Victimization experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: a meta-analysis.
On October 28, 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama signed the hate crimes bill into law, making it a federal crime to assault an individual based on sexual orientation sexual orientation
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces. or gender identity. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the General Social Survey, in the past few decades, attitudes toward sexual minorities have improved, and there has been an increase in support for legal rights (Davis, Smith, & Marsden, 2010; Loftus, 2001). Nonetheless, hate crimes based on sexual orientation--such as threats of violence, verbal harassment Ask a Lawyer
Country: United States of America
I recently moved to nev.from abut have been going back to ca. every 2 to 3 weeks for med. , and physical and sexual assault--are widespread. Collection of hate crime statistics, as well as research on other types of victimization victimization Social medicine The abuse of the disenfranchised–eg, those underage, elderly, ♀, mentally retarded, illegal aliens, or other, by coercing them into illegal activities–eg, drug trade, pornography, prostitution. , has increased over time, following the passage of the Hate Crime Statistics Act The Hate Crime Statistics Act, 28 USC 534, requires the Attorney General to collect data on crimes committed because of the victim's race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity. The bill was signed into law by George H. W. on April 23, 1990 (United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. Congress, 1990). In 2008, law enforcement agencies A law enforcement agency (LEA) is a term used to describe any agency which enforces the law. This may be a local or state police, federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) or the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). in the United States reported that there were 9,691 victims of hate crimes, 17.6% of whom were targeted because of a bias against a particular sexual orientation (Federal Bureau of Investigation Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), division of the U.S. Dept. of Justice charged with investigating all violations of federal laws except those assigned to some other federal agency. , 2009). Of course, these statistics represent only the tip of the iceberg iceberg, mass of ice that has become detached, or calved, from the edge of an ice sheet or glacier and is floating on the ocean. Because ice is slightly less dense than water about one ninth of the total mass of a berg projects above the water. because they count only the incidents reported to law enforcement. Being victimized based on sexual orientation not only results in poor physical health if the individual is injured in·jure
tr.v. in·jured, in·jur·ing, in·jures
1. To cause physical harm to; hurt.
2. To cause damage to; impair.
3. , but is also linked to other negative outcomes for the victim, such as poor mental health (Meyer, 2003). This meta-analysis quantitatively compiled the results of relevant studies to examine the prevalence and types of victimization experienced by lesbian, gay, and bisexual bisexual /bi·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to or characterized by bisexuality.
2. an individual exhibiting bisexuality.
3. pertaining to or characterized by hermaphroditism.
4. (LGB) individuals.
Definitions and Theories of Sexual Orientation-Based Victimization
The Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990 requires the U.S. Attorney General to collect data "about crimes that manifest evidence of prejudice based on race, religion, sexual orientation, or ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic " (U.S. Department of Justice, 1999, p. 1). A hate crime has additionally been defined as "an illegal act involving intentional in·ten·tion·al
1. Done deliberately; intended: an intentional slight. See Synonyms at voluntary.
2. Having to do with intention. selection of a victim based on a perpetrator's bias or prejudice against the actual or perceived status of the victim," and has both symbolic and instrumental functions (Craig, 2002, p. 2). To the perpetrator A term commonly used by law enforcement officers to designate a person who actually commits a crime. , the victim symbolizes the despised de·spise
tr.v. de·spised, de·spis·ing, de·spis·es
1. To regard with contempt or scorn: despised all cowards and flatterers.
2. social group, such that victimization represents the perpetrator's bias against that group. The victim's symbolization symbolization /sym·bol·iza·tion/ (sim?bol-i-za´shun) an unconscious defense mechanism in which one idea or object comes to represent another because of similarity or association between them. of a particular group is not related to identification with the group but, rather, to whether the perpetrator views the victim as being representative of the group. Instrumentally, hate crimes against an individual may change the behavior of the social group in reaction to the victimization (e.g., moving away from a specific neighborhood), thus rewarding the perpetrator's actions. Some studies distinguish between victimization based on the perpetrators' perceptions of sexual orientation and victimization based on the perpetrators' knowledge of actual sexual orientation; other studies do not make this distinction. This meta-analysis included all three types of studies.
Victimization has been defined as "harms that occur to individuals because of other human actors behaving in ways that violate social norms" (Finkelhor & Kendall-Tackett, 1997, p. 2). In most nations around the world, victimization based on sexual orientation takes place within the context of heterosexism heterosexism Psychology The belief that heterosexual activities and institutions are better than those with a genderless or homosexual orientation. See Homophobia. and heteronormativity in which heterosexuality het·er·o·sex·u·al·i·ty
Erotic attraction, predisposition, or sexual behavior between persons of the opposite sex.
heterosexuality is considered the norm. Heterosexism has been defined as "the ideological system that denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes any non-heterosexual form of behavior, identity, relationship or community" (Herek, 1994, p. 91). In this context, mainstream society consists of heterosexual heterosexual /het·ero·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to, characteristic of, or directed toward the opposite sex.
2. one who is sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex. men and women, and anyone whose sexual orientation falls outside of these two categories is considered a sexual minority. Both institutional and interpersonal in·ter·per·son·al
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.
2. heterosexisms, which are often manifested in sexual-orientation-based discrimination, harassment, and violence, create a hostile climate for sexual minorities (Fernald, 1995). Although laws prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation protect sexual minorities in the workplace, institutional heterosexism is present in the illegality of same-sex marriages in most states in the United States, and sexual minorities often face discrimination regarding adoption (Ryan & Whitlock, 2006) and health care (Mays & Cochran, 2001).
Those with ethnic minority status (e.g., African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. ), or sexual minority status (e.g., gay or lesbian), have a social identity that is stigmatized and linked to an inequality of power, privilege, and prestige, as well as discrimination on both an interpersonal and institutional level (Landrine, Klonoff, Alcaraz, Scott, & Wilkins, 1995). Furthermore, those with multiple minority statuses, such as a Latina lesbian, may face even greater levels of discrimination and stigma stigma: see pistil.
mark of Cain
God’s mark on Cain, a sign of his shame for fratricide. [O. T.: Genesis 4:15]
scarlet letter . Sexual minorities specifically experience what has been termed cultural victimization, which refers to the impact of living in a heterosexist society (Neisen, 1993). This experience has been likened to the trauma of physical and sexual abuse, such that the victims may experience adverse mental health outcomes, including shame and negative self-concept, as a result. Additionally, the stigma of identifying as non-heterosexual may lead to experiences of verbal, physical, and sexual victimization, which has been demonstrated in past research (Berrill, 1992). Therefore, sexual minorities are doubly victimized, both culturally and through direct victimization.
Factors relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc the culture of heteronormativity (Warner, 1991), such as appearance and behavior, may help to explain the victimization of LGB individuals. Although many Western societies have become somewhat more flexible about feminine and masculine appearance and behavior, a set of norms and expectations are still in place regarding what is considered acceptable for men and women, especially related to sexual orientation. Although many individuals who identify as LGB follow societal so·ci·e·tal
Of or relating to the structure, organization, or functioning of society.
Adj. expectations of acceptable appearance and behavior for their gender, some defy de·fy
tr.v. de·fied, de·fy·ing, de·fies
a. To oppose or resist with boldness and assurance: defied the blockade by sailing straight through it.
b. these norms. For example, a gay man might wear makeup makeup
In the performing arts, material used by actors for cosmetic purposes and to help create the characters they play. Not needed in Greek and Roman theatre because of the use of masks, makeup was used in the religious plays of medieval Europe, in which the angels' faces , or a lesbian woman might choose to participate in a sport that is traditionally considered masculine, such as rugby. Lesbian and gay individuals are often more gender atypical atypical /atyp·i·cal/ (-i-k'l) irregular; not conformable to the type; in microbiology, applied specifically to strains of unusual type.
adj. than heterosexual individuals, and gender atypicality a·typ·i·cal also a·typ·ic
Not conforming to type; unusual or irregular.
atyp·i·cal may signal non-heterosexuality to others (Rieger, Linsenmeier, Gygax, Garcia, & Bailey, 2010). These transgressions may result in experiences of victimization and harassment as others respond to this non-normative behavior. A study of childhood gender atypicality and lifetime victimization based on sexual orientation found that LGB youth who were considered gender atypical in childhood reported more victimization than LGB youth who were gender typical (D'Augelli, Grossman, & Starks, 2006). Additionally, Franklin's (2000) study of anti-gay behaviors in young adults suggested that those perpetrators who were motivated by anti-gay attitudes likely conflated homosexuality with gender-deviant behavior, which became the primary phenomenon that was targeted. Although gender atypicality is related to sexual orientation, victimization may take place based on gender atypicality alone or in combination with known or perceived sexual orientation. The majority of research on sexual orientation-based victimization does not distinguish between victimization based on known or perceived sexual orientation and victimization based on gender atypicality (for an exception, see D'Augelli et al., 2006). While the studies included in this meta-analysis primarily focused on victimization related to sexual orientation, it is difficult to know the real reasons behind the victimization; in some cases, the reason may be gender atypicality, whereas in other cases, the basis for victimization might be something else, such as race.
Who is Victimized and How?
Although hate crimes represent an extreme form of victimization, individuals who identify as non-heterosexual, or are perceived as being such, face a spectrum of types of victimization: from workplace discrimination and peer harassment in school settings, to specific types of physical violence, sexual assault, and emotional abuse. In a review of the workplace experiences of LGB people, Croteau (1996) found that across three studies, 25% to 66% of participants reported experiencing discrimination at work. Among youth who identify as LGB, many report experiencing harassment and discrimination related to their sexual orientation, such as verbal harassment and physical assault (Bontempo & D'Augelli, 2002; D'Augelli, Pilkington, & Hershberger, 2002; Kosciw & Diaz, 2006). A national study on campus climate conducted by the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force found that of the participants studied, 36% of LGB and transgender undergraduate students experienced harassment within the past year (Rankin, 2003). Regarding more specific types of physical and emotional abuse, Berrill's (1992) quantitative review of anti-gay violence and victimization found that across 24 studies, 9% of participants experienced assault with a weapon, 17% experienced simple physical assault, 19% experienced vandalism The intentional and malicious destruction of or damage to the property of another.
The intentional destruction of property is popularly referred to as vandalism. It includes behavior such as breaking windows, slashing tires, spray painting a wall with graffiti, and and property crimes, 44% had been threatened with violence, 33% had been chased or followed, 25% had objects thrown at them, 13% had been spat spat
juvenile aquatic shellfish, especially oysters ready for settlement on solid surfaces—'spat fall'. on, and 80% had been verbally harassed. While these studies begin to document the prevalence of victimization of LGB individuals, a more comprehensive and up-to-date review is needed. This meta-analysis aimed to fill this gap, using a comprehensive definition of victimization that included studies measuring all types of discrimination, harassment, and violence. Although many of the studies reviewed, including Berrill (1992), are limited to U.S. samples, sexual orientation-based victimization is a global concern. Internationally, individuals who identify as sexual minorities or who display same-sex attraction or behavior are targets of violence and harassment (Dworkin & Yi, 2003). This meta-analysis included studies worldwide.
Some sexual orientation groups may be victimized more than others. Previous research has demonstrated that individuals with a bisexual identity may be especially vulnerable to victimization experiences (Russell & Seif, 2002; Udry & Chantala, 2002). Bisexuality bisexuality /bi·sex·u·al·i·ty/ (-sek?shoo-al´i-te)
1. sexual attraction to persons of both sexes; exhibition of both homosexual and heterosexual behavior.
2. true hermaphroditism.
3. androgyny (1). has been associated with a number of negative stereotypes, such as promiscuity Promiscuity
See also Profligacy.
constantly flits from one girl to another. [Aust. Drama: Schnitzler Anatol in Benét, 33]
promiscuous goddess of sensual love. [Gk. Myth. , that may lead to greater levels of victimization than other sexual orientation groups, such as lesbian or gay. This may be related, in part, to the fact that bisexuality is a relatively new sexual orientation category. As with other sexual orientation identities, such as gay, it may be the case that as it becomes more acceptable to be bisexual, individuals who identify as such will experience less victimization or have rates that are more similar to gay and lesbian individuals. The relationship between societal acceptability and rate of victimization was not directly addressed by this meta-analysis. However, this meta-analysis sought to answer the question of whether rates of victimization have changed since 1992, and this potential change may coincide with greater societal acceptability of non-heterosexual orientations.
Implications of Victimization
The minority stress hypothesis proposes that experiencing discrimination and prejudice may lead to negative health outcomes (Mays & Cochran, 2001). In a review of mental health in LGB populations, the higher prevalence of mental disorders mental disorders: see bipolar disorder; paranoia; psychiatry; psychosis; schizophrenia. in this population was explained within the conceptual framework For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see .
A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to a system analysis project. of minority stress in which stigma, prejudice, and discrimination create a hostile or stressful social environment that causes subsequent mental health problems (Meyer, 2003). A review of verbal and physical abuse as stressors for LGB youth used a minority stress approach to demonstrate that verbal and physical harassment was associated with problematic outcomes, such as school-related problems, running away from home, conflict with the law, substance abuse, prostitution prostitution, act of granting sexual access for payment. Although most commonly conducted by females for males, it may be performed by females or males for either females or males. , and suicide (Savin-Williams, 1994). It should be noted that the links between victimization and negative mental health outcomes are correlational, and more research is needed to examine whether victimization causes adverse mental health outcomes.
Bias crimes, such as sexual orientation-based hate crimes, may be associated with more negative mental health outcomes than non-bias crimes (McDevitt, Balboni, Garcia, & Gu, 2001). Sexual orientation-based hate crimes are an extreme type of victimization that may be more psychologically distressing than other crimes, in part, because victims also experience an attack on their sexual identity (Garnets Garnets may have the following meanings
An anxiety disorder in some individuals who have experienced an event that poses a direct threat to the individual's or another person's life. , and anxiety, both among gay youth (Hershberger & D'Augelli, 1995) and LGB adults (Cogan, 1996).
Negative implications of victimization are found not only with more extreme forms of victimization such as physical assault, but also with more subtle forms of victimization. In work on race-based victimization, racial microaggressions are defined as "brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory de·rog·a·to·ry
1. Disparaging; belittling: a derogatory comment.
2. Tending to detract or diminish. , or negative racial slights and insults toward people of color Noun 1. people of color - a race with skin pigmentation different from the white race (especially Blacks)
people of colour, colour, color
race - people who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock; "some biologists doubt that there are important " (Sue et al., 2007, p. 271); this concept has also been expanded to sexual orientation (Sue, 2010). Microaggressions are associated with similar mental health implications compared to more extreme or overt Public; open; manifest.
The term overt is used in Criminal Law in reference to conduct that moves more directly toward the commission of an offense than do acts of planning and preparation that may ultimately lead to such conduct.
OVERT. Open. types of victimization. The mental health implications that may be linked to being victimized based on sexual orientation necessitate ne·ces·si·tate
tr.v. ne·ces·si·tat·ed, ne·ces·si·tat·ing, ne·ces·si·tates
1. To make necessary or unavoidable.
2. To require or compel. identifying the scope of the problem, which this meta-analysis attempted to do through determining prevalence of victimization in LGB individuals.
Change Over Time
As previously mentioned, the gay liberation movement Noun 1. gay liberation movement - the movement aimed at liberating homosexuals from legal or social or economic oppression
crusade, campaign, cause, drive, effort, movement - a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular has made significant progress, and compared with the past, attitudes toward sexual minorities have improved, and there has been an increase in support for legal rights (Davis et al., 2010; Loftus, 2001). However, this progress may also result in an increase in victimization as sexual minorities become more visible and prominent in the population. On the other hand, some researchers have suggested that adolescents today may not be as homophobic ho·mo·pho·bi·a
1. Fear of or contempt for lesbians and gay men.
2. Behavior based on such a feeling.
[homo(sexual) + -phobia. as adolescents in the past. Savin-Williams (2005) proposed that the visibility and normativity of being gay in the United States has simultaneously resulted in sexual identity becoming less important to today's teenagers. Likewise, a qualitative study of homophobia homophobia Psychology An irrationally negative attitude toward those with homosexual orientation, or toward becoming homosexual. See Closet, Gay-bashing, Heterosexism. Cf Gay, Homosexual, Phobia. in English schools revealed that cultural homophobia may be less significant to male students today, demonstrated, in part, through the use of "gay discourse" rather than "homophobic discourse" (McCormack, 2011). One question that this meta-analysis sought to answer is whether the rate of victimization experienced by LGB individuals has changed over time since Berrill's (1992) review.
This meta-analysis also aimed to answer the question of whether LGB individuals of different ages experience different rates of victimization. As the range of studies previously mentioned illustrates, sexual orientation-based victimization affects individuals of all ages. Are LGB adolescents more likely to experience victimization than adults? Rates of bullying Bullying
Chowne, Parson Stoyle
terrorizes parish; kidnaps children. [Br. Lit.: The Maid of Sker, Walsh Modern, 94–95]
bully; becomes thief in Fagin’s gang. [Br. Lit. in schools suggest that adolescents may experience more direct forms of victimization than adults (Bontempo & D'Augelli, 2002), who may experience more indirect forms, such as workplace discrimination (Croteau, 1996). However, many studies of LGB adults have also documented substantial rates of direct victimization, such as verbal harassment and physical violence, and one of the few studies of victimization of older LGB adults found rates of victimization to be considerable (D'Augelli & Grossman, 2001). This meta-analysis included studies with samples representing all age groups.
Within-Group Versus Between-Group Differences
Although methodological concerns have been raised about much of the research with LGB youth not including a comparison sample of heterosexual youth (Anhalt & Morris, 1998), many previous studies have compared LGB individuals with heterosexual individuals. This research paradigm assumes that sexual minorities are similar to each other, but dissimilar to heterosexuals (Savin-Williams, 2001). However, it has been argued that within-group differences in sexual minority youth are greater than differences between sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth, and that a differential developmental trajectories perspective should be used in studying the development of LGB youth (Savin-Williams, 2001; Savin-Williams & Diamond, 1999). This perspective suggests that sexual minority youth have a variety of developmental pathways, some of which may be different than heterosexual youth, but some of which may be similar. The previous discussion regarding potentially increased victimization of bisexual individuals speaks to the importance of addressing within-group differences. This argument calls for comparison not only between LGB and heterosexual individuals, but also among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. This meta-analysis sought to achieve both types of comparisons.
In Berrill's (1992) review of anti-gay violence and victimization, he demonstrated that victimization varied both by gender and by racial/ethnic background. For example, gay males experienced more verbal harassment by nonfamily members, and more physical violence, whereas lesbians experienced more verbal harassment by family members, and reported more fear of anti-gay violence. Studies reviewed by Berrill that examined racial and ethnic differences in rates of victimization found that lesbians and gay men of color not of the white race; - commonly meaning, esp. in the United States, of negro blood, pure or mixed.
See also: Color were at an increased risk of violence based on sexual orientation. Although the research design of many studies on LGB individuals does not distinguish between ethnic groups or includes only one ethnic subgroup sub·group
1. A distinct group within a group; a subdivision of a group.
2. A subordinate group.
3. Mathematics A group that is a subset of a group.
tr.v. in the study, this meta-analysis compared prevalence of victimization between and within groups when possible.
Previously, Berrill (1992) conducted a quantitative literature review on anti-gay violence and victimization in the United States. That review demonstrated the pervasiveness of anti-gay violence, but meta-analysis was not used to systematically review the literature or to compute To perform mathematical operations or general computer processing. For an explanation of "The 3 C's," or how the computer processes data, see computer. overall effects. Moreover, numerous studies of victimization have been conducted since 1992. The goal of this study was to synthesize To create a whole or complete unit from parts or components. See synthesis. research since 1992 on LGB victimization using modern meta-analytic methods. It is important to note that this meta-analysis measured self-reports of victimization, rather than observational data of actual victimization experiences. However, for linguistic ease, victimization and experiences of victimization will be used throughout this article.
This study attempted to answer the following questions: What is the prevalence of victimization experienced by LGB individuals? Has prevalence of victimization changed since 1992? What types of victimization are experienced? Are differences in prevalence of specific types of victimization related to age or ethnicity of the sample?
This study improved on previous reviews by using meta-analysis to systematically search the literature and compute overall effects, and by including both published and unpublished research. In systematically reviewing literature on the topic of victimization and sexual orientation, this meta-analysis also aimed to provide an overview of methodological issues, such as definitions of sexual orientation, sampling methods, victimization measures, and other considerations, with the goal of providing recommendations for future research in this area. Analyses were conducted to determine rates of victimization across all LGB individuals, in LGB versus heterosexual individuals, and in LGB females versus LGB males. All analyses were conducted across all samples and separately with U.S. samples only, given the need for data to inform public policy in the U.S. Another goal of this meta-analysis was to compare findings regarding prevalence of victimization with Berrill's (1992) study, which included only U.S. samples.
Sample of Studies
To identify relevant studies, three search methods were utilized. First, studies were obtained by including references from existing review articles published between 1992 and 2009 on this topic (Balsam balsam (bôl`səm), fragrant resin obtained from various trees. The true balsams are semisolid and insoluble in water, but they are soluble in alcohol and partly so in hydrocarbons. & D'Augelli, 2006; Burke & White, 2001; Craig, 2002; Croteau, 1996; D'Augelli, 1993; Dworkin & Yi, 2003; Fernald, 1995; Harper & Schneider, 2003; Horn & Nucci, 2006; Meyer, 2003; Peplau & Fingerhut, 2007; Rivers & D'Augelli, 2001; Ryan & Rivers, 2003; Savin-Williams, 1994). Second, a search of the PsycINFO database was conducted to identify potential articles. A literature search was performed for published studies and unpublished dissertations, and was limited to articles published in English with human samples between January 1992 and December 2009. PsycINFO uses subject indexes to categorize cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat studies included in the database. To find articles measuring prevalence of victimization, the subject indexes of victimization, violence, discrimination, harassment, hate crimes, and school climate were used in conjunction with sexual orientation, homosexual, lesbian, bisexual, gay, queer, sexual minority, and variations of sexual orientation categories such as homosexuality. Third, a search was conducted within the Journal of Homosexuality The Journal of Homosexuality (ISSN 0091-8369) is a long-standing peer-reviewed academic journal (founding editor Charles Silverstein) published by The Haworth Press, Inc., in New York. between 1992 and 2009 to identify any relevant articles that may have been missed in the search using PsycINFO. All results from the searches were uploaded into RefWorks, an online reference manager, and duplicate references were deleted. The results from these three searches, after duplicate references were deleted, were 2,501 studies.
Each abstract in RefWorks was examined for relevance to victimization in LGB populations. Abstracts were excluded on the basis of any of the following criteria: if (a) the reference was a case report, letter, commentary, or review article; (b) the research was qualitative; (c) the study did not measure sexual orientation; or (d) the study did not mention variables relevant to the topic of this meta-analysis. Qualitative research Qualitative research
Traditional analysis of firm-specific prospects for future earnings. It may be based on data collected by the analysts, there is no formal quantitative framework used to generate projections. was excluded because the statistics needed for meta-analysis were rarely reported, and the samples were frequently small and selective. All other abstracts were retained in the sample.
After all abstracts were screened, the remaining 386 studies were retrieved and coded. Each article or dissertation dis·ser·ta·tion
A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
1. was obtained through online sources, ordered through interlibrary in·ter·li·brar·y
Existing or occurring between or involving two or more libraries: an interlibrary loan; an interlibrary network. loan, or through the authors. Once the articles were obtained, they were coded for the variables outlined below. If the study met the criteria for inclusion, but did not include the necessary statistics (e.g., did not include statistics for a particular type of victimization), the first author of the study was contacted. Ten of the 34 authors that were contacted responded with the relevant data. The other 24 authors either responded that the data were no longer available or did not respond; these studies were excluded from the meta-analysis. Studies with results for more than one sample, such as from different populations (e.g., school vs. community), were coded for each individual sample. The result was 164 useable studies with 228 samples, representing data from 503,826 individuals. (1)
This meta-analysis reviewed studies that measured prevalence of victimization in LGB individuals. Types of victimization were based on categories defined by Berrill (1992), and expanded to include other categories that appeared during the initial search of the literature. The following types of victimization were not included in Berrill's study, but were added for this study: discrimination of any type, being robbed, sexual abuse from family, Internet-based victimization, threats of being "outed," workplace victimization, relational victimization, and general victimization. All measures were self-report since the victim is the most reliable source of information related to personal experiences of victimization, and self-report is the standard method of measurement in this area. Although self-reports of some types of victimization might be considered more objective (e.g., property violence), self-report of all types of victimization is relevant to determining prevalence. The list of categories included the following:
1. Discrimination: General discrimination. Health care-based discrimination, housing discrimination, and discrimination in the workplace were coded separately from general discrimination.
2. Threats of violence: Any threat of violence.
3. Verbal or emotional abuse: Any type of verbal or emotional victimization not from family.
4. Property violence or vandalism: Any type of property violence, such as breaking a window or scratching a vehicle.
5. Targets of being pelted by objects: Being the target of any type of object, including stones, rotten rot·ten
adj. rot·ten·er, rot·ten·est
1. Being in a state of putrefaction or decay; decomposed.
2. Having a foul odor resulting from or suggestive of decay; putrid.
3. food, and so forth.
6. Followed or chased: Any incidence of being followed, chased, or stalked stalked
Having a stalk or stem. Often used in combination: long-stalked; short-stalked.
Adj. 1. .
7. Spat on: Being spat on.
8. Physical attack or abuse: All types of physical assault, including being punched, hit, and kicked, and so on.
9. Weapon assault: Threats of weapon assault and direct assault using a weapon.
10. Robbed: Being robbed, mugged, or having a possession stolen.
11. Police victimization: Any type of victimization from the police, including harassment, verbal abuse verbal abuse Psychology A form of emotional abuse consisting of the use of abusive and demeaning language with a spouse, child, or elder, often by a caregiver or other person in a position of power. See Child abuse, Emotional abuse, Spousal abuse. , physical abuse, and so forth.
12. Sexual assault: All levels of sexual assault, from unwanted touching to rape. Sexual assault was coded separately from familial familial /fa·mil·i·al/ (fah-mil´e-il) occurring in more members of a family than would be expected by chance.
adj. sexual abuse and sexual harassment sexual harassment, in law, verbal or physical behavior of a sexual nature, aimed at a particular person or group of people, especially in the workplace or in academic or other institutional settings, that is actionable, as in tort or under equal-opportunity statutes. , and did not include intimate partner violence. Age of sexual assault was coded if available.
13. Abuse from family. Verbal/emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and any other type of abuse not specified earlier. Verbal/emotional, physical, and sexual abuse were coded separately. Age of abuse was coded if available.
14. Internet-based victimization: Stalking Criminal activity consisting of the repeated following and harassing of another person.
Stalking is a distinctive form of criminal activity composed of a series of actions that taken individually might constitute legal behavior. online or via e-mail.
15. Knowledge of others who have been victimized: Knowledge of others who have been victimized on the basis of sexual orientation.
16. Threats of being outed: Threats of sexual identity disclosure to others.
17. School victimization: Bullying and any victimization that took place at school and was not specified as another type of victimization (e.g., verbal abuse or physical assault).
18. Sexual harassment: Anything specified as sexual harassment in the study, including unwanted physical and verbal attention of a sexual nature.
19. Workplace victimization: Discrimination in the workplace and incidents representing discrimination, such as being fired due to sexual orientation.
20. Relational victimization: Being deliberately excluded from social groups.
21. General victimization: General harassment, combined measures of multiple types of victimization, and any type of victimization not specified in the other categories.
Coding the Studies
Each study was coded for the necessary information to compute effect sizes and moderating variables. Seventeen articles yielding 22 samples were coded by two raters to compute interrater reliability. After establishing interrater reliability, each rater rat·er
1. One that rates, especially one that establishes a rating.
2. One having an indicated rank or rating. Often used in combination: a third-rater; a first-rater. coded the remaining studies individually, but came together for consensus when coding of a particular variable was unclear. The studies were coded for the following study characteristics.
Sample characteristics. Each study was coded for the number of non-heterosexual (total sexual minority, total bisexual, total questioning, sexual minority female, and sexual minority male) and heterosexual participants in the study. Interrater reliability was r = 1.00 for the total number of sexual minority, bisexual, sexual minority female, and sexual minority male participants; and r = 0.98 for the number of heterosexual participants.
The following demographic variables of the sample were coded: gender, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (income and education). Regarding age, mean, standard deviation, and range were not consistently reporting across studies, so a categorical That which is unqualified or unconditional.
A categorical imperative is a rule, command, or moral obligation that is absolutely and universally binding.
Categorical is also used to describe programs limited to or designed for certain classes of people. variable was created to reflect different age groups. The age range was primarily used to classify clas·si·fy
tr.v. clas·si·fied, clas·si·fy·ing, clas·si·fies
1. To arrange or organize according to class or category.
2. To designate (a document, for example) as confidential, secret, or top secret. a study into an age category because range was reported more consistently than the mean and standard deviation; when the range was not reported, the mean was used. Among the studies, 9% reported an adolescent sample (age 18 or under), 54% reported an adult sample (age 18 or over), 30% reported extremely broad age ranges (e.g., ages 16-65), and 7% did not report age. The necessity of categorization to enable analyses of age-related differences, combined with inconsistency in·con·sis·ten·cy
n. pl. in·con·sis·ten·cies
1. The state or quality of being inconsistent.
2. Something inconsistent: many inconsistencies in your proposal. in reporting age ranges, led to categories that were somewhat overlapping. In the end, we were forced to conclude that most researchers had paid little attention to developmental issues and had used such broad age ranges that moderator moderator - A person, or small group of people, who manages a moderated mailing list or Usenet newsgroup. Moderators are responsible for determining which email submissions are passed on to the list or newsgroup. analyses for age effects were impossible. Therefore, age is not considered further in the analyses, except for descriptive purposes.
Ethnicity was coded for the following categories: "White/Caucasian," "Black/African American," "Asian American A·sian A·mer·i·can also A·sian-A·mer·i·can
A U.S. citizen or resident of Asian descent. See Usage Note at Amerasian.
A ," and "Latino/Hispanic." A sample was coded into one of the categories if 85% or more of the participants were in the category. If less than 85% were in any category, ethnicity was coded as "mixed." Different countries classify ethnicity differently, so samples outside of the United States were not coded for ethnicity. The "mixed" category was coded for 51% of the U.S. studies, and 11% of all studies did not report ethnicity. Interrater reliability for ethnicity was [kappa Kappa
Used in regression analysis, Kappa represents the ratio of the dollar price change in the price of an option to a 1% change in the expected price volatility.
Remember, the price of the option increases simultaneously with the volatility. ] =0.87.
Socioeconomic status was measured by coding both income and education. Average income was coded into the following categories: <$20,000; $20,000 to 50,000; $50,000 to 80,000; and >$80,000. Average education was coded into the following categories: "some high school," "high school degree," "some college," "college degree," and "graduate/professional school." As with ethnicity, a sample was coded into one of the categories if 85% or more of the participants were in the category. If less than 85% were in any category, income and education were coded as "mixed." The "mixed" income category was coded for 32% of the studies, and the "mixed" education category was coded for 45% of the studies. Across all studies, 66% did not report income, and 48% did not report education. These variables were not used in the analyses due to the incidence of missing data across studies and low interrater reliability due to lack of clarity of reporting in many studies ([kappa] = 0.52 for income and [kappa] = 0.46 for education).
The study was coded for nationality nationality, in political theory, the quality of belonging to a nation, in the sense of a group united by various strong ties. Among the usual ties are membership in the same general community, common customs, culture, tradition, history, and language. as U.S. or non-U.S. Nationality was not used in the analyses aside from examining U.S. samples separately because there were not enough studies for each country, and combining all non-U.S, countries would obscure variations in rates of victimization across nations (e.g., South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa. , England, and the Netherlands). Interrater reliability for nationality was [kappa] = 1.00.
Definition of sexual orientation. The definition of sexual orientation used to classify the participants as non-heterosexual was coded using the following categories: same-sex attraction (2% of studies), same-sex behavior (11%), self-identification as lesbian/gay/bisexual (66%), score above zero on the Kinsey scale Kinsey scale
A classification system for gauging sexual orientation, designed by Alfred Kinsey, and ranging from 0 (exclusively heterosexual) to 6 (exclusively homosexual).
[After Alfred Charles Kinsey.] (2%; Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948), other (1%), or a combination of measures (16%). Interrater reliability for sexual orientation definition was somewhat low ([kappa] = 0.60) and, therefore, this variable was not used for statistical analyses. Reasons for the low reliability are revealing about methodological issues and are considered in the Discussion section.
Type of sample. The study was coded for the following types of samples: community (57% of studies), school (22%), HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. (3%), or other (e.g., mixed community and school or a specific group, such as physicians; 18%). The design was coded as longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. (10%) or cross-sectional (90%). Many studies used more than one sampling method; the sampling method was coded as probability (21%), online (14%), snowball (38%), convenience (71%), or other (18%). Additionally, the response rate was coded (M = 66%), if available. Of the studies, 41% did not report a response rate. These codes were used to assess methodological issues, but not for statistical analyses. Interrater reliability for sample type, longitudinal design, and sampling method ranged from [kappa] = 0.65 to 1.00. Interrater reliability for response rate was r = 0.99.
Publication characteristics. The study was coded for the publication year; the year the data were collected, if reported; and whether the study was published (93%) or an unpublished dissertation (7%). Year of data collection was used in the analyses, rather than publication year, because it was thought to more accurately represent change in rates of victimization experienced over time. For studies that did not report year of data collection, the mean number of years between publication year and year of data collection (six years) reported for all other studies was subtracted from the publication year. Publication year was not double-coded, and none of the double-coded studies was a dissertation. Therefore, interrater reliability for publication type was [kappa] = 1.00.
Statistics on prevalence of types of victimization. Studies were coded for any statistics reported for measures of victimization of any type experienced by non-heterosexual participants and heterosexual participants, if this group was included. Examples of relevant statistics included proportions, means and standard deviations, t tests, and chi-square statistics. Interrater reliability ranged from r = 0.97 to 1.00 across all types of victimization.
Data cleaning. All effect sizes across each type of victimization were examined for outliers. Effect sizes that were greater than 2 SDs from the mean effect size for that type of victimization were recoded to the value equaling 2 SDs from the mean, in a process referred to as Windsorizing (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). Across all effect sizes, three outliers were found, one in each of the following types of victimization: discrimination, police victimization, and housing discrimination. The outliers in discrimination and police victimization were recoded. The outlier outlier /out·li·er/ (out´li-er) an observation so distant from the central mass of the data that it noticeably influences results.
an extremely high or low value lying beyond the range of the bulk of the data. in housing discrimination was not recoded because this type of victimization had only six effect sizes across all groups, and the mean effect size for housing discrimination (d = .09) was not thought to accurately reflect the data, given that the outlier was within range of many of the means for other types of victimization.
Analysis I. The first analysis examined rates of victimization aggregating across all LGB samples. The following types of victimization were not included because they had two or fewer studies: any abuse from family not specified as verbal/physical/sexual and Internet-based victimization. The proportion of people reporting victimization was used as the measure of effect size, [ES.sub.p] (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). A weighted average of the proportions was computed for each type of victimization (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). Only studies that reported proportions were included in Analysis I because other statistics (e.g., means and standard deviations) typically reflected a scale score that was not equivalent across studies, and the goal of Analysis I was to estimate the incidence of victimization.
Mixed-model formulas from Lipsey and Wilson (2001; see also Borenstein, Hedges, Higgins, & Rothstein, 2009) were used to conduct homogeneity Homogeneity
The degree to which items are similar. analyses across effect sizes to account for sources of variability. Significant homogeneity statistics (QT) can be interpreted as significant variability among the studies. The mixed-effects model was used to account for variability among effect sizes when significant heterogeneity het·er·o·ge·ne·i·ty
The quality or state of being heterogeneous.
the state of being heterogeneous. was found in Analysis I. This model allows both moderators and random error to account for the variability between studies (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). After moderators were taken into account in the analyses, a random variance component (v) was estimated from the residual variance Residual variance or unexplained variance is part of the variance of any residual. The other part is explained variance. In analysis of variance and regression analysis, residual variance is that part of the variance which cannot be attributed to specific causes. . The random variance was added to the standard errors, and inverse (mathematics) inverse - Given a function, f : D -> C, a function g : C -> D is called a left inverse for f if for all d in D, g (f d) = d and a right inverse if, for all c in C, f (g c) = c and an inverse if both conditions hold. variance weights were recalculated, using the new standard errors (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001).
To test the moderator variables, an analog to the analysis of variance (ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there ) was used to examine the differences in effect sizes due to gender (female vs. male). Separate analyses were conducted for U.S. samples using gender and ethnicity as moderators. A weighted mixed-effects model regression tested year of data collection as a moderator for all studies and U.S. samples only. Moderators were separately added as predictors of rates of victimization in LGB individuals, for each type of victimization with significant heterogeneity and 10 or more studies. Types of victimization with fewer than 10 studies were not included in the moderator analyses because the small number of effect sizes in each level of the moderators would not produce meaningful results. The mixed-effects models were computed using macros provided by Lipsey and Wilson (2001).
Analysis II. The second analysis compared rates of victimization of LGB participants with heterosexual participants. The following types of victimization were not included because they had two or fewer studies: being the target of objects, any abuse from family not specified as verbal/physical/sexual, Internet-based victimization, knowledge of others who had been victimized based on sexual orientation, and relational victimization. The effect size d was used as a measure of the magnitude of difference in experiences of victimization between LGB and heterosexual groups. The effect size was calculated as the mean score for LGB participants minus the mean score for heterosexual participants, divided by the pooled within-group standard deviation. If means and standard deviations were not available, relevant formulas were used from Lipsey and Wilson (2001) for other types of statistics reported (e.g., proportions, t tests, etc.). The mixed-effects model was used to weight effect sizes by the inverse of the variance for individual samples (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). Then, effect sizes were averaged across all studies for each type of victimization.
Positive effect sizes indicated that LGB participants experienced more victimization, while negative effect sizes indicated that heterosexual participants experienced more victimization. Cohen's (1977) guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. for interpreting effect sizes are used throughout the study for interpretation of results: d = .20 is a small effect, d = .50 is a moderate effect, and d = .80 is a large effect. An effect size of d < .10 is considered very small or negligible (Hyde, 2005). It should be noted that effect sizes represent the difference in rates of victimization between LGB and heterosexual groups, and not the prevalence of victimization in each group. The same set of homogeneity and moderator analyses that were conducted in Analysis I using the mixed-effects model provided by Lipsey and Wilson (2001) were conducted in Analysis II. Moderators were each separately analyzed as predictors of differences in rate of victimization among LGB versus heterosexual individuals for types of victimization with significant heterogeneity and 10 or more studies.
Analysis III. The third analysis compared rates of victimization of LGB female participants with LGB male participants. This analysis also compared lesbian/gay with bisexual and lesbian/gay with questioning when these categories were used in the study. The following types of victimization were not included in the comparison of LGB females and LGB males because they had two or fewer studies: being spat on, any abuse from family not specified as verbal/ physical/sexual, Internet-based victimization, knowledge of others who had been victimized based on sexual orientation, housing-based discrimination, and health care-based discrimination. The effect size d was used as a measure of the magnitude of difference in experiences of victimization between LGB female and LGB male individuals, between lesbian/gay and bisexual individuals, or between lesbian/gay and questioning individuals. The effect sizes were calculated as specified for Analysis II. Positive effect sizes indicated that LGB females experienced more victimization, while negative effect sizes indicated that LGB males experienced more victimization. For effect sizes comparing lesbian/gay individuals with bisexual and questioning individuals, positive effect sizes indicated that lesbian/gay individuals experienced more victimization, while negative effect sizes indicated that bisexual and questioning individuals experienced more victimization. The same set of analyses using the mixed-effects model provided by Lipsey and Wilson (2001) were conducted in Analysis III.
Publication bias. A salient concern in meta-analyses is publication bias, also known as the "file drawer effect" (Rosenthal, 1979). This concern is based on the tendency for significant results to be published and non-significant results to remain unpublished and filed away. This leads to a bias in the results of the meta-analysis if only published results are included. This meta-analysis addressed the problem of publication bias by including unpublished dissertations in all analyses. Across all studies included in the meta-analysis, 92.8% were published and 7.2% were unpublished dissertations.
Analysis I: What is the Prevalence of Victimization in Sexual Minorities?
The purpose of Analysis I was to determine the prevalence of victimization in LGB individuals for all types of victimization measured. The final count of usable studies in Analysis I was 138, yielding 186 independent samples and 766 effect sizes, with a total of 60,203 participants. The study samples included 27% adolescents/young adults, 56.7% adults, and 16.3% mixed ages. Samples represented 18 countries across six continents Six Continents is a large retail PLC in UK which split into Six Continents Retail known as Mitchells and Butlers plc. The hotels and soft drinks business of Six Continents PLC is now known as InterContinental Hotels Group PLC. . Within the U.S., samples represented the following ethnic backgrounds: European Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, "other" (e.g., Native Americans), and mixed groups.
Table 1 provides the mean proportions for each type of victimization for LGB participants in all samples, and Table 2 provides the mean proportions for U.S. samples only. In this analysis, the proportion was used as a measure of effect size, [ES.sub.p]. Thus, effect sizes in Analysis I can be directly interpreted as proportions (e.g., [ES.sub.p] = .41, which is 41%). The rates of specific types of victimization ranged from 5% (being spat on) to 55% (verbal harassment) for all samples, and 9% (spat on and housing discrimination) to 56% (verbal harassment) for U.S. samples. For all samples, the two types of victimization with the greatest number of studies were physical assault (all samples: k= 102; U.S. samples: k=68) and sexual assault (all samples: k=113; U.S. samples: k=75), with rates of victimization of 28% and 27% (29% in U.S. samples), respectively.
Homogeneity analysis. The mixed-effects model revealed significant heterogeneity across effect sizes for all types of victimization for all samples and for U.S. samples only, and moderator analyses were conducted with those types of victimization with 10 or more studies. An analog to the ANOVA was conducted with gender as the moderator. Separate moderator analyses were conducted with U.S. samples for gender and ethnicity. A weighted mixed-effects model regression was conducted, with year of data collection predicting differences in rate of victimization for LGB individuals both in all samples and in U.S. samples only.
Gender. Moderation analyses in Analysis I examined two gender groups--female and male--in all samples (see Table 3) and in U.S. samples only (see Table 4). Across all samples, gender significantly moderated the rate of victimization in LGB individuals for property violence, being followed, and verbal harassment from family. For all three types of victimization, higher rates of victimization were found for male-only than female-only samples. The same pattern of gender differences was found for U.S. samples only, but with the following types of victimization: being followed, verbal harassment from family, and school victimization. It appears that property violence showed a gender difference worldwide, but school victimization demonstrated a gender difference only in U.S. samples.
Year of data collection. To examine change over time in rates of victimization experienced by LGB individuals, year of data collection was included as a moderator in a weighted mixed-effects model regression in all samples (see Table S1) and in U.S. samples only (see Table S2). Across all samples, year of data collection significantly moderated the rates of victimization for sexual assault from family, school victimization, and relational victimization. In U.S. samples, year of data collection significantly moderated the rates of victimization for sexual assault, physical assault from family, and sexual assault from family. All significant betas were positive, indicating that the rates of these types of victimization have increased over time. No types of victimization appear to have significantly decreased over time; several negative betas were substantial, but not significant due to the small number of studies.
Ethnicity. Using U.S. samples only, analyses tested ethnicity as a moderator (see Table S3). Ethnicity significantly moderated the rate of victimization in LGB individuals for the following specific types of victimization: property violence, physical assault, weapon assault, physical assault from family, and workplace victimization. For all types, White/Caucasian samples experienced greater rates of victimization than samples with mixed groups, except for physical assault from family, which showed the opposite pattern. For all of these types of victimization, Black/African American and Latino/Hispanic samples did not have enough studies, making it difficult to interpret the findings.
Analysis II: Are Sexual Minorities Victimized More Than Heterosexuals?
The purpose of Analysis II was to examine differences in prevalence of victimization in LGB versus heterosexual individuals. The final count of usable studies in Analysis II was 65, yielding 85 independent samples and 205 effect sizes, with a total of 398,403 participants (13,553 LGB; 384,850 heterosexual). The study samples included 33.7% adolescents/young adults, 51.2% adults, and 15.1% mixed ages. Samples represented eight countries across four continents. Within the United States, samples represented the following ethnic backgrounds: European Americans, "other" (e.g., Native Americans), and mixed groups.
Table 5 provides the weighted mean effect sizes comparing LGB participants with heterosexual participants across all samples, and Table S4 provides the weighted mean effect sizes for U.S. samples only. For all effect sizes for which there was a meaningful difference between the two groups (d > [absolute value of .10]), LGB individuals reported greater rates of victimization than heterosexual individuals across all samples and for U.S. samples only. Across all samples, and within U.S. samples, police victimization and health care discrimination did not reveal a meaningful difference between LGB and heterosexual individuals, although it should be noted that the mean effect sizes for these two types of victimization were based on only three and four studies, respectively. Most of the effect sizes were in the small range, according to Cohen's (1977) criteria. Across all samples and for U.S. samples, the largest effect sizes were seen for discrimination (all samples: d= .37; U.S. samples: d=.53), being followed (all samples and U.S. samples: d = .43), and general victimization (all samples: d= .58; U.S. samples: d= .76).
Homogeneity analysis. The mixed-effects model revealed significant heterogeneity across effect sizes for all types of victimization, with the exception of police victimization, physical and sexual victimization from family, and health care discrimination for all samples (see Table 5) and U.S. samples (see Table S4). Moderator analyses were conducted with those types of victimization with significant heterogeneity and 10 or more studies. Results are reported for gender, year of data collection, and ethnicity.
Gender. As in Analysis I, moderator analyses in Analysis II examined two gender groups: female and male (see Table S5). Across all samples, gender significantly predicted the difference in rate of sexual assault between LGB and heterosexual participants (see QB in Table S5). In both types of gender samples, LGB individuals experienced more victimization than heterosexual individuals, but the difference was larger in male samples than in female samples. In U.S. samples, gender significantly predicted the difference in rates of physical and sexual assault between LGB and heterosexual participants. As in the analysis across all samples, for both males and females, LGB individuals experienced more sexual assault and physical assault than heterosexual individuals, but the difference was larger in male samples than in female samples. It seems that LGB and heterosexual females experienced similar rates of physical and sexual assault, whereas LGB males experienced greater rates of both types of victimization than heterosexual males.
Year of data collection. To examine change over time in the difference in rates of victimization experienced between LGB and heterosexual individuals, year of data collection was included as a moderator in a weighted mixed-effects model regression for all samples and U.S. samples only (see Table S6). Across all samples, year of data collection did not significantly moderate the difference between the groups in rates of victimization for any specific type of victimization. However, in U.S. samples, year of data collection positively moderated the difference in rates of victimization for sexual harassment and workplace victimization. Thus, there were smaller differences between LGB and heterosexual individuals in rates of sexual harassment and workplace victimization in earlier years, but larger differences in more recent years. This suggests that the gap between LGB and heterosexual individuals is widening over time for some types of victimization.
Ethnicity. A separate moderator analysis was conducted for samples within the U.S. to determine whether ethnicity moderates the difference in rates of victimization experienced by LGB versus heterosexual individuals (see Table S7). The only type of victimization moderated by ethnicity was sexual assault. White/ Caucasian samples demonstrated a larger difference in rate of victimization between LGB and heterosexual individuals than mixed groups. However, the effect size of White/Caucasian samples is based on only three samples.
Analysis III: Are There Variations among Subgroups of Sexual Minorities in Rates of Victimization?
Analysis IIIa: LGB female versus LGB male. In Analysis I, gender was included as a moderator to test whether the amount of victimization experienced differed in female-only versus male-only LGB samples for studies reporting proportion of victimization experienced. In Analysis II, gender was included as a moderator to determine whether the differences between heterosexual and LGB participants in the rates of victimization experienced were different for female-only samples and male-only samples. Analysis IIIa included studies of LGB participants in which statistics were separately reported for LGB females and LGB males. While some of the studies in Analysis IIIa overlap with studies in Analyses I and II, this analysis sought to answer the question of whether rates of victimization differed between LGB females and LGB males, whereas Analysis II was conducted to examine differences between heterosexual and LGB participants. Additionally, Analysis I only included studies reporting proportion of victimization experienced, whereas Analysis IIIa included all types of base statistics, including proportions and mean differences.
The final count of usable studies in Analysis IIIa was 53, yielding 67 independent samples and 239 effect sizes, with a total of 56,405 participants (33,185 female; 23,220 male). The studies included 27.2% adolescents/young adults, 55.2% adults, and 17.6% mixed ages. Samples represented 11 countries across four continents. Within the U.S., samples represented the following ethnic backgrounds: European Americans and mixed groups.
Table 6 provides the weighted mean effect sizes comparing LGB females with LGB males, across all samples and in U.S. samples only (see Table S8). Although four of the effect sizes for specific types of victimization were in the small range ([absolute value of .10] < d < [absolute value of .19]), the rest did not show a meaningful difference. LGB males reported somewhat greater rates of being followed (d=-.19), weapon assault (d=-.11), being robbed (d=-.12), and sexual harassment (d=-.10). In U.S. samples, LGB males reported somewhat greater rates of threats (d=-.11), physical assault (d=-.16), weapon assault (d=-.15), being robbed (d=.14), and school victimization (d=-.12). None of the effect sizes comparing LGB females with LGB males were moderate or large, either across all samples or in U.S. samples only.
Homogeneity analysis. The mixed-effects model for LGB females versus LGB males across samples revealed significant heterogeneity across effect sizes for all types of victimization, with the exception of being the target of objects, verbal/physical/sexual victimization from family, the threat of being outed as a sexual minority, and sexual harassment (see Table 6). The same types of victimization were heterogeneous for U.S. samples, except sexual harassment (see Table S8). Moderator analyses were conducted with those remaining types of victimization with significant heterogeneity and 10 or more studies. Results are reported for year of data collection and ethnicity.
Year of data collection. To examine change over time in the difference in rates of victimization experienced between LGB females and LGB males, date of data collection was included as a moderator in a weighted mixed-effects model regression across samples and for U.S. samples only (see Table S9). Year of data collection negatively moderated the difference in rates of victimization experienced between the groups for school victimization. Thus, there were larger differences between LGB females and males in earlier years and smaller differences in later years, suggesting that LGB females and males experienced more similar rates of school victimization recently than they did two decades ago. For U.S. samples, year of data collection did not moderate the gender difference in rates of victimization experienced for any type of victimization.
Ethnicity. A separate analysis was conducted for samples within the U.S. to test ethnicity as a moderator (see Table S10). Ethnicity significantly moderated the difference in rates of victimization between LGB females and males for physical assault. In White/Caucasian groups, the difference between LGB females and LGB males, with males experiencing more victimization, was greater than in mixed groups.
Analysis IIIb: Lesbian/gay versus bisexual. Additional analyses were conducted to compare lesbian and gay individuals with bisexual individuals, for cases in which bisexual data were reported separately. The final count of usable studies in Analysis IIIb was 15, yielding 16 independent samples and 37 effect sizes, with a total of 4,678 participants (3,332 lesbian/gay; 1,346 bisexual). Mean effect sizes could be computed for only nine types of victimization because the other types did not have two or more studies. The following specific types of victimization did not reveal a meaningful effect size (d <. 10): verbal harassment, sexual victimization, verbal harassment from family, physical victimization from family, and sexual victimization from family. Lesbian/ gay participants experienced more discrimination than bisexual participants (d=.17). Bisexual participants experienced more threats, physical assault, and weapon assault than lesbian/gay participants, but all effect sizes were small (d < [absolute value of .20]). None of the effect sizes comparing lesbian/gay with bisexual individuals were moderate or large. Lesbian/gay versus bisexual participants did not have any types of victimization with greater than 10 studies, so moderator analyses were not conducted.
Analysis IIIc: Lesbian/gay versus questioning. Additional analyses were conducted to compare lesbian and gay individuals with individuals who reported their sexual orientation as unsure or questioning. The final count of usable studies in Analysis IIIc was three, yielding three independent samples and eight effect sizes, with a total of 2,144 participants (1,122 lesbian/gay; 1,022 questioning). Only three types of victimization had enough studies to compute effect sizes: Questioning individuals experienced more verbal harassment than lesbian/gay individuals (d=-.21), but the effect sizes for physical assault and sexual harassment were not large enough to interpret. None of the effect sizes comparing lesbian/gay individuals with questioning individuals were moderate or large. Lesbian/gay versus questioning participants did not have any types of victimization with greater than 10 studies, so moderator analyses were not conducted.
Comparison between this Study and a Previous Review
One aim of this meta-analysis was to compare findings from this study with Berrill's (1992) review of anti-gay victimization (see Table 7). In this meta-analysis, 17% of participants experienced weapon assault, 28% experienced physical assault, 23% experienced property violence, 39% had been threatened, 43% had been followed, 14% were the target of objects, 9% had been spat on, and 56% had verbally harassed. No clear pattern emerged; that is, the incidence of some types of victimization was greater in this study, and less for other types.
What is the prevalence of victimization of LGB individuals? One answer to this question involves direct estimates of proportions of sexual minority persons who have reported experiencing various kinds of victimization; yet heterosexuals, too, experience victimization, such as being mugged on the street. Therefore, another answer to the question involves assessing the magnitude of the difference in victimization between heterosexuals and sexual minorities. We pursued the first question in Analysis I and the second in Analysis II. In the examination of rates of victimization experienced across all LGB individuals in all samples, rates of victimization ranged from 5% to 55%, with the highest rates being for the following types of victimization: verbal harassment (55%), sexual harassment (45%), relational victimization (44%), and general victimization (43%). In U.S. samples, rates of victimization across all LGB individuals ranged from 9% to 56%, with the highest rates being for discrimination (44%), verbal harassment (56%), being followed (43%), and sexual harassment (50%). These findings demonstrate that rates of victimization in LGB individuals are substantial, with close to one-half of individuals experiencing various types of victimization.
In the comparison of rates of victimization experienced by LGB versus heterosexual individuals, most of the effect sizes were small to moderate, and all were in the direction of LGB individuals experiencing more victimization than heterosexual individuals. As previously discussed, both institutional and interpersonal heterosexisms create a hostile climate for sexual minorities, which is often manifested in sexual orientation-based discrimination, harassment, and violence (Fernald, 1995). The findings from this recta-analysis are consistent with the idea that within a culture of heteronormativity, LGB individuals may experience more victimization than heterosexual individuals. However, most of the effect sizes were small to moderate, and none were large. It is possible that since sexual minorities have become more accepted in the U.S. and other Western nations, the culture is moving away from complete heteronormativity, resulting in a smaller difference in rates of victimization between LGB and heterosexual individuals. This is consistent with the finding that cultural homophobia has decreased in English schools (McCormack, 2011). It is also true that sexual orientation is often a hidden status, resulting in less victimization for those who are not visibly a sexual minority.
In Analysis III, gender differences in rates of victimization experienced by LGB individuals were examined. While for most victimization types there was not a meaningful difference between females and males, there were small effects for being followed, weapon assault, being robbed, and sexual harassment. The findings differed slightly for U.S. samples, such that there were also small effects for threats and school victimization, but not for sexual harassment. For all of these types of victimization, LGB males experienced greater rates of victimization than LGB females.
These findings must be considered both in the context of gender differences, and in the context of sexual minority status. Based on the relationship between gender atypicality and rates of victimization (e.g., D'Augelli et al., 2006), perhaps LGB males are more likely to display gender-atypical appearance or behavior than LGB females, thus resulting in greater rates of victimization. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , it is possible that LGB males may "pass" less often as heterosexual than LGB females, making them more of a target to perpetrators. It is also the case that male gender roles are less flexible than female gender roles, which might allow for gender atypicality to go unnoticed--or even welcomed--in females (Kane, 2006). This might also account for the gender differences in victimization. Another interpretation for findings that LGB females experienced less victimization than LGB males, may relate to the use of female-female sexuality in pornography pornography
Depiction of erotic behaviour intended to cause sexual excitement. The word originally signified any work of art or literature depicting the life of prostitutes. to the extent that it has become "standard fare" (Paul, 2009). Perhaps LGB females are less likely to be victimized because they represent a source of titillation for heterosexual men, which normalizes their sexual minority status.
In Analysis I, gender was investigated as a moderator of rates of victimization. Consistent with the findings from Analysis III regarding gender differences in rates of victimization experienced by LGB females and LGB males, across all LGB individuals, males experienced greater rates of property violence, being followed, and verbal harassment from family. In U.S. samples, males experienced greater rates of being followed, verbal harassment from family, and school victimization, but not property violence. Gender differences in rates of verbal harassment from family may be related to the phenomenon of gender atypicality, such that LGB males may have greater incidence of gender atypicality than LGB females, leading to more verbal harassment from family. Indeed, in a study of gender atypicality and LGB youth, compared with females, males perceived more negative responses to their gender atypicality from parents (D'Augelli et al., 2006). The differences in rates of school victimization are consistent with previous findings that boys experience more direct forms of bullying (e.g., physical violence), whereas girls experience more indirect forms of bullying (e.g., teasing teasing
the act of parading a male before a female to see if she displays estrus, and is therefore in a state where mating is likely to be fertile. ; Carbone-Lopez, Esbensen, & Brick, 2010). Perhaps the majority of measures of school victimization tap direct, rather than indirect, school victimization. It is interesting that this finding was significant only when U.S. samples were examined separately. It is possible that this is due to methodological reasons; perhaps school victimization is studied more frequently in the U.S. than in other countries.
In comparing LGB and heterosexual individuals while taking gender into account (Analysis II), the difference between LGB and heterosexual individuals on rates of sexual assault was bigger for males, both across all samples and in U.S. samples only. Additionally, the difference between LGB and heterosexual individuals in rates of physical assault was bigger for males in U.S. samples. In other words, more LGB males experienced sexual assault and physical assault than heterosexual males, but the difference was smaller for LGB females compared with heterosexual females. The findings regarding sexual assault are consistent with studies demonstrating that, in the general population (i.e., across sexual orientation groups), females are considerably more likely to experience sexual assault than males, regardless of sexual orientation (Elliott, Mok, & Briere, 2005). Regarding physical assault, LGB and heterosexual females experienced similar rates of physical assault, but LGB males experienced more physical assault than heterosexual males. Perhaps this finding is also related to gender atypicality, wherein where·in
In what way; how: Wherein have we sinned?
1. In which location; where: the country wherein those people live.
2. LGB males are more likely to be gender atypical than LGB females, which results in greater rates of victimization. These findings may also be due to higher rates of victimization of heterosexual males than heterosexual females. This interpretation is consistent with Analysis IIIa, which found quite similar rates of victimization for LGB females and males.
Change over Time
Regarding change over time, across LGB individuals, three types of victimization increased over time: sexual assault from family, school victimization, and relational victimization. U.S. samples provided slightly different results; sexual assault not from family, physical assault from family, and sexual assault from family all increased over time. When considered in conjunction with the comparison between these findings and Berrill's (1992) findings, it appears that LGB individuals have experienced increased rates of victimization over time, at least for some types of victimization.
In the comparison between LGB and heterosexual individuals across all studies, there was no trend over time in the magnitude of the difference in rates of victimization, but there was a trend over time in U.S. samples for sexual harassment and workplace victimization. For both types of victimization, larger differences in rates of victimization were seen more recently than in earlier years. These findings coincide with the findings regarding increased victimization for LGB individuals over time.
In considering explanations for increased in victimization of LGB individuals over time, one issue is with methods of data collection. It is possible that measurement of victimization has improved since Berrill's (1992) review. Certainly more recent studies appear to ask respondents about a larger number of types of victimization than earlier studies. Additionally, LGB individuals may be easier to access for research participation because of their increased visibility. Another possible explanation for the findings is that greater self-acceptance of LGB orientations accounts for increased reports of victimization. In other words, perhaps LGB individuals are more comfortable with their sexual minority status and, thus, are also more comfortable reporting victimization related to that status.
Strengths and Limitations
By including 138 (LGB only), 65 (LGB vs. heterosexual), and 53 (LGB female vs. LGB male) studies with over 500,000 participants, this meta-analysis provides a comprehensive and up-to-date quantitative review of the prevalence of victimization in LGB individuals. Additionally, the studies included in the meta-analysis represented international populations, including both U.S. and non-U.S, samples. This meta-analysis also included both published and unpublished research, reducing bias due to the file drawer effect.
Despite the strengths of this study, a, number of limitations should be mentioned. Many of the methods used were inconsistent across studies. These methods included measures of sexual orientation and victimization, the age range studied, and sampling. An additional issue was inconsistent reporting of sample characteristics, limiting the ability to consider many important variables that could moderate rates of victimization. These issues are explored further in the following section.
Methodological Implications and Recommendations
In addition to determining prevalence of victimization in LGB individuals, this meta-analysis also aimed to provide an overview of methodological issues, such as definitions of sexual orientation, victimization measures, sampling methods, and other considerations, with the goal of providing recommendations for future research in this area. It is clear from the large number of studies identified for the meta-analysis that this area of research is past the early, exploratory stage, and can move to more careful and advanced consideration of methodological issues.
Recommendation 1: Definition and measurement of sexual minority status. Measure multiple aspects of sexual orientation (behavior, identity, and attraction), and analyze victimization rates separately for each aspect. One of the most crucial methodological issues related to conducting research in sexual orientation is the measure used to classify sexual orientation, the definition that this measure is based on, and how the measure is used. In this recta-analysis, 66% of studies used self-identification as LGB to classify sexual orientation, 11% used same-sex behavior, 3% used same-sex attraction, 2% used the Kinsey scale (which is a continuous measure and focuses on behavior), and 17% used combined measures. Many of these measures are based on different definitions of sexual orientation (e.g., identity, attraction, and behavior). When trying to determine reasons why sexual minorities might experience different rates of victimization, it is important to consider the definition of sexual orientation used for classification as a sexual minority. Are sexual minorities victimized more because they identify as a sexual minority, because they have same-gender sexual partners, or because they are attracted to members of the same gender? This is difficult to determine, and would be a fruitful fruit·ful
a. Producing fruit.
b. Conducive to productivity; causing to bear in abundance: fruitful soil.
2. area for future research (e.g., comparing rates of victimization based on different classifications of sexual minority status) to better understand the reasons behind victimization of sexual minorities. Clearly, this recommendation has implications beyond victimization, and extends toward many areas of research on sexual orientation.
In addition, some studies included bisexual, unsure/ questioning, and transgender participants in the same group as lesbian and gay participants, whereas other studies separated them out or failed to include them at all. Some studies collected data from these participants, but then did not include them in the analyses. Although including bisexual, questioning, and transgender participants in larger groups of sexual minorities may be problematic in drawing conclusions about specific subgroups of sexual minorities, excluding them altogether presents an even less clear picture of the scope of the phenomenon. Future studies should attempt to recruit a wide variety of sexual minorities in larger numbers to enable comparisons within groups of sexual minorities.
Recommendation 2: Measurement of victimization. Standard measures of victimization should be adopted to permit better generalization gen·er·al·i·za·tion
1. The act or an instance of generalizing.
2. A principle, a statement, or an idea having general application. across studies. Another methodological issue concerns the measures used to determine rates of victimization. Victimization types and measures were not always clearly defined, and when they were, they were not consistent across studies for a particular type of victimization. In fact, the measures used across studies for different types of victimization varied to such a degree that, in some cases, they could not be easily categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat for descriptive purposes. Different measures were used for different types of victimization, and many studies included measures of victimization that were specifically created for the study. Despite these inconsistencies, a number of victimization measures were used more frequently than others.
Across victimization types, the most common measures used were items that span a wide range of specific victimization types (e.g., D'Augelli, 1992: Yale Sexual Orientation Survey developed by Herek, 1986; Herek & Berrill, 1990: Sample Survey of Anti-Gay Violence and Victimization). Other studies cited articles that used author-designed questionnaires to measure victimization (e.g., D'Augelli, 2002; Herek, Gillis, & Cogan, 1999), or cited Herek's (1992) article of recommendations for research and policy, including a discussion of methodological issues in measuring victimization of sexual minorities. Other measures used were the Schedule of Racist Events (Landrine & Klonoff, 1996) adapted for sexual orientation, the Trauma History Questionnaire (Hooper hoop·er
A maker or repairer of barrels and tubs; a cooper. , Stockton, Krupnick, & Green, 2011), the Measure of Gay-Related Stressors (Lewis, Derlega, Berndt, Morris, & Rose, 2001), the Conflict Tactics Scale The Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) is a widely used method of identifying intimate partners maltreatment, with a version for the identifying of child maltreatment. It has been used in national surveys on the prevalence of family violence in the USA and other countries. for physical assault and physical abuse from family (Straus, Hamby, Finkelhor, Moore, & Runyan, 1998), the Sexual Experiences Survey for sexual assault and sexual harassment (Koss & Oros, 1982), the American Association of University Women (2001) scale for sexual harassment, and the Childhood Maltreatment maltreatment Social medicine Any of a number of types of unreasonable interactions with another adult. See Child maltreatment, Cf Child abuse. Interview Schedule for multiple types of abuse from family (Briere, 1992). To measure school victimization, the most common measure was the University of Illinois University of Illinois may refer to:
A wood or grove; a copse.
[Middle English, from Old English.]
the lair of an otter [from , 2001). Many of these measures were modified for use with sexual minority populations. Although a number of measures exist to address victimization related to heterosexism, such as the Heterosexist Harassment, Rejection, and Discrimination Scale (Szymanski, 2006), the Schedule of Heterosexist Events (Selvidge, 2000), and the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (Waldo, 1999), these scales were used infrequently in·fre·quent
1. Not occurring regularly; occasional or rare: an infrequent guest.
2. in the studies examined in this meta-analysis.
Another recommendation for future research is to use measures that tap multiple, specific types of victimization. Not all types of victimization are created equal; different types of victimization may have very different mental and physical health implications. Measuring a number of types of victimization (e.g., verbal harassment, physical assault, and discrimination), rather than an overall measure of victimization combining different types, is a more fine-grained approach that can yield results that will be more useful to determining how the problem of victimization can be addressed or prevented. Some examples of measures that address more than one type of victimization and were used more frequently than others in studies examined in this meta-analysis are items developed by D'Augelli (1992, 2002), Herek (1992), Herek and Berrill (1990), and Herek et al. (1999).
The victimization items to measure "enacted stigma" developed by Herek (2009) are particularly useful because they include a wide range of types of victimization, which fall into three general categories: criminal victimization, harassment and threats, and discrimination. Additionally, this measure asks respondents to answer the items based on whether the perpetrator perceived them to be lesbian or bisexual (female respondents) or gay or bisexual (male respondents). If this measure is used in future research, we would recommend expanding the timeframe to ask participants whether each type of victimization was experienced before age 18, after age 18, or at both times. Currently, the items measure victimization only since age 18. Another starting point Noun 1. starting point - earliest limiting point
terminus a quo
commencement, get-go, offset, outset, showtime, starting time, beginning, start, kickoff, first - the time at which something is supposed to begin; "they got an early start"; "she knew from the to create a new measure of victimization is the list of types of victimization that we developed to categorize the measures used in the studies in this meta-analysis (see Table 1).
Another issue related to measurement was that most studies did not distinguish between gender atypicality and sexual orientation as the basis for victimization. As previously discussed, much of sexual orientation-based victimization could be a result of gender-atypical appearance and behavior, rather than known sexual orientation. Future research could attempt to differentiate between these two possible motives for perpetration per·pe·trate
tr.v. per·pe·trat·ed, per·pe·trat·ing, per·pe·trates
To be responsible for; commit: perpetrate a crime; perpetrate a practical joke. of victimization.
Additionally, the studies included in this meta-analysis used self-report of victimization, rather than observations. Future research could measure victimization using observational methods and compare it to self-report. An example of a study that successfully used observational methods in such a way as might be applied to victimization is a study of formal and interpersonal discrimination against homosexual job applicants, in which the researchers found that confederates who were portrayed as gay or lesbian experienced more interpersonal discrimination compared to confederates who were not portrayed as gay (Hebl, Foster, Mannix, & Dovidio, 2002). This study also had the strength of using an experimental design, so that it is possible to infer that sexual orientation caused the discriminatory dis·crim·i·na·to·ry
1. Marked by or showing prejudice; biased.
2. Making distinctions.
Recommendation 3: Timeframe of the report. Researchers should adopt standard timeframes in assessing reports of victimization. We recommend that lifetime reports and past year reports always be included. Future researchers should be sure to specify whether victimization was measured for the past year, lifetime, after coming out, or another time period. Although this information was reported for many of the studies included in this meta-analysis, it was not reported for all studies, and those studies that did report it varied widely in the timeframe that was used. This measurement issue is especially crucial for determining age-related trends in rates of victimization, as discussed later in Recommendation 5.
Recommendaton 4: Reason for victimization. When measuring victimization, researchers should ask, for each incident, what the reason was (i.e., whether the victim believes that it was due to sexual orientation or something else). Alternatively, ask respondents to report only those incidents they believe were based on sexual orientation. Another important aspect of the measurement of victimization is specificity related to sexual orientation. It is difficult to determine reasons behind victimization of sexual minorities when it is not clear why they are being victimized. While some studies (46%) were careful to measure "victimization based on sexual orientation," others were not, or did not report this level of detail in the articles (52%). Many different variables may be related to rates of victimization in sexual minorities. The basis for victimization or what the victim perceives the reason to be is simple to control for, and can avoid situations in which victimization may be based on something unrelated to sexual minority status, such as ethnic minority or HIV status, or random violence. Future studies could explore the reason for victimization through specifically asking LGB victims what they may have heard or experienced that suggests that the victimization was due to their sexual orientation or gender atypicality (e.g., verbal harassment included LGB slurs, or property damage had an anti-LGB message).
A related issue is specification of whether the perpetrator perceived or knew the victim's sexual minority status. This is also important for determining the reasoning behind victimization of sexual minorities. It would be an interesting area of future research to examine whether victimization of sexual minorities occurs more if the perpetrator knows that the victim is a sexual minority, rather than suspecting their status based on appearance or behavior. A study that examines perpetrators of sexual orientation-based crimes might shed light on the role that gender atypicality might play in increased rates of victimization in sexual minorities. Although it would be difficult to gather this information from the perspective of the perpetrator, researchers could ask the victims how they interpret the victimization that they experienced in terms of the perpetrator's perceptions or intentions.
Recommendation 5: Age trends in victimization. Researchers should use well-defined and narrow age groups in research to permit developmental analysis. Alternatively, if a large age range is studied, a sufficiently large In mathematics, the phrase sufficiently large is used in contexts such as:
Third, age trends in victimization could not be clearly examined due to inconsistent reporting of descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. for age. Although some studies reported both the mean/standard deviation and the range for age, other studies reported only one or the other or neither. This inconsistency made it impossible to use age as a continuous variable for studying age trends.
Fourth, many studies included such a wide range of ages that any developmental analysis was impossible; for example, some included both adolescents and adults (e.g., aged 16-60) or both young adults and older adults (e.g., aged 18-75). It is unlikely that adolescents, young adults, and older adults experience victimization at the same rates or for the same reasons, but this question could not be investigated in this meta-analysis due to these methodological and reporting issues. In terms of policy and prevention efforts, it is crucial that we learn the ages at which LGB individuals are most vulnerable to victimization.
Recommendation 6: Ethnicity. U.S. researchers should study LGB victimization among ethnic minorities. In conducting this recta-analysis, a number of variables, such as ethnicity, were coded in the hopes of using these variables in the moderator analyses. Of the studies included in this meta-analysis, 9% did not report ethnicity. Of the studies that did report ethnicity, the majority of studies fell into the mixed-groups category (38%), White/Caucasian (24%), and non-U.S, samples (25%), making it impossible to determine whether victimization rates are higher or lower in specific ethnic minority groups. Future researchers should report rates of victimization separately for different ethnic groups or recruit specific samples of ethnic minorities. In prevention efforts, it is crucial to know whether certain groups have especially high rates of victimization. Although it is widely believed that there is less tolerance of homosexuality among Black Americans (Haslam & Levy, 2006), we were unable to determine whether this intolerance intolerance /in·tol·er·ance/ (in-tol´er-ans) inability to withstand or consume; inability to absorb or metabolize nutrients.
congenital lysine intolerance is reflected in higher rates of victimization because of inattention in·at·ten·tion
Lack of attention, notice, or regard.
Noun 1. inattention - lack of attention
basic cognitive process - cognitive processes involved in obtaining and storing knowledge to ethnicity in the existing research.
Almost all studies in this meta-analysis that measured two groups, whether it was LGB versus heterosexual individuals or LGB females versus LGB males, reported some difference in rates of victimization. It is important to consider whether these are true differences or whether they are a reflection of the tendency not to publish null A character that is all 0 bits. Also written as "NUL," it is the first character in the ASCII and EBCDIC data codes. In hex, it displays and prints as 00; in decimal, it may appear as a single zero in a chart of codes, but displays and prints as a blank space. results. This can be thought of as an extension of the Gender Similarities Hypothesis (Hyde, 2005), which states that within-group differences in females and males are greater than differences between the groups. This speaks not only to the importance of examining subgroups of sexual minorities for differences and similarities in rates of victimization, but also to the responsibility of researchers to publish both differences and similarities regarding rates of victimization to represent prevalence more accurately.
This meta-analysis aimed to determine the rate and types of victimization experienced by LGB individuals. Additionally, this study sought to examine whether rates of victimization have changed over time since 1992, and whether there are differences based on gender and ethnicity. Findings revealed that across LGB individuals, experiences of victimization were substantial and in comparison to Berrill's (1992) review, some types have increased, while others have decreased. In this meta-analysis, a number of types of victimization increased from 1992 to 2009, whereas the rates of other types of victimization remained the same. No types of victimization decreased over time from 1992 to 2009. LGB individuals experienced greater rates of victimization than heterosexual individuals, although the differences were small to moderate. LGB males experienced some types of victimization more than LGB females but, overall, the gender differences were small. Overall, it can be concluded that LGB individuals still experience a substantial amount of victimization. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of and factors related to the victimization of LGB individuals in the hopes of informing future research, policy, and prevention efforts, and bringing to light a still prevalent problem in our society.
Appendix: Studies Included in the Meta-Analyses
Almeida, J., Johnson, R. M., Corliss, H. L., Molnar, B. E., & Azrael, D. (2009). Emotional distress among LGBT youth: The influence of perceived discrimination based on sexual orientation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 1001-1014. doi: 10.1007/s10964-009-9397-9
Austin, S. B., Jun, H., Jackson, B., Spiegelman, D., Rich-Edwards, J., Corliss, H. L., & Wright, R. J. (2008). Disparities in child abuse victimization in lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Journal of Women's Health Women's Health Definition
Women's health is the effect of gender on disease and health that encompasses a broad range of biological and psychosocial issues. , 17, 597-606. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2007.0450
Austin, S. B., Roberts, A. L., Corliss, H. L., & Molnar, B. E. (2008). Sexual violence victimization history and sexual risk indicators in a community-based urban cohort cohort /co·hort/ (ko´hort)
1. in epidemiology, a group of individuals sharing a common characteristic and observed over time in the group.
2. of "mostly heterosexual" and heterosexual young women. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 1015-1020. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.099473
Balsam, K. F. (2002). Traumatic victimization: A comparison of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and their heterosexual siblings siblings npl (formal) → frères et sœurs mpl (de mêmes parents) . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT.
Balsam, K. F., Rothblum, E. D., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2005). Victimization over the life span: A comparison of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual siblings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) is a bimonthly psychology journal of the American Psychological Association. Its focus is on treatment and prevention in all areas of clinical and clinical-health psychology and especially on topics that appeal to a broad , 73, 477-487. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.477
Berg, M. B., Mimiaga, M. J., & Safren, S. A. (2008). Mental health concerns of gay and bisexual men seeking mental health services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract . Journal of Homosexuality, 54, 293-306. doi: 10.1080/ 00918360801982215
Boarts, J. M., Bogart, L. M., Tabak, M. A., Armelie, A. P., & Delahanty, D. L. (2008). Relationship of race-, sexual orientation-, and HIV-related discrimination with adherence to HIV treatment: A pilot study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine behavioral medicine
The application of behavior therapy techniques, such as biofeedback and relaxation training, to the prevention and treatment of medical and psychosomatic disorders and to the treatment of undesirable behaviors, such as overeating. , 31, 445-451. doi: 10.1007/s10865-008-9169-0
Bontempo, D. E., & D'Augelli, A. R. (2002). Effects of at-school victimization and sexual orientation on lesbian, gay, or bisexual youths' health risk behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30, 364-374. doi: 10.1016/S1054-139X(01)00415-3
Bouhnik, A., Preau, M., Schiltz, M., Obadia, Y., & Spire, B. (2008). Sexual difficulties in people living with HIV in France: Results for a large representative sample of outpatients attending French hospitals. AIDS and Behavior, 12, 670-676. doi: 10.1007/s10461-007-9355-z
Braitstein, P., Asselin, J., Sehilder, A., Miller, M., Lalibertr, N., Schechter, M. T., & Hogg hogg
castrated male sheep usually 10 to 14 months old. Also used to describe an uncastrated male pig. , R. S. (2006). Sexual violence among two populations of men at high risk of HIV infection. AIDS Care, 18, 681-589. doi: 10.1080/13548500500294385
Brogan, D. J., Frank, E., Elon, L., Sivanesan, P., & O'Hanlan, K. A. (1999). Harassment of lesbians as medical students and physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal, published 48 times per year by the American Medical Association. JAMA is the most widely circulated medical journal in the world. , 282, 1290. doi: 10.1001/jama.282.13.1290
Busseri, M. A., Willoughby, T., Chalmers, H., & Bogaert, A. R. (2006). Same-sex attraction and successful adolescent development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 563-575. doi: 10.1007/s10964-006-9071-4
Caceres, C. F., Marin, B. V., & Hudes, E. S. (2000). Sexual coercion coercion, in law, the unlawful act of compelling a person to do, or to abstain from doing, something by depriving him of the exercise of his free will, particularly by use or threat of physical or moral force. among youth and young adults in Lima, Peru. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27, 361-367. doi: 10.1016/S1054-139X(00)00096-3
Carragher, D. J., & Rivers, I. (2002). Trying to hide: A cross-national study of growing up for non-identified gay and bisexual male youth. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry psychiatry (səkī`ətrē, sī–), branch of medicine that concerns the diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, including major depression, schizophrenia, and anxiety. , 7, 457-474. doi: 10.1177/1359104502007003011
Choi, K., Hudes, E. S., & Steward, W. T. (2008). Social discrimination, concurrent sexual partnerships, and HIV risk among men who have sex with men Men who have sex with men (MSM) is a term used mostly in the United States to classify men who engage in sex with other men, regardless of whether they self-identify as gay, bisexual, or heterosexual. in Shanghai, China. AIDS and Behavior, 12, S71-S77. doi: 10.1007/s10461-008-9394-0
Ciro, D., Surko, M., Bhandarkar, K., Helfgott, N., Peake, K., & Epstein, I. (2005). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, sexual-orientation questioning adolescents seeking mental health services: Risk factors, worries, and desire to talk about them. Social Work in Mental Health, 3, 213-234. doi: 10.1300/J200v03n03_05
Cloete, A., Simbayi, L. C., Kalichman, S. C., Strebel, A., & Henda, N. (2008). Stigma and discrimination experiences of HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Cape Town Cape Town or Capetown, city (1991 pop. 854,616), legislative capital of South Africa and capital of Western Cape, a port on the Atlantic Ocean. It was the capital of Cape Province before that province's subdivision in 1994. , South Africa. AIDS Care, 20, 1105-1110. doi: 10.1080/09540120701842720
Cochran, B. N., Stewart, A. J., Ginzler, J. A., & Cauce, A. M. (2002). Challenges faced by homeless sexual minorities: Comparison of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender homeless adolescents with their heterosexual counterparts. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 773-777. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.92.5.773
Colvin, R. (2009). Shared perceptions among lesbian and gay police officers: Barriers and opportunities in the law enforcement work environment. Police Quarterly, 12, 86-101. doi: 10.1177/ 1098611108327308
Corliss, H. L., Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (2002). Reports of parental maltreatment during childhood in a United States population-based survey of homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual adults. Child Abuse & Neglect, 26, 1165. doi: 10.1016/S0145-2134(02)00385-X
Corrigan, P., Thompson, V., Lambert, D., Sangster, Y., Noel, J. G., & Campbell, J. (2003). Perceptions of discrimination among persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatric psy·chi·at·ric
Of or relating to psychiatry.
psychiatric adjective Pertaining to psychiatry, mental disorders Services, 54, 1105-1110. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.54.8.1105
n. 1. (Biology) a cobwebby remnant of the partial veil which in some mature mushrooms hang from the edges of the cap.
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Craft, S. M., & Serovich, J. M. (2005). Family-of-origin factors and partner violence in the intimate relationships of gay men who are HIV positive. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 777-791. doi: 10.1177/0886260505277101
Croteau, J. M., & Lark, J. S. (1994). On being lesbian, gay or bisexual in student affairs Student affairs staff are responsible for academic advising and support services delivery at colleges and universities in the United States and abroad. The chief student affairs officer at a college or university often reports directly to the chief executive of the institution. : A national survey of experiences on the job. NASPA NASPA National Association of Student Personnel Administrators
NASPA Network and Systems Professionals Association
NASPA National Alliance of State Pharmacy Associations (Richmond, VA)
NASPA National Association of Systems Programmers Journal, 32, 189.
Croteau, J. M., & Von Destinon, M. (1994). A national survey of job search experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual student affairs professionals. Journal of College Student Development Journal of College Student Development is an academic journal founded in 1959 and is the official publication of the American College Personnel Association. The journal publishes scholarly articles and reviews from a wide variety of academic fields related to college , 35, 40-45.
D'Augelli, A. R. (2002). Mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths ages 14 to 21. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7, 433-456. doi: 10.1177/1359104502007003039
D'Augelli, A. R., & Grossman, A. H. (2001). Disclosure of sexual orientation, victimization, and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual older adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16, 1008-1027. doi: 10.1177/088626001016010003
D'Augelli, A. R., Grossman, A. H., & Starks, M. T. (2005). Parents' awareness of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths' sexual orientation. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 67, 474482. doi: 10.1111/ j.0022-2445.2005.00129.x
D'Augelli, A. R., Grossman, A. H., & Starks, M. T. (2006). Childhood gender atypicality, victimization, and PTSD PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder.
posttraumatic stress disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Journal of lnterpersonal Violence, 21, 1462-1482. doi: 10.1177/0886260506293482
D'Augelli, A. R., Hershberger, S. L., & Pilkington, N. W. (1998). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths and their families: Disclosure of sexual orientation and its consequences. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry or·tho·psy·chi·a·try
The psychiatric study, treatment, and prevention of emotional and behavioral problems, especially of those that arise during early development. , 68, 361. doi: 10.1037/h0080345
D'Augelli, A. R., Pilkington, N. W., & Hershberger, S. L. (2002). Incidence and mental health impact of sexual orientation victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths in high school. School Psychology Quarterly, 17, 148-167. doi: 10.1521/scpq.220.127.116.1154
De Graaf, R., Sandfort, T. G. M., & ten Have, M. (2006). Suicidality and sexual orientation: Differences between men and women in a general population-based sample from the Netherlands. Archives of Sexual Behavior Archives of Sexual Behavior is an academic sexology journal and the official publication of the International Academy of Sex Research.
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Diamond, L. M. (2008). Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: Results from a 10-year longitudinal study longitudinal study
a chronological study in epidemiology which attempts to establish a relationship between an antecedent cause and a subsequent effect. See also cohort study. . Developmental Psychology, 44, 5-14. doi: 10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.168
Diaz, R. M., Ayala, G., Bein, E., Henne, J., & Matin mat·in also mat·in·al
Of or relating to matins or to the early part of the day.
[Middle English, from Old French, sing. of matines, matins; see matins.] , B. V. (2001). The impact of homophobia, poverty, and racism on the mental health of gay and bisexual Latino men: Findings from 3 U.S. cities. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 927-932. doi: 10.2105/ AJPH AJPH American Journal of Public Health
AJPh American Journal of Philology .91.6.927
DiPlacido, J. (1998). Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: A consequence of heterosexism, homophobia, and stigmatization stigmatization /stig·ma·ti·za·tion/ (stig?mah-ti-za´shun)
1. the developing of or being identified as possessing one or more stigmata.
2. the act or process of negatively labelling or characterizing another. . In G. M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (pp. 138-159). Thousand Oaks Thousand Oaks, residential city (1990 pop. 104,352), Ventura co., S Calif., in a farm area; inc. 1964. Avocados, citrus, vegetables, strawberries, and nursery products are grown. , CA: Sage.
Doyle, J. P., Frank, E., Saltzman, L. E., McMahon, P. M., & Fielding, B. D. (1999). Domestic violence and sexual abuse in women physicians: Associated medical, psychiatric, and professional difficulties. Journal of Women's Health & Gender-Based Medicine Gender-based medicine or simply gender medicine is the field of medicine that studies the biological and physiological differences between the human sexes and how that affects differences in disease. , 8, 955-965.
Elford, J., Ibrahim, F., Bukutu, C., & Anderson, J. (2008). HIV-related discrimination reported by people living with HIV in London, UK. AIDS and Behavior, 12, 255-264. doi: 10.1007/ s10461-007-9344-2
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Espelage, D. L., Aragon, S. R., Birkett, M., & Koenig, B. W. (2008). Homophobic teasing, psychological outcomes, and sexual orientation among high school students: What influence do parents and schools have? School Psychology Review, 37, 202-216.
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Faulkner, A. H., & Cranston, K. (1998). Correlates of same-sex sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. in a random sample of Massachusetts high school students. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 262-266. doi: 10.2105/AJPH. 88.2.262
Finn, J. (2004). A survey of online harassment at a university campus. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 468-483. doi: 10.1177/ 0886260503262083
Fleming, T. M., Merry, S. N., Robinson, E. M., Denny, S. J., & Watson, P. D. (2007). Self-reported suicide attempts and associated risk and protective factors among secondary school students in New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland. . Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41,213-221. doi: 10.1080/00048670601050481
Fortunata, B. (1999). Lesbian experience of domestic violence. Dissertation Abstracts International. Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 60, 0872-0872.
Fortunata, B., & Kohn, C. S. (2003). Demographic, psychosocial psychosocial /psy·cho·so·cial/ (si?ko-so´shul) pertaining to or involving both psychic and social aspects.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior. , and personality characteristics of lesbian batterers. Violence and Victims, 18, 557-568. doi: 10.1891/vivi.2003.18.5.557
Freedner, N., Freed, L. H., Yang yang (yang) [Chinese] in Chinese philosophy, the active, positive, masculine principle that is complementary to yin; see yin, under principle. , Y. W., & Austin, S. B. (2002). Dating violence Dating Violence is defined as the perpetration or threat of an act of violence by at least one member of an unmarried couple on the other member within the context of dating or courtship. among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents: Results from a community survey. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31,469-474. doi: 10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00407-X
Friedman, M. S., Marshal An English word that means to arrange into a particular order as a means of preparation. See data marshalling. , M. P., Stall, R., Cheong, J., & Wright, E. R. (2008). Gay-related development, early abuse and adult health outcomes among gay males. AIDS and Behavior, 12, 891-902. doi: 10.1007/s10461-007-9319-3
Garofalo, R., Wolf, R. C., Kessel, S., Palfrey pal·frey
n. pl. pal·freys Archaic
A saddle horse, especially one for a woman to ride.
[Middle English, from Old French palefrei, from Medieval Latin , J., & DuRant, R. H. (1998). The association between health risk behaviors and sexual orientation among a school-based sample of adolescents. Pediatrics, 101, 895. doi: 10.1542/peds.101.5.895
Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network. (2007). The 2007 national school climate survey: Key findings on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation's schools. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , NY: Author.
Ghaziani, A. (2004). Anticipatory and actualized ac·tu·al·ize
v. ac·tu·al·ized, ac·tu·al·iz·ing, ac·tu·al·iz·es
1. To realize in action or make real: "More flexible life patterns could . . . identities: A cultural analysis of the transition from AIDS disability to work. Sociological Quarterly, 45, 273-301. doi: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.2004. tb00013.x
Gillespie, W. (2008). Thirty-five years after stonewall stone·wall
v. stone·walled, stone·wall·ing, stone·walls
a. : An exploratory study of satisfaction with police among gay, lesbian, and bisexual persons at the 34th annual Atlanta pride festival. Journal of Homosexuality, 55, 619-647. doi: 10.1080/00918360802421759
Gomez, J. P., & Trierweiler, S. J. (1999). Exploring cross-group discrimination: Measuring the dimensions of inferiorization. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 1900-1926. doi: 10.1111/j. 1559-1816.1999.tb00157.x
Goodenow, C., Netherland, J., & Szalacha, L. (2002). AIDS-related risk among adolescent males who have sex with males, females, or both: Evidence from a statewide survey. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 203-210. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.92.2.203
Goodenow, C., Szalacha, L., & Westheimer, K. (2006). School support groups, other school factors, and the safety of sexual minority adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 573-589. doi: 10.1002/pits.20173
Gore-Felton, C., Kalichman, S. C., Brondino, M. J., Benotsch, E. G., Cage, M., & DiFonzo, K. (2006). Childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among men who have sex with men: Initial test of a conceptual model. Journal of Family Violence, 21, 263-270. doi: 10.1007/s 10896-006-9022-6
Gruber, J. E., & Fineran, S. (2007). The impact of bullying and sexual harassment on middle and high school girls High School Girls (女子高生 Joshi Kōsei . Violence Against Women, 13, 627-643. doi: 10.1177/1077801207301557
Gruber, J. E., & Fineran, S. (2008). Comparing the impact of bullying and sexual harassment victimization on the mental and physical health of adolescents. Sex Roles, 59, 1-13. doi: 10.1007/sll 199008-9431-5
Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Erickson, S. J. (2008). Minority stress predictors of HIV risk behavior, substance use, and depressive de·pres·sive
1. Tending to depress or lower.
2. Depressing; gloomy.
3. Of or relating to psychological depression.
A person suffering from psychological depression. symptoms: Results from a prospective study of bereaved be·reaved
Suffering the loss of a loved one: the bereaved family.
One or those bereaved: The bereaved has entered the church. gay men. Health Psychology, 27, 455462. doi: 10.1037/ 0278-622.214.171.1245
Hegna, K., & Wichstrom, L. (2007). Suicide attempts among Norwegian gay, lesbian and bisexual youths: General and specific risk factors. Acta Sociologica, 50, 21-37. doi: 10.1177/ 0001699307074880
Heidt, J. M., Marx, B. P., & Gold, S. D. (2005). Sexual revictimization among sexual minorities: A preliminary study. Journal of Traumatic Stress Traumatic stress is recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders  as an acute emotional condition associated with reactive anxiety. , 18, 533-540. doi: 10.1002/jts.20061
Henrickson, M. (2006). "You have to be strong to be gay": Bullying and educational attainment Educational attainment is a term commonly used by statisticans to refer to the highest degree of education an individual has completed.
The US Census Bureau Glossary defines educational attainment as "the highest level of education completed in terms of the in LGB New Zealanders. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services social services
welfare services provided by local authorities or a state agency for people with particular social needs
social services npl → servicios mpl sociales : Issues in Practice, Policy, & Research, 19, 67-85. doi: 10.1080/10538720802161565
Hequembourg, A. L., Parks, K. A., & Vetter, C. (2008). Sexual identity and gender differences in substance use and violence: An exploratory study. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 2, 174-198. doi: 10.1080/15538600802119301
Herek, G. M. (2009). Hate crimes and stigma-related experiences among sexual minority adults in the United States: Prevalence estimates from a national probability sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 54-74. doi: 10.1177/0886260508316477
Herek, G. M., Gillis, J. R., & Cogan, J. C. (1999). Psychological sequelae sequelae Clinical medicine The consequences of a particular condition or therapeutic intervention of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 945-951. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.67.6.945
Herek, G. M., Gillis, J. R., Cogan, J. C., & Glunt, E. K. (1997). Hate crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 195-215. doi: 10.1177/ 088626097012002003
Hickson, F. C. I., Davies, P. M., Hunt, A. J., & Weatherburn, P. (1994). Gay men as victims of nonconsensual sex. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 23, 281-294. doi: 10.1007/BF01541564
Hidaka, Y., & Operario, D. (2006). Attempted suicide, psychological health and exposure to harassment among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation recruited via the Internet. Journal of Epidemiology epidemiology, field of medicine concerned with the study of epidemics, outbreaks of disease that affect large numbers of people. Epidemiologists, using sophisticated statistical analyses, field investigations, and complex laboratory techniques, investigate the cause & Community Health, 60, 962-967. doi: 10.1136/jech.2005.045336
Higgs, C., & Schell, L. A. (1998). Backstage, front stage: An analysis of work and leisure roles of women recreational softball softball, variant of baseball played with a larger ball on a smaller field. Invented (1888) in Chicago as an indoor game, it was at various times called indoor baseball, mush ball, playground ball, kitten ball, and, because it was also played by women, ladies' players. Journal of Homosexuality, 36, 63-77. doi: 10.1300/J082v36n01_04
Hill, M. S., & Fischer, A. R. (2008). Examining objectification theory: Lesbian and heterosexual women's experiences with sexual- and self-objectification. Counseling Psychologist, 36, 745-776. doi: 10.1177/0011000007301669
Huebner, D. M., Rebchook, G. M., & Kegeles, S. M. (2004). Experiences of harassment, discrimination, and physical violence among young gay and bisexual men. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 1200-1203. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.94.7.1200
Hughes, T. L., Johnson, T., & Wilsnack, S. C. (2001). Sexual assault and alcohol abuse: A comparison of lesbians and heterosexual women. Journal of Substance Abuse, 13, 515-532. doi: 10.1016/ S0899-3289(01)00095-5
Hughes, T. L., Johnson, T. P., Wilsnack, S. C., & Szalacha, L. A. (2007). Childhood risk factors for alcohol abuse and psychological distress psychological distress The end result of factors–eg, psychogenic pain, internal conflicts, and external stress that prevent a person from self-actualization and connecting with 'significant others'. See Humanistic psychology. among adult lesbians. ChiM Abuse & Neglect, 31, 769-789. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.12.014
Jackson, B. K. (2000). Predictors and outcomes of self-acceptance among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 60, 4930-4930.
Jarama, S. L., Kennamer, J. D., Poppen, P. J., Hendricks, M., & Bradford, J. (2005). Psychosocial, behavioral, and cultural predictors of sexual risk for HIV infection among Latino men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 9, 513-523. doi: 10.1007/ s10461-005-9022-1
Jones, K. T., Johnson, W. D., Wheeler, D. P., Gray, P., Foust, E., & Gaiter, J. (2008). Nonsupportive peer norms and incarceration Confinement in a jail or prison; imprisonment.
Police officers and other law enforcement officers are authorized by federal, state, and local lawmakers to arrest and confine persons suspected of crimes. The judicial system is authorized to confine persons convicted of crimes. as HIV risk correlates for young Black men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 12, 41 50. doi: 10.1007/s10461-007-9228-5
Jones, R., & Clarke, G. (2006). The school experiences of same-sex attracted students in the 14- to 19-year-old secondary sector in England: Within and beyond the safety and tolerance framework. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services: Issues in Practice, Policy, & Research, 19, 119-138. doi: 10.1080/10538720802161631
Jordan, K. M., Vaughan, J. S., & Woodworth, K. J. (1997). I will survive: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths' experience of high school. In M. B. Harris & M. B. Harris (Eds.), School experiences of gay and lesbian youth: The invisible minority (pp. 17-33). Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Harrington Park is the name of the following places:
Kaiser Family Foundation The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), or just Kaiser Family Foundation, is a U.S.-based non-profit, private operating foundation headquartered in Menlo Park, California. . (2001). Inside-out: A report on the experiences of lesbians, gays and bisexuals in America and the public's view on issues and policies related to sexual orientation. Menlo Park Menlo Park.
1 Residential city (1990 pop. 28,040), San Mateo co., W Calif.; inc. 1874. Electronic equipment and aerospace products are manufactured in the city. Menlo College and a Stanford Univ. research institute are there.
2 Uninc. , CA: Author.
Kalichman, S. C., Benotsch, E., Rompa, D., Gore-Felton, C., Austin, J., Luke, W., ... Simpson, D. (2001). Unwanted sexual experiences and sexual risks in gay and bisexual men: Associations among revictimization, substance use and psychiatric symptoms. Journal of Sex Research, 38, 1-9. doi: 10.1080/00224490109552065
Keane, F. E. A., Young, S. M., Boyle, H. M., & Curry, K. M. (1995). Prior sexual assault reported by male attenders at a department of genitourinary medicine Genitourinary medicine is a portmanteau that includes aspects of andrology, gynecology and urology. It is sometimes used as a euphemism for medicine dealing with sexually transmitted diseases. . International Journal of STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) Long distance dialing outside of the U.S. that does not require operator intervention. STD prefix codes are required and billing is based on call units, which are a fixed amount of money in the currency of that country. & AIDS, 6, 95-100.
King, M., McKeown, E., Warner, J., Ramsay, A., Johnson, K., Cort, C., ... Davidson, O. (2003). Mental health and quality of life of gay men and lesbians in England and Wales England and Wales are both constituent countries of the United Kingdom, that together share a single legal system: English law. Legislatively, England and Wales are treated as a single unit (see State (law)) for the conflict of laws. : Controlled, cross-sectional study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 552-558. doi: 10.1192/bjp.183.6.552
Koblin, B. A., Torian, L., Xu, G., Guilin, V., Makki, H., MacKellar, D., & Valleroy, L. (2006). Violence and H1V-related risk among young men who have sex with men. AIDS Care, 18, 961-967. doi: 10.1080/09540120500467182
Konik, J., & Cortina, L. M. (2008). Policing gender at work: Intersections of harassment based on sex and sexuality. Social Justice Research, 21, 313-337. doi: 10.1007/s11211-008-0074-z
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Kuehnle, K., & Sullivan, A. (2003). Gay and lesbian victimization: Reporting factors in domestic violence and bias incidents. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 30, 85-96. doi: 10.1177/0093854802239164
Kurtz, S. P. (2008). Arrest histories of high-risk gay and bisexual men in Miami: Unexpected additional evidence for syndemic theory. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs The Journal of Psychoactive Drugs (ISSN 0279-1072) was founded in 1967 by David E Smith, founder of the Haight Ashbury Free Clinic. It is conceived as "an authoritative quarterly periodical containing peer-reviewed timely information of a multidisciplinary nature surrounding , 40, 513-521.
Lau, J. T. F., Kim, J. H., & Tsui, H. Y. (2008). Prevalence and sociocultural predictors of sexual dysfunction sexual dysfunction
Inability to experience arousal or achieve sexual satisfaction under ordinary circumstances, as a result of psychological or physiological problems. among Chinese men who have sex with men in Hong Kong Hong Kong (hŏng kŏng), Mandarin Xianggang, special administrative region of China, formerly a British crown colony (2005 est. pop. 6,899,000), land area 422 sq mi (1,092 sq km), adjacent to Guangdong prov. . Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5, 2766-2779. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.00892.x
Leedy, G., & Connolly, C. (2007). Out of the cowboy cowboy
Horseman skilled at handling cattle in the U.S. West. From c. 1820, cowboys were employed in small numbers on Texas ranches, where they had learned the skills of the vaquero (Spanish: “cowboy”). state: A look at lesbian and gay lives in Wyoming. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services: Issues in Practice, Policy, & Research, 19, 17-34. doi: 10.1300/J041v19n01_02
Lehavot, K., Waiters, K. L., & Simoni, J. M. (2009). Abuse, mastery, and health among lesbian, bisexual, and two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native women. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15, 275-284. doi: 10.1037/a0013458
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Lhomond, B., & Saurel-Cubizolles, M. (2006). Violence against women and suicide risk: The neglected impact of same-sex sexual
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Madera, S. R., & Toro-Alfonso, J. (2005). Description of a domestic violence measure for Puerto Rican Puer·to Ri·co
Abbr. PR or P.R.
A self-governing island commonwealth of the United States in the Caribbean Sea east of Hispaniola. gay males. Journal of Homosexuality, 50, 155-173. doi: 10.1300/J082v50n01_08
Mallon, G. P. (2001). Sticks and stones can break your bones: Verbal harassment and physical violence in the lives of gay and lesbian youths in child welfare settings. In M. E. Swigonski, R. S. Mama, K. Ward, M. E. Swigonski, R. S. Mama & K. Ward (Eds.), From hate crimes to human rights: A tribute to Matthew Shepard Matthew Wayne Shepard (December 1, 1976 – October 12, 1998) was an American student at the University of Wyoming who was fatally attacked near Laramie, on the night of October 6 – October 7, 1998 in what was widely reported by international news media as a savage (pp. 6381). New York, NY: Haworth. doi:10.1300/J041v13n01_06
Mathy, R. M., Carol, H. M., & Schillace, M. (2003). The impact of community size on lesbian and bisexual women's psychosexual development psychosexual development
In Freudian psychoanalytic theory, the influence that sexual growth has on personality development from birth to adult life, with the phases of sexual maturation designated as oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. : Child maltreatment child maltreatment '…intentional harm or threat of harm to a child by someone acting in the role of a caretaker, for even a short time…Categories Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect…', the last being most common. , suicide attempts, and self-disclosure. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality This article is about human sexual perceptions. For information about sexual activities and practices, see Human sexual behavior.
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Mikhailovich, K., Martin, S., & Lawton, S. (2001). Lesbian and gay parents: Their experiences of children's health Children's Health Definition
Children's health encompasses the physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being of children from infancy through adolescence. care in Australia. International Journal of Sexuality & Gender Studies, 6, 181-191. doi: 10.1023/A: 1011586417276
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Either of two commercially important North Atlantic species of food fish in the cod family (Gadidae). , L., Canchola, J., Chang, Y. J., ... Catania, J. A. (2004). Distress and depression in men who have sex with men: The Urban Men's Health Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161,278-285. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.2.278
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Spanish Ciudad de México
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A native-born Israeli.
[Hebrew L. Katz-Wise and Janet S. Hyde
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(1) A table of descriptives for each study is available from the authors. See Appendix for full list of references used for the studies included in the meta-analysis.
We thank Matthew Cohn for his help with article retrieval and coding, Stephanie Budge for her help with coding, and Jennifer Petersen for her analysis consultation. We also thank Martha Alibali and Jenny Saffran for their helpful feedback and suggestions during the process of this project.
Correspondence should be addressed to Sabra L. Katz-Wise, Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1202 W. Johnson St., Madison, WI 53706. E-mail: email@example.com
Table 1. Descriptive Statistics for Rates of Victimization Experienced by Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals (Analysis I) Measure k (a) [ES.sub.p] (b) 95% CI Discrimination 58 .41 .34, .48 Threats 35 .37 .30, .44 Verbal harassment 81 .55 .47, .64 Property violence 41 .24 .20, .28 Target of objects 15 .14 .10, .18 Followed 16 .40 .27, .53 Spat on 6 .05 .02, .10 Physical assault 102 .28 .25, .31 Weapon assault 28 .14 .12, .16 Robbed 21 .19 .18, .21 Police victimization 11 .19 .12, .26 Sexual assault 113 .27 .24, .30 Verbal from family 25 .40 .36, .43 Physical from family 38 .33 .28, .38 Sexual from family 32 .28 .22, .33 Know others victimized 6 .41 .14, .68 Threat of being "outed" 9 .24 .09, .40 School victimization 31 .33 .26, .39 Sexual harassment 14 .45 .30, .61 Workplace victimization 30 .25 .20, .29 Housing discrimination 6 .08 .05, .12 Health care discrimination 6 .21 .04, .37 Relational victimization 14 .44 .40, .49 General victimization 22 .43 .34, .52 Measure [Q.sub.T] (c) v (d) Discrimination 20,343.38 * .07 Threats 1,769.79 * .04 Verbal harassment 66,771.36 * .15 Property violence 1,708.73 * .02 Target of objects 208.44 * .01 Followed 1,052.50 * .07 Spat on 64.37 * .00 Physical assault 15,602.22 * .02 Weapon assault 1,720.47 * .00 Robbed 2,670.32 * .00 Police victimization 368.82 * .01 Sexual assault 12,525.21 * .02 Verbal from family 117.72 * .01 Physical from family 1,049.48 * .03 Sexual from family 571.96 * .02 Know others victimized 547.04 * .11 Threat of being "outed" 1,039.65 * .05 School victimization 8,032.41 * .03 Sexual harassment 3,222.70 * .09 Workplace victimization 714.59 * .01 Housing discrimination 40.91 * .00 Health care discrimination 228.49 * .04 Relational victimization 395.56 * .01 General victimization 1,658.27 * .04 Note. CI=confidence interval. (a) Number of studies used to compute each mean effect size; measures with two or fewer studies are not included. (b) Effect sizes can be interpreted as the rate of victimization, e.g., [ES.sub.p] =.41, which is 41%. (c) Significant values indicate that there is significant heterogeneity among the individual effect sizes for each measure. (d) Random-effects variance component. * p<.01. Table 2. Descriptive Statistics for Rates of Victimization Experienced by Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals in U.S. Samples (Analysis I) Measure k (a) [ES.sub.p] (b) 95% CI Discrimination 34 .44 .33, .54 Threats 29 .39 .30, .48 Verbal harassment 52 .56 .43, .68 Property violence 31 .23 .18, .28 Target of objects 11 .14 .09, .20 Followed 14 .43 .28, .58 Spat on 4 .09 .00, .17 Physical assault 68 .28 .25, .32 Weapon assault 24 .17 .15, .18 Robbed 16 .19 .17, .21 Police victimization 8 .13 .06, .20 Sexual assault 75 .29 .24, .33 Verbal from family 24 .39 .35, .43 Physical from family 35 .34 .29, .40 Sexual from family 32 .28 .22, .33 Know others victimized 6 .41 .14, .68 Threat of being "outed" 6 .17 .07, .27 School victimization 12 .32 .20, .43 Sexual harassment 9 .50 .25, .74 Workplace victimization 27 .24 .19, .29 Housing discrimination 5 .09 .04, .13 Health care discrimination 5 .20 .00, .39 Relational victimization 4 .17 .04, .30 General victimization 14 .38 .29, .48 Measure [Q.sub.T] (c) v (d) Discrimination 6,976.36 * .09 Threats 1,627.88 * .06 Verbal harassment 64,652.12 * .22 Property violence 1,378.56 * .02 Target of objects 186.10 * .01 Followed 968.95 * .08 Spat on 46.21 * .00 Physical assault 9,143.22 * .02 Weapon assault 1,660.35 * .00 Robbed 2,343.92 * .00 Police victimization 215.28 * .01 Sexual assault 7,786.40 * .03 Verbal from family 111.20 * .01 Physical from family 921.51 * .03 Sexual from family 571.96 * .02 Know others victimized 547.04 * .11 Threat of being "outed" 104.90 * .01 School victimization 1,102.03 * .04 Sexual harassment 447.90 * .13 Workplace victimization 652.06 * .01 Housing discrimination 40.82 * .00 Health care discrimination 225.80 * .05 Relational victimization 5.42 .01 General victimization 831.10 * .03 Note. CI=confidence interval. (a) Number of studies used to compute each mean effect size; measures with two or fewer studies are not included. (b) Effect sizes can be interpreted as the rate of victimization, e.g., [ES.sub.p]=.44, which is 44%. (c) Significant values indicate that there is significant heterogeneity among the individual effect sizes for each measure. (d) Random-effects variance component. * p < .01. Table 3. Gender as a Moderator Predicting Rates of Victimization Experienced by Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals (Analysis I) Female Measure [Q.sub.B] k [ES.sub.p] [Q.sub.w] Discrimination 0.44 8 .40 8.49 Threats 0.74 5 .32 1.65 Verbal harassment 0.54 14 .50 11.00 Property violence 3.93 * 4 .19 5.50 Followed 4.54 * 3 .40 4.02 Physical assault 1.22 15 .23 11.76 Weapon assault 0.18 2 .23 1.77 Police victimization 1.62 1 .05 0.00 Sexual assault 0.41 21 .36 20.12 Verbal from family 6.26 * 7 .30 9.71 Physical from family 1.58 13 .32 12.17 Sexual from family 0.77 17 .32 19.87 School victimization 1.08 3 .20 0.40 Sexual harassment 0.01 4 .49 4.90 Workplace victimization 2.19 6 .44 7.69 General victimization 0.05 3 .47 2.72 Male Measure k [ES.sub.p] [Q.sub.w] Discrimination 11 .35 11.05 Threats 4 .45 7.43 Verbal harassment 19 .56 22.72 Property violence 4 .40 2.48 Followed 2 .81 0.55 Physical assault 17 .31 20.12 Weapon assault 3 .33 3.01 Police victimization 5 .28 6.30 Sexual assault 28 .32 26.63 Verbal from family 9 .43 5.80 Physical from family 10 .42 10.94 Sexual from family 8 .25 6.27 School victimization 5 .37 7.56 Sexual harassment 1 .52 0.00 Workplace victimization 8 .25 6.38 General victimization 2 .53 2.26 Note. [Q.sub.B]=between-groups heterogeneity; k=number of studies (measures with fewer than two studies in both levels of the moderator are not included); [Q.sub.w]=within-group heterogeneity. See text for full description of moderator variable. * p < .05. Table 4. Gender as a Moderator Predicting Rates of Victimization Experienced by Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals in U.S. Samples (Analysis I) Female Measure [Q.sub.B] k [ES.sub.p] [Q.sub.w] Discrimination 3.53 4 .45 7.14 Threats 1.43 3 .30 1.18 Verbal harassment 0.73 10 .07 6.70 Property violence 2.75 4 .19 4.49 Followed 4.54 * 3 .40 4.02 Physical assault 1.28 11 .22 9.61 Weapon assault 2.10 2 .23 3.07 Sexual assault 0.05 17 .35 16.47 Verbal from family 5.08 * 7 .30 9.49 Physical from family 1.99 13 .32 11.95 Sexual from family 0.77 17 .32 19.87 School victimization 10.51 ** 1 .10 0.00 Workplace victimization 1.34 1 .19 0.00 General victimization 0.81 3 .47 4.01 Male Measure k [ES.sub.p] [Q.sub.w] Discrimination 6 .24 3.38 Threats 3 .54 4.83 Verbal harassment 12 .07 15.42 Property violence 2 .43 1.53 Followed 2 .71 0.81 Physical assault 12 .33 13.15 Weapon assault 2 .50 0.73 Sexual assault 18 .34 17.18 Verbal from family 8 .42 5.05 Physical from family 9 .44 10.08 Sexual from family 8 .25 6.27 School victimization 2 .21 1.50 Workplace victimization 26 .04 26.79 General victimization 1 .20 0.00 Note. [Q.sub.B]=between-groups heterogeneity; k=number of studies (measures with fewer than two studies in both levels of the moderator are not included); [Q.sub.w]=within-group heterogeneity. See text for full description of moderator variable. * p<.05. ** p<.01. Table 5. Descriptive Statistics for Differences Between Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual and Heterosexual Individuals in Rates of Victimization (Analysis II) Measure k (a) d (b) 95% CI [Q.sub.T] (c) Discrimination 14 .37 .28, .47 705.77 ** Threats 5 .32 .10, .55 163.68 ** Verbal harassment 21 .33 .23, .42 469.16 ** Property violence 7 .16 .00, .31 155.09 ** Followed 3 .43 .09, .78 72.55 ** Physical assault 22 .20 .13, .28 217.21 ** Weapon assault 7 .26 .14, .38 126.96 ** Robbed 3 .25 .01, .49 81.18 ** Police victimization 3 .07 -.02, .15 4.46 Sexual assault 36 .18 .13, .23 639.10 ** Verbal from family 7 .20 .14, .27 12.96 * Physical from family 10 .11 .08, .13 9.82 Sexual from family 11 .12 .09, .16 14.41 School victimization 14 .16 .10, .23 310.10 ** Sexual harassment 13 .25 .17, .34 44.45 ** Workplace victimization 11 .36 .21, .51 117.98 ** Health care discrimination 4 .04 -.02, .09 5.41 General victimization 5 .58 .22, .94 24.36 ** Measure v (d) Discrimination .02 Threats .06 Verbal harassment .04 Property violence .04 Followed .09 Physical assault .03 Weapon assault .02 Robbed .04 Police victimization .00 Sexual assault .02 Verbal from family .00 Physical from family .00 Sexual from family .00 School victimization .01 Sexual harassment .02 Workplace victimization .05 Health care discrimination .00 General victimization .13 Note. CI=confidence interval. (a) Number of studies used to compute each mean effect size; measures with two or fewer studies are not included. (b) Negative values indicate that heterosexual participants experienced more victimization than lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants; effect sizes were not computed for measures with two or fewer studies. (c) Significant values indicate that there is significant heterogeneity among the individual effect sizes for each measure. (d) Random-effects variance component. * p<.05. ** p<.01. Table 6. Descriptive Statistics for Differences Between Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Females and Males in Rates of Victimization (Analysis IIIa) Measure k (a) d (b) 95% CI [Q.sub.T] (c) Discrimination 18 -.02 -.06, .02 112.72 * Threats 12 -.09 -.15, -.03 46.97 * Verbal harassment 25 -.05 -.11, .00 385.15 * Property violence 13 -.06 -.09, -.03 36.72 * Target of objects 6 -.05 -.08, -.02 6.65 Followed 3 -.19 -.35, -.02 17.51 * Physical assault 29 -.09 -.13, -.04 514.56 * Weapon assault 7 -.11 -.19, -.03 95.52 * Robbed 8 -.12 -.19, -.05 121.48 * Sexual assault 27 -.01 -.07, .05 1144.30 * Verbal from family 8 .04 -.01, .10 5.71 Physical from family 9 .01 -.03, .06 12.96 Sexual from family 5 .09 .01, .17 6.32 Threat of being "outed" 5 -.05 -.09, -.01 3.32 School victimization 12 -.09 -.15, -.03 219.57 * Sexual harassment 3 -.10 -.17, -.03 1.33 Workplace victimization 12 .03 -.10, .16 60.26 * Relational victimization 5 .05 -.04, .13 50.51 * General victimization 9 -.06 -.13, .01 45.14 * Measure v (d) Discrimination .00 Threats .01 Verbal harassment .02 Property violence .00 Target of objects .00 Followed .02 Physical assault .01 Weapon assault .01 Robbed .01 Sexual assault .02 Verbal from family .00 Physical from family .00 Sexual from family .00 Threat of being "outed" .00 School victimization .01 Sexual harassment .00 Workplace victimization .04 Relational victimization .01 General victimization .01 Note. CI=confidence interval. (a) Number of studies used to compute each mean effect size; measures with two or fewer studies are not included. (b) Negative values indicate that lesbian, gay, and bisexual males experienced more victimization than lesbian, gay, and bisexual females. (c) Significant values indicate that there is significant heterogeneity among the individual effect sizes for each measure. (d) Random-effects variance component. (e) p <.01. Table 7. Comparison between Rates of Victimization (Percentages) Experienced by Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals in U.S. Samples and Results, from Berrill's (1992) Study Measure Berrill's Study This Study Threats 44 39 Verbal harassment 80 56 Property violence 19 23 Target of objects 25 14 Followed 33 43 Spat on 13 9 Physical assault 17 28 Weapon assault 9 17