decorative overlays.

VOLUNTARY STANDARD FOR LOW BASIS WEIGHT PAPER DECORATIVE OVERLAYS

1. PURPOSE Low basis weight papers (lightweight papers) are commonly used as decorative overlays with a variety of substrates. The purpose of this standard is to outline the controllable attributes of lightweight papers, and set performance parameters within these categories.

2. SCOPE This standard covers the range of generally accepted types of lightweight papers for decorative laminating. This specification covers construction, thicknesses, sizes, surface treatments, physical property measurements, and other characteristics.

All of the tests and criteria presented in this standard relate to the use of low basis weight papers on wood substrates. The substrates commonly used are particleboard, medium density fiberboard, hardboard, lauan, and hardwood plywood.

3. REQUIREMENTS

3.10 General Products represented as complying with this voluntary standard shall meet all of the applicable requirements as set forth in this section.

Test substrate will be 45-47 pound density industrial quality particleboard. Adhesive will be urea formaldehyde.

3.15 Type of Paper Measured by the amount of resin added to the paper for internal strength. The two basic categories are:

Standard - Consisting of 5% resins other than natural pulp, and trace amounts of internal strength resins.

Industrial - Consisting of 5% resins other than natural pulp, and 2%-3% of internal strength resins. Considered a high internal bond paper.

Titanium - Is made up of the two papers above, but with added titanium for added opacity.

3.20 Construction There are four attributes by which lightweight papers may be categorized.

3.20.1 Paper Weight Measured in grams per square meter. The common paper weights are:

23 grams - 1.2 to 1.4 mils in thickness

30 grams - 1.3 to 1.6 mils in thickness

35 grams - 16.7% heavier

1.52 to 1.86 mils in thickness

Finished product is described by the base paper weight only, regardless of ink and topcoat weight, and by base paper type. Examples of typical descriptions are:

* 23 gram Standard, (bleached)

* 30 gram Standard, (bleached)

* 30 gram Standard, (unbleached)

* 30 gram Industrial, (bleached)

* 30 Industrial, (unbleached)

3.20.2 Topcoat Type and Weight Topcoated products are described by chemical type, visual effect, and weight. The following are typical descriptions within the industry:

Topcoat Weight

Single topcoat, 3-5 grams

Double topcoat, 6-8 grams

Triple topcoat, 11-13 grams

Other, as specified (i.e., 17 grams)

Topcoat Type

Urethane flat

Chemical emboss

Optical emboss

Recoatable

3.20.3 Paper Color Visual appearance only. The two basic categories are:

Bleached - White color of base stock.

Unbleached - Natural pulp color.

3.20.4 Paper Finish Surface characteristics of paper; i.e., smoothness. The two basic categories are:

Standard - Standard surface via paper machine.

Super Calendered - Additional surface treatment of paper resulting in smoother surface.

3.25 Color Matching Lightweight paper is generally manufactured to match some specific color or print pattern. Manufacturers generally code their patterns, which may not relate to the customer description.

Manufacturers are free to name and number their patterns as desired, within the copyright laws of the United States and Canada.

A reasonable color match shall be one that would be considered a good commercial match.

All colors and print patterns must be checked by customers prior to insure that the match is appropriate. All colors must be viewed under a preagreed upon light source. The sample must also be viewed under the same conditions; i.e., angle, room enclosure, etc.

All printed patterns vary in color and gloss, and there will always be some variation within production quantities.

3.30 Custom Matching Both the customer and manufacturer will agree on exactly what is to be matched. The manufacturer will supply a hand sample to the customer for approval. Once approved by the customer, the material must be produced as a commercial match to the customer supplied sample.

Both the customer and manufacturer must realize that decorative papers can be used on substrates other than the one from which the original match was made. Two paper samples, even of the same color and opacity, may appear to be different on different substrates, under different application conditions, or under different lighting conditions.

3.35 Gloss The gloss of the decorative paper shall be consistent across the width as well as within the production quantity.

While some variations are permissible, the gloss is to be a commercial match to the standard retained by the customer and manufacturer, or to samples provided by the customer.

Gloss is measured using a 60 degree Gardner Glossgard II meter.

3.40 Product Thickness Total product thickness will be designated by the manufacturer.

A tolerance of [+ or -] 10% is generally accepted throughout the industry.

3.45 Product Width The width of individual master rolls shall be specified, in fractions of an inch, in increments of no less than 1/4 in. The tolerance in width shall be minus 0 in., plus 1/4 in.

The width of individual slit rolls shall be specified in fractions of an inch, in increments of no less than 1/16 in.

3.50 Splices Continuous rolls of decorative paper may contain splices. Splices are to be clearly marked so as to alert the customer. All splices are to be tight and well laminated, the splices will not separate when rolled from the core. The length between the splices may vary within a roll, or from roll to roll. The number of splices allowed per roll must be mutually agreed upon by the customer and manufacturer.

4. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Decorative papers contain many physical properties which are beneficial to the customer. The following represents common physical properties and the criteria used to measure them.

Variations in product types, topcoats, and topcoat weights affect these values, as well as the natural variation which occurs during the manufacturing process. Comparisons between products should take these factors into consideration.

4.10 Wear Resistance Abrasion resistance is measured via NEMA LD-3-3.01 using a standard CS-10 abrasive wheel and 500 gram load.

Measurements include abrasion cycles to initial printwear, cycles to complete printwear, and weight loss per 100 cycles.

Typical values are as follows:
 Table : CYCLES TO WEIGHT
 PRINTWEAR LOSS
 Initial 50% (gr/100c)
7 gsm Urethane 250 750 0.0025
17 gsm Urethane 1,000 2,300 0.0025
6 gsm Chemical 75 200 0.0025
7 gsm Optical 225 450 0.0025


4.15 Stain Resistance Stain resistance is measured by applying stain to the paper surface, covering with a watch glass for 24 hours, removing the glass and cleaning the surface with water only, then soapy water, and lastly, isopropyl alcohol.

The effect of staining materials shall be reported as:

* "O" No effect - stains removed with no impairment to the finish.

* "M" Moderate effect - stains which require the use of an abrasive for removal, resulting in a decrease in gloss.

* "X" Severe effect - stains which cause a permanent color change or irreparable surface damage. A severe effect may be expected from certain harsh chemicals if they are allowed to contact the decorative surface.

Each manufacturer shall specify the degree of stain resistance each product has to the stain agents listed below.

The following results (effects) are expected:
 Table : Flat Chemical Optical
 Urethane Emboss Emboss
Tomato ketchup 0 0 0
Mustard 0 0 0
Vinegar 0 0 0
Coffee 0 0 0
Household soap 0 0 0
Washable ink 0 0 0
Felt pen ink 0 0 0
Blue-Rit dye 0 0 0
Vegetable oil 0 0 M


4.20 Hoffman Scratch Resistance Scratch properties are measured via a Hoffman Scratch Tester and via rubbing with a serrated edge coin measuring the rubs to printed pattern wear.

The following are typical values:
 Table : Flat Chemical Optical
 Urethane Emboss Emboss
Hoffman scratch 500 gr 400 gr 350 gr
Coin rubbing >15 rubs >15 rubs >15 rubs


4.25 Tape Release This test measures the ability of the topcoated product to resist tape adhesion. This test also determines topcoat adhesion to the printed paper. The test is done as follows:

a. Adhere a one-half (0.5 in.) inch wide by three (3) inch long piece of tape to the paper surface across the print direction.

b. Press the tape to the paper with finger pressure.

c. Pull the tape rapidly from the paper surface at a forty-five (45 [degrees] C) degree angle in one motion.

d. Evaluate the paper surface for print removal.

The following are typical values:
 Table : Flat Chemical Optical
 Urethane Emboss Emboss
Nichiban pulls 10+ 3+ 10+


cellophane

3M Scotch 810 (1 in.) 10+ 10+ 10+

4.30 Cleanability of Surface The ability of the low basis weight paper surface to be cleaned.

Results will be stated in the number of strokes necessary to clean the surface.

* a. No effect, 0-10 scrubbing strokes

* b. Slight effect, 11-25 scrubbing strokes

* c. Moderate effect, 26-50 scrubbing strokes

* d. Severe effect, 51+ scrubbing strokes

4.35 Gloss Topcoated papers are produced within defined tolerances. The following are general descriptions and commercial tolerances.

Low gloss, 0-15, [+ or -] 2

Medium gloss, 15-30, [+ or -] 3

High gloss, 30-50, [+ or -] 5

Super high gloss, 50-99, [+ or -] 10

All gloss measurements are made on a flat horizontal surface utilizing a Gardner 60 degree Glossgard II glossmeter.

4.40 Solvent Resistance Solvent resistance is measured by applying 1 ml of solvent to the paper surface, covering with a watch glass for three (3) hours, removing cover glass, and determining visual effect.

The following results (effects) are expected:
 Table : Flat Chemical Optical
 Urethane Emboss Emboss
Acetone none none none
MEK none none none
Ethyl acetate none none none
Ethyl alcohol none none none
Isopropyl alcohol none none none


4.40.1 MEK Rubbing Resistance MEK resistance is measured by rubbing an MEK soaked soft rag against the topcoated surface against the print direction. One rub is a complete cycle, that is, once up and once down. The test is run until initial printwear is noted.

The following are typical values:
 Table : Flat Chemical Optical
 Urethane Emboss Emboss
MEK rubs >200 flat area >200
 (>100)
 tick area
 (>20[*])


[*] Design dependent

4.45 Surface Burning Surface burning is tested in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials E 84 specifications (hereinafter referred to as ASTM). Flame spread value and smoke density are reported. Class ratings are assigned based on values of flame spread, surface burning, and smoke density values. The vinyl is fixed to a reinforced cement board with a flame contribution of zero.

Since the performance of each product will vary depending on paper weight and type and thickness of the coating (if any), each manufacturer shall specify the results of the burning test for each product sold. The type of information provided should resemble the table below.
 Table : Flame
 Spread Smoke ASTM E-84
 Value Density 84A Class


7 gsm Urethane

17 gsm Urethane

6 gsm Chemical

7 gsm Optical

4.45 Scuff Resistance The ability of the foil to maintain its original appearance when exposed to scuffing.

Results will be stated as follows:

* a. No effect - no visible cracking, denting or tearing. Color loss or gloss change is acceptable.

* b. Severe effect - surface is cracked, torn or ripped.

4.50 Ball Impact Resistance The ability of the foil to resist fracture due to spot impact by a large diameter ball.

Results will be measured as height of impact resistance before failure.

4.55 High Temperature Resistance The ability of the foil surface to maintain its color and surface texture when subjected to a high temperature (365 degrees on a flat surface for 20 minutes).

* a. No effect - no change in color or surface texture.

* b. Slight effect - a change in color or surface texture visible only at certain angles or direction.

* c. Moderate effect - a change in color or surface texture visible at all angles and directions, but not appreciably altering the original condition of the specimen.

* d. Severe effect - a change in color or surface texture which is obvious and normally alters the original condition of the specimen; i.e., cracks, crazing, blisters, discolorations, whitening, or delamination.

4.60 Radiant Heat Resistance The ability of the foil surface to resist spot damage when subjected to a radiant heat source.

Results will be recorded as the number of seconds to failure (up to 600). Failure will be evidenced by blistering, charring, parchment discoloration, or crazing.

4.65 Conductive Heat Resistance The ability of the foil surface to resist conductive heat.

* a. No effect - no change in color or surface texture.

* b. Slight effect - a change in color or surface texture visible only at certain angles or direction.

* c. Moderate effect - a change in color or surface texture visible at all angles and directions, but not appreciably altering the original condition of the specimen.

* d. Severe effect - a change in color or surface texture which is obvious and normally alters the original condition of the specimen; i.e., cracks, crazing, blisters, discolorations, whitening, or delamination.

4.70 Light Resistance The ability of the foil to retain its color when exposed to a source of light having a frequency range approximately that of sunlight.

The results will be measured as:

* a. No effect - no change in color or surface texture.

* b. Slight effect - a change in color or surface texture visible only at certain angles or direction.

* c. Moderate effect - a change in color or surface texture visible at all angles and directions, but not appreciably altering the original condition of the specimen.

* d. Severe effect - a change in color or surface texture which markedly alters the original condition of the specimen.

4.75 Dart Impact Resistance The ability of the foil to resist fracture due to impact by a small diameter ball.

Result will be measured as height of impact resistance before failure.

4.80 Water Resistance Water resistance will be measured in hours of exposure of surface. Water will be applied and covered with a watch glass.

The results will be described as follows:

* a. Visible damage (number of hours).

* b. Irreversible damage (number of hours).

5. FAILURE TO CONFORM Any decorative paper reported to be in compliance and found otherwise may be replaced to the customer, or at the discretion of the manufacturer, the purchase price of the substandard material may be refunded.

In no case will the manufacturer be responsible for any liability in excess of the cost of the replacement material.
COPYRIGHT 1991 Vance Publishing Corp.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1991, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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Publication:Wood & Wood Products
Date:Jun 1, 1991
Words:2388
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