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Using family-based practices for young children with special needs in preschool programs.



Early childhood special educators often use a family-based approach to working with children and their families (Cook, Klein, Tessier, & Daley, 2004; Raver rave  
v. raved, rav·ing, raves

v.intr.
1. To speak wildly, irrationally, or incoherently.

2. To roar; rage: The storm raved along the coast.

3.
, 2004). Although this approach is not new, it is used inconsistently and is misunderstood mis·un·der·stood  
v.
Past tense and past participle of misunderstand.

adj.
1. Incorrectly understood or interpreted.

2.
 by many early childhood teachers. Part of the difficulty stems from the discipline-specific training of individual team members. Teaming, as recommended by the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act
This article or section is currently being developed or reviewed.
Some statements may be disputed, incorrect, , biased or otherwise objectionable.
 (IDEA) (1997) and DEC Recommended Practices in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (Sandall, McLean, & Smith, 2000), combines the skills and knowledge of an early childhood special education teacher, a general education early childhood teacher, a school psychologist, a speech-language pathologist pa·thol·o·gist
n.
A specialist in pathology who practices chiefly in the laboratory as a consultant to clinical colleagues.


Pathologist 
, a physical therapist, and at times, a social worker. Usually, children with special needs attending inclusive preschool programs receive consultative or direct services from one of more members of this team.

Making a family-based approach better understood, however, will benefit teachers, children, and families. This article will discuss some of the key components of this approach so that early childhood teachers will become more proficient pro·fi·cient  
adj.
Having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning.

n.
An expert; an adept.
 in infusing these practices into their programs. Figure 1 shows the dimensions of family-based practices that will be discussed.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Philosophy Guiding Family-Based Practices

A family-based approach offers families the resources, supports, knowledge, and skills necessary to provide their children with learning experiences that encourage development (Trivette & Dunst, 2000). Parents are considered active collaborators with the team in all aspects of the child's education. Family-based practices require early childhood teachers to develop specific attitudes and approaches to working with children and families.

The philosophical basis for family-based practices is the belief that children with disabilities, and their families, possess strengths that are as important as their needs. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently
, teachers operate from an assets model--not a deficits model--to serving children and families. Teachers acknowledge that it is not their role to significantly alter family-child interactions. Instead, teachers recognize that families demonstrate many strengths that are beneficial in raising a young child with special needs and work to build families' existing strengths. The majority of parents of children with special needs have the emotional investment necessary to encourage, motivate, and support their child's development.

A principal objective of family-based practices is to enhance parents' confidence in their ability to parent and encourage their child's progress (Trivette & Dunst, 2004). When teachers believe in the inherent capabilities of children and their families, families will know. Research has found that staff's strongly held beliefs about parents' abilities to support their children's learning is linked to more positive parental judgments about their own parenting competence and confidence (Trivette & Dunst, 2000). This premise of family-based practices explicitly shapes teachers' perceptions of children, as well as how they perceive and address children's needs.

Attitudes Guiding Family-Based Practices

Identifying and acknowledging a child's and family's strengths are cornerstones of the family-based approach. Teachers focus on building a child's skills while making every effort to avoid introducing new stress into families' lives.

Support Child's Development and Build Strengths.

With the help of the team, early childhood teachers teach goals and objectives designed to help a child with special needs advance developmentally in his or her class. Most assessment tools are effective in identifying a child's needs, but many may not be adequate in identifying the full spectrum of a child's strengths. In the broadest sense, a child's strengths are any aspects of a child's personality or abilities that are received positively by others (Dunst, Herter, & Shields, 2000).

Parents tend to be especially good resources for identifying children's strengths that are not typically highlighted by assessment tools (Glascoe, 1999). For example, look at the case of 3-year-old Nicky, who has hemiplegic hem·i·ple·gia  
n.
Paralysis affecting only one side of the body.



[Late Greek hmipl
 cerebral palsy cerebral palsy (sərē`brəl pôl`zē), disability caused by brain damage before or during birth or in the first years, resulting in a loss of voluntary muscular control and coordination. , resulting in weakness on the right side of his body. The team assessment found Nicky had many fine motor weaknesses (e.g., inability to use both hands together with coordination, or to stabilize stabilize

See peg.
 materials with his right hand) and gross motor weaknesses (e.g., poor coordination and balance while standing and walking). His strengths, according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 team assessments, were his communication and personal skills. However, many other valuable strengths that could be used to promote Nicky's learning were not identified. For instance, Nicky has a sunny personality, is an eager learner, loves to play games, and enjoys physical contact with adults and peers. If the team had not been committed to using a family-based approach and to uncovering all of Nicky's strengths, these positive characteristics might have been overlooked.

Knowing Nicky's strengths is useful not only in helping him learn in the classroom, but also in structuring learning from the classroom to home. Many young children with disabilities have difficulty with generalization--the ability to transfer learning acquired in one situation or setting to another (Cook et al., 2004). To help facilitate generalization gen·er·al·i·za·tion
n.
1. The act or an instance of generalizing.

2. A principle, a statement, or an idea having general application.
, the team asked Nicky's parents to teach him some skills at home, thereby capitalizing on his strengths and interests (Raver, 2003). In the classroom, Nicky is learning the spatial concepts of "next to," "under," and "behind" and the cognitive concepts of "wet/dry" and "empty/full." Nicky's preschool teacher A Preschool Teacher is a type of early childhood educator who instructs children from infancy to age 5, which stands as the youngest stretch of early childhood education. Early Childhood Education teachers need to span the continum of children from birth to age 8.  asked his parents to identify the types of activities the family enjoyed. His mother commented that they preferred outside activities, such as camping, biking, and gardening. Then, Nicky's teacher and his mother jointly identified home activities that would reinforce skills Nicky needed to learn, without demanding a lot of additional family time.

For instance, while working in the yard, Nicky's mother suggested that she and Nicky's older sister, Kaitlyn, could: 1) teach the concepts of wet and dry while they watered the yard, 2) teach under and next to by having Nicky run under the spray of water, 3) teach Nicky to use both hands by having him dig in the vegetable garden, taking turns with each hand, and 4) teach about empty and full by having Nicky fill or upend a bucket A reserved amount of memory that holds a single item or multiple items of data. Bucket is somewhat synonymous to "buffer," although buffers are usually memory locations for incoming data records, while buckets tend to be smaller holding areas for calculations. See hash table, buffer and variable. . Home teaching activities, like those in the classroom, are best when they are simple and mutually enjoyable (Dunst, 2001; Raver, in press).

Attempt To Minimize a Family's Stress. All parents have to cope with stress, but parents of children with special needs tend to have even more daily stressors. Even exemplary services can introduce additional stress into a family's life (Wehman & Gilkerson, 1999). Teachers need to take special care in the way they manage services and supports so they do not unintentionally add to the stress in families' lives. Services and resources that reduce stress should be encouraged. For instance, having access to support groups or other parents can reduce stress in some families. These allies can become important to managing family stress. Parents report that the persons they would like to talk to the most are other parents whose children share their own child's disability (Santelli, Turnbull, Marquis, & Lerner, 1997).

To reduce stress, team members need to support parents' hopes and dreams for their children and work to suspend judgments about families. Family-based practices acknowledge that parents can be the best advocates for their children when they are armed with information, encouragement, and optimism.

Transitions from infant-toddler services to preschool services, and then from preschool to school-age services, are often problematic and stressful for children and families (Hanson et al., 2000). To ease transitions, good communication between the programs is necessary. Identifying a key person or guide for families can ease the strain (Hanson et al., 2000). Some level of stress is unavoidable, but teachers dedicated to the family-based approach are proactive in efforts to avoid imposing undue stress on children and families.

Processes Guiding Family-Based Practices

In family-based practices, parents identify priority areas that are given special attention by teams (McWilliam, Winton, & Crais, 1996). As a part of this process, teachers attempt to build collaborative relationships with parents and respectful re·spect·ful  
adj.
Showing or marked by proper respect.



re·spectful·ly adv.
 lines of communication "Lines of Communication" is an episode from the fourth season of the science-fiction television series Babylon 5. Synopsis
Franklin and Marcus attempt to persuade the Mars resistance to assist Sheridan in opposing President Clark.
.

Collaborative Relationships. Parents are involved in all decisions about their child (e.g., assessment, transition planning, intervention programs), and they take the lead in selecting services that will be provided. Forming a collaborative relationship means that parents are encouraged to become involved in every aspect of their child's education, in the way that is most meaningful to each of them. This type of relationship requires teachers to build trust-based, positive relationships with parents and family members. Basic interpersonal skills "Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person's ability , such as following through on plans and paying attention Noun 1. paying attention - paying particular notice (as to children or helpless people); "his attentiveness to her wishes"; "he spends without heed to the consequences"
attentiveness, heed, regard
 during conversations, for example, are courtesies commonly viewed by parents as critical to successful collaboration (Dinnebeil, Fox, & Rule, 1998). Providing parents with practical knowledge, such as how to facilitate communication in a nonverbal non·ver·bal  
adj.
1. Being other than verbal; not involving words: nonverbal communication.

2. Involving little use of language: a nonverbal intelligence test.
 child (team members are excellent sources of this kind of technical information), and offering emotional support are essential in helping families feel positive about their child's learning and progress (McWilliam, Tocci, & Harbin, 1998).

A teacher's cultural competence cultural competence Social medicine The ability to understand, appreciate, and interact with persons from cultures and/or belief systems other than one's own  also will influence relationship-building with families. Research suggests that interacting in ways that are culturally sensitive while sending messages about the inherent worth of each individual involved is essential to forming collaborative relationships (Bennett, Zhang, & Hojnar, 1998; McWilliam et al., 1995). Professionals who are tactful tact·ful  
adj.
Possessing or exhibiting tact; considerate and discreet: a tactful person; a tactful remark.



tact
 and honest, and present information in an understandable way, tend to be most successful in implementing family-based practices (Dinnebeil & Rule, 1994).

Respectful Communication and Interaction Styles. An integral component in the process of developing collaborative relationships is supporting families' values and lifestyles. Frequently, values and spiritual beliefs help shape what a disability means to a family and influence a family's response to services (Zhang & Bennett, 2001). Professionals who demonstrate empathy empathy

Ability to imagine oneself in another's place and understand the other's feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. The empathic actor or singer is one who genuinely feels the part he or she is performing.
 for, and an understanding of, a family's beliefs tend to be more effective in their relationships (Zhang & Bennett, 2001).

The way in which professionals communicate and interact with families has a direct impact on parent-professional relationships, as well as child outcomes (Banks, Santos Santos (sän`ts), city (1996 pop. 412,288), São Paulo state, SE Brazil, on the island of São Vicente in the Atlantic just off the mainland. , & Roof, 2003). Parents must be given the time they need to make decisions and brainstorm options (Raver, 1991, 1999), even if teachers themselves are pressed for time. If parents do not have adequate time to consider important life decisions, they may experience increased anxiety and stress, lose respect for professionals, and become increasingly dissatisfied dis·sat·is·fied  
adj.
Feeling or exhibiting a lack of contentment or satisfaction.



dis·satis·fied
 with services over time.

The simple process of eliciting and interpreting parents' confidences about concerns and priorities is important for creating respectful interactions. Frequently asking parents about their concerns ensures that parents have an opportunity to discuss their child's development and behavior with a concerned, invested professional. Glascoe (1997) found, however, that almost 40 percent of the families surveyed reported that they did not spontaneously share their worries with professionals. Frequently "checking in" about family and child concerns seems to be a necessary foundation for collaborative, respectful relationships with parents.

Approaches Guiding Family-Based Practices

To help children realize their potential, and aid families in adapting to the circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
     2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or
 imposed by their child's special needs, teachers can offer children and families supports and resources, and encourage a balanced family life.

Offer Formal and Informal Supports and Resources. Formal supports and resources involve services offered by professionals, such as home visits, consultative services in the preschool class, and speech or physical therapy, as well as services from other professionals who offer specific help for a unique child and/or family need, such as a community health nurse offering assistance with a child who is having difficulty gaining weight. Informal supports and resources involve contacts with other families (both those with children who have disabilities and those with typically developing children), information about community programs (such as Family Fun dates at the public library and community family activities), and emotional support.

Parents need to be able to trust that professionals can bring hope and change to their child's life. They expect teachers to be knowledgeable about their child's disability and use strategies that are appropriate for facilitating their child's development. The advantage of teaming is that if one team member does not possess the skills to help a child or family, another team member will be able to or will know how to access the information for a family.

A key characteristic of family-based practices is an emphasis on the manner in which supports and resources are managed. When supports and resources are offered in a "competency-enhancing" way, they can positively affect a child and family. A competency-enhancing manner means not overwhelming a family with information or services, using supportive communications, and mobilizing mobilizing,
v 1. freeing or making loose and able to move.
2. observing any ongoing movements in a client's body, whether small or large, assisted or not, that identify strengths and weaknesses, as well as the client's physical and
 resources in ways that do not disrupt family life (Brinker, Frazier, & Baxter, 1992). Teachers must keep in mind the relationship among needs, stress, and supports (Baxter & Kahn, 1999). It is a teacher's job to ensure that families are supported, not overburdened o·ver·bur·den  
tr.v. o·ver·bur·dened, o·ver·bur·den·ing, o·ver·bur·dens
1. To burden with too much weight; overload.

2. To subject to an excessive burden or strain; overtax.

n.
1.
. For example, after talking to Noun 1. talking to - a lengthy rebuke; "a good lecture was my father's idea of discipline"; "the teacher gave him a talking to"
lecture, speech

rebuke, reprehension, reprimand, reproof, reproval - an act or expression of criticism and censure; "he had to
 Nicky's mother, Nicky's preschool teacher recommended that physical therapy be moved from Wednesday afternoons to Thursday mornings so that the therapy sessions would not interfere with Nicky's sister's soccer practice. Another time, this teacher allowed Sarah, a 3-year-old with a mild hearing impairment hearing impairment
n.
A reduction or defect in the ability to perceive sound.
, to stay in her class for 30 minutes after the other children left, one day a week, so Sarah's father could pick her up from school. This arrangement allowed both of Sarah's parents to become more involved in her schooling and offered her father a nonthreatening environment in which talk to the teacher.

Be Respectful of Families' Need for Balance. All families need time to relax, to play without an objective in mind, and simply to enjoy life together. Although parents of children with special needs can be important assets to their children's learning, it is essential that teachers frequently remind themselves that one significant role they can play is supporting parents in their role as parents, not merely as teachers.

Professionals must recognize the many opportunities for facilitating a child's development that occur as a part of daily living, family routines, family rituals, and family and community celebrations and traditions (Dunst, Bruder, Trivette, & McLean, 2001; McWilliam, 2000). Parents are encouraged to use "natural learning opportunities," which are regular child and family activities and events, to support their child's learning, but only to the extent that the child and family members find them pleasurable pleas·ur·a·ble  
adj.
Agreeable; gratifying.



pleasur·a·bil
 (Dunst et al., 2000). For example, 4-year-old Michael, who has Down syndrome Down syndrome, congenital disorder characterized by mild to severe mental retardation, slow physical development, and characteristic physical features. Down syndrome affects about 1 in every 730 live births and occurs in all populations equally. , spends most Saturdays with his family on the softball softball, variant of baseball played with a larger ball on a smaller field. Invented (1888) in Chicago as an indoor game, it was at various times called indoor baseball, mush ball, playground ball, kitten ball, and, because it was also played by women, ladies'  field watching his older brother's game. This routine offers many mutually rewarding opportunities for his parents to promote Michael's learning. He can catch and kick baseballs, name spectators' clothing (e.g., shoes, sunhat, sunglasses sunglasses  A tinted pair of glasses used to ↓ light arriving at the eye, which are labeled according to the amount of UV light blocked; nonprescription glasses are classified according to use and amount of UV radiation blocked

Sunglasses
), name colors (e.g., the colors of the team uniforms), and use action words such as "catch," "throw," "run" (Raver, 2004, in press).

Parents have the difficult job of attempting to balance their personal needs, the needs of their marital relationship Noun 1. marital relationship - the relationship between wife and husband
marital bed

family relationship, kinship, relationship - (anthropology) relatedness or connection by blood or marriage or adoption
, and the needs of their children. In short, parents must balance the needs of the entire family, not merely attend to the needs of their child with special needs. Most parents have to struggle with the hurtful hurt·ful  
adj.
Causing injury or suffering; damaging.



hurtful·ly adv.

hurt
 reality that, for example, one child's orthopedic orthopedic /or·tho·pe·dic/ (-pe´dik) pertaining to the correction of deformities of the musculoskeletal system; pertaining to orthopedics.  expenses may preclude pre·clude  
tr.v. pre·clud·ed, pre·clud·ing, pre·cludes
1. To make impossible, as by action taken in advance; prevent. See Synonyms at prevent.

2.
 another child's opportunity to take piano lessons. Parents need support from teachers in their relentless struggle to ration ration

a fixed allowance of total feed for an animal for one day. Usually specifies the individual ingredients and their amounts and the amounts of the specific nutriments such as carbohydrate, fiber, individual minerals and vitamins.
 their limited financial resources and physical and emotional energies.

Conclusion

Family-based practices involve developing collaborative relationships with parents that are founded on acceptance, respect, caring, and recognition of a child's and family's strengths (Wehman & Gilkerson, 1999). Family-based practices attempt to support a child's development as well as a family's adaptation to that child's disability. Fortunately, most families are steadfast in their concern for their child with special needs (Turnbull & Turnbull, 1990). And, fortunately, most families make successful adjustments (Raver, in press). In fact, most parents of children with special needs report that their child has enriched their family's life and made family members more appreciative of the smaller things in life (Raver, 1999). When early childhood teachers consistently infuse in·fuse
v.
1. To steep or soak without boiling in order to extract soluble elements or active principles.

2. To introduce a solution into the body through a vein for therapeutic purposes.
 family-based practices into their daily interactions with children and families, they are being afforded an opportunity to give just as much as they will receive.

References

Banks, R., Santos, R., & Roof, V. (2003). Sensitive family information gathering. Young Exceptional Children, 6(2), 11-19.

Baxter, A., & Kahn, J. (1999). Social support, needs, and stress in urban families enrolled in an early intervention ear·ly intervention
n. Abbr. EI
A process of assessment and therapy provided to children, especially those younger than age 6, to facilitate normal cognitive and emotional development and to prevent developmental disability or delay.
 program. Infant-Toddler Intervention, 9(3), 239-257.

Bennett, T., Zhang, C., & Hojnar, L. (1998). Facilitating the full participation of culturally diverse families in the IFSP/IEP process. Infant-Toddler Intervention, 8(3), 227-249.

Brinker, R., Frazier, W., & Baxter, A. (1992). Maintaining the involvement of inner-city families in early intervention programs through a program of incentives: Looking beyond family systems to societal so·ci·e·tal  
adj.
Of or relating to the structure, organization, or functioning of society.



so·cie·tal·ly adv.

Adj.
 systems. OSERS OSERS Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services  News in Print, 4(3), 8-17.

Cook, R., Klein, M., Tessier, A., & Daley, S. (2004). Adapting early childhood curricula for children in inclusive settings. Upper Saddle River Saddle River may refer to:
  • Saddle River, New Jersey, a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey
  • Saddle River (New Jersey), a tributary of the Passaic River in New Jersey
, NJ: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Dinnebeil, L., Fox, C., & Rule, S. (1998). Influences on collaborative relationships: Exploring dimensions of effective communication and shared beliefs. Infant-Toddler Intervention, 8(3), 263-278).

Dinnebeil, L., & Rule, S. (1994). Variables that influence collaboration between parents and service coordinators. Journal of Early Intervention, 18(4), 443-456.

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Dunst, C., Herter, S., & Shields, H. (2000). Interest-based natural learning opportunities. In Young Exceptional Children monograph mon·o·graph  
n.
A scholarly piece of writing of essay or book length on a specific, often limited subject.

tr.v. mon·o·graphed, mon·o·graph·ing, mon·o·graphs
To write a monograph on.
 series No. 3 (pp. 37-48). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Glascoe, F. (1997). Do parents discuss concerns about children's development with health care providers? Ambulatory Movable; revocable; subject to change; capable of alteration.

An ambulatory court was the former name of the Court of King's Bench in England. It would convene wherever the king who presided over it could be found, moving its location as the king moved.
 Child Health, 2, 349-356.

Glascoe, F. (1999). Communicating with parents. Young Exceptional Children, 2(4), 17-25.

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McWilliam, P., Lang, L., Vandiviere, P., Angell, R., Collins, L., & Underdown, G. (1995). Satisfaction and struggles: Family perceptions of early intervention services. Journal of Early Intervention, 19(1), 43-60.

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McWilliam, P., Winton, P., & Crais, E. (1996). Practical strategies for family-centered intervention. San Diego San Diego (săn dēā`gō), city (1990 pop. 1,110,549), seat of San Diego co., S Calif., on San Diego Bay; inc. 1850. San Diego includes the unincorporated communities of La Jolla and Spring Valley. Coronado is across the bay. , CA: Singular SINGULAR, construction. In grammar the singular is used to express only one, not plural. Johnson.
     2. In law, the singular frequently includes the plural.
 Publishing Group.

McWilliam, R. A. (2000). It's only natural ... to have early intervention in the environments where it's needed. Young Exceptional Children monograph series No. 3 (pp. 17-26). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

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Raver, S. (1999). Intervention strategies for infants and toddlers with special needs: A team approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice-Hall.

Raver, S. (2003). Keeping track: Routine-based instruction and monitoring. Young Exceptional Children, 6(3), 12-20.

Raver, S. (2004). Monitoring child progress in early childhood special education settings. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 36(6), 52-57.

Raver, S. A. (1991). Strategies for teaching at-risk and handicapped infants and toddlers: A transdisciplinary approach. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: Merrill Publishing Company.

Sandall, S., McLean, M., & Smith, B. (2000). DEC recommended practices in early intervention/early childhood special education. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Santelli, B., Turnbull, A., Marquis, J., & Lerner, E. (1997). Parent-to-Parent programs: A resource for parents and professionals. Journal of Early Intervention, 21(1), 73-83.

Trivette, C., & Dunst, C. (2000). Recommended practices in family-based practices. In S. Sandall, M. McLean, & B. Smith (Eds.), DEC recommended practices in early intervention/early childhood special education (pp. 39-46). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Trivette, C., & Dunst, C. (2004). Evaluating family-based practices: Parenting Experience Scale. Young Exceptional Children, 7(3), 12-19.

Turnbull, A. P., & Turnbull, H. R. (1990). Families, professionals, and exceptionality: A special partnership. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill Charles Edward Merrill (October 19, 1885 – October 6 1956) was a philanthropist, stockbroker and one of the founders of Merrill Lynch & Company. Early years
Charles E. Merrill, the son of physician Dr.
.

Wehman, T., & Gilkerson, L. (1999). Parents of young children with special needs speak out: Perceptions of early intervention services. Infant-Toddler Intervention, 9(2), 137-167.

Zhang, C., & Bennett, T. (2001). Multicultural mul·ti·cul·tur·al  
adj.
1. Of, relating to, or including several cultures.

2. Of or relating to a social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only a mainstream culture.
 views of disability: Implications for early intervention professionals. Infant-Toddler Intervention, 11(2), 143-154.

Sharon A. Raver is Professor, Department of Special Education, Old Dominion University “ODU” redirects here. For other uses, see ODU (disambiguation).

The university was recently named one of the best colleges in the Southeast by The Princeton Review.
, Norfolk, Virginia Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States of America. With a population of 234,403 as of the 2000 census, Norfolk is Virginia's second-largest incorporated city. .
COPYRIGHT 2005 Association for Childhood Education International
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
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