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Use of electronic resources by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science of Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

Introduction

Background to the Study

Information professionals have long sought to comprehend what factors are relevant in encouraging a person to seek out information. More recently, a particular focus of inquiry has been on those factors that play a role in deciding to use the library's electronic resources to seek information as opposed to just surfing the Internet. These inquiries assume an even greater importance in light of the fact that more people are using the Internet to find information they need, information that is unmediated Adj. 1. unmediated - having no intervening persons, agents, conditions; "in direct sunlight"; "in direct contact with the voters"; "direct exposure to the disease"; "a direct link"; "the direct cause of the accident"; "direct vote"
direct
 by the library (Kibirge, 2000).

Informed library users know that libraries have resources that are more comprehensive and scholarly than most Web sites provide. Libraries provide access to scholarly literature that, as a rule, is not freely available on the Web. Often, it is in college that users become aware of libraries' resources, usually while having to write research papers. Assuming that on average most students face the same number and type of papers and assignments during their college career, it is critical to understand what makes one student use the library's electronic resources while another will not think of the library as a place to find specialized resources for their papers.

One obstacle to the use of a library's resources, and in particular its electronic resources, is that they are not seen as being straightforward. In contrast to an Internet search engine, where a single keyword search will usually result in thousands of hits, no matter what the topic, in the library, students have to choose a particular database and be more selective in the search words they use. Moreover, database subjects often overlap, with differences in dates, journal and subjects covered, and whether the material is full-text or not. In addition, the library may have a print subscription to a certain title that is not full-text electronically, or the title may be accessible full-text through another database than the one originally searched. Therefore, not only do students have to find the relevant citations, but they also have to know how to locate the article after that. This means juggling many screens, many technologies, multitasking electronic jobs, and of course, knowing where to look for all this necessary information. Lastly, there is the additional confusion that more and more library databases use Web-based technologies. Because the interface is seamless there does not seem to be a visible, on the screen, difference between Web-based library resources and general Web-based resources. All of the above also assumes the student is proficient pro·fi·cient  
adj.
Having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning.

n.
An expert; an adept.
 in the use of computers. It is quite clear that searching for information has become "inexorably in·ex·o·ra·ble  
adj.
Not capable of being persuaded by entreaty; relentless: an inexorable opponent; a feeling of inexorable doom. See Synonyms at inflexible.
 linked to computer technology." (Jacobson, 1991).

Understanding how students navigate this maze maze, detail of landscape gardening based on the Greek labyrinth, consisting of intricate paths or alleys lined with high hedges and having a center and exit difficult to find. It was a prominent feature in the formal English gardens of the 17th and 18th cent.  of resources is important in helping us to develop and assess pedagogy designed to instruct in·struct  
v. in·struct·ed, in·struct·ing, in·structs

v.tr.
1. To provide with knowledge, especially in a methodical way. See Synonyms at teach.

2. To give orders to; direct.

v.
 our students in library usage. Students are more and more Web-savvy (Kibirge, 2000), many of them having been brought up around computers and the Internet. However, they matriculate ma·tric·u·late  
tr. & intr.v. ma·tric·u·lat·ed, ma·tric·u·lat·ing, ma·tric·u·lates
To admit or be admitted into a group, especially a college or university.

n.
 with a diversity of computer and Web-searching skills and experience. Students may not have been exposed to library resources, or not be aware of which resources a library might have, or how to make use of them. It is therefore of interest to us to try and understand what characteristics will make one student branch out and explore library resources, while another one might not.

A study of undergraduates showed that they looked for the fastest way that would lead to satisfactory results when doing research, going for electronic information sources first (Valentine Valentine

a true friend and constant lover. [Br. Lit.: Two Gentlemen of Verona]

See : Faithfulness
, 1993). These students felt uncomfortable, however, asking for help in using the library and spent frustrating frus·trate  
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
1.
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart:
 hours trying to find information. Currently, with the explosion of full-text resources, it would seem even easier for the student to find a full-text database and select the articles, regardless of whether they would have been the most appropriate for their research. Not all students take this route, however.

Statement of the Problem

Supporting research and learning activities becomes a major mission for academic libraries. In recent years, academic libraries face pressures like diminished budgets, increased patron demands, and rising costs for book purchases and periodical periodical, a publication that is issued regularly. It is distinguished from the newspaper in format in that its pages are smaller and are usually bound, and it is published at weekly, monthly, quarterly, or other intervals, rather than daily.  subscriptions (Ke & Chang, 1999). The thriving growth of electronic publications is reshaping the nature of collections and the mode of delivering and accessing information in libraries. The traditional print resources nowadays face challenges from their electronic counterparts in faster and timely delivery of information as well as in improved access (Bandyopadhyay and Chu, 1999). Among various resources for learning, staff and students throughout much of the world can retrieve seemingly seem·ing  
adj.
Apparent; ostensible.

n.
Outward appearance; semblance.



seeming·ly adv.
 endless volumes of information from all over the globe in a short span of time. It appears that the rate of production of electronic materials has exceeded that of print-based publications (Dalgeish & Hall, 2000). In this study we will examine some factors that correlate with students' usage of electronic resources. The following research questions were asked to guide the study:

1. What is the level of ICT (1) (Information and Communications Technology) An umbrella term for the information technology field. See IT.

(2) (International Computers and Tabulators) See ICL.

1. (testing) ICT - In Circuit Test.
 skill of postgraduate postgraduate

after first degree graduation, the registerable degree in veterinary science.


postgraduate degree
may be a research degree, e.g. PhD, or a course-work masterate with a vocational bias, or any combination of these.
 students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University History
Established in 1924 by an act of the Mississippi Legislature, Delta State Teachers College first opened its doors to students in 1925. The name was later changed to Delta State College (1955) and then Delta State University (1974).
, Abraka?

2. How does a postgraduate student of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka access electronic resources?

3. In what medium are electronic resources used by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?

4. What is the level of electronic resource experience of postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?

5. What is the Level of electronic resource Usage by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?

6. Does gender affect the use of electronic resources by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?

7. What are the problems encountered by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?

Significance of the Study

The value of the study relates to the understanding of the usage of electronic resources by post graduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka. This study will amongst others, attempt to identify which of the variables presented play a significant role in the students' use of electronic resources. It will also x-ray the problems associated with the use of electronic resources and as such the result of the findings of this study will contribute to the body of knowledge on student's use of electronic resources. And will also be beneficial to academics, researchers, students and professional interested in this area of study. Generally, if one can say that the use of electronic resources for sourcing information by students of higher institution is a must then this study is imperative.

Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the use of electronic resources by post graduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka. From the universities, polytechnics, and other higher institutions found in the states only Delta State University, Abraka, have a Library School. Consequently, this study will be carried out within the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka and the respondents of interest to the study will be postgraduate MSc and PhD students of the Department.

Limitations of the Study

Due to the wide spread this study is restricted to only one out of several Library Schools in Nigeria It may never be fully completed or, depending on its its nature, it may be that it can never be completed. However, new and revised entries in the list are always welcome. Command Secondary School,Ipaja,Lagos Nigeria This is an incomplete list of  as a case study. Therefore, the extent to which the findings of this study meet the need of all others is the limitation on this study.

Literature Review

Electronic Information Skills and Experience

In order to utilize the growing range of electronic resources, students must acquire and practice the skills necessary to exploit them. "For students using a variety of on-line databases, it is as though they were parking lot attendants, where every vehicle is not only a different make and model but has a different configuration" (Blandy & Libutti, 1995). As Dutton (1990) suggests, the skills required to maximize the potential of electronic resources are much greater than those required for searching printed sources. These skills include a knowledge of the structure of the database and the instructions which must be input into the computer by the searcher, as well as an understanding of the ways in which the instructions are linked with one another. To this end, Brophy (1993) states users do not often appreciate the skills required to search these sources, stating they are deceptively de·cep·tive·ly  
adv.
In a deceptive or deceiving manner; so as to deceive.

Usage Note: When deceptively is used to modify an adjective, the meaning is often unclear.
 easy to use. The ability to find and retrieve information effectively is a transferable skill useful for future life as well as enabling the positive and successful use of the electronic resources whilst at university. As Brophy argues, libraries must "reach a position where the acquisition of information skills is acknowledged as one of the key learning objectives for every student entering a university, so that no student leaves without being fully equipped to cope with the information intensive world - the information society - as an end-user" (Brophy, 1993: 55)

There are several ways in which web experience can be defined and conceptualized. In general, web experience can be considered to be an act where users engage in applications that are often centered on web. In addition, web experience also can be defined in two different ways as perceived use and variety of use. "While perceived usage refers to the amount of time spent interacting with the web and the frequency of use, variety of use refers to the importance of use and the collection of web package/program use." (Igabaria, Guimares & Davis, 1995). Essentially, the web would often be a tool for wider and more diverse use. Users are increasingly using the web for information retrieval information retrieval

Recovery of information, especially in a database stored in a computer. Two main approaches are matching words in the query against the database index (keyword searching) and traversing the database using hypertext or hypermedia links.
, communicating etc. via electronic mail or online conferencing See teleconferencing. . In this study, the web experience refers to the experience of web usage, such as the experience of web/online packages, and the Internet.

Gender Attitudes toward Technologies and Technical Competencies

The gender dynamics relating attitudes about the Internet and actual utilization of the medium have not been adequately studied to date (Busselle, R., J. Reagan, B. Pinkleton, and K. Jackson, 1999.). Nevertheless, research regarding computer use more generally has highlighted the significance of interest and stereotyping about computers, as well as self-perception of ability (self efficacy) in explaining gendered patterns of behaviour vis-a-vis this technology (Campbell, 1990; Levin lev·in  
n. Archaic
Lightning.



[Middle English levene, levin; see leuk- in Indo-European roots.]
 and Gordon, 1989; Reinen and Plomp, 1997; Shashaani, 1993). Investigations with elementary and high school students as well as adults reveal a significant gulf between male and female interest in computers (Campbell, 1990; Levin and Gordon, 1989; Reinen and Plomp, 1997; Shashaani, 1993). For example, drawing on representative national samples of elementary, lower, and upper secondary school students from 20 countries in 1989 and 10 countries in 1992, Reinen and Plomp, (1997) find that females enjoy using the computer less than do male students. In addition, research has found that men and boys have significantly more positive attitudes toward computers and more stereotyped attitudes regarding who is capable of using them (Levin and Gordon, 1989; Whitley, 1997), while female students' attitudes and attributions toward computers discourage them from using the technology (Campbell, 1990). The inference (logic) inference - The logical process by which new facts are derived from known facts by the application of inference rules.

See also symbolic inference, type inference.
 drawn is that gendered attitudes are central to discrepancies in use. Beyond attitudes, the literature points to another important factor that influences technology use: self-efficacy. Coined and initially elaborated by Bandura ban`dur´a   

n. 1. A traditional Ukrainian stringed musical instrument shaped like a lute, having many strings.
 (1977), self-efficacy beliefs revolve around Verb 1. revolve around - center upon; "Her entire attention centered on her children"; "Our day revolved around our work"
center, center on, concentrate on, focus on, revolve about
 "one's capability to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations" and includes both anxiety and enactive En`act´ive

a. 1. Having power to enact or establish as a law.
 and vicarious vicarious /vi·car·i·ous/ (vi-kar´e-us)
1. acting in the place of another or of something else.

2. occurring at an abnormal site.


vi·car·i·ous
adj.
1.
 experience regarding task-specific competencies. Computer-related self efficacy has been an important extension of this concept. In a wide variety of research settings, men have been found to exhibit higher self-efficacy scores (Corston and Colman, 1996; Durndell, A., Z. Haag, D. Asenova, and H. Laithwaite. 2000; Miura, 1987; Torkzadeh and Van Dyke Van Dyke (or van/Van Dijk or Dyk etc) is a surname of Dutch origin. It refers to:
  • Sir Anthony van Dyck, (1599 – 1641), Flemish-born painter who lived in England
  • Barry Van Dyke (born 1951), American actor, son of Dick Van Dyke
, 2002; Whitley, 1997). Women, on the other hand, generally display less confidence and more discomfort (Brosnan, 1998; Dickhauser and Stiensmeier-Pelster, 2002; Schumacher and Morahan-Martin, 2000; Shashaani, 1993).

Recent literature on technology presents a complicated picture of the relationship between gender and Web use. While most scholars agree that the gender gap in Internet use has narrowed significantly in the college age group (Goodson, McCormick, & Evans, 2001; Odell, Korgen, Schumacher, & Delucchi, 2000) as well as the general population (Brenner, 1997; Jackson, Ervin, Gardner, & Schmitt, 2001; Newburger, 1999; Ono & Zovodny, 2003), some gender differences have been found in attitudes toward technology, intensity of Internet use, online applications preferred, and experience in cyberspace Coined by William Gibson in his 1984 novel "Neuromancer," it is a futuristic computer network that people use by plugging their minds into it! The term now refers to the Internet or to the online or digital world in general. See Internet and virtual reality. Contrast with meatspace. . Investigations of college student Web use have proven especially insightful, as research on this group allows for an examination of gender differences within an institution in which men and women generally have equal access to the Internet (Odell et al., 2000). The scholarship on gender and Web use is contradictory at times, demonstrating the dynamic nature of the interaction, as well as the need for continued investigation. In a study of college students' attitudes toward technology, Smith and Necessary (1996) found that males had significantly more positive attitudes toward computers than females did. Jackson et al. (2001) also found that females in general reported less favourable computer attitudes. Other literature, however, contradicts these findings. Several investigations have reported that gender had no significant effect on any of the dimensions of computer attitude studied (Jennings & Onwuegbuzie, 2001; Shaw & Gant, 2002). Zhang, (2002) observed that female college students possess more positive attitudes than their male peers. The inconsistency in·con·sis·ten·cy  
n. pl. in·con·sis·ten·cies
1. The state or quality of being inconsistent.

2. Something inconsistent: many inconsistencies in your proposal.
 in these findings might be attributed to differences in methodology, or might reveal how the increasing number of female Internet users is altering women's attitudes regarding computers and the Web. It is noteworthy that the studies are separated by nearly half a decade. Within that time, with greater adoption of technology by women, the differences observed in the earlier studies could disappear in the latter studies. Bimber (2000) argued that the gender gap in the Internet is larger where more intensive Web use is concerned. Women are substantially less likely to be frequent users, equally likely to be infrequent in·fre·quent  
adj.
1. Not occurring regularly; occasional or rare: an infrequent guest.

2.
 users, and more likely to be intermediate users. In short, females are less intensive Internet users than males. Bimber attributes this finding to a combination of gendered technology embodying male values, content that favours men, sex differences in cognition cognition

Act or process of knowing. Cognition includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning), as distinguished from an experience of feeling or of willing.
 and/or communication, and socioeconomic differences. Ono and Zovodny (2003) also found women to be less frequent and less intense users of the Internet. Concern about gender inequality has now shifted from access to intensity.

The most pronounced gender difference in Web use is found in the online applications used by males and female. Male college students are more likely than their female counterparts to use the Internet for recreational purposes (e.g., playing games online, visiting adult-only sites, gambling, accessing news groups and discussion forums, staying abreast of news developments, and seeking information for personal use), while females are more likely to use the Internet to talk to family and friends (Goodson, McCormick, & Evans, 2001; Jackson et al., 2001; Morahan-Martin & Schumacher, 1997; Odell, Korgen, Schumacher, & Delucchi, 2000; Scealy, Phillips, & Stevenson, 2002). These findings appear to reinforce the widespread assumption that men prefer to use the Web for information gathering and entertainment and women prefer to use the Internet for communication (Shaw & Gant, 2002).

Methodology

Research Design

The descriptive survey method was adopted for this study because it seeks to explore the Use of Electronic Resources by Postgraduate Students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. The data collected are the situation of information about the views of postgraduate student of Library School in universities within Delta state Delta State is a state in Nigeria, named for the Niger Delta. The state borders Edo State, Ondo State , Imo State, Anambra State and Bayelsa State. In the south west and south it has approximately 122 kilometres of coastline bounded by the Bight of Benin on the Atlantic ocean. .

Population for the Study

The estimated population for this study is 78 respondents drawn from among Masters and PhD students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka. The breakdown of the student population is as illustrated in table 1 below.

Sample and Sampling Technique

Due to the small number of respondents involved the entire population was used as the sample for the study.

Research Instrument

The questionnaire titled Use of Electronic Resources by Postgraduate Students of Library School Questionnaire (UERPSLSQ) was used as the research instrument for this study. The questionnaire provides data on Use of Electronic Resources by Postgraduate Students of Library School in Delta State, Nigeria. And it is aimed at answering questions on: the level of ICT skill; the level of electronic resource experience and the Level of electronic resource Usage by postgraduate students of Delta State Library School. Moreso to ascertain if gender affects the use of electronic resources and the problems encountered in using electronic resources by postgraduate students of Delta State Library School.

Method of Data Collection

The questionnaire was sent out to the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka. The researcher employed the service of research assistants to administer the questionnaire one-on-one to the students and their response collected immediately. This method was preferred so as to achieve a high response rate.

Method of Data Analysis

Data collected from the questionnaires were analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

3.
 using frequency counts and simple percentage.

Findings and Discussion

A total of 78 questionnaires were distributed to respondents and were successfully retrieved giving a 100% rate of return. The analyses of the distribution were as presented in figure 1 below.

From figure 1 above a majority of 47 (60%) respondents were females. This is in agreement with Adomi (2000) that there are more females than males in Library Schools in Nigeria.

From figure 2 above a majority of 65 (83%) respondents were Masters Degree students.

Figure 3: Pie Chart Showing Age Distribution of the Respondents

Research Findings

Research Question 1: What is the level of ICT skill of postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?

The results of the analysis is presented in table 2

From table 2, it was observed that there is a low level of skillfulness skill·ful  
adj.
1. Possessing or exercising skill; expert. See Synonyms at proficient.

2. Characterized by, exhibiting, or requiring skill.
 in the use of ICT among respondents. Dutton (1990) suggested that the skills required to maximize the potential of electronic resources are much greater than those required for searching printed sources. These skills include a knowledge of the structure of the database and the instructions which must be input into the computer by the searcher, as well as an understanding of the ways in which the instructions are linked with one another. To this end, Brophy (1993) posited that students do not often appreciate the skills required to search electronic sources, stating that they are deceptively easy to use. Brophy argues that, it has reached a situation were the acquisition of information skills is acknowledged as one of the key learning objectives for every student entering a university, so that no student leaves without being fully equipped to cope with the information intensive world as an end-user (Brophy, 1993: 55).

Research Question 2: How does a postgraduate student of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka access electronic resources?

The results of the analysis are presented in figure 4.

Figure 4 above indicates that majority of the respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests.  access electronic resources from the cybercafe The first Internet cafe in the U.S. Founded in 1995 in New York, the menu is a selection of fine coffees and desserts along with Internet, e-mail, printing, scanning and faxing services. Hats, shirts and jackets are also available for purchase. . This corroborates Obuh, (2007) that cybercafes are the most readily available access to the electronic resources by users.

Research Question 3: In what medium are electronic resources used by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?

The results of the analysis are presented in figure 5.

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

From table 2, it was observed that there is a low level of skillfulness in the use of ICT among respondents. Dutton (1990) suggested that the skills required to maximize the potential of electronic resources are much greater than those required for searching printed sources. These skills include a knowledge of the structure of the database and the instructions which must be input into the computer by the searcher, as well as an understanding of the ways in which the instructions are linked with one another. To this end, Brophy (1993) posited that students do not often appreciate the skills required to search electronic sources, stating that they are deceptively easy to use. Brophy argues that, it has reached a situation were the acquisition of information skills is acknowledged as one of the key learning objectives for every student entering a university, so that no student leaves without being fully equipped to cope with the information intensive world as an end-user (Brophy, 1993: 55).

Research Question 2: How does a postgraduate student of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka access electronic resources?

Figure 4 above indicates that majority of the respondent access electronic resources from the cybercafe. This corroborates Obuh, (2007) that cybercafes are the most readily available access to the electronic resources by users.

Research Question 3: In what medium are electronic resources used by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?

The results of the analysis are presented in figure 5.

Figure 5 above indicates that the internet is the most used medium used in sourcing electronic materials. This supports Kibirge, (2000) that more people are using the Internet to find information they need, information that is unmediated by the library.

Research Question 4: What is the level of web experience of postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?

The results of the analysis are presented in table 3.

From table 3, it was observed that there is a low level of electronic resource experience amongst respondents. This corroborates Dutton (1990) and Brophy (1993) that students do not often appreciate the skills required to search electronic sources, stating that they are deceptively easy to use.

Research Question 5 : What is the level of electronic resource Usage by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?

The result of the analysis is presented in table 4.

5. How often do you use the following type of electronic resources?
1     Entertainment                 Very Often   0    --
                                    Often        9    11.54%
                                    Rarely       69   88.46%
                                    Never        0    --

2.    Educational/Academic          Very Often   18   23.08%
                                    Often        60   76.92%
                                    Rarely       0    --
                                    Never        0    --

3.    Sport                         Very Often   10   12.82%
                                    Often        68   87.18%
                                    Rarely       0    --
                                    Never        0    --

4.    Religious                     Very Often   0    --
                                    Often        0    --
                                    Rarely       12   15.38%
                                    Never        66   84.62%

5.    News                          Very Often   10   12.82%
                                    Often        51   65.38%
                                    Rarely       17   21.80%
                                    Never        0    --

6.    Commercial                    Very Often   0    --
                                    Often        0    --
                                    Rarely       21   26.92%
                                    Never        57   73.08%

7     Pornographic                  Very Often   0    --
                                    Often        0    --
                                    Rarely       10   12.82%
                                    Never        68   87.18%

8.    Military                      Very Often   0    --
                                    Often        0    --
                                    Rarely       0    --
                                    Never        78   100.00%

9.    Library/Informational         Very Often   48   61.54%
                                    Often        30   38.46%
                                    Rarely       0    --
                                    Never        0    --

10.   Full text article databases   Very Often   27   34.62%
                                    Often        51   65.38%
                                    Rarely       0    --
                                    Never        0    --


The result of the research analysis in table 4 above revealed that students usage of electronic resources is quite high. A study of students of tertiary tertiary (tûr`shēârē), in the Roman Catholic Church, member of a third order. The third orders are chiefly supplements of the friars—Franciscans (the most numerous), Dominicans, and Carmelites.  institution showed that they looked for the fastest way that would lead to satisfactory results when doing research, going for electronic information sources first (Valentine, 1993). According to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 Hall and Parsons (2001), dependence, coupled with easy access to technology, points toward students spending a substantial quantity of time on the Internet/online. Also from the result we could deduce de·duce  
tr.v. de·duced, de·duc·ing, de·duc·es
1. To reach (a conclusion) by reasoning.

2. To infer from a general principle; reason deductively:
 that the frequency of usage of electronic resources is fairly high. electronic resources like library/informational, educational/academics, full text article databases, news, and sports are most frequently patronized pa·tron·ize  
tr.v. pa·tron·ized, pa·tron·iz·ing, pa·tron·iz·es
1. To act as a patron to; support or sponsor.

2. To go to as a customer, especially on a regular basis.

3.
 unlike the religious, commercial, entertainment and pornographic por·nog·ra·phy  
n.
1. Sexually explicit pictures, writing, or other material whose primary purpose is to cause sexual arousal.

2. The presentation or production of this material.

3.
 resources are less likely patronized by respondents.

According to Hall (2000), the fact that the web has the ability to provide up-to-the-minute information and, secondly, this information can be obtained from around the world, made it a reliable source for news information. Thus, the news websites are highly patronized by students. From the result, there is a high level of students patronage of educational/academic resources, this is in agreement with the findings of Pascoe, Applebee, and Clayton, (1996) that ease, convenience, and accessibility were major factors influencing academic Internet use.

Research Question 6: Does gender affect the use of electronic resources by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?

The results of the analysis are presented in table 5.

From table 5 the result of the analysis revealed a high frequency of usage by both male and female respondents. According to Goodson, McCormick, & Evans, (2001); Odell, Korgen, Schumacher, & Delucchi, (2000) the gender gap in Internet use has narrowed significantly in the college age group hence, the high frequency of usage observed here is of similar reason to that discussed by Davis, Bagozzi, and Warshaw (1992) that intrinsic motivation (enjoyment) and extrinsic EVIDENCE, EXTRINSIC. External evidence, or that which is not contained in the body of an agreement, contract, and the like.
     2. It is a general rule that extrinsic evidence cannot be admitted to contradict, explain, vary or change the terms of a contract or of a
 motivation (usefulness) were key drivers of behavioral intention to use ICTs. And Vallerand (1997), that intrinsic motivation emphasizes on the pleasure and inherent satisfaction derived from a specific activity. Researches by Atkinson & Kydd, 1997; Vankatesh, (1999) have shown that the intrinsic motivation factor (enjoyment) not only had a positive effect on the extrinsic motivation factor (usefulness), it also had a positive effect on the intention to use information technology. Additionally, the extrinsic motivation factor (usefulness) was also found to have a positive effect on the intention to use computers (Igbaria, 1993).

Research Question 7: What are the problems encountered by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka in using electronic resources?

The results of the analysis is presented in table 6

From table 6 it was observed that there is a general endorsement by respondents that issues like large mass of irrelevant information, the need to filter the results from search are some of the basic problems encountered while using electronic resources, these corroborates Eliopoulos & Gotlieb, (2003) that the major problem with search engines is that search queries turn up far too many results, erring err  
intr.v. erred, err·ing, errs
1. To make an error or a mistake.

2. To violate accepted moral standards; sin.

3. Archaic To stray.
 on the side of recall rather than precision. Other problems are download delay, failure to find information, inadequate/lack of search skills, high cost of access, power outages This is a list of famous wide-scale power outages. 1965
  • The Northeast Blackout of 1965 on November 9, 1965.
1977
  • The infamous New York City Blackout of July 13-14, 1977, resulted in looting and rioting.
, unavailability /disappearance of some websites, inaccessibility of some websites, difficulties in navigating through electronic resources and so on. According to DeLone & McLean, (1992) In spite of the popularity of the Internet, people may resist using it due to the slow response time. And, people complain that the information generated by the web is not what they need. Furthermore, Branch, Kim, & Koenecke, (2000) posit that profuse pro·fuse  
adj.
1. Plentiful; copious.

2. Giving or given freely and abundantly; extravagant: were profuse in their compliments.
 amounts of information are put on the Internet every day and in many cases, there is no editor, reviewer re·view·er  
n.
One who reviews, especially one who writes critical reviews, as for a newspaper or magazine.


reviewer
Noun

a person who writes reviews of books, films, etc.

Noun 1.
, or any other kind of review mechanism to determine the credibility, quality, accuracy, or timeliness of the material.

Summary of the Study

The research surveyed the Use of Electronic Resources by Postgraduate Students of Library School in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. Based on a detailed literature review a total of five (5) research questions were and tested on a sample size of 78 representing the total population of postgraduate MSc and PhD students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. The instrument employed for the collection of data was the questionnaire. Frequency counts and simple percentages were used in analyzing the data collected. From the data analysis the following findings were advanced.

There is a low level of skilfulness in the use of ICT among Postgraduate Students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka.

There is a low level of electronic resource experience amongst Postgraduate Students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka.

The internet via Cybercafe is the major facility used to access electronic resources by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University , Abraka.

The level of electronic resource usage by Postgraduate Students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka is high.

There is a high frequency of usage of electronic resources by both male and female Postgraduate Students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently
 gender gap in electronic resource usage is quite negligible This article or section is written like a personal reflection or and may require .
Please [ improve this article] by rewriting this article or section in an .
.

Issues like large mass of irrelevant information, the need to filter the results from search, download delay, failure to find information, inadequate/lack of search skills, high cost of access, power outages, inaccessibility of some electronic resources, difficulties in navigating through electronic resources and so on are problems encountered when using electronic resources by Postgraduate Students the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka.

Conclusion

From the foregoing, it is obvious that Postgraduate Students of Library School in Delta State need to do more in order to improve on their ICT skills so as to equip e·quip  
tr.v. e·quipped, e·quip·ping, e·quips
1.
a. To supply with necessities such as tools or provisions.

b.
 them in utilizing the enormous benefits available in electronic formats. The high level of usage of electronic resources even as evident among both male and female gender is an indication to the fact that even without the expertise knowledge of manipulating information in an electronic environment, students are still getting satisfaction from the little they could get out of electronic sources although handicapped by their low level of ICT experience. This high level of use is also as a result of their perception of ease and usefulness of electronic sources such as the web.

Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations were made by the researcher;

* Library schools must reach a position where the acquisition of Information and Communication Technology skills is acknowledged as one of the key learning objectives for its students so that students will be fully equipped to cope with the information intensive world as an end-user. To this end more practical courses on ICTs should be inculcated into the curriculum.

* Government should equip schools with the enabling infrastructure such as adequate power supply, effective internet connectivity etc. that will encourage the usage of ICTs by students.

* ICT centres with well trained personnel should be established in the universities where students can have free access to computers, the web and other electronic sources.

* Library schools in Delta State should be staffed with more technical staff to impact ICT skills on students.

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Obuh Alex Ozoemelem

Department of Library and Information Science

Delta State University

Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria
Table 1: Showing the Population Breakdown for the Study

Level of Study    Population        Percentage
                                    Population

PhD               13                17%
MSc               65                83%
Total             78                100%

Table 2: Showing Level of ICT skills of postgraduate students
of Delta State Library School?

S/N   Items                          Options     Frequency   Percentage

1.    I am skilled in the use of     Agree       45          57.69%
      computer.                      Disagree    33          42.31%

2.    I am skilled in the            Agree       10          12.82%
      knowledge of  database         Disagreed   68          87.18%
      structures

3.    I am skilled in working in     Agree       18          23.08%
      an interactive platforms       Disagreed   60          76.92%
      e.g. video conferencing,
      BBS, LISTSERV, Chat room
      etc.

4     I am skilled in formulating    Agree       32          41.03%
      search queries                 Disagreed   46          58.97%

5     I am skilled in online         Agree       49          62.82%
      navigation techniques          Disagreed   29          37.18%

6     I am skilled in the use of     Agree       25          32.05%
      electronic library tools       Disagreed   53          67.95%
      e.g. CDROM, OPAC, Subject
      Gateways etc.

7     I am skilled in online         Agree       15          19.23%
      acquisition                    Disagreed   63          80.77%
      procedures/techniques

8     I am skilled in working in a   Agree       18          23.08%
      network environment            Disagreed   60          76.92%

9     I am skilled in using          Agree       5           6.41%
      internet telephony             Disagreed   73          93.59%

10    I am skilled with computer     Agree       58          74.36%
      system/application software    Disagreed
      e.g. MS Windows XP, Linux,
      MS Office, etc.

11    I am conversant with           Agree       20          25.64%
      electronic formats e.g. PDF,               25          32.05%
      JPEG, MPEG etc.                Disagreed   53          67.95%

Table 3: Showing Level of electronic resources experience of
postgraduate students of Delta State Library School

S/N   Items                          Options     Frequency   Percentage

1     Experience with the            Agree       69          88.46%
      Internet.                      Disagreed   9           11.54%

2     Experience with search         Agree       35          44.87%
      engines e.g. Google,           Disagreed   43          55.13%
      Altavista, yahoo etc.

3     Experience with CD--ROM        Agree       10          12.82%
                                     Disagreed   68          87.18%

4     Experience with topic maps     Agree       31          39.74%
                                     Disagreed   47          60.26%

5     Experience with site maps      Agree       38          48.72%
                                     Disagreed   40          51.28%

6     Experience with website        Agree       38          48.72%
      inbuilt search engines         Disagreed   40          51.28%

7     Experience with online         Agree       31          39.74%
      databases                      Disagreed   47          60.26%

8     Experience with ready made     Agree       33          42.31%
      questions (FAQs)               Disagreed   45          57.69%

9     Experience with navigating     Agree       45          57.69%
      web links                      Disagreed   33          42.31%%

10    Experience with mailing list   Agree       35          44.87%
                                     Disagreed   43          55.13%

11    Experience with site help      Agree       27          34.62%
                                     Disagreed   51          65.38%

12    Experience with weblog         Agree       0           --%
                                     Disagreed   324         100.00%

Table 4 Level of electronic resource Usage by postgraduate students
of Delta State Library School

S/N   Items                      Options         Frequency   Percentage

1.    Do you use electronic      Yes             78          100.00%
        resources                No              0           --

2.    How often do you use       Very Often      13          16.67%
        electronic resources     Often           57          73.08%
                                 Rarely          8           10.26%
                                 Never           0           --

3.    For how long have you      Below 1 year    23          29.47%
        been using electronic    1-2 years       27          34.63%
        resources                3-4 years       19          24.36%
                                 Above 4 years   9           11.54%

5. How often do you use the following type of electronic resources?
1 Entertainment         Very Often   0    --
                        Often        9    11.54%
                        Rarely       69   88.46%
                        Never        0     --
2. Education/Academic   Very Often   18   23.08%
                        Often        60   76.92%
                        Rarely       0    --
                        Never        0    --
3. Sport                Very Often   10   12.82%
                        Often        68   87.18%
                        Rarely       0    --

Table 5: Showing Gender and usage of electronic resources by
postgraduate students of Delta State Library School

                                           Gender

                                           Male

S/N   Items                   Options      Frequency   Percentage

1.    Do you use electronic   Yes          31          100.00%
      resources               No           0           --

2.    How often do you use    Very Often   21          67.74%
      electronic resources    Often        10          32.26%
                              Rarely       0           --
                              Never        0           --

3.    For how long have       Below
      you been using          1year        10          32.26%
      electronic resources    1-2 years    7           22.58%
                              3-4 years    10          32.26%
                              Above 4      4           12.90%
                              years

      Female

S/N   Frequency   Percentage

1.    47          100.00%
      0           --

2.    29          61.70%
      18          38.30%
      0           --
      0           --

3.
      13          27.66%
      20          42.55%
      9           19.15%
      5           10.64%

Table 6: Problems encountered while using electronic resources

S/N   Items                           Options    Frequency   Percentage

1.    Information overload (or too    Agree      34          43.59%
      many information)               Disagree   44          56.41%

2.    The need to filter the          Agree      58          74.36%
      results from search             Disagree   20          25.64%

3.    Download delay                  Agree      55          70.51%
                                      Disagree   23          29.49%

4     Problem with credibility of     Agree      12          15.38%
      information                     Disagree   66          84.62%

5     Failure to find information     Agree      44          56.41%
                                      Disagree   34          43.59%

6     lack of search skills           Agree      61          78.20%
                                      Disagree   17          21.80%

      High cost of access             Agree      75          96.15%
                                      Disagree   3           3.85%

8     Power outages                   Agree      78          100.00%
                                      Disagree   0           --

9     Inaccessibility of some         Agree      40          51.28%
      websites                        Disagree   38          48.72%

10    Difficulties in navigation of   Agree      50          64.10%
      some websites                   Disagree   28          35.90%

Figure 1. Pie Chart Showing Gender Distributions of the Respondents

Male, 31      40%
Female, 47    60%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 2: Pie Chart Showing Distributions of the Respondents

Ph.D, 13.    17%
MSc, 65.     83%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 3: Pie Chart Showing Age Distribution of the Respondents

25-29 years, 3,           4%
30-34 years, 15,          20%
35-39 years, 23,          30%
40 years and above, 35,   46%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 4: Showing Access of Electronic Resources by Postgraduate
Students of Delta State

University Library, 0.    0%
Department ICT Laboratory, 53,    0.8%
Cybercafe, 05,                    8.3%
Home, 6,                            0%
University ICT Centre, 10,         13%

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Author:Ozoemelem, Obuh Alex
Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6NIGR
Date:Nov 1, 2009
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