Using Axline's eight principles of play therapy with Mexican-American children.There is a paucity pau·ci·ty
1. Smallness of number; fewness.
2. Scarcity; dearth: a paucity of natural resources. of literature on the application of client-centered play therapy to diverse cultures. In this regard, the purpose of the article is to discuss considerations related to using Axline's eight principles The Eight Principles are one of the basic ways Chinese medicine has to diagnose. It uses the following eight divisions of symptoms:
Despite the growing recognition of cultural issues in play therapy (Cochran, 1996; Coleman, Parmer, & Barker, 1993; Hinman, 2003; Landreth, 2001), there is a paucity of literature on the application of play therapy theories to children of diverse cultural backgrounds, especially Mexican-American children. The child/client-centered (hereafter In the future.
The term hereafter is always used to indicate a future time—to the exclusion of both the past and present—in legal documents, statutes, and other similar papers. referred to as client-centered) approach to play therapy has been recommended when the child and therapist are from culturally different backgrounds (Ramirez, 1999; Trostle, 1988). Specifically, goals of client-centered play therapy have the therapist continually strive to see the child's point of view, understand and accept the child, not impose beliefs or solutions on the child, and work within the framework of the family's values and beliefs to ensure a better chance of cooperation and positive outcomes (Ramirez, 1999).
Axline's (1947) eight principles of play therapy are commonly cited guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. for client-centered play therapy (e.g., Harris & Landreth, 2001). The principles are the following (Axline, 1947, pp. 73-74):
1. The therapist must develop a warm, friendly relationship with the child, in which good rapport The former name of device management software from Wyse Technology, San Jose, CA (www.wyse.com) that is designed to centrally control up to 100,000+ devices, including Wyse thin clients (see Winterm), Palm, PocketPC and other mobile devices. is established as soon as possible.
2. The therapist accepts the child exactly as he is.
3. The therapist establishes a feeling of permissiveness in the relationship so that the child feels free to express his feelings completely.
4. The therapist is alert to recognize the feelings the child is expressing and reflects those feelings back to him in such a manner that he gains insight into his behavior.
5. The therapist maintains a deep respect for the child's ability to solve his own problems if given an opportunity to do so. The responsibility to make choices and to institute change is the child's.
6. The therapist does not attempt to direct the child's actions or conversation in any manner. The child leads the way; the therapist follows.
7. The therapist does not attempt to hurry the therapy along. It is a gradual process and is recognized as such by the therapist.
8. The therapist establishes only those limitations that are necessary to anchor the therapy to the world of reality and to make the child aware of his responsibilities in the relationship.
The use of Axline's principles with Mexican-American children has not been addressed systematically in the literature.
Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss Axline's eight play therapy principles as they may relate to traditional Mexican-American culture. It is important, however, to first define key terms used in this article. Mexican-American refers to individuals of Mexican descent, regardless of their country of origin (the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. or Mexico). Culture is "the ever-changing values, traditions, social and political relationships, and worldview world·view
n. In both senses also called Weltanschauung.
1. The overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world.
2. A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or a group. created and shared by a group of people bound together by a combination of factors (which can include a common history, geographic location, language, social class, and/or religion), and how these are transformed by those who share them" (Nieto, 1996, p. 390). Worldview pertains to the subjective reality of both the child and therapist, and involves their "beliefs, values, and assumptions about people, relationships, nature, time, and activity" in their world (Ibrahim, Roysircar-Sodowsky, & Ohnishi, 2001, p.429). Ethnicity refers to membership in a group that has an historic origin, shared heritage and tradition, and characteristics that set it apart from other groups (Banks, 2003). Finally, race usually has been defined in terms of biological/physical differences (e.g., hair texture and skin color) (Atkinson, 2003).
Therapists are cautioned not to over--or under-emphasize cultural variables in their work with culturally different children (Kerl, 1998; Sue & Sue, 2003). Within-group differences exist, e.g., related to socio-economic status (SES), language proficiency Language proficiency or linguistic proficiency is the ability of an individual to speak or perform in an acquired language. As theories vary among pedagogues as to what constitutes proficiency, there is little consistency as to how different organisations , region, and acculturation acculturation, culture changes resulting from contact among various societies over time. Contact may have distinct results, such as the borrowing of certain traits by one culture from another, or the relative fusion of separate cultures. level (Hanson, 2004). For example, mainstream American values may be reflected in childrearing practices of first-generation Mexican-American families who overall may be viewed as having traditional Mexican values. Additionally, therapists are reminded to always be aware that each child is an individual, and commonly cited group values, beliefs, and norms may not be relevant to or explanatory of any individual child's circumstances (Hanson, 2004; Kerl, 1998). Principle I
In Principle 1, Axline emphasized the need for a friendly child-therapist relationship, with good rapport being established as soon as possible. In this section, possible ways of enhancing rapport and relationship building with Mexican-American children are discussed, including issues related to the first meeting with the child, parent involvement, the setting, and language issues.
Establishing good rapport with the child should be paramount when a child first comes into the playroom. The first contact helps the child feel at ease and hopefully sets the stage for a relationship of trust with the therapist. It is recommended that the therapist engage the child in pleasant and casual chatting (platica) that contributes to a warm atmosphere (Clauss, 1998). This kind of responding reflects the valuing in Mexican-American culture of human interactions over task-orientation. The value is related to personalismo, meaning "warm, individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. attention and responsiveness in interpersonal interactions" (Zuniga, 2004, p. 197). In working with Mexican-American children and parents/guardians, offering a warm handshake handshake - handshaking and standing close to them may help reduce any anxiety they may have about the play therapy situation (Hinman, 2003).
An additional means of helping the child feel comfortable and welcomed into play therapy is the preparation of materials that are culturally familiar to the child. The physical setting of the playroom plays an especially important role in establishing initial rapport and may include visual and manipulative ma·nip·u·la·tive
Serving, tending, or having the power to manipulate.
Any of various objects designed to be moved or arranged by hand as a means of developing motor skills or understanding abstractions, especially in materials to encourage communication about the child's socio-cultural background. In particular, materials that lend themselves to nonverbal non·ver·bal
1. Being other than verbal; not involving words: nonverbal communication.
2. Involving little use of language: a nonverbal intelligence test. expression need to be readily available in the playroom. These include paints, crayons, clay, paper, pipe cleaners pipe cleaner,
n a small, brushlike device used to clean the spaces between the teeth (used also for other purposes). It should not be inserted all the way between the teeth, but rather just far enough to massage the tissue and remove any plaque. , and scissors scissors
Cutting instrument or tool consisting of a pair of opposed metal blades that meet and cut when the handles at their ends are brought together. Modern scissors are of two types: the more usual pivoted blades have a rivet or screw connection between the cutting ends , among others. Recommendations regarding culturally relevant materials, terminology, and the physical environment when practicing play therapy with Mexican-American children are provided in the literature (Bowers Bowers is a surname, and may refer to
Language is also an important issue in establishing rapport with Mexican-American children in play therapy. The therapist's communication needs to parallel the child's language ability. If the child is Spanish-dominant, it is recommended that the therapist be Spanish-proficient so that the child can feel competent in expressing himself/herself and in being understood. Even when the therapist is not completely fluent in Spanish, mastering a few words or phrases can be beneficial for rapport building and may have a powerful effect on the relationship between the therapist and child (Altarriba & Bauer, 1998).
Therapists should establish a working relationship with the child's parents/guardians, since joining with the child's parents/ guardians can be beneficial in the assessment and treatment process (Hinman, 2003). This joining may be particularly critical in working with Mexican-Americans because of the role of the family as the "central operating focus" in their culture (Zuniga, 2004, p. 194). The family's effect on the psychological development of Mexican-American youth deserves special consideration in play therapy. Therapists working with Mexican-American children must demonstrate sensitivity and respect for this cultural value and encourage discussions about their families, preferably during the initial sessions of the therapy process (D'Andrea & Bradley, 1995).
For decades, the importance of multiculrural competencies has been emphasized in the counseling and psychotherapy psychotherapy, treatment of mental and emotional disorders using psychological methods. Psychotherapy, thus, does not include physiological interventions, such as drug therapy or electroconvulsive therapy, although it may be used in combination with such methods. literature. Specifically, this emphasis has increasingly been seen in play therapy literature (Coleman et al., 1993; Ritter rit·ter
n. pl. ritter
[German, from Middle High German riter, from Middle Dutch ridder, from r & Chang, 2002). Sue and Sue (2003), who have been at the forefront of this discussion, have described commonly recognized multicultural competencies that fall in the following major domains: awareness, knowledge, and skills. Several of the competencies described below are closely related to Axline's Principle 2 that involves accepting the child as is.
The first major competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. domain is the therapists' awareness of their own specific culture and how it affects their worldview. A sub-competency in this domain is the therapists' examination of their feelings and experiences related to their own culture and racial/ethnic and SES group, including examination of their progression through racial identity development phases. It has been suggested that, because most play therapists are White Euro-Americans (Ryan, 2002, as cited in Baggerly, 2003), it is imperative for them to examine their progression through racial identity development phases (Baggerly, 2003). There are a number of models of White racial identity development, including one by Sue and Sue (2003) who proposed the following five phases: conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion immersion /im·mer·sion/ (i-mer´zhun)
1. the plunging of a body into a liquid.
2. the use of the microscope with the object and object glass both covered with a liquid. , introspection introspection /in·tro·spec·tion/ (in?trah-spek´shun) contemplation or observation of one's own thoughts and feelings; self-analysis.introspec´tive
n. , and integrative awareness. The racial identity represented in the phases ranges from being ethnocentric eth·no·cen·trism
1. Belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group.
2. Overriding concern with race.
eth and minimally aware of one's own racial identity (conformity phase) to having a non-racist White Euro-American identity, that is characterized, for example, by an understanding of the self as a cultural and racial being (integrative awareness).
A second sub-competency in the awareness domain is that therapists should be aware of their own values, biases, and assumptions that might interfere with play therapy with the culturally diverse child. Otherwise, they may be more likely to attempt to impose their own values and standards on the child. There is a natural tendency for therapists to view the client from their own frame of reference, which may be significantly different from Mexican-American children's reality. For example, dependence on the family (that is common in the Mexican-American culture) may be viewed as overly dependent by therapists of a differing culture (Kerl, 1998).
Therapists should be comfortable with differences that exist between themselves and the Mexican-American child. They should realize and accept that difference is not deviance Conspicuous dissimilarity with, or variation from, customarily acceptable behavior.
Deviance implies a lack of compliance to societal norms, such as by engaging in activities that are frowned upon by society and frequently have legal sanctions as well, for example, the , deficiency, deprivation, or disadvantage (Sue & Sue, 2003). Webb (1969) described a case that emphasized that, when the child feels self-respect and respected by the therapist, potential impediments IMPEDIMENTS, contracts. Legal objections to the making of a contract. Impediments which relate to the person are those of minority, want of reason, coverture, and the like; they are sometimes called disabilities. Vide Incapacity.
2. to therapy (e.g., alienation alienation, in property laws: see tenure.
In the social sciences context, the state of feeling estranged or separated from one's milieu, work, products of work, or self. and differing values) are diminished. It is imperative that therapists convey that they respect the child and his/her culture, regardless of their differences, including SES. Mexican-American children are disproportionately dis·pro·por·tion·ate
Out of proportion, as in size, shape, or amount.
dispro·por of lower SES (Aguirre & Turner, 2004). Frequent self-reflection by therapists is advised to address possible feelings of guilt over their own economic status. Baggerly (2003) suggested that the play therapists' "guilt may lead to disdain and a 'blame the victim' attitude, thereby diminishing warmth and acceptance of children" (p. 92).
The second major cultural competency domain is knowledge. Therapists should understand the Mexican-American child's worldview as much as possible. The importance of ethnicity and its effect on the child's worldview should not be underestimated. Therapists should possess knowledge regarding the child's culture and an attitude of openness and acceptance of the culture (Kerl, 1998). The reader is referred to descriptions of Mexican-American culture that are available in the literature (e.g., Organista, 2003; Ramirez, 1998). Additionally, it is recommended that therapists become acquainted with Mexican-American families outside the office, e.g., by volunteering for activities sponsored by Mexican-American associations (Kerl, 1998).
The third major cultural competency is therapeutic skill and is related to therapists using appropriate techniques and defining goals that are consistent with the child's cultural values and life experiences (Sue & Sue, 2003). Therapists should not only be able to generate a wide variety of verbal and non-verbal responses (e.g., "cuento" therapy; see Martinez & Valdez, 1992), but their verbal and nonverbal communication nonverbal communication 'Body language', see there should be both culturally accurate and appropriate. Because so much of nonverbal communication is typically subconscious subconscious: see unconscious. , it is critical that play therapists be aware of nonverbal communication and its possible meaning (Sue & Sue, 2003). For example, physical closeness and contact are generally more acceptable in traditional Mexican-American than mainstream American culture. In Mexican-American culture, upon meeting and separating, handshakes (between acquaintances) and embracing (between friends) are the norm (Ramirez, 1998). If therapists react by backing away, the child may interpret this as aloofness Aloofness
refuses to associate with others or even to mingle with other employees. [Am. Lit.: Melville Bartleby the Scrivener]
Chapin, Joseph and/or feelings of superiority (Sue & Sue, 2003). As another example, the lack of eye contact, especially between children and adults, is a Mexican-American norm that is valued as a sign of respect. In this case, therapists may interpret it negatively and inaccurately as a sign of, e.g., shyness, unassertiveness un·as·ser·tive
Not assertive; reserved.
unas·sertive·ly adv. , and/or depression (Sue & Sue, 2003).
In Principle 3, a feeling of permissiveness in the relationship is established so that the child feels tree to express his/her feelings completely. Therapists should not necessarily expect Mexican-American children to be comfortable with permissiveness, especially at the beginning of play therapy. Rigid boundaries are typical in child rearing of Mexican-American children (Koss-Chioino & Vargas, 1999). Even highly disturbed children may have difficulty going beyond what they are used to having as boundaries with adults. Therefore, Mexican-American children may need additional time and encouragement to adjust to the permissive permissive adj. 1) referring to any act which is allowed by court order, legal procedure, or agreement. 2) tolerant or allowing of others' behavior, suggesting contrary to others' standards.
In Axline's Principle 4, therapists are to alertly recognize the feelings the child expresses and reflect them back in such a manner that the child gains insight into the behavior. In the case of the Mexican-American child, special issues regarding the child's verbal and nonverbal language of self-expression should be recognized and understood to assure that the therapist's reflections are accurate and effective.
Verbal expression Noun 1. verbal expression - the communication (in speech or writing) of your beliefs or opinions; "expressions of good will"; "he helped me find verbal expression for my ideas"; "the idea was immediate but the verbalism took hours"
verbalism, expression is an important part of the child's affective affective /af·fec·tive/ (ah-fek´tiv) pertaining to affect.
1. Concerned with or arousing feelings or emotions; emotional.
2. world. The first (dominant) language is associated with early life experiences, thoughts, and feelings (Guttfreund. 1990). The use of either the first or second language by the Mexican-American child in play therapy plays a significant role in the expression of emotions. Communicating in either the dominant or non-dominant language exclusively has limitations. Expression of painful events may be inhibited when communicating in the dominant language, and communication in the non-dominant language may be affected by the child focusing more on issues, such as English pronunciation pronunciation: see phonetics; phonology.
Pronunciation - In this dictionary slashes (/../) bracket phonetic pronunciations of words not found in a standard English dictionary. , than meaningful content (Altarriba & Santiago-Rivera, 1994).
Depending on the child's English and Spanish proficiency, a bilingual approach that incorporates the use of both languages may be optimal (Altarriba & Santiago-Rivera, 1994). Children may switch from one language to another as a way to reduce anxiety, with the language choice serving to strengthen the ego. The literature suggests that, when individuals learn emotion words in their first language, those words are stored at a deeper level of representation than their second language counterparts (Santiago-Rivera & Altarriba, 2002). Therefore, the mother tongue mother tongue
1. One's native language.
2. A parent language.
the language first learned by a child
Noun 1. may serve to revive the past experiences, and allow for better access to affect-laden material (Marcos, 1988). Also, the mother tongue may help the Mexican-American child release more emotionally-charged material, and at the same time place distance from this material by using the second language as a defensive strategy (Clauss, 1998).
In addition to verbal expression, nonverbal characteristics, such as the tone of voice and body movements, play a vital role in a child's self-expression (Sue & Sue, 2003). In particular, Mexican-American children tend to have a field-dependent/sensitive (as opposed to field-independent) cognitive style Cognitive style is a term used in cognitive psychology to describe the way individuals think, perceive and remember information, or their preferred approach to using such information to solve problems. that is associated with a reliance on social cues and nonverbal communication of feelings (Zuniga, 2004). Therapists should understand these expressions to better comprehend the play activity and the child's psychological development (Chazan cha·zan or haz·zan also chaz·zan
A cantor in a synagogue.
[Mishnaic Hebrew and Jewish Aramaic , 2001). Through the process of play therapy, therapists reach the child's emotional world on his/her level of communication (Landreth, 1993). Being attentive at·ten·tive
1. Giving care or attention; watchful: attentive to detail.
2. Marked by or offering devoted and assiduous attention to the pleasure or comfort of others. to what the child communicates though activity and behavior will allow therapists to enter and perceive the child's private world (Harris & Landreth, 2001).
In play therapy, children use sounds, gestures, and facial expressions facial expression,
n the use of the facial muscles to communicate or to convey mood. to transmit feelings in a natural way. Toys are a safe vehicle for the expression of feelings and attitudes that may be threatening to the child. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Landreth (2002), play may be particularly useful in cultures where the free expression of feelings is restricted. In traditional Mexican-American culture, the expression of negative feelings and emotions, such as aggression and anger, is not encouraged (Zuniga, 2004). The parents place importance on behaviors that are socially-conforming and respectful re·spect·ful
Showing or marked by proper respect.
re·spectful·ly adv. , and they have the expectation that these behaviors will be present during play therapy. Therefore, toys serve as means of transporting See: mode of transport. feelings, such as, fears, anxieties, and guilt, to objects instead of people, freeing the child from his/her own painful experiences (Landreth, 1993).
Principles 5 and 6
In Principle 5, therapists should have a deep respect for the child's ability to solve his/her problems if given an opportunity to do so. It is the child's responsibility to make choices and institute change. A closely related principle, Principle 6, maintains that therapists should not attempt to direct the child's actions or conversation in any manner. The child leads the way, and the therapists follow. Play therapy has many opportunities for making decisions, such as, medium choices in art and what to include in the playhouse (Cochran, 1996). It is believed that, when play therapists allow the child to control the play sessions, the child will express his/her stories and experiences and use play as the narrative to address his/her concerns (Baggerly, 2003).
However, children from traditional Mexican-American families are usually not accustomed to taking the lead when adults are present. Mexican-American culture values conformity and deference to adults in decision-making; deviations are disciplined (Organista, 2003). Traditional Mexican-American's social relationships tend to be hierarchical in nature. Mexican-American children are viewed as subordinate to adults, and are expected to deter to authority (Altarriba & Bauer, 1998). In traditional Mexican-American families, adherence to convention and respect for authority are emphasized (Jensen, 2004; Koss-Chioino & Vargas, 1999; Zuniga, 2004). There is a central belief that respeto (respect) is inherently due to all persons, regardless of their social status (Ho, 1992). Children are taught to respect their elders, which is an important part of being bien educado (well educated). A well educated child in this context has been raised properly and is one who interacts and relates to others (especially adults) with respect and dignity (Brice, 2002; Zuniga, 2004). For example, children are expected to be submissive sub·mis·sive
Inclined or willing to submit.
sub·mis and display unquestioning obedience to adults (Mejia, 1983). Not disagreeing and arguing take precedence The order in which an expression is processed. Mathematical precedence is normally:
1. unary + and - signs
3. multiplication and division
4. over being correct. The related concept of being gente hecha y derecha (decent people) further underscores the importance placed on being educated in and possessing a desired system of values for living. Here, the expectation is that, when children follow directions and are obedient and compliant, they are more likely to please their parents and other adults and become "decent" people (Fontes, 2002).
Because Mexican-American children tend to expect adults to tell them what to do and guide them, solving their own problems is foreign to many of them. Therefore, therapists may need to guide the child to problem resolution and consider the possibility of moving from more to less directive play to ease the child into the Axlinian growth process (Carmichael, 1991). The initial sessions may take longer until the child learns that he/she is the "director" of the play in play therapy.
Axline's Principle 7 indicates that therapists should recognize that therapy is a gradual process and not attempt to hurry it along. If there are cultural differences between therapists and the child (such as in the previously cited examples), the child may be particularly guarded and take longer to accept and progress through the therapy. If the pace of therapy is slowed, this is not necessarily a reflection of the therapists' skills and/or the child's lack of progress in therapy. Moreover, since the timing of interpretations is critical in play therapy, therapists should be especially watchful watch·ful
1. Closely observant or alert; vigilant: kept a watchful eye on the clock. See Synonyms at aware, careful.
2. Archaic Not sleeping; awake. of the need to wait for the timing to be right when intervening with Mexican-American children. Another issue is that lengthy play therapy in private settings may be a luxury for many Mexican-American children who are disproportionately poor (Sue & Sue, 2003). Consequently, play therapy offered in schools can be a more realistic option for these children (Cochran, 1996).
In Principle 8, limitations set by therapists are only those that are necessary to anchor therapy to the world of reality and make the child aware of his/her responsibilities in the relationship. Among the limitations that Axline recommends is adherence to the time limits of the appointment. Although this is a realistic and desirable limitation, therapists should be aware that, in traditional Mexican culture, there is a relaxed approach to time, including promptness to appointments (Zuniga, 2004).
Summary and Conclusions
Although the importance of cultural issues in counseling and psychotherapy has been recognized for decades, the use of Axline's eight principles of play therapy with Mexican-Americans has not been systematically addressed in the literature. In this article, applications of client-centered play therapy were described using Axline's eight principles of play therapy as focal points focal point
See focus. in therapeutic approaches with children reared in traditional Mexican-American cultural settings.
Among the most critical issues discussed were the need for therapists to have a deep awareness of their own specific culture and how that affects their worldviews; to be sensitive to their values, biases and assumptions that might interfere in play therapy with the Mexican-American child; and to convey their respect for the child regardless of cultural differences. It is recommended that therapists attempt to understand as much as possible about the worldview and culture of the Mexican-American child and be able to engage in culturally appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication. Also discussed were recommendations for developing rapport, such as, using materials that are culturally familiar, and the particular need to assure a positive relationship with the parents due to the centrality of family in traditional Mexican-American families. Other issues addressed included the therapists' Spanish proficiency, and the role of language in the expression of the child's emotions. Therapists are reminded, however, that they should not over- or under-emphasize cultural variables; individuals are members of multiple groups (e.g., SES, geographic, and ethnic); there are significant within-group differences in cultural variables; and each individual may or may not be reflective of commonly recognized group values, beliefs, and norms.
In conclusion, this article represents a first step in the exploration of cultural considerations relative to Axline's principles in play therapy with Mexican-American children. Supportive evidence is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. Additionally, many of the recommendations discussed also may be helpful to therapists as they work with other Hispanic groups. A thorough understanding of cultural beliefs, attitudes, values, practices, and, in many cases, language will assist therapists in establishing rapport, and working effectively with culturally diverse children.
Aguirre, A., Jr., & Turner, J. H. (2004). American ethnicity: The dynamics and consequences of discrimination (4th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Altarriba, J., & Bauer, L. M. (1998). Counseling the Hispanic client: Cuban Americans This is a list of famous Cuban Americans. This list contains both naturalized Cuban-born Americans and naturally-born Americans of Cuban-descent.
This list of Puerto Ricans . Journal of Counseling and Development, 76, 389-395.
Altarriba, J., & Santiago-Rivera, A. L. (1994). Current perspectives on using linguistic and cultural factors in counseling the Hispanic client. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25(4), 388-397.
Atkinson, D.R. (Ed.) (2003). Counseling American minorities (6th ed.) New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : McGraw-Hill.
Axline, V. (1947). Play therapy. Cambridge, MA: Houghton Mifflin Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. The company's headquarters is located in Boston's Back Bay. It publishes textbooks, instructional technology materials, assessments, reference works, and fiction and non-fiction for both young readers .
Baggerly, J. (2003). Child-centered play therapy with children who are homeless: Perspectives and procedures. International Journal of Play Therapy, 12(2), 87-106.
Banks, J. A. (2003). Teaching strategies for ethnic studies (3rd ed.). New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Bowers, E. (1996). Directory of culturally diverse art and play therapy materials for children and adolescents. Orangevale, CA: Author.
Brice, A. E. (2002). The Hispanic child: Speech, language, culture and education. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Carmichael, K D. (1991). Play therapy with the culturally different. Association for Play Therapy, Inc. Newsletter, 10(1), 1-3.
Chazan, S. E. (2001). Toward a nonverbal syntax of play therapy. Psychoanalytic psy·cho·a·nal·y·sis
n. pl. psy·cho·a·nal·y·ses
a. The method of psychological therapy originated by Sigmund Freud in which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are Inquiry, 21(3), 394-406
Clauss, S. C. (1998). Language: The unspoken variable in psychotherapy practice. Psychotherapy, 35(2), 188-196.
Cochran, J. L. (1996). Using play and art therapy to help culturally diverse students overcome barriers to school success. The School Counselor A school counselor is a counselor and educator who works in schools, and have historically been referred to as "guidance counselors" or "educational counselors," although "Professional School Counselor" is now the preferred term. ; 43, 287-298.
Coleman, V. D., Parmer, T., & Barker. S. A. (1993). Play therapy for multicultural populations: Guidelines for mental health professionals. International Journal of Play Therapy, 2(1), 63-74.
D'Andrea, M. & Bradley, L. (1995). A comparative study of the worries of Mexican-American and White students: Implications for school counselors. Journal of Humanistic Education Humanistic education is an alternative approach to education based on the work of humanistic psychologists, most notably Abraham Maslow, who developed a famous hierarchy of needs, and Carl Rogers. & Development, 33(4), 183-193. Retrieved October 31, 2004, from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences behavioral sciences,
n.pl those sciences devoted to the study of human and animal behavior. Collection database.
Fontes, L. A. (2002). Child discipline and physical abuse in immigrant Latino families: Reducing violence and misunderstandings. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80(1). 31-40. Retrieved October 31, 2004, from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database.
Guttfreund, D. G. (1990). Effects of language usage on the emotional experience of Spanish-English and English-Spanish bilinguals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) is a bimonthly psychology journal of the American Psychological Association. Its focus is on treatment and prevention in all areas of clinical and clinical-health psychology and especially on topics that appeal to a broad , 58(5). 604-607.
Hanson M. J. (2004). Ethnic, cultural, and language diversity in service settings. In E. W. Lynch, & M. J. Hanson (Eds.). Developing cross-cultural competence: A guide for working with young children and their fatuities (3rd ed.) (pp. 3-18). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Harris, T. E., & Landreth, G. L. (2001). Essential personality characteristics. In G. L. Landreth (Ed.), Innovations in play therapy: Issues, process, and special populations (pp. 23-29). Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.
Hinman, C. (2003). Multicultural considerations in the delivery of play therapy services. International Journal of Play Therapy, 12(2), 107-122.
Ho, M. K. (1992). Minority children and adolescents in therapy: Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications This article or section needs sources or references that appear in reliable, third-party publications. Alone, primary sources and sources affiliated with the subject of this article are not sufficient for an accurate encyclopedia article. .
Ibrahim, F. A., Roysircar-Sodowsky, G., & Ohnishi, H. (2001). Worldview: Recent developments and needed directions. In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. A. Suzuki. & C. M. Alexander (Eds.). Handbook of multicultural counseling (2nd ed.) (pp. 425-456). Thousand Oaks Thousand Oaks, residential city (1990 pop. 104,352), Ventura co., S Calif., in a farm area; inc. 1964. Avocados, citrus, vegetables, strawberries, and nursery products are grown. , CA: Sage Publications.
Jensen, R. (2004). Discipline preferences and styles among Latino families: Implications for special educators. Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners, 7(1), 60-73.
Kerl, S. (1998). Working with Latino/a clients: Five common mistakes. Association of Play Therapy, Inc. Newsletter 17(4), 2-3.
Koss-Chioino, J. D., & Vargas, L. A. (1999). Working with Latino youth: Culture, development, and context. San Francisco San Francisco (săn frănsĭs`kō), city (1990 pop. 723,959), coextensive with San Francisco co., W Calif., on the tip of a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay, which are connected by the strait known as the Golden : Jossey-Bass.
Kranz, P. L., Ramirez. S. Z., Flores-Torres, L.L., Steele, R., & Lund, N. L. (2005). Physical settings, materials, and related Spanish terminology recommended for play therapy with Mexican-American children. Education, 126 (1), 93-9.
Landreth. G. L. (1993). Child-centered play therapy. Elementary School elementary school: see school. Guidance and Counseling guidance and counseling, concept that institutions, especially schools, should promote the efficient and happy lives of individuals by helping them adjust to social realities. , 28(1), 17-29. Retrieved October 31, 2004, from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database.
Landreth, G. L. (2001). Innovations in play therapy: Issues, process and special populations. Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.
Landreth, G. L. (2002). Play therapy: The art of the relationship (2nd ed.). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Martinez, K. J., & Valdez, D. M. (1992). Cultural considerations in play therapy with Hispanic children. In L. A. Vargas, & J. D. Koss-Chioino (Eds.), Working with culture: Psychotherapeutic psy·cho·ther·a·py
n. pl. psy·cho·ther·a·pies
The treatment of mental and emotional disorders through the use of psychological techniques designed to encourage communication of conflicts and insight into problems, with the goal being interventions with ethnic minority children and adolescents (pp 85-102). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Marcos, L. R. (1988). Understanding ethnicity in psychotherapy with Hispanic patients. American Journal of Psychoanalysis psychoanalysis, name given by Sigmund Freud to a system of interpretation and therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders. Psychoanalysis began after Freud studied (1885–86) with the French neurologist J. M. , 48(1), 35-42.
Mejia, D. (1983). The development of Mexican-American children. In G. J. Powell, J. Yamamoto, A. Romero, & A. Morales (Eds.), The psychosocial development psychosocial development Psychiatry Progressive interaction between a person and her environment through stages beginning in infancy, ending in adulthood, which loosely parallels psychosexual development. See Cognitive development. of minority children (pp. 77-114). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Nieto, S. (1996). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical so·ci·o·po·li·ti·cal
Involving both social and political factors.
of or involving political and social factors context of multicultural education (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Organista, K. C. (2003). Mexican American Mexican American
A U.S. citizen or resident of Mexican descent.
Mexi·can-A·mer children and adolescents. In J. T. Gibbs, L. N. Huang, & Associates (Eds.), Children of color not of the white race; - commonly meaning, esp. in the United States, of negro blood, pure or mixed.
See also: Color : Psychological interventions with culturally diverse youth (2nd ed.) (pp. 344-381). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Ramirez, L. M. (1999). A reader's response to working with Latino/a clients: Five common mistakes. Association for Play Therapy, Inc. Newsletter; 18(1), 3-4.
Ramirez, O. (1998). Mexican American children and adolescents. In J. T. Gibbs, L. N. Huang, & Associates (Eds.), Children of color: Psychological interventions with culturally diverse youth (pp. 215-239). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Ritter, K. B., & Chang, C. Y. (2002). Play therapists" sell-perceived multicultural competence and adequacy of training. International Journal of Play Therapy; 11(1), 103-113.
Santiago-Rivera, A. L., &Altarriba, J. (2002). The role of language therapy with the Spanish-English bilingual client. Professional Psychology, 33(1), 30-38.
Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2003). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley John Wiley may refer to:
Trostle, S. L. (1988). The effects of child-centered group play sessions on social-emotional growth of three- to six-year-old bilingual Puerto Rican Puer·to Ri·co
Abbr. PR or P.R.
A self-governing island commonwealth of the United States in the Caribbean Sea east of Hispaniola. children. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 3(2), 93-106.
Webb, D. (1969). "No High Adobe!" Counseling with Mexican-American children. The School Counselor; 16, 251-254.
Zuniga, M. E. (2004). Families with Latino roots. In E. W. Lynch, & M. J. Hanson (Eds.). Developing cross-cultural competence: A guide for working with young children and their families (3rd ed.) (pp. 179-217). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Sylvia Z. Ramirez, Leila L. Flores-Torres, and Peter L. Kranz, University of Texas--Pan American; Nick L. Lund, Northern Arizona University Northern Arizona University (NAU) is a public university in Flagstaff, Arizona in the United States.
As of Fall 2007, the university has 21,352 students, 13,989 of these are situated in the main Flagstaff campus<ref name="Enrollment" />. .
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Sylvia Z. Ramirez, Ph.D., University of Texas--Pan American; Dept. of Educational Psychology; 1201 W. University Dr.; Edinburg, TX 78541; Email:firstname.lastname@example.org