Using software to integrate the mixing shop.
Modern polymer mixing shops face most of the same production coordination problems common to other manufacturing facilities. However, mixing shops face their own unique production control issues. Generic production software packages designed for build-to-stock and/or custom manufacturing fail to address many areas of key importance to the polymer mixer mixer, either of two electronic devices in which two or more signals are combined. In the type of mixer used in radio receivers, radar receivers, and similar systems, a signal is translated upward or downward in frequency. . While there are a number of packages available on the market today specifically for polymer mixers, most of these packages concentrate on just one aspect of polymer production, such as lab test results or recipe management.
Today's highly competitive marketplace requires tighter control of costs than separate software packages can provide. To control costs most effectively, managers need up-to-the-minute information drawn from every aspect of the operation.
Analysis of the problem
As a result of product searches, we found there were very few software control products available specifically for the polymer industry. Those few products were very narrowly focused. They did not integrate the business, production and technical aspects of polymer production.
After interviewing a number of chemists This is a list of famous chemists: (alphabetical order)
: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
tr.v. cal·i·brat·ed, cal·i·brat·ing, cal·i·brates
1. To check, adjust, or determine by comparison with a standard (the graduations of a quantitative measuring instrument): to provide a high level of return on the user's investment, in terms of both initial product cost and costs of maintaining the system, namely, data entry costs, system maintenance costs and reliability related expenses.
Every system, whether manual or computerized computerized
adapted for analysis, storage and retrieval on a computer.
computerized axial tomography
see computed tomography. , for the management of a polymer production facility must take into account the same basic factors. In our automation project, we chose six main areas of attention for managing and controlling the production of polymers: compound recipe management, compound costing, laboratory test data for development and quality assurance, inventory control, production tracking and traditional business office transactions, that is, sales, purchases and receiving. Our goal was to handle each area as fluidly as any existing software package, while bringing all six aspects under one management information umbrella.
Compound recipe management
Compound recipe management encompasses the storage and retrieval of a vast range of technical information. In its simplest form, a recipe must have a list of ingredients, their proportional proportional
values expressed as a proportion of the total number of values in a series.
the patient is a miniature without disproportionate reductions or enlargements of body parts. parts, and weights to make a batch of a specific size and mixing instructions for the shop floor. Realistically, a much larger amount of batch specific data is needed to efficiently produce a given compound at a profit. Customer specifications, packing and shipping methods, raw material and overhead costs overhead costs
see fixed costs. , load factors for internal mixers and specific gravity specific gravity, ratio of the weight of a given volume of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of some reference substance, or, equivalently, the ratio of the masses of equal volumes of the two substances. of component parts are among the extended production data needed.
While compound costing could be considered a component of recipe management, there are a sufficient number of issues to warrant a separate treatment of costing methods. Some highly complex methods have been put forward to calculate the exact cost of a specific pound of product. These complex methods try to amortize amortize
To write off gradually and systematically a given amount of money within a specific number of time periods. For example, an accountant amortizes the cost of a long-term asset by deducting a portion of that cost against income in each period. R&D, freight, front office and warehousing costs into one absolute production cost. To us, however, the most important issue in costing seemed simply to provide managers and purchasing agents Noun 1. purchasing agent - an agent who purchases goods or services for another
agent - a representative who acts on behalf of other persons or organizations with up-to-the-minute costs of raw materials on hand.
Laboratory test data
Two separate but important sets of laboratory test data are needed for producing compounds. One is what we call identifying data, namely, the overall specification data set for the compound. The other data set is quality assurance data. We recognized that the data storage requirements were very different for these two kinds of data.
Few custom mixers keep extensive finished goods inventory. Therefore, the mixers inventory control effort mostly involves keeping raw material levels as low as possible without interrupting production. As with compound recipes, we saw that a wide range of cost and specification data had to be tracked for raw material inventory items.
Production scheduling is closely related to inventory control. The companies we interviewed expressed an interest in just-in-time inventory purchasing. Several companies had been implementing this strategy at varying levels of success for years. Accordingly, we viewed production scheduling as a balance between required delivery dates and availability of raw material in inventory
Obviously, customer order entry, purchase order generation, receipt of inventory and price quotations would also need to be included in the system. This business transaction data would need to drive important parameters in any integrated production A farming system that produces high quality food and other products by using natural resources and regulating mechanisms to replace polluting inputs and to secure sustainable farming. control system.
Granted our system requirements To be used efficiently, all computer software needs certain hardware components or other software resources to be present on a computer system. These pre-requisites are known as (computer) system requirements and are often used as a guideline as opposed to an absolute rule. in these six areas, implementation of our project consisted of choosing the best hardware and software platforms and the proper tools for writing the program we named Compound Manager. During the first stage of analysis we had defined the problems to be solved. Next we needed to design and code processes that would constitute the solution.
Choice of tools, platforms
Because of the well earned popularity of personal computers and local area networks, this hardware/software combination was chosen as the project development and implementation platform. Granted the growing popularity of local area networks in large and small shops, this standard provides a stable, cost-effective, multi-user environment that is quickly replacing minicomputers and mainframes.
The programming language chosen was Clarion A family of application development systems for Windows from SoftVelocity, Inc., Pompano Beach, FL (www.softvelocity.com). Clarion provides a comprehensive set of tools for development, including a screen builder, 4GL and application generator. , a database language and development environment that provides higher productivity and maintainability than most traditional programming languages. Clarion also supports Report Writer, an easy to use interactive program that end-users can use to produce customized reports.
In choosing the Clarion programming tools we had already made some conscious decisions as to the "look and feel" we wanted to achieve as the end result of our programming efforts. Some of the products we had seen during our product search seemed to have been ported directly from aging mini or mainframe programs. Very little in the way of on-line help, data validation In computer science, data validation is the process of ensuring that a program operates on clean, correct and useful data. It uses routines, often called validation rules, that check for correctness or meaningfulness of data that are input to the system. lists or light bar menus were implemented. In short, the interfaces were about ten years behind the times.
At the other end of the spectrum of possibility are the latest graphical user interfaces graphical user interface (GUI)
Computer display format that allows the user to select commands, call up files, start programs, and do other routine tasks by using a mouse to point to pictorial symbols (icons) or lists of menu choices on the screen as opposed to having to and pointing devices An input device used to move the pointer (cursor) on screen. The major pointing device is the mouse for the desktop computer and the touchpad for the laptop, although many road warriors bring along a mouse. such as the mouse, best typified by Microsoft Windows See Windows.
(operating system) Microsoft Windows - Microsoft's proprietary window system and user interface software released in 1985 to run on top of MS-DOS. Widely criticised for being too slow (hence "Windoze", "Microsloth Windows") on the machines available then. . Such interfaces need relatively high powered processors just to support the screens, and there is also a higher learning higher learning
Education or academic accomplishment at the college or university level. curve for the user. In the end, we chose a middle ground that relied on a non-graphical, menu driven interface, with context sensitive help wherever needed.
It was decided that in order to keep Compound Manager as simple as possible the user would interact with the program in only four visual contexts: one, use of light bar menus so that commands do not need to be memorized; two, the use of pop-up data item lists to pick the information needed; three, data entry forms, for adding, deleting and editing of information; four, reports, printed on request or automatically as part of a process such as order production.
All this analysis constituted the user view of Compound Manager. Even more importantly, we had to establish the system internals that would support this view. One of the keys fundamental to producing any effective information system is the right file structure. In designing the file structure for Compound Manager we followed the traditional relational structure advocated by Codd (refs. 1 and 2) at the third normalization In relational database management, a process that breaks down data into record groups for efficient processing. There are six stages. By the third stage (third normal form), data are identified only by the key field in their record. level. Codd's third normal data form provided us with the right balance of direct data access and minimum data redundancy Writing data to two or more locations for backup and data recovery. For example, data can be stored on two or more disks or disk and tape or disk and the Internet. See disk redundancy and data recovery. . Small formal variances were allowed for software performance considerations. Overall, Compound Manager's relational file structure allows for the efficient storage and speedy retrieval of all data. Not surprisingly, the resulting data structure conforms closely to the six part structure we originally designed for the project.
Compound recipe management
In solving the recipe management problem we divided the information that defined a given compound into five components and provided one entry screen for each component. The screens were designated as follows:
* Header (1) In a disk or tape file, a set of data that resides permanently at the beginning. It may be used for identification only (type of file, date of last update, etc.), or it may describe the structural layout of the contents, as is common with many document and database formats. screen - The header data entry screen holds identifying information for the compound. The compound code, customer, the final mixing method, batch size, short customer specifications and shipping/packing information are entered on this screen. Final mixing method is entered. Depending on the type of the mixer, internal or open mill, a load factor or batch weight is then requested. Compound Manager translates parts per hundred into batch weights to meet this total weight (load factor).
* Ingredient entry - In keeping with the overall data design, the ingredient screen is a list of the inventory items included in a compound. This screen is used by the compounder to create and modify compound definitions. Items may be inserted into the compound definition through the use of a pick list that displays all inventory items in a scrolling (chat, games) scrolling - To flood a chat room or Internet game with text or macros in an attempt to annoy the occupants. This can often cause the chat room to be "uninhabitable" due to the "noise" created by the scroller. Compare spam. window.
The ingredients are held in the inventory file. For each compound, there are five important pieces of information in this file: the code number used to identify (relate) this ingredient as part of the compound; the specific gravity of the ingredient, used in sizing and costing the compound; the three costs of the ingredient, standard, rolling average and last-in. The compound/ingredient relationship allows for the automatic update of any compound based on changes in underlying ingredient data, usually changes in cost.
The ingredient screen also shows summary information calculated by the program. Total batch weight, specific gravity, cost and individual item weights are calculated according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the following equations:
Chamber size * spec. grav.* load factor = batch size (1)
Then a proportionality factor is derived:
Batch size / total parts = factor (2)
This factor is used to find each ingredient weight as follows:
Parts * factor = individual ingredient weight (3)
Equation 1 is used for internal mixers to find a batch size. Chamber size is recorded for various workstations throughout the plant using total internal capacity in kilos at a specific gravity of one. For open mill mixing, batch size is entered directly. The factor derived in equation 2 is a weighting factor used to determine individual ingredient weight in equation 3.
The ingredient screen also allows for the entry of multiple workstations. In this way, all subprocesses are accounted for, each following the above calculation. From this screen the compound cost sheet may be printed.
* Mixing instructions - The mixing instructions are entered on a free-form word processing word processing, use of a computer program or a dedicated hardware and software package to write, edit, format, and print a document. Text is most commonly entered using a keyboard similar to a typewriter's, although handwritten input (see pen-based computer) and screen and are printed on the mixing instruction report. This report is used on the plant floor by the production crew. This form provides only the information needed to produce and ship the compound. Cost data are not included.
* Quality assurance requirements - The quality assurance data are held in a table format with the rows depicting the tests to be done and the columns providing notes on required specs (SPECificationS) The details of the components built into a device. See specification. , procedures and frequency. The quality tests default to a list of standard tests but may be changed by the user for each compound.
* General notes - General notes are free form word processing data entry. These notes were originally designed to hold a history of the development of the compound, but can be used to log any additional information on the compound.
We considered a number of highly complex methods for calculating the cost of producing compound, including the cost-algorithm work done by Mastromatteo (ref. 3). While computerization com·put·er·ize
tr.v. com·put·er·ized, com·put·er·iz·ing, com·put·er·iz·es
1. To furnish with a computer or computer system.
2. To enter, process, or store (information) in a computer or system of computers. makes the use of such methods relatively easy to implement, there are several practical drawbacks, primarily in the area of accurate data collection. For these reasons we determined to keep the costing method simple.
Two components were included, cost of raw materials and overhead factors. Overhead is included in the form of a standard charge per minute for a given workstation. Three costs of raw material are used in tracking inventory. Standard cost, defined by the user, last cost in and average weighted cost of inventory on hand are calculated by the program. The cost is displayed on the ingredient screen described above. The compound cost sheet also reports the total cost of the compound using all three of these material cost methods. Cost is calculated using the following equations:
[Epsilon] (item weight * item cost) / batch weight = cost (4) (Cycle time * run charge) / batch weight = add on (5)
In equation 4, cost is the raw material cost per kilo Thousand (10 to the 3rd power). Abbreviated "K." For technical specifications, it refers to the precise value 1,024 since computer specifications are based on binary numbers. For example, 64K means 65,536 bytes when referring to memory or storage (64x1024), but a 64K salary means $64,000. . In equation 5, run charge is determined by the user as the cost per minute of running a specific workstation. Add on is the price per kilo you must add onto the compound cost to cover overhead and profits. All cost data on ingredients are updated as purchased products are received into inventory. Therefore, all compound costing operations can use the most current costs.
Laboratory test data
As the design of the lab test data module progressed, we found it desirable to provide a method for retrieving compounds based on test results. This approach would allow quick "what-if" access to existing compound definitions that would meet a customer's requirements.
The lab test section provides for the entry of data on base polymer, hardness, tensile strength tensile strength
Ratio of the maximum load a material can support without fracture when being stretched to the original area of a cross section of the material. When stresses less than the tensile strength are removed, a material completely or partially returns to its , elongation elongation, in astronomy, the angular distance between two points in the sky as measured from a third point. The elongation of a planet is usually measured as the angular distance from the sun to the planet as measured from the earth. and other properties. Once entered, the compounds may be retrieved by entering a base polymer type and hardness desired. Compound Manager then searches the database to find all compounds meeting these requirements.
The second type of lab data that must be stored is quality assurance data. These data are collected on production runs to support the documentation that virtually all extruders and molders insist on. At present, several customized test data modules have been produced to work with Compound Manager. An instrumented data acquisition module has been specified as the preferred solution. This module allows data from rheometers, tensometers, Mooney viscometer viscometer
Instrument for measuring the viscosity (resistance to internal flow) of a fluid. In one type, the time taken for a given volume of fluid to flow through an opening is recorded. and mixer and mill data from the shop floor to be stored and compared directly to specification limits in the database. Tolerance gates may be defined so that the operator is immediately informed of compounds outside of specification.
Inventory control and production scheduling
This module of the program helps reduce inventory costs while insuring that sufficient material is on hand for uninterrupted production. The data that drives this material requirements planning (application) Material Requirements Planning - (MRP) A system for effectively managing material requirements in a manufacturing process.
Information systems have long been an important part of the manufacturing environment. section comes from sales orders The sales order, sometimes abbreviated as SO, is an order received by a business from a customer. A sales order may be for products and/or services. Given the wide variety of businesses, this means that the orders can be fulfilled in several ways. , inventory, compounds and customers files. As orders are entered into the Compound Manager system they appear on a production list. Both the shop floor manager and the purchasing agent work from this list. A number of function keys allow the status of orders to be changed from a booked order, to the reservation of inventory, to production or partial production to finished. From these orders, total inventory needs are calculated and compared against inventory on-hand. Interactive data display and reports for use by the purchasing agent may be printed using date ranges or the manual hold feature. These reports and displays allow for short and long term purchasing decisions to be made.
Production scheduling decisions follow a similar paradigm. There is a production data filter to show only held and partial production runs. The production manager also enters the actual order of production for the shop floor from this screen. Reports on expected arrival date of ordered inventory round out this module.
The last requirement for the Compound Manager project was to provide price quoting and sufficient tracking of sales and purchase orders to support inventory control. The sales orders module provides for both quoting of compound prices and the booking of orders. Compound prices, held in the compound file, may be accessed and quoted from pre-set or up-to-date inventory calculations. Up to 11 price break levels may be recorded.
The purchase order module links the inventory file with the purchase order files to provide information on incoming orders. Purchase order entry closely mimics traditional paper forms to ensure a familiar user interface. Hard copy purchase orders are printed from this module.
[1.] E.F. Codd, "A relational model See relational database.
relational model - relational data model of data for large shared data banks," Communications of the ACM (publication) Communications of the ACM - (CACM) A monthly publication by the Association for Computing Machinery sent to all members. CACM is an influential publication that keeps computer science professionals up to date on developments. 13, No. 6, ACM (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, www.acm.org) A membership organization founded in 1947 dedicated to advancing the arts and sciences of information processing. In addition to awards and publications, ACM also maintains special interest groups (SIGs) in the computer field. (Association for Computing Machinery See ACM.
Association for Computing Machinery - Association for Computing ), New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , June 1970, pp. 377-387. [2.] E.F. Codd, "Further normalization of the data base relational model," in Courant Cou`rant´
a. 1. (Her.) Represented as running; - said of a beast borne in a coat of arms.
n. 1. A piece of music in triple time; also, a lively dance; a coranto.
2. Computer Science Symposia sym·po·si·a
A plural of symposium. , vol. 6:"Data Base Systems," Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972 [3.] R. Mastromatteo, "A |how-to' for cost accounting the preparation of elastomeric compounds," Elastomerics, October 1991, pp. 35-39.