Use of evidence-based, small-group reading instruction for English language learners in elementary grades: secondary-tier intervention.Abstract. This experimental/comparison study of secondary-level, small-group instruction included 318 first- and second-grade students (170 ELL and 148 English-only) from six elementary schools elementary school: see school. . All schools served high numbers of ELL students with varying school SES in urban and suburban communities. Experimental schools implemented a three-tier (architecture) three-tier - A client-server architecture in which the user interface, functional process logic ("business rules") and data storage and access are developed and maintained as independent modules, most often on separate platforms. model of intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant. . In addition to primary-tier reading instruction, the second-tier, small-group experimental interventions included use of (a) evidence-based direct instruction reading curricula that explicitly targeted skills such as phonological/phonemic awareness, letter-sound recognition, alphabetic decoding de·code
tr.v. de·cod·ed, de·cod·ing, de·codes
1. To convert from code into plain text.
2. To convert from a scrambled electronic signal into an interpretable one.
3. , fluency flu·ent
a. Able to express oneself readily and effortlessly: a fluent speaker; fluent in three languages.
b. building and comprehension comprehension
Act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect. The term is most often used in connection with tests of reading skills and language abilities, though other abilities (e.g., mathematical reasoning) may also be examined. skills; and (b) small groups of 3 to 6 students. Students at comparison schools were not exposed to a three-tier reading program but received (a) an ESL (1) An earlier family of client/server development tools for Windows and OS/2 from Ardent Software (formerly VMARK). It was originally developed by Easel Corporation, which was acquired by VMARK. intervention using balanced literacy instruction with a focus on word study, group and individual story reading, and writing activities; and (b) small groups of 6 to 15 students. The ESL/balanced literacy intervention was generally in addition to primary reading instruction. Results indicated generally higher gains for ELL students enrolled in direct instruction interventions. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
The percentage of public elementary and secondary school students in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. who were identified as English language English language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Spoken by about 470 million people throughout the world, English is the official language of about 45 nations. learners (ELL) rose from 5.1% in the 1993-94 school year to 6.7% of the total school population in the 1999-2000 school year (U.S. Department of Education, 2000). This represents an increase of over 920,000 ELL students in our public schools in a six-year period. Although there is not a direct correlation Noun 1. direct correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
positive correlation between ELL students and ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic , the large percentage increase of the ELL school population is due to growth in the Hispanic Hispanic Multiculture A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race Social medicine Any of 17 major Latino subcultures, concentrated in California, Texas, Chicago, Miam, NY, and elsewhere subpopulation sub·pop·u·la·tion
A part or subdivision of a population, especially one originating from some other population: microbial subpopulations.
Noun 1. .
This growing school population has an impact on the instructional environment across America's schools. As a group, Hispanic students traditionally perform poorly on national assessments. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), also known as "the Nation's Report Card," is the only nationally representative and continuing assessment of what America's students know and can do in various subject areas. (NAEP NAEP National Assessment of Educational Progress
NAEP National Association of Environmental Professionals
NAEP National Association of Educational Progress
NAEP National Agricultural Extension Policy
NAEP Native American Employment Program ) (U.S. Department of Education, 2005), only 13% of fourth-grade Hispanic students and 15% of eighth-grade students meet proficiency pro·fi·cien·cy
n. pl. pro·fi·cien·cies
The state or quality of being proficient; competence.
Noun 1. proficiency - the quality of having great facility and competence reading standards. At the same time, the statement of purpose in No Child Left Behind legislation notes "that all children will have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to receive a high-quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on challenging state academic achievement standards and state academic assessments" (Section 1001, p. 15). That statement includes ELL populations, and as ELL populations increase so do the pressures on teachers, schools, districts, and states to increase the numbers of ELL students who meet state-governed reading proficiency (Anderson Anderson, river, Canada
Anderson, river, c.465 mi (750 km) long, rising in several lakes in N central Northwest Territories, Canada. It meanders north and west before receiving the Carnwath River and flowing north to Liverpool Bay, an arm of the Arctic et al., 1998).
The specific skills students need to learn to become good readers and perform adequately on assessments are well established. These skills include phonemic awareness Phonemic Awareness is a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to distinguish phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. For example, a listener with phonemic awareness can break the word "Cat" into three separate phonemes: /k/, /a/, , phonics phonics
Method of reading instruction that breaks language down into its simplest components. Children learn the sounds of individual letters first, then the sounds of letters in combination and in simple words. , vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency (National Reading Panel, 2000). The National Reading Panel suggests that teachers working with ELL students must be sensitive to the fact that the sounds of English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is and other phonetic pho·net·ic
1. Of or relating to phonetics.
2. Representing the sounds of speech with a set of distinct symbols, each designating a single sound. languages are not exactly the same and that these differences may constitute an area of difficulty for students in learning English word structures. Additionally, challenges in vocabulary proficiencies affect comprehension. However, existing ELL research suggests that all children, regardless of primary language, must learn these essential reading skills and that English-driven reading instruction with these skills is linked to reading success (Baker & Gersten, 1997; Garcia Gar·ci·a , Jerome John Known as "Jerry." 1942-1995.
American musician who gained fame as the cofounder and lead guitarist of the folk-rock group the Grateful Dead (1965-1995). , 2000; Gersten & Geva, 2003).
For students who have reading challenges, intervention research suggests that instruction should be (a) evidence-based and (b) explicitly taught, and that (c) the curricula should include a scope and sequence of essential reading skills (Foorman, Francis Francis, French prince, duke of Alençon and Anjou
Francis, 1554–84, French prince, duke of Alençon and Anjou; youngest son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici. , Fletcher Fletcher may refer to one of the following: Ideas and companies
The word is derived from the Sanskrit word 'mahita' meaning ‘praised’ or ‘great’ (from mah-‘to praise or magnify’). , 1998). One such program that has a long history is direct instruction (DI, Adams Adams, town (1990 pop. 9,445), Berkshire co., NW Mass., in the Berkshires, on the Hoosic River; inc. 1778. Its manufactures include chemicals, textiles, and paper products. The Berkshire region attracts tourists year-round. & Englemann, 1996).
DI teaches beginning reading word recognition skills by explicitly and systematically teaching phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary skills. Numerous DI studies with non-ELL students and with Hispanic and Asian ELL populations have reported medium to strong effect sizes (Becker Beck´er
n. 1. (Zool.) A European fish (Pagellus centrodontus); the sea bream or braise. & Gersten, 1982; Gersten, 1985; Stebbins Stebbins is a surname, and may refer to:
Counteracting or modifying what is malfunctioning, undesirable, or injurious.
An agent that corrects.
n Reading, the experimental group significantly outperformed the controls on letter identification, word attack, fluency, reading vocabulary, and passage comprehension. These findings demonstrate that a systematic curriculum is a critical component of interventions for both ELL and non-ELL students who struggle learning to read.
In addition to the specific reading skills one needs to learn to read, research suggests that factors such the instructional environment (Arreaga-Mayer, Utley Utley may refer to:
1 City (1990 pop. 26,265), Johnson co., central Ind.; settled 1822, inc. as a city 1960. A residential suburb of Indianapolis, Greenwood is in a retail shopping area. Manufactures include motor vehicle parts and metal products. , 2003; Haager & Windmueller, 2001; Kamps & Greenwood, 2005) and instructional dosage dosage /dos·age/ (do´saj) the determination and regulation of the size, frequency, and number of doses.
1. Administration of a therapeutic agent in prescribed amounts. such as intensity and duration are also critical components to improve instruction for students who have difficulty learning to read (Torgesen, 2000; Torgesen et al., 2001; Vaughn Vaughn may refer to:
n. 1. (Bot.) The mayweed. Cf. Maghet. , Linan-Thompson, & Francis, 2005).
Haager and Windmueller (2001) studied student and teacher outcomes with ELL learners in a high-risk high-risk adjective Referring to an ↑ risk of suffering from a particular condition Infectious disease Referring to an ↑ risk for exposure to blood-borne pathogens, which occurs with blood bank technicians, dental professionals, dialysis unit school. They concluded that in addition to using evidence-based reading practices, ongoing teacher support with student monitoring, while challenging, is essential for improving student outcomes. Torgesen (2000) suggested that the gains made with the lowest performing students can be attributed in part to the number of hours the intervention lasts and the intensity of learning. Intensity consists of instructional changes such as a more parsed sequence of skills, double doses of daily intervention, and/or and/or
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.
Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing. smaller grouping sizes. Haager and Windmueller (2001) and others (e.g., Torgesen, 2000; Torgesen et al., 2001; Vaughn et al., 2005) reported that such a process may require long-term Long-term
Three or more years. In the context of accounting, more than 1 year.
1. Of or relating to a gain or loss in the value of a security that has been held over a specific length of time. Compare short-term. intervention.
In summary, the National Reading Panel's recommended reading skills for learning to read English are essential for all children, regardless of ethnicity, primary language, or socioeconomic status socioeconomic status,
n the position of an individual on a socio-economic scale that measures such factors as education, income, type of occupation, place of residence, and in some populations, ethnicity and religion. (SES). Additionally, for all students, but especially for student populations who traditionally struggle to meet minimum academic standards, appropriate instructional intensity and consistent progress monitoring are critical to improving student outcomes.
One proposed approach that integrates and organizes these critical components for all learners is a three-tiered model of primary, secondary, and tertiary tertiary (tûr`shēârē), in the Roman Catholic Church, member of a third order. The third orders are chiefly supplements of the friars—Franciscans (the most numerous), Dominicans, and Carmelites. instruction (Fuchs Fuchs , Klaus Emil Julius 1911-1988.
German-born physicist who worked on the development of the atomic bomb in Britain and the United States and was imprisoned (1950-1959) for passing scientific secrets to the Soviet Union.
Noun 1. & Fuchs, 2006). Within the three-tiered system, a response-to-intervention (RTI RTI - Return from interrupt ) model addresses the specific educational process of implementing increasing tiers of targeted instruction. RTI provides guiding parameters to decide academic placement and instruction based on student progress. This keeps the focus on the student's learning and the educational environment, and tracks the extent to which academic and instructional goals are met.
In a three-tier model, the first tier is primary instruction provided in general education, using evidence-based strategies to promote learning to read for the majority of students. All students are part of this tier of instruction. Formative formative /for·ma·tive/ (for´mah-tiv) concerned in the origination and development of an organism, part, or tissue. academic screening of all students identifies the Tier-1 response to instruction. Students who fail to reach academic benchmarks are assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. to additional second-tier instruction.
The second tier, characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
2. by small-group intervention, can be provided by general educators and/or by a reading specialist and is designed to provide targeted intervention to enable students to "catch up" on critical reading skills. Within this tier, students' response to intervention In education, Response To Intervention (commonly abbreviated RTI or RtI) is a method of academic intervention that is designed to provide early, effective assistance to children who are having difficulty learning as part of the process of diagnosing learning disabilities. is monitored beyond the screening measure. A continual system of academic progress monitoring is in place. This monitoring may measure percent toward benchmark or mastery of specific skills. Students who fail to make sufficient progress with Tier-2 inventions are moved into Tier 3.
In the third tier, long-term tertiary instruction is provided by reading or special education instructors in individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. grouping. In Tier-3 intervention, progress is further monitored, and the length of intervention increases (Fuchs, Mock <noinclude></noinclude>
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To begin an article here, feel free to [ edit this page], but please do not create a mere dictionary definition. , Morgan Morgan, American family of financiers and philanthropists.
Junius Spencer Morgan, 1813–90, b. West Springfield, Mass., prospered at investment banking. , & Young, 2003). Students in this tier of instruction are likely to fail to reach benchmark.
In an RTI environment, in addition to measuring academic success by benchmark, change in slope on students' intervention assessments provides a measure of student academic response to treatment. The difference in slope lines between different treatment conditions yields a comparative analysis of which treatment might work better over extended periods of time.
There are several advantages to implementing a three-tier/RTI system (Vaughn & Fuchs, 2003). Since ELL student achievement is, by national standards, lower than non-ELL student achievement, changing the emphasis of student progress from general reading assessments (i.e., standardized standardized
pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.
standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.
standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate. assessments) to ongoing instructionally relevant assessments has the potential to provide educators and parents with a better way of improving student outcomes. Assurances that students' intervention progress is continually con·tin·u·al
1. Recurring regularly or frequently: the continual need to pay the mortgage.
2. monitored and that there are specific procedures and measurements for further adapting primary-, secondary-, and tertiary-level instruction and intervention place the focus on the educational environment and reduce the possible explanations for academic failure (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006). For ELL students, the secondary level of instruction provides the opportunity for further fine-tuning In theoretical physics, fine-tuning refers to circumstances when the parameters of a model must be adjusted very precisely in order to agree with observations. Theories requiring fine-tuning are regarded as problematic in the absence of a known mechanism to explain why the and supplemental instruction to meet the unique academic needs of the student. When instruction can be more closely focused and progress monitored, student academic outcomes should improve.
The purpose of the present study was to describe evidence-based secondary-tier interventions and outcomes in schools serving ELL students. Results are analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. for all students in the experimental and comparison schools. Results are then analyzed for the ELL students in terms of how they compare to English-only classmates Classmates can refer to either:
1. All students (ELL and English-only) in the experimental schools (three-tier model of intervention) will demonstrate significantly more growth in measures of early literacy skills over time than students in the comparison schools.
2. ELL students enrolled in secondary interventions will perform at similar levels on measures of early literacy skills to English-only students enrolled in interventions.
3. ELL students enrolled in direct instruction, secondary-tier interventions will progress at a faster rate of growth than students enrolled in ESL/balanced literacy interventions.
4. A larger percentage of students enrolled in direct instruction, secondary-tier interventions will perform at benchmark levels than students enrolled in ESL/balanced literacy interventions.
Students were selected from a larger experimental investigation examining the effects of schoolwide Adj. 1. schoolwide - occurring or extending throughout a school; "schoolwide support for the team"
comprehensive - including all or everything; "comprehensive coverage"; "a comprehensive history of the revolution"; "a comprehensive survey"; "a comprehensive education" three-tier intervention models at the Kansas Kansas, state, United States
Kansas (kăn`zəs), midwestern state occupying the center of the coterminous United States. It is bordered by Missouri (E), Oklahoma (S), Colorado (W), and Nebraska (N). Center for Early Intervention ear·ly intervention
n. Abbr. EI
A process of assessment and therapy provided to children, especially those younger than age 6, to facilitate normal cognitive and emotional development and to prevent developmental disability or delay. in Reading and Behavior. This investigation included 16 schools over a five-year period, 10 schools in the experimental group and 6 schools in the comparison groups. Schools were randomly assigned using a stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.
Arranged in the form of layers or strata. procedure with (a) ranking of schools by SES status and (b) randomly selecting one from each pair (i.e., 1st and 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc.) as experimental or comparison. In the larger study, students were enrolled across multiple years, and of the total students (N = 1,036) enrolled in that study during the initial years, 318 children were included for the present study. The criteria for inclusion in the data analysis for the current study were (a) the student was enrolled in one of the six participating schools with ELL students, (b) parent consent was obtained, and (c) the students participated in the study during the first and second grade, thus contributing data for those two years.
A total of 164 males and 154 females participated in the current study. As presented in Table 1, 148 were English-only students and 170 were ELL students. Spanish Spanish, river, c.150 mi (240 km) long, issuing from Spanish Lake, S Ont., Canada, NW of Sudbury, and flowing generally S through Biskotasi and Agnew lakes to Lake Huron opposite Manitoulin island. There are several hydroelectric stations on the river. was the primary language for 99 of the students. For the other 71, their primary languages included Somalian, Sudanese This is a list of famous Sudanese people: Academics
While normal Vietnamese has not used Han characters since the 18th century, the standards TCVN 5773 and TCVN . Two groups of students were included in the sample: (a) students at risk for reading failure and enrolled in secondary-level reading intervention, the focus of this analysis; and (b) students not at risk, and thus enrolled in the primary-level or core reading intervention only. To qualify as being enrolled in secondary-level intervention, the student had to receive intervention in the first and/or second grade. Table 1 shows the breakdown of students by school, by intervention group (i.e., "secondary intervention" or "primary intervention), and by English-only or ELL status. A total of 117 students (84 ELL, 33 English-only) were in secondary-level intervention in the experimental group and 113 (60 ELL, 53 English-only) in the comparison group.
School settings. Student data from six schools were included in the study as described. Table 1 presents census and demographic data from the schools. More urban schools participated in the current study (N= 4) than suburban schools (N = 2), and the urban experimental schools contributed more ELL students. The majority of the schools were in communities serving poor families, with 84% or greater having free and reduced-cost lunch status (Schools 1, 2, 4, and 5).
Cultural diversity was also high in these four schools (see Table 1). School 4 dropped from the study after one year; thus, students at this school had either first-or second-grade data for comparison purposes. Procedures: Primary- and Secondary-Tier Interventions
Experimental and comparison schools implemented secondary reading interventions that differed both in curriculum and grouping size. The secondary interventions in our experimental schools (Schools 1-3) implemented a direct instruction approach with three different curricula: Reading Mastery (SRA SrA
senior airman , 1995 edition), Early Interventions in Reading (Mathes & Torgesen, 2005), and Read Well (Sprick, Howard Howard, English noble family. Landowners in Norfolk from the 13th cent., the Howards obtained the duchy of Norfolk through the marriage of Sir Robert Howard to Margaret Mowbray, daughter of Thomas Mowbray, 1st duke of Norfolk. , & Fiddanque, 1998). Each is described as an "integrated curriculum" using direct instruction strategies, teacher modeling, and multiple activities and repeated practice to teach and reinforce new skills. A fourth curriculum, Read Naturally (Ihnot, 2002), was used to build fluency in second grade.
With the exception of Read Naturally, in which the teacher facilitates student-led mastery on text fluency and varying levels of comprehension, each of these curricula uses structured and sequenced scripted lessons with a heavy focus on phonemic awareness, including phonics instruction, and a philosophy of teaching to mastery. As an example, the activities found in the Early Interventions in Reading program include (a) phonemic awareness tasks of oral blending, stretching, and sound discrimination; (b) letter sounds (new and review) using "see, hear, say, write" practice; (c) alphabetic decoding using sounding out, reading fast, and chunking chunk
1. A thick mass or piece: a chunk of ice.
2. Informal A substantial amount: won quite a chunk of money.
3. A strong stocky horse. tasks; (d) reading of tricky Adrian Thaws (born January 27, 1968), better known as Tricky, is an English rapper and musician important in the trip hop and British music scene (despite loathing the "trip hop" tag). He is noted for a whispering lyrical style that is half-rapped, half-sung. words, connected text, step-by-step stories (from the Open Court series), and phonics mini-books to build fluency; (e) comprehension activities, including sequencing, retelling re·tell·ing
A new account or an adaptation of a story: a retelling of a Roman myth. , story grammar; and (f) writing of sounds, words, and sentences.
As students acquired literacy skills, they transferred into small groups using a balanced literacy approach (i.e., small-group instruction using literature and instructional level readers, word study using groups of words with similar components such as vowels, blends, beginning sounds, etc., comprehension, and writing activities). The direct-instruction, small-group interventions and balanced literacy in the experimental schools included grouping sizes of 3 to 7 students. Primary-level reading (Tier 1) in the experimental schools included the Open Court curriculum.
Our comparison group (Schools 4-6) used a balanced literacy approach for primary- and secondary-level reading (Tiers 1 and 2). Instruction included the components of guided reading Guided reading is a method of teaching reading to children. It forms part of the National Literacy Strategy for England and Wales and is therefore a preferred approach employed within primary schools. Guided Reading sessions involve a teacher and a group of around six children. , and for secondary level intervention ESL pullout pull·out
1. A withdrawal, especially of troops.
2. Change from a dive to level flight. Used of an aircraft.
3. An object designed to be pulled out.
Noun 1. or ESL class placement, including language with guided reading activities for the literacy block. In the primary-tier guided reading approach, the students read literature on their instructional level. The text is leveled in terms of sentence length, complexity, and factors such as repeatable phrasing. Text vocabulary contains many high-frequency words and is usually not controlled or decodable. Phonemic awareness and phonics instruction are provided during "teachable teach·a·ble
1. That can be taught: teachable skills.
2. Able and willing to learn: teachable youngsters. moments." The focus is kept on reading and re-reading leveled books with specific reading skills addressed on an "as-needed" basis.
The balanced literacy approach occurred typically in larger groups (12 or more students), and consisted of several common features, including word study, group reading of stories, and writing activities. Writing activities were emphasized more in some classrooms than in others. ESL pullout and ESL class groupings implemented a balanced literacy approach for secondary-level reading instruction. Teachers frequently worked on language and vocabulary. And again, within the balanced literacy approach, selected materials were dependent on teacher choice and based on student need. Secondary-intervention student groupings in the comparison schools included groups of 5-12 or more.
Two primary measures of early literacy skills were used, the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS DIBELS Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills ) as a repeated measure and the Woodcock woodcock: see snipe.
Any of five species (family Scolopacidae) of plump, sharp-billed migratory birds of damp, dense woodlands in North America, Europe, and Asia. Reading Mastery Test on a pre- pre- word element [L.], before (in time or space).
1. Earlier; before; prior to: prenatal.
2. and post-basis. The DIBELS (Good, Simmons Simmons may refer to:
Good and colleagues have implemented the DIBELS instrument on a national scale in primary grades and have used the data to propose "benchmarks" for student performance across skills to indicate a satisfactory level of progress (http://dibels.uoregon.edu/). Benchmark status indicates the student is on target for meeting grade-level proficiency in a skill, strategic risk status means the student is falling behind and needs additional instruction to reach benchmark, and intensive risk status means the student is far behind expected performance and needs consistent small-group remedial REMEDIAL. That which affords a remedy; as, a remedial statute, or one which is made to supply some defects or abridge some superfluities of the common law. 1 131. Com. 86. The term remedial statute is also applied to those acts which give a new remedy. Esp. Pen. Act. 1. instruction to catch up to the benchmark level. For purposes of the current study, two subtests were used, the Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF NWF National Wildlife Federation
NWF National Wrestling Federation (Lake Villa, Illinois)
NWF Nonsense Word Fluency
NWF Numerical Weather Forecasting
NWF Native Warez Forum ) and Oral Reading Fluency (ORF). These data were collected fall, winter, and spring each year, and served as a primary indicator of "response to intervention" for all students. Of the 283 students with first-grade data through the spring, 135 were English-only and 148 ELL. Slightly more students had data available in second grade with a total of 294 students, 137 English-only and 157 ELL students.
The Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (Woodcock, 1991) is a norm-referenced reading assessment commonly used in research studies. The subtests used in this study included the Word Attack, Word Identification, and Passage Comprehension subtests. The Woodcock was administered to a subset A group of commands or functions that do not include all the capabilities of the original specification. Software or hardware components designed for the subset will also work with the original. of the students in the sample on a pre- and post-basis. Analyses of Woodcock data were only conducted for the ELL students in the intervention groups. Of these 144 students, 88 had Woodcock data for the spring of first grade, and 55 had Woodcock data available for the spring of second grade.
Fidelity of intervention. In addition to measures of student performance, we also used procedural fidelity measures to determine the levels of implementation during interventions across the participating schools. Fidelity ratings consisted of checklists with questions regarding (a) use of procedures as outlined in the curriculum guide (e.g., followed reading script, included lesson components as outlined); (b) instructional features such as modeling, error correction, guided feedback, and appropriate pacing; (c) instruction of key early literacy skills within lessons (e.g., letter-sound correspondence, blending sounds, sight word practice, oral reading with fluency practice, comprehension checks); and (d) management features such as use of appropriate praise to reprimand REPRIMAND, punishment. The censure which in some cases a public office pronounces against an offender.
2. This species of punishment is used by legislative bodies to punish their members or others who have been guilty of some impropriety of conduct towards them. ratios, smooth transitions between tasks, and effective management of disruptive disruptive /dis·rup·tive/ (-tiv)
1. bursting apart; rending.
2. causing confusion or disorder. behaviors. The fidelity instruments included 20-24 items and used a scoring system Noun 1. scoring system - a system of classifying according to quality or merit or amount
classification system - a system for classifying things of Yes, Sometimes, or No for each item; or a rating of 0, 1, and 2. Fidelity was collected by research staff two to three times per year for teachers in each school.
Findings indicated that school personnel, including teachers and paraprofessionals, were able to effectively implement the secondary-level curricula with a direct instruction component. This was true across schools with mean fidelity scores of 82-97% for School 1 (34 probes); 87-98% for School 2 (36 probes); and 88% for School 3 (9 probes). Fewer probes were collected in comparison schools (31 total) with mean ratings of 1384%.
A quasi-experimental design was used with an experimental-control group comparison. Data were analyzed based on experimental and comparison group assignment. Nested groups within this design consisted of (a) students based on the type of secondary-level reading intervention received, and (b) ELL versus English-only students; the nested groups were the focus of this analysis.
Thus, we were especially interested in the differential effects across types of secondary-level interventions for students who were ELL and at risk of reading failure. Comparisons were made for (a) direct instruction interventions (i.e., Early Interventions in Reading, Read Well, Reading Mastery) and Read Naturally, inclusive of inclusive of
Taking into consideration or account; including. balanced literacy intervention following direct instruction intervention (N = 16 who were in direct instruction groups in first grade and moved to balanced literacy in second grade), and (b) ESL pullout and ESL class groupings using balanced literacy instruction. Students were included as receiving "secondary-level intervention" if enrolled in the intervention in first, second, or both grades. Further, in order to be a participant in the secondary intervention, and thus included in the data analysis, a student had to be determined as "at risk" for reading failure based on DIBELS screening in the fall of first and/or second grade. Data are also presented for students in the sample (enrolled in the experimental and comparison schools) who received primary-level instruction only, generally students who were not at risk for reading failures based on DIBELS screening (see Table 1 for a breakdown of groups).
To address the research hypotheses, several statistical methods were employed. For the first hypothesis (main effect for experimental and comparison group students--all ELL and English students in the schools), the following statistical analyses were conducted: repeated-measures ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there by groups for (a) the first grade, Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) and (b) the second grade, Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) on DIBELS.
To address the second hypothesis (comparison of progress of ELL to English-only students enrolled in the secondary interventions), a repeated-measures ANOVA by experimental groups and language was conducted, and group means were visually compared for students based on (a) primary language (English and ELL), (b) experimental versus comparison group, and (c) intervention type (i.e., direct instruction versus ESL/balanced literacy).
To address the third research hypothesis (comparison of ELL students by intervention type), an ANOVA was conducted for ELL students for their slope or rate of growth as suggested in prior RTI studies (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006), for first-grade NWF and second-grade ORF. An ANOVA test was conducted for the Woodcock Reading Mastery test, mean standard scores for three subtests, with comparisons for the ELL students enrolled in two groups (a) direct instruction (first and/or second) and (b) ESL/balanced literacy (first and/or second).
To address the fourth research hypothesis (percent of ELL students reaching benchmark or responding to intervention), two methods were used. Comparisons were made for ELL students only based on their participation in direct instruction groups or ESL/balanced literacy groups. Calculations were completed of the percent of students in the interventions who performed at benchmark or were making progress using the DIBELS subtests of NWF in the spring of first grade, and ORF in the spring of second grade. This was based on scores considered in the high strategic group (at 75% of benchmark) or at benchmark. Calculations were completed on the percent of students in the interventions who scored at a grade-based standard score of 85+ on the Woodcock Reading Mastery subtests.
Overall, results indicated greater outcomes for ELL students in the experimental schools, and specifically those participating in secondary-tier interventions using curricula with a direct instruction approach and delivered in small groups. Results are presented for students' progress on NWF and ORF on the DIBELS assessments and for the Woodcock Reading Mastery test. Results are organized to address the stated research hypotheses and questions.
Do Students in the Experimental Schools Show Larger Increases in Early Literacy Skills than Those Enrolled in the Comparison Group?
An ANOVA repeated-measures test was conducted to determine if there were differences between the experimental and comparison groups. All students at the six participating schools were included in the analysis, those in primary intervention only and those in primary- and secondary-level intervention. The results indicated significant differences for the NWF measure in first grade for the change over time between the experimental and comparison school groups (df = 2, F = 16.017, p = .000). No differences were noted, however, for the ORF measure in second grade.
Are There Differences for ELL and English-Only Students Receiving Secondary-Level Interventions?
This analysis was conducted to determine differential effects for the students receiving secondary-level interventions in the schools, and specifically to see how the ELL students compared to English-only students. A second ANOVA repeated-measures test was conducted, and between subject-factors were analyzed: (a) ELL versus English-only, and (b) experimental versus comparison group. These data are presented in Figure 1 and Table 2.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
For NWF, significant differences were found between experimental groups (df, 1; F = 10.800, p = .001), but not between the ELL and English-only students by group condition. The repeated-measures ANOVA data are presented in Table 2. NWF means from fall to spring for the ELL experimental group were 22.7, 47.8, and 60.5; and for the English-only experimental group, 22.9, 41.0, and 54.5. For the comparison group, the ELL group means were 17.5, 29.2, and 35.2; and English-only 22.1, 32.9, and 48.7. Effect sizes using Cohen's d formula (experimental group mean minus the comparison group mean divided by the square root of the mean squared error In statistics, the mean squared error or MSE of an estimator is the expected value of the square of the "error." The error is the amount by which the estimator differs from the quantity to be estimated. ) for the overall group were .46, and .70 for the ELL group.
For ORF, differences were found between experimental groups (df, 1; F = 12.385; p = .001), and between the ELL and English-only students (df, 1; F = 5.158; p = .024). Pairwise comparisons showed the differences were attributed to differences between the English-only comparison group students (mean overall ORF, 58.3) and the ELL comparison group students (mean overall ORF, 39.8); rather than for the experimental group (overall means of 63.6, English and 64.2, ELL). Effect sizes were .38 overall, and .58 for the ELL group.
Are There Differences for ELL Students Based on Curriculum Used in Secondary-Tier Interventions?
Important to the study was analysis of the progress for the ELL students based on their participation in the specific secondary-tier interventions. Some of the students in the comparison schools received small-group instruction that closely resembled the experimental direct instruction groups. Thus, to address this question, the repeated-measures ANOVA using DIBELS NWF (first grade) and ORF (second grade) also compared mean differences for students by type of secondary-level interventions (direct instruction versus ESL/balanced literacy), regardless of experimental group (experimental versus comparison school).
This follow-up follow-up,
n the process of monitoring the progress of a patient after a period of active treatment.
follow-up plan analysis mirrored the results presented in Table 2 and Figure 1. Significant differences were found between the groups for NWF based on intervention type (df, 1, F = 19.564, p = .000). The direct instruction means over time (23.0, 48.4, 60.9, respectively, from fall to spring), were larger than for students in the ESL/balanced literacy group (13.8, 24.7, 29.1).
Similar patterns were noted for the ORF, with significant differences based on intervention type (df, 1, F = 45.642, p = .000). The direct instruction means over time (47.2, 67.9, 78.4, respectively, from fall to spring) were again larger than for the ESL/balanced literacy group (18.3, 32.9, 38.9). The direct instruction group scored higher at the start of second grade, reflecting gains from first grade for many students. Effect sizes were robust at .879 for NWF, and .947 for ORF using Cohen's d formula.
Woodcock Reading Mastery. Table 3 presents data for the spring Woodcock Reading Mastery standard scores across first and second grades for ELL students. ANOVA tests were conducted for standard scores for the spring data for first and second grades. Significant mean differences were indicated between the direct instruction group and the ESL/balanced literacy groups. Word Attack mean standard scores were larger in the spring of first grade at 110.6 for the direct instruction group, compared to the ESL/balanced literacy group at 76.8. These differences were significant (df = 1, F = 133.583, p = .000). Word Identification mean standard scores at both first (105.4, 81.3, respectively) and second grade (101.3, 82.1, respectively) also favored the direct instruction group (see Table 3); again significant, for first grade (df = 1, F = 71.635, p = .000) and second grade (df = 1, F = 48.483, p = .000). Scores on the Passage Comprehension subtest, similar to the other subtests, significantly favored the direct instruction group over the ESL/balanced literacy group for standard scores in the spring of first grade with means of 92.6 and 77.7, respectively (df= 1, F = 22.317, p = .000), and second grade with means of 95.8 and 76.8, respectively (df= 1, F = 42.238, p = .000).
Effects sizes using Cohen's d formula (experimental mean minus the comparison mean divided by the pooled standard deviation Pooled standard deviation is a way to find a better estimate of the true standard deviation given several different samples taken in different circumstances where the mean may vary between samples but the true standard deviation (precision) is assumed to remain the same. ) were computed for the Woodcock subtests. Effect sizes were large for Word Attack first grade, 1.78; Word Identification (ID) first grade, 1.54; Word ID second Grade, 1.39; Passage Comprehension first grade, 1.04; and Passage Comprehension second grade, 1.35.
Were the Slopes (Rates of Progress) Different for ELL Students Based on Secondary-Level Curriculum?
Table 4 presents the mean slopes for ELL students, indicating the rate of growth as an indicator of progress for intervention in first and second grades. The mean slopes for both NWF and ORF were steeper for ELL first graders in direct instruction interventions (e.g., Reading Mastery, Early Interventions in Reading) compared to students in the ESL/balanced literacy intervention. The mean NWF slope for the students in this group was 19.7 during first grade compared to the small number of students in balanced literacy programs (slope = 12.0) and the ESL/balanced literacy group (slope = 7.4). The ORF slopes followed a similar pattern, with mean slopes at 15.4, 9.9, and 7.5, respectively, across groups (see Table 4, top panel). Significant differences were found for both NWF slope (df, 3; F = 12.462; p = .000) and the ORF slope (df, 3, F = 14.648; p = .000) for the participants during first grade. Pairwise comparisons showed the significant differences were noted for students in the direct instruction as compared to the ESL/balanced literacy groups (see Table 4, bottom panel).
Table 5 shows the data for ELL students based on their second-grade interventions. Few differences were noted for the mean slope for the students in direct instruction secondary interventions (mean ORF slope = 14.98) compared to those in the balanced literacy group (mean ORF slope = 16.21). It is important to note, however, that 16 of the 19 students enrolled in the balanced literacy interventions in second grade participated in direct instruction reading interventions in first grade. Students in the ESL/balanced literacy group, however, performed at a slower rate of progress, with lower slopes (mean slope = 10.35), compared to the other groups. Between-group differences in slope were significant (df, 3, F = 3.007, p = .033; see middle and bottom panels of Table 5).
What Percent of ELL Students Were Considered as Responsive to Intervention?
As shown in Figure 2 (top graph), 50-60% of the ELL students in direct instruction interventions were at benchmark (or approaching benchmark) for NWF at the end of first grade based on the DIBELS subtest. For the students enrolled in ESL/balanced literacy interventions, only 17% were responding to intervention according to this measure. In addition, nearly all students in the direct instruction group were making progress to advance into the strategic group, with only 5 of the 88 students still in the intensive range compared to 17 of the 24 in the ESL/balanced literacy group still in the intensive range.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Similar differences were noted on the DIBELS ORF subtests, with more than twice the percent responsive in direct instruction interventions (53%) compared to the ESL/balanced literacy group (25%), and a large discrepancy DISCREPANCY. A difference between one thing and another, between one writing and another; a variance. (q.v.)
2. Discrepancies are material and immaterial. between the percent at high strategic or benchmark at the end of second grade (63% for direct instruction interventions, 6% for ESL/balanced literacy group). For oral reading, only 12 of the 88 in the direct instruction group were still at the intensive level, while 27 of 34 were at the intensive level for the ESL/balanced literacy intervention group.
The Woodcock Reading Mastery grade-based standard scores were also used as an indicator of ELL students' level of responsiveness, similar to indicators used by other researchers (Linan-Thompson, Vaughn, Prater prate
v. prat·ed, prat·ing, prates
To talk idly and at length; chatter.
To utter idly or to little purpose.
n. , & Cirino, 2006). These scores showed higher percentages of students in the benchmark range (85+ standard score) across groups, but again differences were noted across the intervention groups in our sample. For the Word Attack subtest in the spring of first grade, 100% of students in the direct instruction group were at a grade-based standard score of 85 or greater compared to 27% of the students in the ESL/balanced literacy group.
The same patterns were found for most of the subtests. For the Word Identification subtest in the spring of first and/or second grade, as available, students in the direct instruction group were nearly all within the 85+ range (98-100%), and from 45-48% were in the benchmark range for the ESL/balanced literacy group (see bottom graph, Figure 2). For Passage Comprehen-sion, 82-97% of the direct instruction group and 39-47% of the ESL/balanced literacy group were at the benchmark standard score in the spring of first and second grades.
Findings suggest that secondary-level reading interventions were highly effective for teaching early literacy skills to first- and second-grade ELL students. A large percent of the students in the sample responded to intervention, suggesting the benefits of secondary-level, small-group reading instruction as a critical early intervention for ELL students at risk for reading failure. These findings concur CONCUR - ["CONCUR, A Language for Continuous Concurrent Processes", R.M. Salter et al, Comp Langs 5(3):163-189 (1981)]. with prior research indicating the benefits of small-group secondary-level interventions for ELL students (Linan-Thompson et al., 2006; Vaughn et al., in press).
The main finding was that students in secondary-level interventions improved in early literacy skills. This was true for the majority of students in our sample, as evidenced in significant gains on the DIBELS assessments for decoding (NWF) and oral reading (ORF) skills. The second finding was that the secondary-level interventions used (i.e., direct instruction interventions) were highly effective with ELL groups, including Spanish-speaking Adj. 1. Spanish-speaking - able to communicate in Spanish
communicatory, communicative - able or tending to communicate; "was a communicative person and quickly told all she knew"- W.M.Thackeray students and students speaking other languages (Somalian, Sudanese, Vietnamese). First-grade interventions that appeared especially effective included Reading Mastery, Early Interventions in Reading, and Read Well. A strong second-grade intervention in addition to completion of the first-grade programs for our students was Read Naturally. Following the initial two years in the study, it was determined that an intervention targeting oral reading fluency was needed. The Read Naturally curriculum was very effective with ELL students.
A third related finding was that ELL students benefited from the same early literacy interventions (i.e., direct instruction) found to be successful with the English-only students. Some of the ELL students performed as well as English-only participants on the DIBELS. This is important for administration, management, and the allocation of resources allocation of resources
Apportionment of productive assets among different uses. The issue of resource allocation arises as societies seek to balance limited resources (capital, labour, land) against the various and often unlimited wants of their members. for early secondary intervention implementation in that professional development costs and materials can be shared across both at-risk at-risk
Being endangered, as from exposure to disease or from a lack of parental or familial guidance and proper health care: efforts to make the vaccine available to at-risk groups of children. groups (ELL and English-only children).
Teacher and School Outcomes and Implications for Practice
A fourth and related important finding was that school staff in the experimental schools implemented interventions with generally high levels of fidelity (means in the 90-100%) range by the second year of the study. This is an important difference from some prior RTI studies in which researchers provided intervention, rather than personnel hired by school districts. We found, as reported by Haager and Windmueller (2001), that school staff, who included classroom teachers, reading teachers, paraprofessionals, and volunteers, could successfully implement secondary-group intervention with high fidelity high fidelity
The electronic reproduction of sound, especially from broadcast or recorded sources, with minimal distortion.
high . We also agree with their recommendation that successful implementation requires ongoing professional development and teacher support with student monitoring. The majority of implementers in this study were able to implement at 80% or higher fidelity, following training and one to two coaching sessions by the researchers or other school staff.
A fifth finding from the study is that some students with first-grade intervention were able to transition to less structured interventions (e.g., balanced literacy) and maintain their benchmark performance. In most cases, however, secondary-level intervention was needed for an extended period of time, throughout first and second grades, for our sample of ELL students. This could also have occurred due to the use of programs designed to provide a year-long intervention (e.g., Early Interventions in Reading), different than other models suggesting short-term Short-term
Any investments with a maturity of one year or less.
1. Of or relating to a gain or loss on the value of an asset that has been held less than a specified period of time. cycles of secondary-level, small-group instruction (e.g., Vaughn, Linan-Thompson, & Hickman-Davis, 2003), with the designation of extended intervention as tertiary level or special education services (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1998).
These findings are important in planning for school resources in terms of personnel and investment in secondary level reading curriculum, particularly from a prevention standpoint The Standpoint is a newspaper published in the British Virgin Islands. It was originally published under the name Pennysaver, largely as a shopping-coupon promotional newspaper, but since emerged as one of the most influential sources of journalism in the . That is, investing in early reading intervention has potentially long-ranging benefits for student performance across content areas and as they progress through their academic career (Foorman et al., 1998; Torgesen et al., 2001). While additional funding sources are needed to support extended doses of secondary-level intervention, this still falls under general education services, at least for the ELL population (Mathes & Torgesen, 1998). This important finding for our sample could be due to specific school variables (i.e., most ELL students were enrolled in urban schools serving low-SES families). In addition, a high level of mobility was noted for many of the families. The sample, however, is very typical of the challenges facing larger urban school districts across the nation.
A critical finding from the study was that students enrolled in interventions described as "ESL literacy services" did not do as well as students in direct instruction. Research with ELL populations suggests that all children regardless of primary language must acquire the same beginning reading skills (Baker & Gersten, 1997; Garcia, 2000; Gersten & Geva, 2003). This study as well as others suggests the need for more targeted reading intervention in addition to ESL intervention (Kamps & Greenwood, 2005). Further, the ESL interventions in our study typically occurred in larger groups with 12-15 students rather than 7 or fewer students as with the direct instruction interventions. In addition to the larger group size, an observed weakness to the ESL/balanced literacy intervention in our sample was the lack of systematic phonemic awareness and phonics instruction.
Although the findings of this study provide important documentation for the use of secondary-level interventions for ELL students, they must be viewed with several limitations in mind. First, unequal group sizes were enrolled across experimental groups. In addition, few students in the comparison group were enrolled in balanced literacy reading interventions using small groups as the primary intervention. The majority of those students also received a prior direct instruction intervention. Thus, the study did not have a true control group across the grade levels, with the majority of the ELL group enrolled in an "ESL" intervention. Though the ESL classes were required to teach beginning literacy skills, a systematic, direct instruction approach was not observed specifically for literacy instruction. A further limitation was that no analysis was conducted to determine vocabulary or word study instruction across the curricula, nor were language assessments conducted to determine differences in functional language, which may have contributed to differential effects of the interventions.
In addition, the results should also be viewed with caution in that the small group sizes did not allow for control for the SES or the school variable. A final limitation is that only a subset of students received the Woodcock assessments, and resources did not allow for pre/post-data at each grade level, thus those data should be interpreted with caution.
In summary, the findings from this study suggest favorable fa·vor·a·ble
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.
2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.
3. outcomes for the use of small-group, secondary-tier, evidence-based interventions for ELL students. This concurs with findings of other researchers (e.g., Gunn et al., 2000; Linan-Thompson et al., 2006; Vaughn et al., in press), who have reported the effectiveness of small-group interventions for ELL students at risk for reading problems, as well as recommendations from national and task force groups focused on effective practices for culturally and linguistically diverse children (e.g., Anderson et al., 1998; Frances, Shaywitz, Steubing, Shaywitz, & Fletcher, 1996; Gersten & Jimenez Ji·mé·nez , Juan Ramón 1881-1958.
Spanish poet who introduced modernism to Spanish verse. Platero y Yo (1914) is his most popular work. He won the 1956 Nobel Prize for literature.
Noun 1. , 1998; Juel, 1988). Findings also support the use of a tiered model to provide early intervention in the primary grades to help students "catch up" to their peers before falling so far behind that academic progress is severely impaired, and to determine who the non-responders might be who need more tertiary-level intervention or special education services (Al Otaiba & Fuchs, 2006; Vaughn & Fuchs, 2003).
Key findings and recommendations include continued experimental investigations of secondary-level interventions with a focus on direct instruction and evidence-based interventions for ELL students. Further, investigations addressing specific instructional components contributing to student outcomes are needed, with a focus on the systematic selection of effective practices within ESL services. It appeared in the urban schools in our sample that there are insufficient resources available to address both language and literacy instruction, especially considering the rapidly growing ELL population in larger cities. Finally, additional study regarding non-responders and tertiary-level interventions is warranted.
Adams, G. L., & Englemann, S. (1996). Research on direct instruction: 25 years beyond DISTAR DISTAR Distributed Interactive Simulation Technologies in After Action Review . Seattle Seattle (sēăt`əl), city (1990 pop. 516,259), seat of King co., W Wash., built on seven hills, between Elliott Bay of Puget Sound and Lake Washington; inc. 1869. , WA: Educational Achievement Systems.
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Anderson, M., Beard beard, hair on the lower portion of the face. The term mustache refers to hair worn above the upper lip. Attitudes toward facial hair have varied in different cultures. , K., Delgado Delgado is a surname, and may refer to:
kea: see parrot.
Large, stocky parrot (Nestor notabilis, subfamily Nestorinae) of New Zealand. It lives in mountain habitats and is known for its curious and playful character. , C., Raymond Raymond, town, Canada
Raymond, town (1991 pop. 3,130), S Alta., Canada, SE of Lethbridge, in a sugar beet area. Sugar is refined and honey is produced there. A provincial agricultural college is in the town. , E., Singh For the fictional global crime syndicate, see .
Singh is a Sanskrit word meaning "lion". It is used as a common surname and middle name in North India by many communities, especially by the Sikhs and the Rajputs. , N., Sugai, G., Townsend, B., Voltz, D., & Webb-Johnson, G. (1998). Working with culturally and linguistically diverse children, youth, and their families: Promising practices in assessment, instruction and personnel preparation (A White Paper by the Multicultural mul·ti·cul·tur·al
1. Of, relating to, or including several cultures.
2. Of or relating to a social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only a mainstream culture. Concerns Task Force Council for Children with Behavior Disorders behavior disorder
1. Any of various forms of behavior that are considered inappropriate by members of the social group to which an individual belongs.
2. A functional disorder or abnormality. ). Reston, VA: CCBD CCBD Council for Children with Behavior Disorders (Council for Exceptional Children)
CCBD Configuration Control Board Directive
CCBD Comprehensive Center for Bleeding Disorders
CCBD Configuration Control Board Data , a Division of the Council for Exceptional Children.
Arreaga-Mayer, C., Utley, C. A., Perdomo-Rivers, & Greenwood, C. R. (2003). Ecobehavioral assessment of instructional contexts in bilingual bi·lin·gual
a. Using or able to use two languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency.
b. special education programs for English language learners at risk for developmental disabilities developmental disabilities (DD),
n.pl the pathologic conditions that have their origin in the embryology and growth and development of an individual. DDs usually appear clinically before 18 years of age. , Focus on Autism autism (ô`tĭzəm), developmental disability resulting from a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain. It is characterized by the abnormal development of communication skills, social skills, and reasoning. and Other Developmental Disabilities, 19, 28-40.
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Frances, D., Shaywitz, S., Steubing, K., Shaywitz, B., & Fletcher, J. (1996). Developmental lag versus deficit models of reading disability: A longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. , individual growth curves analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 3-17.
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This article is about reference works. For the subnotebook computer, see .
Gersten, R. (1985). Structured immersion immersion /im·mer·sion/ (i-mer´zhun)
1. the plunging of a body into a liquid.
2. the use of the microscope with the object and object glass both covered with a liquid. for language minority students: Results of a longitudinal evaluation. Educational Evaluation Educational evaluation is the evaluation process of characterizing and appraising some aspect/s of an educational process.
There are two common purposes in educational evaluation which are, at times, in conflict with one another. and Policy Analysis, 7(3), 187-196.
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Gersten, R., & Jimenez, R. (1998). Modulating instruction for language minority students. In E. J. Kameenui & D. W. Carnine, Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners (pp. 161-178). Upper Saddle River Saddle River may refer to:
Good, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Smith S. B. (1998). Effective academic interventions in the United States: Evaluating and enhancing the acquisition of early reading skills. School Psychology Review, 27(1), 45-56.
Gunn, B., Biglan, A., Smokowski, K., & Ary, D. (2000). The efficacy of supplemental instruction in decoding skills for Hispanic and non-Hispanic students in early elementary school. The Journal of Special Education, 34(2), 90-103.
Haager, D., & Windmueller, M. (2001). Early literacy intervention for English language learners at-risk for learning disabilities: Student and teacher outcomes in an urban school. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24(4), 235-250.
Ihnot, C. (1991). Read Naturally. St. Paul St. Paul
as a missionary he fearlessly confronts the “perils of waters, of robbers, in the city, in the wilderness.” [N.T.: II Cor. 11:26]
See : Bravery , MN: Read Naturally.
Juel, C. (1988). Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study longitudinal study
a chronological study in epidemiology which attempts to establish a relationship between an antecedent cause and a subsequent effect. See also cohort study. of 54 children from first through fourth grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 437-447.
Kaminski, R. A., & Good, R. H. (1998). Assessing early literacy skills in a problem-solving model: Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills. In M. R. Shinn (Ed.), Advanced applications of curriculum-based measurement Curriculum-based measurement, or CBM, is an assessment method used in schools to monitor student progress by directly assessing basic academic skills in reading, spelling, writing, and mathematics. (pp. 113-142). New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Guilford.
Kamps, D., & Greenwood, C. (2005). Formulating secondary level reading interventions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(6), 500-509.
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Reading Mastery. (1995). New: McGraw Hill/SRA. Sprick, M., Howard, L., & Fiddanque, A. (1998). Read Well. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
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Torgesen, J. (2000). Individual differences in response to early interventions in reading: The lingering lin·ger
v. lin·gered, lin·ger·ing, lin·gers
1. To be slow in leaving, especially out of reluctance; tarry. See Synonyms at stay1.
2. problem of treatment resisters. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 15, 53-65.
Torgesen, J., Alexander, A. W., & Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Kytja, K. S., Voeller, K., & Conway, T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 33-58.
U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), as part of the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES), collects, analyzes, and publishes statistics on education and public school district finance information in the United States; conducts studies . (2005). National assessment of educational progress. Washington, DC: Author.
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2000). Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS See SAS. ), 1999-2000 "Public School Questionnaire" and "Charter School Questionnaire." Washington, DC: Author.
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Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., & Hickman-Davis, P. (2003). Response to treatment as a means for identifying students with reading/learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 69(4), 391-410.
Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompsone, S., Mathes, P. G., Cirino, P., Carlson, C., Francis, D., et al. (in press). Effectiveness of Spanish intervention for first-grade English language learners at-risk for reading difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities.
Vaughn, S., Mathes, P. G., Linan-Thompson, S., &. Francis, D. (2005). Teaching English language learners at-risk for reading disabilities to read: Putting research into practice. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 20(1), 58-67.
Woodcock, R. W. (1991). Woodcock Language Proficiency Language proficiency or linguistic proficiency is the ability of an individual to speak or perform in an acquired language. As theories vary among pedagogues as to what constitutes proficiency, there is little consistency as to how different organisations Battery-Revised. Chicago: Riverside.
Please address correspondence to: Debra Kamps, Juniper juniper, any tree or shrub of the genus Juniperus, aromatic evergreens of the family Cupressaceae (cypress family), widely distributed over the north temperate zone. Many are valuable as a source of lumber and oil. Gardens Children's Project, 650 Minnesota Avenue, Kansas City Kansas City, two adjacent cities of the same name, one (1990 pop. 149,767), seat of Wyandotte co., NE Kansas (inc. 1859), the other (1990 pop. 435,146), Clay, Jackson, and Platte counties, NW Mo. (inc. 1850). , KS 66101; firstname.lastname@example.org
Debra Kamps, Ph.D., associate director, Juniper Gardens Children's Project, University of Kansas The University of Kansas (often referred to as KU or just Kansas) is an institution of higher learning in Lawrence, Kansas. The main campus resides atop Mount Oread. .
Mary Abbott, Ph.D., assistant research professor, Juniper Gardens Children's Project, University of Kansas.
Charles Greenwood Charles Greenwood (b. November 5 1853, Nottingham, England - d. 1927) was the father of Victoria Cross winner Harry Greenwood.
He was a colour sergeant of the Grenadier Guards and a Yeoman of the Guard in his own right. , Ph.D., director, Juniper Gardens Children's Project, University of Kansas.
throws over lover for another. [Fr. Lit.: Carmen; Fr. Opera: Bizet, Carmen, Westerman, 189–190]
See : Faithlessness
the cards repeatedly spell her death. [Fr. Arreaga-Mayer, Ph.D., consultant, Juniper Gardens Children's Project, University of Kansas.
Howard Wills, Ph.D., assistant research professor, Juniper Gardens Children's Project, University of Kansas.
Jennifer Longstaff, M.S., director of academics, Della Lamb Elementary Charter School, Kansas City, Missouri Kansas City is the largest city in the state of Missouri. It encompasses parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest in Missouri, which includes counties in both Missouri and Kansas. .
Michelle Culpepper, M.S., assistant director of curriculum, Della Lamb Elementary Charter School, Kansas City, Missouri.
Cheryl Walton, Ph.D., Title I teacher, Resurrection Elementary School Resurrection Elementary School is a Roman Catholic elementary school in Brantford, Ontario. It teaches grades JK to 8. External links
1. , Kansas City, Kansas Kansas City, Kansas (KCK) is the third largest city in the U.S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Wyandotte County (WyCo); it is part of the "Unified Government" which also includes the cities of Bonner Springs and Edwardsville. .
Table 1 Experimental and Comparison School Sites Free, Secondary Reduced- Intervention: Experimental % % Cost Schools Minority ELL Lunch English ELL 1 Urban 95% 49% 90% 7 30 2 Urban 87% 60% 87% 19 41 3 Suburban 48% 22% 21% 7 13 33 84 Free, Reduced- Comparison % % Cost Schools Minority ELL Lunch English ELL 4 Urban 85% 37% 97% 23 40 5 Urban 91% 13% 84% 13 14 6 Suburban 27% 4% 21% 17 6 53 60 Grand Total 86 144 Primary-Only Intervention: Experimental Schools English ELL Total 1 Urban 8 18 63 2 Urban 60 3 Suburban 31 2 53 39 20 176 Comparison Schools English ELL Total 4 Urban 63 5 Urban 5 1 33 6 Suburban 18 5 46 23 6 142 62 26 318 Table 2 Repeated-Measures ANOVA Results for Experimental Group and Language Group Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for NWF 1st Grade Source df Mean Square F Significance Language 1 296.087 0.227 ns Exp Group 1 14060.444 10.800 .001 Language * Exp Group 1 4068.399 3.125 ns Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for ORF 2nd Grade Source df Mean Square F Significance Language 1 10296.753 4.515 .035 Exp Group 1 28242.912 12.385 .001 Language * Exp Group 1 11762.814 5.158 .024 Table 3 Woodcock Reading Mastery Mean Standard Scores by Curriculum for ELL Students ESL/ Direct Balanced Instruc- Literacy Spring Woodcock Scores tion Mean Mean First-Grade Word Attack Grade-Based Std. Score 110.6 76.8 (8.34) (19.07) First-Grade Word ID Grade-Based Std. Score 105.4 81.3 (7.77) (19.0) Second-Grade Word ID Grade-Based Std. Score 101.3 82.1 (9.24) (11.12) First-Grade Passage Comp Grade-Based Std. Score 92.6 77.7 (10.67) (17.88) Second-Grade Passage Comp Grade-Based Std. Score 95.8 76.8 (6.36) (14.71) Note. First-grade direct instruction: N = 66; ESL/balanced literacy: N = 22; second-grade direct instruction: N = 32; ESL/balanced literacy: N = 23. The numbers in parentheses are the standard deviations. Woodcock Reading Mastery ANOVA for Standard Scores Sum of ANOVA Squares df Mean Square First-Grade Between Groups 18887.458 1 18887.458 Word Attack Within Groups 12159.621 86 141.391 Total 31047.080 87 First-Grade Between Groups 9588.186 1 9588.186 Word ID Within Groups 11510.894 86 133.848 Total 21099.080 87 Second-Grade Between Groups 4907.832 1 4907.832 Word ID Within Groups 5365.077 53 101.228 Total 10272.909 54 First-Grade Passage Between Groups 3660.186 1 3660.186 Comprehension Within Groups 14104.894 86 164.010 Total 17765.080 87 Second-Grade Passage Between Groups 4792.223 1 4792.223 Comprehension Within Groups 6013.304 53 113.459 Total 10805.527 54 ANOVA F Sig. First-Grade Between Groups 133.583 0.000 Word Attack Within Groups Total First-Grade Between Groups 71.635 0.000 Word ID Within Groups Total Second-Grade Between Groups 48.483 0.000 Word ID Within Groups Total First-Grade Passage Between Groups 22.317 0.000 Comprehension Within Groups Total Second-Grade Passage Between Groups 42.238 0.000 Comprehension Within Groups Total Table 4 Mean Slope Outcomes for NWF and ORF by Intervention for First-Grade ELL Students Direct Balanced ESL/Balanced Instruction Literacy Literacy Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) NWF Slope 1st 19.7 12.0 7.4 (10.9) (10.1) (7.8) ORF Slope 1st 15.4 9.9 7.5 (4.9) (3.3) (6.9) Note. Direct instruction: N = 80; Balanced literacy: N = 3; ESL/balanced literacy: N = 24; Fifteen Ist graders received no intervention during the 1st-grade year. ANOVA, Pairwise Comparisons for First-Grade Slope Sum of Squares df Mean Square NWF First-Grade Between Groups 3700.814 3 1233.605 Slope Within Groups 11680.645 118 98.989 Total 15381.459 121 ORF First-Grade Between Groups 1217.443 3 405.814 Slope Within Groups 3269.031 118 27.704 Total 4486.474 121 F Sig. NWF First-Grade Between Groups 12.462 0.000 Slope Within Groups Total ORF First-Grade Between Groups 14.648 0.000 Slope Within Groups Total Post-Hoc Test--Multiple Comparisons--Tukey HSD Mean Diffe- rence NWF Direct Instruction Balanced Literacy 7.669 First-Grade Slope ESL/Balanced Literacy 12.315 ORF Direct Instruction Balanced Literacy 5.576 First-Grade Slope ESL/Balanced Literacy 7.963 Table 5 Mean Slope Outcomes for ORF by Intervention for Second-Grade ELL Students Direct Balanced ESL/Balanced Instruction Literacy Literacy Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) ORF Slope 14.98 16.21 10.35 Second Grade (7.04) (7.11) (9.52) Note. Direct instruction: N = 53; Balanced literacy: N = 19; ESL/balanced literacy: N = 27; 25 students did not receive intervention during the 2nd grade. ANOVA, Pairwise Comparisons for Second-Grade Slope Sum of Squares df Mean Square ORF Slope Between Groups 503.421 3 167.807 Second Grade Within Groups 6696.046 120 55.800 Total 7199.468 123 F Sig. ORF Slope Between Groups 3.007 0.033 Second Grade Within Groups Total Post-Hoc Test--Multiple Comparisons--Tukey HSD Mean Difference ORF Slope Direct Instruction Balanced Literacy -1.229 Second Grade ESL/Balanced Literacy 4.629 Note. The majority of ELL students in balanced literacy interventions in 2nd grade were enrolled in direct instructions in 1st grade.