Use of sensory reinforcement to increase compliant behavior of a child who is blind and profoundly mentally retarded.Introduction
There is a need to determine which physical education programming techniques are most beneficial in teaching students who display noncompliant behavior and have profound mental retardation mental retardation, below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living. with visual impairment Visual Impairment Definition
Total blindness is the inability to tell light from dark, or the total inability to see. Visual impairment or low vision is a severe reduction in vision that cannot be corrected with standard glasses or contact lenses and . Generally, techniques used to develop compliant behavior in physical education settings involve use of systematic instruction. Frequently, operant conditioning operant conditioning
A process of behavior modification in which a subject is encouraged to behave in a desired manner through positive or negative reinforcement, so that the subject comes to associate the pleasure or displeasure of the is used with systematic instruction in programming children who demonstrate noncompliant behavior to facilitate learning of functional gross motor skills The term gross motor skills refers to the abilities usually acquired during infancy and early childhood as part of a child's motor development. By the time they reach two years of age, almost all children are able to stand up, walk and run, walk up stairs, etc. and to increase probability of greater independence.
Numerous researchers have demonstrated the influence of operant conditioning on the ability of sighted individuals who are severely or profoundly mentally retarded Noun 1. mentally retarded - people collectively who are mentally retarded; "he started a school for the retarded"
developmentally challenged, retarded to increase their standing ability, walking, tricycle riding, and ball handling skills. However, chronically noncompliant persons who are also blind were not included in these studies.
In past studies, numerous consequences were used, ranging from edibles and verbal praise to aversive aversive /aver·sive/ (ah-ver´siv) characterized by or giving rise to avoidance; noxious.
adj. techniques. One reinforcer reinforcer /re·in·forc·er/ (-in-for´ser) any stimulus that produces reinforcement, a positive r. being a desirable event strengthening responses preceding its occurrence and a negative r. that has been suggested is the use of music. This type of reinforcer seems appropriate for use in a physical education setting to increase compliant behavior since students who are profoundly mentally retarded frequently respond favorably fa·vor·a·ble
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.
2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.
3. to music. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of music as a reinforcer on gross motor performance of a child who is blind and profoundly mentally retarded.
The subject was a legally blind, 10-year-old child who is also profoundly mentally retarded (IQ=10). He has lived for the last 7 years in a residential center located in northern Texas. One year before the study the boy could see with corrective glasses (20/30), but due to a detached retina detached retina
Separation of most layers of the retina of the eye from the choroid, the pigmented middle layer of the eyeball. With age, small tears can develop in the retina, and the vitreous humour inside the eyeball leaks through, separating the retina from the choroid. and subsequent operations, he became legally blind. Before the operations, he was able to walk independently, climb stairs, stand in an upright position Upright position or erect position, in a frequency-division multiple access multiplexer, means that a signal is upconverted to the multiplexer band without inverting the frequencies. See inverted position. , and sit in a chair with normal posture. After the operations he did not demonstrate independence on any of these gross motor skills. For instance, when asked to perform these activities, the subject would stomp his feet, sit on the floor, bite the instructors's hand, and had to be physically assisted.
An AB time series design across behaviors was used to investigate the influence of music on decreasing the child's noncompliant behavior to perform four gross motor skills (i.e., walking, stairclimbing, standing, and sitting). The design involved a baseline and an intervention phase. In the baseline phase, skill training began with all four motor skills without reinforcement being provided. The child was required to participate in a minimum of six baseline sessions per skill. After this, the baseline sessions continued until stability of performance was achieved.
During the intervention phase the child was required to participate in a minimum of 15 sessions per skill in which music could be earned for correct performance. During the intervention phase the only cues given to initiate the task were the words, "Child's name, particular skill (i.e., walk up the stairs), and play the music." After the 15 sessions, as in the baseline phase, stability was again-needed before completing this phase.
1. The act or an instance of generalizing.
2. A principle, a statement, or an idea having general application. data on each skill were also collected 24 hours before the baseline and 24 hours after the intervention phase to determine if the skills could be transferred into new environments. The new environments were: (a) walking independently down a different hall other than the one used in the study while going to class, (b) climbing another set of stairs, (c) standing straight while an aide assisted in changing his clothes, and (d) sitting up straight while eating. The baseline procedure was replicated 2 weeks and 3 months following treatment to determine if learning had been maintained.
Level of performance for all four gross motor skills increased noticeably when music was introduced as a reinforcer. Furthermore, the terminal objective of any training program is that functional skills being taught will be generalized gen·er·al·ized
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.
2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.
3. and maintained over time to appropriate situations in the individual's environment. In the present investigation, the child was able to maintain his level of performance after 2 weeks on all four skills, and on one skill (i.e., stairclimbing) after 3 months of follow-up with slight decreases on two skills (i.e., sitting and standing), and decrease on one skill (i.e., walking). The child was also able to generalize generalize /gen·er·al·ize/ (-iz)
1. to spread throughout the body, as when local disease becomes systemic.
2. to form a general principle; to reason inductively. all four gross motor skills by demonstrating high increases in performance in a natural environment. It appears that with regular use of skills, maintenance and generalization of learned skills occurs with at least some individuals who are profoundly mentally retarded and blind.
Special physical educators need numerous motivational techniques at their disposal to eliminate or reduce noncompliant behaviors exhibited by some of their students. Before punishers are used when a noncompliant behavior is demonstrated, differential reinforcement of desirable behavior should be considered. In the present investigation just the use of music had a strong enough influence to not only reduce the noncompliant, but improve motor skills.
Silliman, L.M., French, R., & Tynan, D. (1992). Use of sensory reinforcement to increase compliant behavior of a child who is blind and profoundly mentally retarded. Clinical Kinesiology kinesiology
Study of the mechanics and anatomy of human movement and their roles in promoting health and reducing disease. Kinesiology has direct applications to fitness and health, including developing exercise programs for people with and without disabilities, preserving , 46(3), 3-9.