Vocational rehabilitation in South Korea: historical development, present status, and future direction.Since the 1980s, vocational rehabilitation Noun 1. vocational rehabilitation - providing training in a specific trade with the aim of gaining employment
rehabilitation - the restoration of someone to a useful place in society in South Korea has developed rapidly as one of the country's fastest growing social service areas. Due to South Korea's rapid economic growth during the 1960s and 1970s, the South Korean government could afford to expand social services social services
welfare services provided by local authorities or a state agency for people with particular social needs
social services npl → servicios mpl sociales to include rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy. services for people with disabilities. The efforts of international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and the Economic and Social Commission of Asia and Pacific (ESCAP ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCAP European Society for Child and Adolescent Psychology ) to enhance the well being and quality of life of people with disabilities living in developing and underdeveloped un·der·de·vel·oped
Not adequately or normally developed; immature. countries also worked as a catalyst, promoting and facilitating growth within vocational rehabilitation in South Korea (Kwon, 1997)
Despite remarkable progress, there still exist many problems and limitations in the delivery of South Korean vocational rehabilitation services, in large part as a consequence of these services' short history. In the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , the formal provision for providing public vocational rehabilitation to people with disabilities has evolved since the Soldier's Rehabilitation Act in 1918 (Rubin & Roessler, 2001). By contrast, in South Korea the acknowledged rights of people with disabilities, legislative initiatives, facilities, and service systems necessary for providing vocational rehabilitation to people with disabilities have developed only since the early 1950s. In this paper, we present a historical overview, describe current situations and problems, and future directions for better improvement of vocational rehabilitation in South Korea.
Historical Overview of Vocational Rehabilitation in South Korea
Beginnings: 1953 to 1976
The South Korean program of rehabilitation for people with disabilities was introduced following the 1950 Korean Conflict. Unfortunately, at the time there were neither adequate government programs nor facilities to provide support for the many disabled soldiers and civilians (Park, 2001). In 1953, the South Korean government converted a wounded veterans' recuperation recuperation /re·cu·per·a·tion/ (-koo?per-a´shun) recovery of health and strength.
n the process of recovering health, strength, and mental and emotional vigor. home in Tong-nae, Pusan, into the National Rehabilitation Center. This conversion was assisted by the United Nations' South Korea Reconstruction Agency (UNKRA UNKRA United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency ) and Rusk, who was the Chairman of the American South Korean Foundation (AKF AKF Aga Khan Foundation (Geneva, Switzerland)
AKF Australian Koala Foundation
AKF American Kidney Fund
AKF Aktivkohle (German: Activated Charcoal; filter/canister)
AKF Acute Kidney Failure ) and a professor of Rehabilitation Medicine rehabilitation medicine Physiatry, physiotherapy A field of therapeutics that bridges the gap between conventional and nonconventional medicine; rehabilitation physicians may adminsiter or prescribe mechanical–eg, massage, manipulation, exercise, movement, at New York University New York University, mainly in New York City; coeducational; chartered 1831, opened 1832 as the Univ. of the City of New York, renamed 1896. It comprises 13 schools and colleges, maintaining 4 main centers (including the Medical Center) in the city, as well as the . The Center was the first rehabilitation center with modern facilities and technologies established in all of Asia and was staffed by a team of rehabilitation personnel dispatched by the UN. The Center's programs included (a) medical evaluation and treatment of veterans with disabilities; (b) development, manufacturing, and distribution of up-to-date assistive devices assistive device Public health Any device designed or adapted to help people with physical or emotional disorders to perform actions, tasks, and activities. See Americans with Disabilities Act, Architectural barriers, Assistive technology. and prostheses Prostheses
A synthetic object that resembles a missing anatomical part.
Mentioned in: Microphthalmia and Anophthalmia ; and (c) vocational training and placement. Eventually, the Center's programs expanded to include rehabilitation of civilians with disabilities (South Korea Research Meeting for Asian-Pacific Decade, 1997).
In 1954, Rusk sent South Korean medical doctors to New York University to train in rehabilitation medicine. Rusk also facilitated the development the South Korean Society for Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons (KSRD) and sponsored KSRD's affiliation with Rehabilitation International Rehabilitation International (RI) is an international disability rights organization with a secretariat based in New York U.S.. Founded in 1922, RI has more than 700 member organizations in 90 countries. (RI), thus helping South Korea keep abreast Verb 1. keep abreast - keep informed; "He kept up on his country's foreign policies"
keep up, follow
trace, follow - follow, discover, or ascertain the course of development of something; "We must follow closely the economic development is Cuba" ; "trace the of international development on disability and rehabilitation issues. His interest in and contribution to the rehabilitation of persons with disabilities in South Korea was so significant that to this day he is called a pioneer in the South Korean rehabilitation community (Jeon, 2000).
In the 1960s, many medical doctors who had been trained in the United States in orthopedic surgery Orthopedic Surgery Definition
Orthopedic (sometimes spelled orthopaedic) surgery is surgery performed by a medical specialist, such as an orthopedist or orthopedic surgeon, trained to deal with problems that develop in the bones, joints, and ligaments , rehabilitation medicine, and other specialties returned to South Korea and helped create orthopedic orthopedic /or·tho·pe·dic/ (-pe´dik) pertaining to the correction of deformities of the musculoskeletal system; pertaining to orthopedics. and rehabilitation departments in major hospitals. Soon thereafter, resident training programs were developed in these specialty fields. A junior college for training physical therapists was established in 1964 (South Korea Research Meeting for Asian-Pacific Decade, 1997). The rapid development in medical rehabilitation services due to the urgent need for physical restoration of people wounded during the Korean Conflict did not, however, lead immediately to the establishment of other rehabilitation service programs, such as vocational services and psychosocial support psychosocial support A nontherapeutic intervention that helps a person cope with stressors at home or at work. See Companionship, Most significant other. . The social instability, political turmoil, and economic difficulties following the Korean Conflict meant that the government had no opportunity to develop a national policy for people with disabilities. Instead, between 1960 and 1970, national policy focused almost exclusively on economic growth; social welfare policies addressing public health requirements and economic pension plans for disadvantaged people, including people with disabilities and veterans, made very little progress.
Regulation and Development: 1977-1988
Prompted by the UN's actions to declare the Rights of the Mentally Retarded Noun 1. mentally retarded - people collectively who are mentally retarded; "he started a school for the retarded"
developmentally challenged, retarded in 1971 and to adopt the Declaration of the Rights of the Disabled Persons in 1975, the South Korean government enacted the Promotion of Special Education Act in 1977. This regulation promoted normalization In relational database management, a process that breaks down data into record groups for efficient processing. There are six stages. By the third stage (third normal form), data are identified only by the key field in their record. , mainstreaming, inclusive education, early education, and individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. education, thus improving the educational opportunities for people with disabilities, which in turn allowed them to develop their own abilities, to live more independently, and to contribute to their communities (Kim, 1995). It was the first legal policy established in South Korea for the rehabilitation of people with disabilities. Since then, the Act has been amended several times in the aforementioned a·fore·men·tioned
The one or ones mentioned previously.
Adj. 1. concepts to further enhance special education in South Korea In South Korea, education is highly regarded and very competitive. A centralized administration oversees the process for the education of children from kindergarten to third grade high school. (Shin shin (shin) the prominent anterior edge of the tibia or the leg.
saber shin marked anterior convexity of the tibia, seen in congenital syphilis and in yaws. , 2000).
Comprehensive vocational rehabilitation services for people with disabilities in South Korea, spurred on by the rapid economic growth during 1960s and 1970s and the external influence of international organizations like the UN, began in the early 1980s. This was an important period in terms of history of rehabilitation policy development for people with disabilities. Cha (1994), a former Minister of the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare The Ministry of Health and Welfare is a branch of the government of South Korea. External links
• • , named the following three factors as instrumental in forming the groundwork for development of vocational rehabilitation policies for people with disabilities: (1) the national movement for better quality of life for people with disabilities, (2) the government's balanced investment across societal so·ci·e·tal
Of or relating to the structure, organization, or functioning of society.
Adj. needs, including rehabilitation, and (3) international influences such as the UN's International Year of Disabled Persons The year 1981 was proclaimed the International Year of Disabled Persons (IYDP) by the United Nations. It called for a plan of action with an emphasis on equalization of opportunities, rehabilitation and prevention of disabilities. in 1981.
The UN's appeal and the social needs in the area of rehabilitation motivated South Korea's enactment of The Disability Welfare Act in 1981, which delineated de·lin·e·ate
tr.v. de·lin·e·at·ed, de·lin·e·at·ing, de·lin·e·ates
1. To draw or trace the outline of; sketch out.
2. To represent pictorially; depict.
3. the government's responsibility for the protection of disability rights and included provisions for prevention of disability; medical, vocational, social, and educational rehabilitation; and economic assistance. The Division of Rehabilitation, which implements rehabilitation policies, was founded at this time in the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (the predecessor of the Ministry of Health and Welfare). Simultaneously, the South Korean government began a national survey project and created a database of demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. on people with disabilities to support effective and systematic rehabilitation policies.
The 1988 Paralympic Games Par·a·lym·pic Games
An international competition for athletes with disabilities.
[para-1 + (O)lympic. , held in Seoul concurrently with the 1988 Summer Olympic Games The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. , increased public awareness of disability issues and facilitated further development of rehabilitation services in South Korea (South Korea Research Meeting for Asian-Pacific Decade, 1997). In 1988, a Special Committee on the Welfare for People with Disabilities was established as a presidential advisory committee to address Cha's three factors, noted above. Although it was only a temporary committee, it was the first presidential committee dealing explicitly with disability issues and presented a special report to the President on comprehensive measures for disability welfare and rehabilitation of people with disabilities
A Period of Progress and Transition: 1989 to 1990
The Revision of the Disability Welfare Act in 1989 promoted expanded the scope of rehabilitation services and resulted both in the conversion of many segregated custodial residential facilities into integrated and community-based facilities and the creation of new rehabilitation centers. Consequently, South Koreans with disabilities gained increased accessibility to a wide range of services, and a number of rehabilitation counseling rehabilitation counseling,
n counseling started in the United States in 1920 to assist individuals disabled by industrial accidents; originally included physical, psychologic, and occupational training; expanded over the next 70 years and laid the , evaluation, medical rehabilitation, vocational rehabilitation, and social adjustment training programs were developed and employed at these rehabilitation centers to fill the increased needs (Jeon, 2000).
South Korean National Assembly then passed the Employment Promotion Act for People with Disabilities of 1990, which has been considered the turning point in addressing employment issues for people with disabilities in South Korea (South Korea Research Meeting for Asian-Pacific Decade, 1997). The Act included various measures to increase employment of people with disabilities, including an obligatory obligatory /ob·lig·a·to·ry/ (ob-lig´ah-tor?e) obligate.
unavoidable; something that is bound to occur. employment system (a quota system Quota System can refer to:
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.
2. , when more people with disabilities are employed than is required by law, a subsidy is offered to the employer. In 1990, this incentive system prompted An on-screen symbol that indicates the operating system is ready for a command. See DOS prompt. the development of a new administrative organization under the Ministry of Labor, the South Korean Employment Promotion Agency for the Disabled (KEPAD), which plays a similar role to the Division of Vocational Rehabilitation in the United States (Kang, 1997).
Period of Settlement: 1991 to the Present
Although the 1990 Employment Promotion Act for people with disabilities has historical importance as the first South Korean law The legal system of South Korea is a civil law system that has its basis in the Constitution of the Republic of Korea. History
The South Korean legal system effectively dates from the introduction of the original Constitution of the Republic of Korea and the regarding employment promotion for people with disabilities, many limitations on expansion of employment opportunities for persons with disabilities persist (Oh, 2001). First, the strongest type of employment promotion of the Act was the 2% quota system. However, while the Act clearly outlined the responsibilities of private enterprises to sustain the 2% employment for persons with disabilities rule, similar regulation of central and local governments was vague. This made it difficult to question government organizations when they did not employ people with disabilities in the proportions indicated by the Act. As a consequence, private enterprises were often uncooperative in providing employment opportunities for people with disabilities, complaining that government organizations unfairly transferred the responsibility to employ people with disabilities to the private sector. Moreover, the 1990 Employment Promotion Act for people with disabilities excluded people with mental retardation mental retardation, below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living. , developmental disabilities developmental disabilities (DD),
n.pl the pathologic conditions that have their origin in the embryology and growth and development of an individual. DDs usually appear clinically before 18 years of age. , and cerebral palsy cerebral palsy (sərē`brəl pôl`zē), disability caused by brain damage before or during birth or in the first years, resulting in a loss of voluntary muscular control and coordination. who required intensive vocational rehabilitation planning, because in practice the Act focused solely on vocational rehabilitation of people with physical disabilities or mild mental disabilities (Kim, 1999).
These problems inspired a 1999 amendment of the 1990 Employment Promotion Act for people with disabilities. The 1999 amendment includes the implementation of the "Supported Employment", "Diversified Sheltered Workshop shel·tered workshop
A workplace that provides a supportive environment where physically or mentally challenged persons can acquire job skills and vocational experience.
Noun 1. ", "Financial Aids for Small Businesses who hire people with disabilities", "Double Count System", and "Codified cod·i·fy
tr.v. cod·i·fied, cod·i·fy·ing, cod·i·fies
1. To reduce to a code: codify laws.
2. To arrange or systematize. Responsibility of 2% Obligatory Employment for People with Disabilities" in government organizations. In the "Double Count system", hiring a person with severe disabilities is comparable to the hire of two employees, providing a financial incentive to employers. The severity of disabilities depends on nationwide disability category in South Korea. Also, "Codified Responsibility of 2% Obligatory Employment for People with Disabilities" in government organizations intends to demonstrate the leadership role of the government, and in turn will encourage compliance in the private sector. Finally, new legislation entitled en·ti·tle
tr.v. en·ti·tled, en·ti·tling, en·ti·tles
1. To give a name or title to.
2. To furnish with a right or claim to something: the "Employment Promotion and Vocational Rehabilitation Act for People with Disabilities" incorporating these recommendations was passed by the South Korean National Assembly in December 1999; it has been enforced since July 1, 2000 (Oh, 1999; Oh, 2001).
The Service Delivery System and the Current Situation of Vocational Rehabilitation
Two governmental bodies, the Ministry of Labor and the Ministry of Health and Welfare, are involved in vocational rehabilitation service delivery in South Korea. In 1990, the South Korean Ministry of Labor established a Disabled Employment Division (Kwon, 1997), and it established the South Korean Employment Promotion Agency for the Disabled (KEPAD), a pivotal agency with the exclusive responsibility to enhance the nationwide vocational rehabilitation for the people with disabilities. KEPAD currently has one Employment Development Institute (EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) The electronic communication of business transactions, such as orders, confirmations and invoices, between organizations. Third parties provide EDI services that enable organizations with different equipment to connect. ), thirteen Branch Offices scattered Scattered
Used for listed equity securities. Unconcentrated buy or sell interest. nationwide, four Vocational Evaluation Centers (VEC VEC Vector
VEC Vancouver English Centre
VEC Vocational Education Committee
VEC Victorian Electoral Commission (Australia)
VEC Vector Error Correction (exchange rates) ), and three Vocational Training Institutes (VTI VTI Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet
VTI Velocity-Time Integral
VTI Vietnam Telecom International
VTI Vocational Training Institute
VTI Virtual Tunnel Interface (Cisco)
VTI Vermeer Technologies Incorporated ) (http://www.kepad.or.kr/sub07-03.htm). KEPAD, EDI, VEC, and VTI are public organizations under the fiscal control of the Ministry of Labor.
In 1997, the South Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare divided its Rehabilitation Division into two subordinate divisions, the Rehabilitation Service Division and the Disability Policy Division. The purpose of the division was to manage more efficiently the increasing responsibilities for developing and improving national policies and delivery systems for disability services due to changes in socio-economic conditions such as economic growth, industrialization industrialization
Process of converting to a socioeconomic order in which industry is dominant. The changes that took place in Britain during the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and 19th century led the way for the early industrializing nations of western Europe and , and the ever-increasing demand of people with disabilities for welfare and rehabilitation (Kwon, 1997). The Ministry of Health and Welfare manages 35 Community Vocational Rehabilitation Centers, which coordinate the vocational rehabilitation services such as vocational counseling and guidance, vocational evaluation, vocational adjustment training, job placement, follow-up, and supported employment.
Additionally, the Ministry of Health and Welfare expanded the concept of sheltered workshops to include five specialized types of facilities: independent work facilities, sheltered work facilities, work activity facilities, vocational adjustment training facilities, and products marketing facilities for the products made by people with disabilities. Taken together, these facilities were designed to address the various vocational rehabilitation needs for competitive employment of persons with different levels and severities of disability. (Korean Ministry of Health & Welfare, 2001). Independent work facilities provide minimum wage employment for people with disabilities who are unable to find permanent employment because of social barriers. People with disabilities can both work and live at these facilities until they are hired in competitive employment, Sheltered work facilities are segregated facilities, providing people with disabilities who face physical barriers to competitive employment with employment opportunities. Work activity facilities provide people with the most severe disabilities with vocational services such as basic Activities for Daily Living (ADL) or basic job task training. Vocational adjustment training facilities provide specialized vocational training in specific areas such as mechanical, computer, electrical, or packing: the area of specialization A career option pursued by some attorneys that entails the acquisition of detailed knowledge of, and proficiency in, a particular area of law.
As the law in the United States becomes increasingly complex and covers a greater number of subjects, more and more attorneys are depends upon the facility. Products marketing facilities promote product marketing, marketing counseling, marketing information and provide a specialized marketplace for products made by people with disabilities. Comparison of these facilities in terms of eligibility, type of integration and employment, and wage is presented in Table 1.
Although South Korea has been developing her own unique service delivery systems, there are some problems in terms of duplications of services. Moreover, other problems occur because each ministry works as a separate entity and tends to compete rather than cooperate with each other. For example, the Ministry of Labor and the Ministry of Health and Welfare compete for funding in each yearly budget. Another problem is that the outcome reports compiled by each Ministry are designed not to maximize total service-delivery efficiency and efficacy but to encourage further development of their own service programs, even as such programs overlap with those provided by the other Ministry. Obvious opportunities for specialization, such as having the Ministry of Labor specialize spe·cial·ize
1. To limit one's profession to a particular specialty or subject area for study, research, or treatment.
2. To adapt to a particular function or environment. in vocational evaluation centers while the Ministry of Health & Welfare specializes in vocational training, are missed because the two Ministries do no cooperate. Figure 1 illustrates vocational rehabilitation service delivery and interagency in·ter·a·gen·cy
Involving or representing two or more agencies, especially government agencies. cooperation of each Ministry. The lack of cooperation of the two Ministries and duplication of services are also illustrated.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Inefficiencies occur because the two Ministries provide the same services. This results in deterioration de·te·ri·o·ra·tion
The process or condition of becoming worse. of service quality because a limited number of vocational counselors provide too many different kinds of vocational rehabilitation services including counseling, job placement, job development, vocational evaluation, and supported employment. Ultimately the problem stems from insufficient regulation: both the Ministry of Labor and the Ministry of Health and Welfare are responsible for providing vocational rehabilitation services, but the specific roles and functions of each ministry are not clearly defined.
The U.S. shows one way to achieve a cooperative system in vocational rehabilitation counseling. The Division of Vocational Rehabilitation provides qualified vocational counseling to people with disabilities and cooperates with the private sector of vocational rehabilitation agencies in terms of education, evaluation, and placement via service procurement The fancy word for "purchasing." The procurement department within an organization manages all the major purchases. . The Division of Vocational Rehabilitation in the U.S. provides intensive vocational counseling for its clients and purchases job placement, supported employment, or vocational evaluation services from the private rehabilitation sector. By contrast, while the Korean Employment Promotion Agency has job placement developers or supported employment developers as personnel, the private sector in South Korea also have those personnel: cost-effectiveness is needed in terms of cooperation and administration. Figure 2 illustrates vocational service delivery in the U.S., and how the Division of Vocational Rehabilitation cooperates with private sector of rehabilitation and other inter-division of the Department of Workforce Development.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Although there may be many reasons why the employment situation of the South Koreans with disabilities did not improve in spite of changes in policy and government programs, some are especially apparent. First, the regulations and policies have been superficial or perfunctory per·func·to·ry
1. Done routinely and with little interest or care: The operator answered the phone with a perfunctory greeting.
2. Acting with indifference; showing little interest or care. , lacking the enforcement that makes the laws more than mere recommendations. Strong disciplinary action by the government against violators has been a rarity. Second, local governmental systems are immature immature /im·ma·ture/ (im?ah-chldbomacr´) unripe or not fully developed.
Not fully grown or developed.
unripe or not fully developed. . Local autonomy systems in South Korea were instituted only in 1995 (Choi, 1995). Even if the central government develops national vocational rehabilitation policies relatively successfully, local governments have limited effective delivery channels to meet the objectives of the policies. They rarely have staff trained to handle rehabilitation programs Noun 1. rehabilitation program - a program for restoring someone to good health
program, programme - a system of projects or services intended to meet a public need; "he proposed an elaborate program of public works"; "working mothers rely on the day care for people with disabilities. Therefore, comprehensive and systematic improvements in the government body must be established so that a variety of services can reach individuals with disabilities at every community level (Cha, 1994). Third, many South Korean rehabilitation facilities have been established without proper development of programs and professional manpower. A shortage of specialized manpower impedes development and success of vocational rehabilitation programs Noun 1. vocational rehabilitation program - a program of rehabilitation through job training with an eye to gainful employment
rehabilitation program - a program for restoring someone to good health . Only four universities provide a Rehabilitation Counseling program, and the system of legal certification of vocational rehabilitation counselors vocational rehabilitation counselor,
n term coined in the 1960s and 1970s for a professional who incorporates the best of psychology, social work, and nursing in an attempt to integrate psychology with traditional rehabilitation protocols. was enacted only four years ago (Park, 2003). Therefore, the majority of rehabilitation personnel currently working in vocational rehabilitation facilities have an educational background in social welfare and social work rather than in rehabilitation counseling or vocational rehabilitation.
Oh (1998) stated that the quality of vocational rehabilitation services depends heavily upon the professionalism of rehabilitation personnel who deliver the services. Szymanski and Parker (1989), Szymanski (1991), and Szymanski and Danek (1992) revealed that the rehabilitation counselor's skill and knowledge relate directly to the outcome of increased employment opportunities for clients In regards that, the lack of a qualified and sufficient educational system is one of the most unfortunate barriers to ensuring the employment and civil rights of people with disabilities. South Korea must upgrade the quality of vocational rehabilitation personnel by providing appropriate educational and professional development opportunities to prepare practitioners better to function effectively in this important profession (Cha, 1994; Lee, 1998).
Suggestions for Future Directions
Although the South Korean government has focused its attention on establishing legislation in support of people with disabilities and has achieved remarkable progress in a relatively short period of time, people with disabilities in South Korea are still struggling to achieve independence in their vocational lives. The reasons can be traced to the short history and the lack of understanding of cultural differences in application when vocational rehabilitation was introduced to South Korea. The vocational rehabilitation personnel of South Korea, drawn as they were from a variety of other disciplines and professions, could not manage to pending problems because the immediate needs of vocational rehabilitation exceeded their ability. This burden might be a universal problem in developing countries intending to develop rehabilitation services in a comparatively short span of time. This suggests that international exchange with Western countries with successful, sophisticated vocational rehabilitation systems in place might be the optimal way for such programs in South Korea (and other developing countries) to develop.
First, international academic events such as seminars, conferences, and workshops on vocational rehabilitation are needed in South Korea for contribution of public awareness of disability and rehabilitation issues and upgrade the quality of services provided by rehabilitation personnel. Second, the exchange of students and scholars in the vocational rehabilitation field would help to infuse in·fuse
1. To steep or soak without boiling in order to extract soluble elements or active principles.
2. To introduce a solution into the body through a vein for therapeutic purposes. in-depth knowledge and techniques in all areas of vocational rehabilitation into the South Korean system. Selected South Korean students can be encouraged to study abroad, especially in the United States, in order for them to learn the latest theories and techniques and contribute to program and personnel development upon their return to South Korea. The establishment of sisterhood sisterhood: see monasticism. relationships or the expansion of scholarship opportunities would enable student exchanges. The exchange of noted scholars in the vocational rehabilitation field would further contribute to South Korea's advancement in this domain. Third, implementation of distance continuing education continuing education: see adult education.
or adult education
Any form of learning provided for adults. In the U.S. the University of Wisconsin was the first academic institution to offer such programs (1904). programs like those developed in the United States would help overcome the inadequate training of a large portion of rehabilitation personnel currently working in South Korean vocational rehabilitation facilities who, because of the lack of academic programs in South Korea's educational system, have never been schooled specifically in disability or vocational rehabilitation. In the U.S., various distance continuing education programs specific to vocational rehabilitation have been developed. The National Clearinghouse of Rehabilitation Training Materials (NCRTM NCRTM National Clearinghouse of Rehabilitation Training Materials ) operated by Oklahoma State University Oklahoma State University, at Stillwater; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1890, opened 1891 as Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, renamed 1957. lists some of the vocational rehabilitation-related distance learning continuing educational programs (http://www.nctrm.okstate.edu). Fourth, learning assistance programs and translation systems could be developed to assist the rehabilitation personnel in South Korea who lack proficiency pro·fi·cien·cy
n. pl. pro·fi·cien·cies
The state or quality of being proficient; competence.
Noun 1. proficiency - the quality of having great facility and competence in English to participate in distance continuing education programs. Fifth, the South Korean government should support international exchange systematically because a fruitful fruit·ful
a. Producing fruit.
b. Conducive to productivity; causing to bear in abundance: fruitful soil.
2. international relationship contributes to the mutual interests and contribution in future development among all participating nations. Also academics in South Korea should contribute to mutual development and contribution through further research in international exchange, looking at ways to make it a two-way support system.
South Korea has achieved much in vocational rehabilitation over a short period of time. However, South Korea has also gone through a trial-and-error period such as the overlapped service delivery system, and legal recommendations rather than legal regulations. The American Model, the most developed country in the area of vocational rehabilitation, was introduced at the end of Korean Conflict and when other social events were occurring such as including economic development, political changes, social needs, international Paralympics, UN's announcement for the rights of people with disabilities and legislations.
With the historical review of vocational rehabilitation in South Korea and suggestions for future direction, another purpose of this paper is to found a cornerstone for following researches which trace reciprocal interaction among a variety of factors, as noted above. This brief overview of the history, current state, and suggestions for future development via international exchange of vocational rehabilitation in South Korea is not sufficient to address all the problems in the system. Chang (1998) states that all kinds of social science--including psychology, anthropology, political science, economy, and others--are related organically. Social science, including rehabilitation, seeks both to understand complex social phenomena and to deal with social needs and problems. Vocational rehabilitation cannot be considered independently of economic and societal forces that influence it. Policy making such as legislations also reflects a country's own culture, and other countries have different social histories, economies, and political and societal contexts.
Thoughtful elaboration of vocational rehabilitation history of South Korea
n. pl. o·rig·i·nal·i·ties
1. The quality of being original.
2. The capacity to act or think independently.
3. Something original.
Noun 1. could be beneficial. Different cultural recognition of vocational independence or social attitude toward people with disabilities deserves additional research.
South Korean vocational rehabilitation history reflects the effect of knowledge introduction from other countries, interaction between imported cultures and own culture, and positive or negative outcomes in application. The authors hope that this review of the South Korean experience can be the initial manure manure, term used in the United States to refer to excreta of animals, with or without added bedding; also called barnyard manure. In other countries the term often refers to any material used to fertilize the soil. for sophisticated, contextualized future researches, and the readership to enjoy this historical review of South Korean vocational rehabilitation. Also the authors hope that this article of the South Korean historical review can contribute to many countries developing vocational rehabilitation, and guide them in a more constructive direction so that they can avoid the same errors.
Table 1. Comparison of vocational rehabilitation facilities under Ministry of Health and Family Services Who is eligible Type of integration Independent People physically Separated Work Facilities capable of competitive employment, but facing socially difficulties. Sheltered Work People facing moderate Separated Facilities physical barriers to competitive employment Work Activity People with the most Separated Facilities severe disabilities barring employment Vocational All people Separated Adjustment with Training disabilities Facilities Wage Type of employment Independent Alternative Employment Work Facilities employment for minimum wage until clients get competitive employment Sheltered Work Depends on Employment Facilities agency's gross of product Work Activity No Training Facilities Vocational No Training Adjustment Training Facilities
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A condition that must exist or be established before something can occur or be considered; a prerequisite.
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