Validating an end-user computing satisfaction instrument: a confirmatory factor analysis approach using international data.ABSTRACT
This study evaluates the construct validity construct validity,
n the degree to which an experimentally-determined definition matches the theoretical definition. of an end-user computing computing - computer satisfaction scale in the context of the Korean culture. The structure and dimensionality, reliability and validity of an end-user computing satisfaction (EUCS EUCS Edinburgh University Computer Services (Scotland) ) instrument were cross-validated using data obtained from 108 managers of Korean firms in the context of the end-user satisfaction with their office information system. The results of this study are generally consistent with previous findings regarding the measurement property of this instrument. However, Korean data also supports the five correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. first-order factors model. Managerial and research implications of the identified results are discussed.
Many studies have been conducted to explore the concept of user satisfaction with information systems and to examine the validity of measures of user satisfaction with information systems. User information system satisfaction (UISS UISS Union of Islamic Student Societies ) refers to the extent to which end-users perceive that an available information system meets their information requirements The information needed to support a business or other activity. Systems analysts turn information requirements (the what and when) into functional specifications (the how) of an information system. and needs. UISS has received significant attention in the literature because UISS is considered as a surrogate surrogate n. 1) a person acting on behalf of another or a substitute, including a woman who gives birth to a baby of a mother who is unable to carry the child. 2) a judge in some states (notably New York) responsible only for probates, estates, and adoptions. measure of information system success (Au, Ngai & Cheng, 2002; Galletta & Lederer, 1989). The reasons for user satisfaction being widely used as a measure of information system success include the availability of reliable measurement tools and their high face validity face validity (fāsˑ v·liˑ·di·tē),
n (DeLone & McLean, 1992). User information system satisfaction is often used as an indicator of user perception of the effectiveness and success of a management information system (Akbulut & Motwani, 2005; Bailey & Pearson, 1983; Doll & Torkzadeh, 1988).
Although there have been several definitions and measures of end-user computing satisfaction (EUCS) (Bailey & Pearson, 1983; Doll & Torkzedah, 1988; Ives, Olson & Baroudi, 1983), Doll and Torkzadeh's end-user computing satisfaction (EUCS) instrument has been widely used as an end-user computing satisfaction measure that is relevant to specific software or information system applications. Their five-component model is based on a specific information system satisfaction of end-users. The five-component model consists of the accuracy, content, ease-of-use, format, and timeliness for the information system application. In addition, cross-cultural studies Cross-cultural comparisons take several forms. One is comparison of case studies, another is controlled comparison among variants of a common derivation, and a third is comparison within a sample of cases. of end-user information system satisfaction have been conducted in many countries (McHaney, Hightower & Pearson, 2002; de Madariaga, 2004). In their comprehensive review of the relationship of culture with information and information technologies, Leidner and Kayworth (2006) reported that differences in culture could account for information technology use and outcome. They indicated that certain cultural values are related to user satisfaction and successful implementation of information systems. Similarly, Jones et al. (2003) reported cultural differences in the perception and use of EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) The electronic communication of business transactions, such as orders, confirmations and invoices, between organizations. Third parties provide EDI services that enable organizations with different equipment to connect. in a global setting. With increased globalization globalization
Process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world. Factors that have contributed to globalization include increasingly sophisticated communications and transportation and the cross-cultural teamwork (product, software, tool) Teamwork - A SASD tool from Sterling Software, formerly CADRE Technologies, which supports the Shlaer/Mellor Object-Oriented method and the Yourdon-DeMarco, Hatley-Pirbhai, Constantine and Buhr notations. environment, information system implementation issues In the Business world, companies frequently set-up a connection between which they transfer data. When the connection is being set-up, it is referred to as implementation. When issues occur during this phase, they are known as implementation issues. across countries are becoming more important. This new trend calls for extending research on end-user information system satisfaction and validating existing instruments in other countries (McHaney, Hightower & Pearson, 2002). This study recognizes the importance of the cross-cultural validation research requirement and continues this research stream.
Thus, a further cross-cultural extension of the existing end-user computing satisfaction instrument is warranted. The purpose of the current study, therefore, is to examine the construct validity of Doll and Torkzadeh's end-user computing satisfaction instrument in South Korea. The validation of the instrument is performed by assessing the end-user satisfaction of office information system by managers in various South Korean firms.
In the past, many researchers have utilized the measurement of end-user satisfaction as a surrogate measure of the success of a specific application (Bailey & Pearson, 1983; DeLone & McLean, 1992; Ives & Olson, 1984). According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Doll and Torkzadeh (1988), end-user satisfaction represents the affective affective /af·fec·tive/ (ah-fek´tiv) pertaining to affect.
1. Concerned with or arousing feelings or emotions; emotional.
2. attitude towards a specific computer software application. Doll and Torkzadeh (1988) developed a 12-item end-user computing satisfaction instrument. Conceptualizing end-user satisfaction as a multifaceted construct, they developed five subscales that measure end-user satisfaction. Their conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: includes five subscales of the accuracy, content, ease-of-use, format, and timeliness of a computer software application and a single overall second-order construct labeled EUCS. These subscales represent the usefulness and user-friendliness of a specific computer software application.
Many researchers reported cross-validation of the scale and related measurement models using different types of software applications and varying samples sizes (Doll & Xia, 1997; Doll, Xia & Torkzadeh, 1994; Doll, Raghunathan, Lim & Gupta, 1995; Hendrickson, Glorfeld & Cronan, 1994; Hendrickson, Massey & Cronan, 1993; McHaney & Cronan, 1998; McHaney, Hightower & White, 1999; Somers, Nelson & Karimi, 2003). Doll and Torkzadeh's EUCS instrument has been validated with voice mail and e-mail applications (Adams, Nelson & Todd, 1992), software applications on either a mainframe or PC/desktop (Hendrickson, Glorfeld & Cronan, 1994), telephone interactive voice response systems (Downing, 1999), data warehouses (Chen, Soliman, Mao & Frolick, 2000), and ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) An integrated information system that serves all departments within an enterprise. Evolving out of the manufacturing industry, ERP implies the use of packaged software rather than proprietary software written by or for one customer. systems (Somers, Nelson & Karimi, 2003). While these studies evaluated reliability and construct validity using various software applications, cross-cultural validation of this instrument has been quite limited. One such cross-cultural validation study was reported by McHaney, Hightower and Pearson (2002) using Taiwanese end-users of business software applications. As many previous studies (Calhoun, Teng & Cheon, 2002; Harper & Utley, 2001; Kanungo, 1998; McDermott & Stock, 1999; Rose, Evaristo & Straub, 2003) reported significant linkages of cultural values to user satisfaction and information system implementation success, it becomes increasingly important to validate existing measurement scales in different cultural contexts.
Cultural Difference Dimensions
Seminal seminal /sem·i·nal/ (sem´i-n'l) pertaining to semen or to a seed.
Of, relating to, containing, or conveying semen or seed. works by Hofstede (1980, 1983) and others (e.g. Nath & Murthy, 2004) have recognized the importance of cultural differences in work-related values of end-users, and they proposed several characteristics to identify and differentiate the impact of culture on their satisfaction. While a majority of the previous UISS scale validation efforts were conducted using United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. samples, this study utilized a Korean sample to validate the scale. Therefore, to examine the possible cultural differences in scale validation outcomes, this section will discuss the difference in cultural characteristics between the United States and Korea. Among the four dimensions identified by Hofstede, the United States and Korean cultures show differences in the "collectivism collectivism
Any of several types of social organization that ascribe central importance to the groups to which individuals belong (e.g., state, nation, ethnic group, or social class). It may be contrasted with individualism. versus individualism individualism
Political and social philosophy that emphasizes individual freedom. Modern individualism emerged in Britain with the ideas of Adam Smith and Jeremy Bentham, and the concept was described by Alexis de Tocqueville as fundamental to the American temper. " and "weak versus strong uncertainty avoidance" dimensions.
The Asian culture (e.g., Korea and Japan) is characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
2. as "collectivist col·lec·tiv·ism
The principles or system of ownership and control of the means of production and distribution by the people collectively, usually under the supervision of a government. ," while the American culture is identified as "individualist in·di·vid·u·al·ist
1. One that asserts individuality by independence of thought and action.
2. An advocate of individualism.
in " (Hofstede, 1983). In a collectivist society where the ties among individuals are strong, everyone is responsible to look after the interest of the group as a whole. Individuals in this society consider the effects of their decisions on other members of the group (e.g., family, schools, associations, firms). Whereas, in an individualist society, the ties among individuals are weak and therefore, individuals make decisions with regard to only their interests and satisfaction.
The uncertainty avoidance dimension deals with how individuals live with the uncertainty of the future. The United States culture is identified as a "weak uncertainty avoidance" culture. In this culture, individuals accept each day as it comes and take risks rather easily. They have a natural tendency to feel relatively secure. The Korean culture is identified as a "strong uncertainty avoidance" culture. In this culture, individuals minimize or avoid risk. They use institutions and use tools such as technology to create security.
Building on the Hofstede's work, many researchers have investigated the impact of these cultural differences in information technology adoption, application, and usage. Straub (1994) investigated differences in the way firms diffuse diffuse /dif·fuse/
1. (di-fus´) not definitely limited or localized.
2. (di-fuz´) to pass through or to spread widely through a tissue or substance.
adj. information technology in Japan and the United States. He reported that United States firms preferred using electronic mail over fax machines; while Japanese firms preferred using fax machines over e-mail. He attributed these technological diffusion diffusion, in chemistry, the spontaneous migration of substances from regions where their concentration is high to regions where their concentration is low. Diffusion is important in many life processes. differences to the cultural avoidance of the uncertainty dimension. Couger (1986) reported significant cultural differences between Singapore and the United States in the motivation of analysts and programmers. Watson, Ho, and Raman (1994) reported similar cultural differences in decision support system group behavior. They reported greater pre-meeting agreement for Singaporean groups and larger agreement shift for the United States groups. Gefen and Straub (1997) identified cultural influence on gender differences in the perception and use of e-mail. Chu, Spires, and Sueyoshi (1999) reported differences in choice behavior and the use of decision aids between participants from Japan and the United States. These studies suggest that user information system satisfaction could be influenced by cultural differences.
Alternative Factor Structure Models
Doll, Xia, and Torkzadeh (1994) proposed four alternative models of factor structure. The four alternative factor structure models are presented in Figures 1 through 4. Figure 1 presents the one first-order factor model. In this model, one first-order factor accounts for all the common variances among the 12 items of the EUCS. Under this model, a summated score of the 12 individual items can be used to represent the overall satisfaction construct (Simon, 2000). Figure 2 presents the five uncorrelated first-order factors model. This model hypothesized that the 12 items form into 5 orthogonal first-order factors defined as accuracy, content, ease-of-use, format, and timeliness.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Figure 3 presents the five correlated first-order factors model. This model presumes that the five first-order factors are correlated with each other. Figure 4 presents the one second-order factor model. In this model, it is hypothesized that five first-order factors form into one second-order factor representing the overall construct of EUCS. While the Figure 4 model includes the second-order factor, EUCS, it cannot be directly measured by indicator variables. In this model, the first-order factors measured by their respective indicator variables are considered as components of the second-order factor. This model has been tested by other researchers in the past (Doll & Xia, 1997; Doll, Xia & Torkzadeh, 1994; McHaney & Cronan, 1998; McHaney, Hightower & Pearson, 2002; McHaney, Hightower & White, 1999; Somers, Nelson & Karimi, 2003).
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
All instruments, including Doll and Torkzadeh's (1988) 12-item instrument, were translated into Korean following the procedures recommended by Brislin (1993). Specifically, bilingual bi·lin·gual
a. Using or able to use two languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency.
b. business administration faculty and graduate students translated the instrument items into Korean, and then a second bilingual graduate student translated the items back into English. When the original version was not equivalent to the back-translated version, discussions among them were conducted to find a resolution. The translated Korean version and re-translated English version were revised until the meanings of the original English version were translated equivalently. After three iterations, the translated versions were regarded as equivalent to the original version by using standards described above.
A senior manager of the South Korean firms distributed the questionnaires to each participant at their work-sites. The participants were informed that their participation was voluntary and that their responses were anonymous. Participants were asked to seal the completed questionnaires in an envelope and forward the envelope to a designated contact person. The envelopes were collected 10 days after the questionnaires were initially distributed. A total of 108 usable questionnaires were received from the South Korean manufacturing firms. The majority of the respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. were middle managers of their firm. The breakdown of the responses by position was Director, 3%; Managers, 29%; and Assistant Managers, 68%. The breakdown of responses by number of employees at the firm was 100-499, 5%; 500-999, 11%; 1000 or more, 84 %. The Korean managers were asked to indicate their end-user satisfaction with respect to their firm's current business software applications.
Descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. for the Doll and Torkzadeh's 12-item instrument to measure EUCS is presented in Table 1. The item means ranged from 3.15 to 3.54 on a five point scale (1 = almost never; 3 = about half the time; 5 = almost always) indicating that Korean end-users were satisfied slightly more than half of the time with their business software applications in terms of accuracy, content, ease-of-use, format, and timeliness. The mean ratings for timeliness ranged from 3.15 to 3.24; this was the lowest reported item mean ratings. The mean ratings for accuracy ranged from 3.46 to 3.54; this was the highest reported item mean ratings.
Data were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. by structural equation analysis via LISREL LISREL Linear Structural Relations . In analyzing the four alternative factor structural models, overall fit for each of the models, as well as individual coefficients, were evaluated. Confirmatory Factor Analysis In statistics, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a special form of factor analysis. It is used to assess the the number of factors and the loadings of variables. (CFA) was used to assess the validity of the four described factor structural models. These models specify the structural relationship linking the twelve observed variables and the underlying theoretical factors, which are presumed to determine responses to the observed variables. The measurement model was tested using LISREL.
In evaluating the goodness-of-fit of the four alternative factor structural models, eight common model-fit measures were used. These eight model-fit indices included chi-square ([chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. ]), chi-square/degrees of freedom ([chi square]/df), normed fit index (NFI NFI Nasjonal Forskningsinformasjon (Norwegian Research Database)
NFI National Fisheries Institute
NFI National Fatherhood Initiative
NFI National Forest Inventory (Australia)
NFI Nutrition Foundation of India ), goodness-of-fit index (GFI GFI Ground Fault Interrupter
GFI Go For It
GFI Government-Furnished Information
GFI Growing Families International
GFI Goodness of Fit Indices
GFI Government Financial Institutions (Philippines)
GFI Gross Farm Income ), adjusted goodness-of-fit index (AGFI AGFI Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (statisticals)
AGFI Adjusted Goodness of Fit Indices ), root mean square residual (RMSR), non-normed fit index, (NNFI NNFI Non-Normed Fit Index (statistics) ), and comparative fit index (CFI CFI
cost, freight, and insurance ). The chi-square ([chi square]) fit index is appropriate for sample sizes between 100 and 200, with the significance test becoming less reliable when the sample sizes are outside this range. The chi-square/degrees of freedom ([chi square]/df) ratio is better than the [chi square] fit index, and this ratio should be less than three (Carmines & McIver, 1981) or less than two in a more restrictive sense (Premkumar & King, 1994).
Table 2 presents the overall model fit indices for the four alternative factor structure models. The fit indices for Model 1 present a relatively poor fit of the data to the structural model. Seven of the fit indices for Model 1 (except RMSR) did not meet the recommended values. The [chi square]/df ratio was above its defined acceptable threshold. The NFI, GFI, AGFI, NNFI, and CFI were all below the recommended threshold value of 0.90. The RMSR value was 0.08 which is less than the recommended value of 0.10. Model 2 also indicates a poor fit of the data to the model. All eight fit indices for Model 2 did not meet the recommended values, thus indicating a poor fit for Model 2. The [chi square]/df ratio and RMSR were greater than their acceptable threshold value. The NFI, GFI, AGFI, NNFI, and CFI were all below the recommended threshold value of 0.90. Based upon these indices, Model 1 has a better fit to the data than Model 2. The results obtained for Models 1 and 2 are consistent with the previous research findings (Doll & Xia, 1997).
Model 3 presents a fairly good fit of the model to the data. Four of the fit indices meet the recommended threshold values. The [chi square]/df ratio (1.86) and RMSR (0.05) were less than their acceptable threshold values. The GFI (0.90) and CFI (0.93) were equal to or greater than the recommended threshold value of 0.90. Model 4 also presents a fairly good fit of the model to the observed data. Four of the fit indices meet the recommended threshold values. The [chi square]/df ratio (1.78) and RMSR (0.05) were less than their acceptable threshold values. The NNFI (0.90) and CFI (0.93) were equal to or greater than the recommended threshold value of 0.90. When Model 4 was compared to Model 3, Model 4 showed slightly improved fit indices. While previous research (Doll & Xia, 1997; McHaney, Hightower & Pearson, 2002) reported a relatively poor fit of the Model 3 and significant improvement in fit of the Model 4 over Model 3, this study found similarly good fit of the Model 3 and Model 4.
Table 3 presents standardized estimates and construct reliabilities for the twelve item measure. The lambda coefficients were all significant at the 0.01 level and ranged from 0.63 to 0.91 that are larger than the threshold value of 0.60 recommended by Bagozzi and Yi (1988). These results indicate the unidimensionality of the five subscale items. Composite reliabilities ([rho]c) of the latent Hidden; concealed; that which does not appear upon the face of an item.
For example, a latent defect in the title to a parcel of real property is one that is not discoverable by an inspection of the title made with ordinary care. constructs recommended by Fornell and Larcker (1981) were calculated for the five subscales. Composite reliabilities ([rho]c) of the latent constructs ranged from 0.786 to 0.887. The two items for the format subscale show composite reliability ([rho]c) of 0.786 that is lower than the recommended value of 0.800. The composite reliabilities ([rho]c) for accuracy, content, ease-of-use, and timeliness subscales were 0.833, 0.887, 0.802, and 0.814 respectively. R-square values range from 0.44 to 1.00, providing evidence of acceptable reliability for all factors. These results show the evidence of convergent validity Convergent validity is the degree to which an operation is similar to (converges on) other operations that it theoretically should also be similar to. For instance, to show the convergent validity of a test of mathematics skills, the scores on the test can be correlated with scores and construct reliabilities of subscales.
Table 4 presents the correlation coefficients of the five factors obtained from Model 3 LISREL output. The correlations ranged from 0.30 to 0.79. Five correlations were larger than 0.60. The correlations of content with the other four factors and correlation between accuracy and ease-of-use were larger than 0.60. These correlations indicate somewhat questionable discriminant validity Discriminant validity describes the degree to which the operationalization is not similar to (diverges from) other operationalizations that it theoretically should not be similar to. of the five subscales.
The structural coefficients and their t-values (in parenthesis) for accuracy, content, ease-of-use, format, and timeliness subscales were 0.56 (5.91), 0.81 (9.10), 0.52 (5.39), 0.58 (6.16) and 0.62 (6.72) respectively. These results indicate acceptable construct validity of the latent factors comprising the EUCS construct. The results obtained from the Korean sample data support the identified structural equation model and the underlying theory. While the higher-order factor structure (Model 4) is found to be a better fit model, the five correlated first-order factors structure (Model 3) was an equally good fit to the data. The improvement of Model 4 over Model 3 was not as substantial as was expected. These results generally support the generalizability of EUCS and the robustness of EUCS as a measure of user information system satisfaction.
CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION
This study explored the four alternative factor structure models of end-user computing satisfaction using a sample of managers of South Korean firms. This study found support for the generalizability of the EUCS instrument. Many researchers call for extending the replication of an existing instrument, such as EUCS, in the MIS field (Berthon, Pitt, Ewing & Carr, 2002; Boudreau, Gefen & Straub, 2001; Klenke, 1992). This study advances previous research by using the EUCS instrument in a different sample and a different application.
This study supports previous findings that the EUCS has been shown to be a valid predictor of user satisfaction and good instrument usable for multiple cultures. However, interestingly, this study found somewhat different validation results from the Korean sample as compared to United States sample results reported in previous studies (Doll & Torkzadeh, 1988; Doll & Xia, 1997; Doll, Raghunathan, Lim & Gupta, 1995; McHaney, Hightower & White, 1999). Although this study's results support Model 4, contrary to the United States sample results where the improvement of Model 4 over Model 3 is substantial, the Korean sample results show that Model 3 and Model 4 are equally well supported. In addition, the evidence of the discriminant validity of the five subscales in Model 4 seems to be less than satisfactory in this study.
These validation result differences may be in part explained by cultural difference dimensions identified by Hofstede (1983). As described earlier, the Korean culture can be characterized as having "collectivist", "strong uncertainty avoidance", and "high power distance". McDermitt and Stock (1999), for example, found a positive relationship of group-oriented (i.e., collectivist) cultures to managerial satisfaction with advanced manufacturing technology outcomes. Similarly, Kangungo (1998) found a stronger relationship of computer-network use with user satisfaction in more task-oriented cultures.
As such, these cultural differences may have played a role in the way Korean managers answered the UISS scale items. The results show that Korean managers seem to have perceived these five dimensions as highly correlated first-order factors in their work environment. The high correlations among the five factors suggest that for Korean managers, the five UISS dimensions tested in this study may not be clearly defined and perceived distinctively. Especially, high correlations were found between content and timeliness and between content and accuracy. This suggests that timeliness and accuracy are highly correlated to content and implies that the appropriate timeliness and accuracy may be dependent upon the nature and scope of the content. This finding may be due to the fact that Asian, and in particular Korean, management systems do not value or encourage the knowledge sharing and communication of accurate and timely information (Bock Noun 1. bock - a very strong lager traditionally brewed in the fall and aged through the winter for consumption in the spring
lager beer, lager - a general term for beer made with bottom fermenting yeast (usually by decoction mashing); originally et al., 2005). Asian managers typically safeguard valued information among their closed group members instead of disclosing it for public scrutiny or use. Computer files, business information, system reports, and software applications are more commonly shared among close-knit group members and are considered as group-owned rather than individually owned. In addition, deadlines or report requirements are more flexibly defined and enforced among Korean managers. These differences in the information system work environment would make it difficult for Korean managers to separate these five components of EUCS and assess the satisfaction level distinctively. A similar finding is reported by Yoo and Torrey (2002). Their study shows that there exists significant differences in the way Korean and United States consultants create, seek, share, and preserve knowledge in their respective organizational setting. They reported that Korean consultants rely more on social networks than on external searches for knowledge and information. Japanese managers who share a similar collectivist and uncertainty avoidance culture, tend to use information technology for purposes of control rather than for individual support (Kambayashi & Scarbrough, 2001). Loiacono and Lin (2005) reported significant cultural differences between Chinese and US website customers in their assessment of website quality.
In addition, the correlation between content and format was also very high suggesting that content may determine the appropriateness of the format used in presenting the information. As Asian culture is more socially oriented o·ri·ent
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.
b. A pearl having exceptional luster.
3. and situation centered, the release of information which promotes conformity and reinforces the existing relationship networks is encouraged. Messages which advocate radical change or undermine social stability tend to be suppressed (Kim & Peterson, 2003). As such, cultural values can influence the processes used for communicating and interpreting information. While Western cultures use low context forms of communication, the Asian high context cultures tend to use more implicit and indirect communication (Moller & Svahn, 2004). This often translates to the absence of both formal communications systems and explicit, consistent, or clear rules. In Asian culture there is little value in codifying business information into a certain specified form if its context would be lost. Therefore, Asian managers tend to use ambiguous or conditional statements to maintain flexibility, promote harmony, preserve face, achieve compromise, and avoid conflict (Espinosa et al., 2006). As a result, this study found that Korean managers consider content accuracy, timeliness, and format factors are all contingent to the content of interest.
The differences found in validation results using Korean sample data provide significant implications for theory development and cross-cultural management practices. When global businesses are incorporating or developing information systems in Asian cultures, these global businesses should consider implementing an IS system and report formats that do not challenge the power relationships (Peterson et al., 2003). The IT applications that challenge the power relationships are difficult to get implemented and accepted by those in authority roles as well as subordinates. Any new applications which impose new work practices that may directly conflict with the core Asian culture values would not be able to achieve high end-user satisfaction. This is particularly important for global Multi National Corporations (MNCs) such as airline companies as information must be gathered, stored, distributed, and presented in such a way as to ensure integrity and effectiveness of the global network. Due to competitive market environment, local cultures cannot be easily accommodated in this situation. Therefore, to minimize the negative cultural impact and to increase end-user satisfaction of applications, global MNCs should make every effort to address cultural differences within the project teams developing the IT systems or when outsourcing (1) Contracting with outside consultants, software houses or service bureaus to perform systems analysis, programming and datacenter operations. Contrast with insourcing. See netsourcing, ASP, SSP and facilities management. the IT systems development (Chen et al., 2006; Wei & Peach, 2006) and provide training such that a clearly defined set of methods and procedures are followed (Espinosa et al., 2006). It is also critical to reduce anxiety experienced by top management in those high uncertainty avoidance cultures by demonstrating that the same application or systems are successfully used in similar cultural settings and have maintained the close-knit group relationships as well as information business structure (Martinsons & Westwood, 1997; Yang yang (yang) [Chinese] in Chinese philosophy, the active, positive, masculine principle that is complementary to yin; see yin, under principle. , 2006).
Global MNCs should make investments wisely such that IT applications help senior management monitor and control business operations Business operations are those activities involved in the running of a business for the purpose of producing value for the stakeholders. Compare business processes. The outcome of business operations is the harvesting of value from assets and selectively communicate management directives to organizational subordinates (Shore & Venkatachalam, 1996). Those managers in MNCs who interact with Korean business leaders or develop information systems for the Korean market should be sensitive to and take account of the distinctively characterized Asian information management practice (Kim & Peterson, 2003).
If researchers are interested in using the five subscales in analysis separately in a cross-cultural research, care should be taken regarding the discriminant validity. Different cultures may create confounding confounding
when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.
confounding factor among factors and may result in weak discriminant validity. Future research also needs to evaluate other higher-order factor structures in different cultural settings. In addition, further refinement of the measurement scale would provide advancement of measurement theory development and construct validation research.
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quest after, go after, pursue
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The University of Toledo National recognition
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Table 1: Descriptive Statistics. Std. Code Question Item Mean Deviation A1 Is the system accurate? 3.54 0.68 A2 Are you satisfied with the accuracy of the 3.46 0.62 system? C1 Does the system provide precise information 3.52 0.74 you need? C2 Does the information content meet your 3.44 0.75 needs? C3 Does the system provide reports that seem 3.27 0.74 to be just about exactly what you need? C4 Does the system provide sufficient 3.43 0.74 information? E1 Is the system user friendly? 3.49 0.79 E2 Is the system easy to use? 3.45 0.74 F1 Do you think the output is presented in a 3.39 0.73 useful format? F2 Is the information clear? 3.34 0.73 T1 Do you get the information you need in time? 3.15 0.75 T2 Does the system provide up-to-date 3.24 0.72 information? Five point scale: 1 = almost never; 2 = some of the time; 3 = about half of the time; 4 = most of the time; 5 = almost always. Table 2: Goodness-Of-Fit Measures for the Four Alternative Models. Model 2: Model 1: Five One First- Uncorrelated Goodness of Fit Recommended Order First-Order Indexes Values Factors Factors Chi-Square 156.84 256.8 (df) (54) (54) Chi-Square / df [less than or 2.90 4.76 equal to] 2.00 Normed Fit Index [greater than or 0.74 0.57 (NFI) equal to] 0.90 Goodness-of-Fit [greater than or 0.83 0.69 Index (GFI) equal to] 0.90 Adjusted Goodness- [greater than or 0.76 0.55 of-Fit Index (AGFI) equal to] 0.90 Root Mean Square [less than or 0.08 0.31 Residual (RMSR) equal to] 100 Non-Normed Fit [greater than or 0.76 0.53 Index (NNFI) equal to] 0.90 Comparative Fit [greater than or 0.80 0.61 Index (CFI) equal to] 0.90 Model 3: Model 4: Five Five First-Order Correlated Factors with One Goodness of Fit First-Order Second-Order Indexes Factors Factor Chi-Square 81.79 87.25 (df) (44) (49) Chi-Square / df 1.86 1.78 Normed Fit Index 0.86 0.85 (NFI) Goodness-of-Fit 0.90 0.89 Index (GFI) Adjusted Goodness- 0.82 0.82 of-Fit Index (AGFI) Root Mean Square 0.05 0.05 Residual (RMSR) Non-Normed Fit 0.89 0.90 Index (NNFI) Comparative Fit 0.93 0.93 Index (CFI) Table 3: Standardized Lambda Coefficients, t-values, and Construct Reliabilities. Factor Question Item Accuracy Content Ease-of-Use A1: System is accurate 0.80 A2: Satisfied with system accuracy 0.76 (6.22) C1: System provides precise 0.81 information needed C2: Information content meets 0.75 needs (8.20) C3: System provides required 0.65 reports (6.92) C4: System provides sufficient 0.79 information (8.87) E1: System is user friendly 0.91 E2: System is easy to use 0.65 (5.25) F1: Output is presented in a clear manner F2: Information is clear T1: Information provided in time T2: Information is up-to-date R-Squared 0.50 1.00 0.46 Composite Reliabilities ([rho]c) 0.833 0.887 0.802 Factor Question Item Format Timeliness A1: System is accurate A2: Satisfied with system accuracy C1: System provides precise information needed C2: Information content meets needs C3: System provides required reports C4: System provides sufficient information E1: System is user friendly E2: System is easy to use F1: Output is presented in a clear 0.82 manner F2: Information is clear 0.63 (4.61) T1: Information provided in time 0.79 T2: Information is up-to-date 0.73 (6.29) R-Squared 0.44 0.63 Composite Reliabilities ([rho]c) 0.786 0.814 (a) Indicates a parameter fixed at 1.00 in the original solution. t-values from factor loadings are indicated in parentheses. Table 4: Model 3 Construct Correlation Coefficients. Factor Accuracy Content Ease-of-Use Format Timeliness Accuracy 1.00 Content 0.69 1.00 Ease-of-Use 0.60 0.64 1.00 Format 0.39 0.68 0.30 1.00 Timeliness 0.55 0.79 0.52 0.49 1.00