Use of electronic resources by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science of Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
Background to the Study
Information professionals have long sought to comprehend what factors are relevant in encouraging a person to seek out information. More recently, a particular focus of inquiry has been on those factors that play a role in deciding to use the library's electronic resources to seek information as opposed to just surfing the Internet. These inquiries assume an even greater importance in light of the fact that more people are using the Internet to find information they need, information that is unmediated Adj. 1. unmediated - having no intervening persons, agents, conditions; "in direct sunlight"; "in direct contact with the voters"; "direct exposure to the disease"; "a direct link"; "the direct cause of the accident"; "direct vote"
direct by the library (Kibirge, 2000).
Informed library users know that libraries have resources that are more comprehensive and scholarly than most Web sites provide. Libraries provide access to scholarly literature that, as a rule, is not freely available on the Web. Often, it is in college that users become aware of libraries' resources, usually while having to write research papers. Assuming that on average most students face the same number and type of papers and assignments during their college career, it is critical to understand what makes one student use the library's electronic resources while another will not think of the library as a place to find specialized resources for their papers.
One obstacle to the use of a library's resources, and in particular its electronic resources, is that they are not seen as being straightforward. In contrast to an Internet search engine, where a single keyword search will usually result in thousands of hits, no matter what the topic, in the library, students have to choose a particular database and be more selective in the search words they use. Moreover, database subjects often overlap, with differences in dates, journal and subjects covered, and whether the material is full-text or not. In addition, the library may have a print subscription to a certain title that is not full-text electronically, or the title may be accessible full-text through another database than the one originally searched. Therefore, not only do students have to find the relevant citations, but they also have to know how to locate the article after that. This means juggling many screens, many technologies, multitasking electronic jobs, and of course, knowing where to look for all this necessary information. Lastly, there is the additional confusion that more and more library databases use Web-based technologies. Because the interface is seamless there does not seem to be a visible, on the screen, difference between Web-based library resources and general Web-based resources. All of the above also assumes the student is proficient pro·fi·cient
Having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning.
An expert; an adept. in the use of computers. It is quite clear that searching for information has become "inexorably in·ex·o·ra·ble
Not capable of being persuaded by entreaty; relentless: an inexorable opponent; a feeling of inexorable doom. See Synonyms at inflexible. linked to computer technology." (Jacobson, 1991).
Understanding how students navigate this maze maze, detail of landscape gardening based on the Greek labyrinth, consisting of intricate paths or alleys lined with high hedges and having a center and exit difficult to find. It was a prominent feature in the formal English gardens of the 17th and 18th cent. of resources is important in helping us to develop and assess pedagogy designed to instruct in·struct
v. in·struct·ed, in·struct·ing, in·structs
1. To provide with knowledge, especially in a methodical way. See Synonyms at teach.
2. To give orders to; direct.
v. our students in library usage. Students are more and more Web-savvy (Kibirge, 2000), many of them having been brought up around computers and the Internet. However, they matriculate ma·tric·u·late
tr. & intr.v. ma·tric·u·lat·ed, ma·tric·u·lat·ing, ma·tric·u·lates
To admit or be admitted into a group, especially a college or university.
n. with a diversity of computer and Web-searching skills and experience. Students may not have been exposed to library resources, or not be aware of which resources a library might have, or how to make use of them. It is therefore of interest to us to try and understand what characteristics will make one student branch out and explore library resources, while another one might not.
A study of undergraduates showed that they looked for the fastest way that would lead to satisfactory results when doing research, going for electronic information sources first (Valentine Valentine
a true friend and constant lover. [Br. Lit.: Two Gentlemen of Verona]
See : Faithfulness , 1993). These students felt uncomfortable, however, asking for help in using the library and spent frustrating frus·trate
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart: hours trying to find information. Currently, with the explosion of full-text resources, it would seem even easier for the student to find a full-text database and select the articles, regardless of whether they would have been the most appropriate for their research. Not all students take this route, however.
Statement of the Problem
Supporting research and learning activities becomes a major mission for academic libraries. In recent years, academic libraries face pressures like diminished budgets, increased patron demands, and rising costs for book purchases and periodical periodical, a publication that is issued regularly. It is distinguished from the newspaper in format in that its pages are smaller and are usually bound, and it is published at weekly, monthly, quarterly, or other intervals, rather than daily. subscriptions (Ke & Chang, 1999). The thriving growth of electronic publications is reshaping the nature of collections and the mode of delivering and accessing information in libraries. The traditional print resources nowadays face challenges from their electronic counterparts in faster and timely delivery of information as well as in improved access (Bandyopadhyay and Chu, 1999). Among various resources for learning, staff and students throughout much of the world can retrieve seemingly seem·ing
Outward appearance; semblance.
seeming·ly adv. endless volumes of information from all over the globe in a short span of time. It appears that the rate of production of electronic materials has exceeded that of print-based publications (Dalgeish & Hall, 2000). In this study we will examine some factors that correlate with students' usage of electronic resources. The following research questions were asked to guide the study:
1. What is the level of ICT (1) (Information and Communications Technology) An umbrella term for the information technology field. See IT.
(2) (International Computers and Tabulators) See ICL.
1. (testing) ICT - In Circuit Test. skill of postgraduate postgraduate
after first degree graduation, the registerable degree in veterinary science.
may be a research degree, e.g. PhD, or a course-work masterate with a vocational bias, or any combination of these. students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University History
Established in 1924 by an act of the Mississippi Legislature, Delta State Teachers College first opened its doors to students in 1925. The name was later changed to Delta State College (1955) and then Delta State University (1974). , Abraka?
2. How does a postgraduate student of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka access electronic resources?
3. In what medium are electronic resources used by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?
4. What is the level of electronic resource experience of postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?
5. What is the Level of electronic resource Usage by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?
6. Does gender affect the use of electronic resources by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?
7. What are the problems encountered by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?
Significance of the Study
The value of the study relates to the understanding of the usage of electronic resources by post graduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka. This study will amongst others, attempt to identify which of the variables presented play a significant role in the students' use of electronic resources. It will also x-ray the problems associated with the use of electronic resources and as such the result of the findings of this study will contribute to the body of knowledge on student's use of electronic resources. And will also be beneficial to academics, researchers, students and professional interested in this area of study. Generally, if one can say that the use of electronic resources for sourcing information by students of higher institution is a must then this study is imperative.
Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the use of electronic resources by post graduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka. From the universities, polytechnics, and other higher institutions found in the states only Delta State University, Abraka, have a Library School. Consequently, this study will be carried out within the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka and the respondents of interest to the study will be postgraduate MSc and PhD students of the Department.
Limitations of the Study
Due to the wide spread this study is restricted to only one out of several Library Schools in Nigeria It may never be fully completed or, depending on its its nature, it may be that it can never be completed. However, new and revised entries in the list are always welcome. Command Secondary School,Ipaja,Lagos Nigeria This is an incomplete list of as a case study. Therefore, the extent to which the findings of this study meet the need of all others is the limitation on this study.
Electronic Information Skills and Experience
In order to utilize the growing range of electronic resources, students must acquire and practice the skills necessary to exploit them. "For students using a variety of on-line databases, it is as though they were parking lot attendants, where every vehicle is not only a different make and model but has a different configuration" (Blandy & Libutti, 1995). As Dutton (1990) suggests, the skills required to maximize the potential of electronic resources are much greater than those required for searching printed sources. These skills include a knowledge of the structure of the database and the instructions which must be input into the computer by the searcher, as well as an understanding of the ways in which the instructions are linked with one another. To this end, Brophy (1993) states users do not often appreciate the skills required to search these sources, stating they are deceptively de·cep·tive·ly
In a deceptive or deceiving manner; so as to deceive.
Usage Note: When deceptively is used to modify an adjective, the meaning is often unclear. easy to use. The ability to find and retrieve information effectively is a transferable skill useful for future life as well as enabling the positive and successful use of the electronic resources whilst at university. As Brophy argues, libraries must "reach a position where the acquisition of information skills is acknowledged as one of the key learning objectives for every student entering a university, so that no student leaves without being fully equipped to cope with the information intensive world - the information society - as an end-user" (Brophy, 1993: 55)
There are several ways in which web experience can be defined and conceptualized. In general, web experience can be considered to be an act where users engage in applications that are often centered on web. In addition, web experience also can be defined in two different ways as perceived use and variety of use. "While perceived usage refers to the amount of time spent interacting with the web and the frequency of use, variety of use refers to the importance of use and the collection of web package/program use." (Igabaria, Guimares & Davis, 1995). Essentially, the web would often be a tool for wider and more diverse use. Users are increasingly using the web for information retrieval information retrieval
Recovery of information, especially in a database stored in a computer. Two main approaches are matching words in the query against the database index (keyword searching) and traversing the database using hypertext or hypermedia links. , communicating etc. via electronic mail or online conferencing See teleconferencing. . In this study, the web experience refers to the experience of web usage, such as the experience of web/online packages, and the Internet.
Gender Attitudes toward Technologies and Technical Competencies
The gender dynamics relating attitudes about the Internet and actual utilization of the medium have not been adequately studied to date (Busselle, R., J. Reagan, B. Pinkleton, and K. Jackson, 1999.). Nevertheless, research regarding computer use more generally has highlighted the significance of interest and stereotyping about computers, as well as self-perception of ability (self efficacy) in explaining gendered patterns of behaviour vis-a-vis this technology (Campbell, 1990; Levin lev·in
[Middle English levene, levin; see leuk- in Indo-European roots.] and Gordon, 1989; Reinen and Plomp, 1997; Shashaani, 1993). Investigations with elementary and high school students as well as adults reveal a significant gulf between male and female interest in computers (Campbell, 1990; Levin and Gordon, 1989; Reinen and Plomp, 1997; Shashaani, 1993). For example, drawing on representative national samples of elementary, lower, and upper secondary school students from 20 countries in 1989 and 10 countries in 1992, Reinen and Plomp, (1997) find that females enjoy using the computer less than do male students. In addition, research has found that men and boys have significantly more positive attitudes toward computers and more stereotyped attitudes regarding who is capable of using them (Levin and Gordon, 1989; Whitley, 1997), while female students' attitudes and attributions toward computers discourage them from using the technology (Campbell, 1990). The inference (logic) inference - The logical process by which new facts are derived from known facts by the application of inference rules.
See also symbolic inference, type inference. drawn is that gendered attitudes are central to discrepancies in use. Beyond attitudes, the literature points to another important factor that influences technology use: self-efficacy. Coined and initially elaborated by Bandura ban`dur´a
n. 1. A traditional Ukrainian stringed musical instrument shaped like a lute, having many strings. (1977), self-efficacy beliefs revolve around Verb 1. revolve around - center upon; "Her entire attention centered on her children"; "Our day revolved around our work"
center, center on, concentrate on, focus on, revolve about "one's capability to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations" and includes both anxiety and enactive En`act´ive
a. 1. Having power to enact or establish as a law. and vicarious vicarious /vi·car·i·ous/ (vi-kar´e-us)
1. acting in the place of another or of something else.
2. occurring at an abnormal site.
1. experience regarding task-specific competencies. Computer-related self efficacy has been an important extension of this concept. In a wide variety of research settings, men have been found to exhibit higher self-efficacy scores (Corston and Colman, 1996; Durndell, A., Z. Haag, D. Asenova, and H. Laithwaite. 2000; Miura, 1987; Torkzadeh and Van Dyke Van Dyke (or van/Van Dijk or Dyk etc) is a surname of Dutch origin. It refers to:
Recent literature on technology presents a complicated picture of the relationship between gender and Web use. While most scholars agree that the gender gap in Internet use has narrowed significantly in the college age group (Goodson, McCormick, & Evans, 2001; Odell, Korgen, Schumacher, & Delucchi, 2000) as well as the general population (Brenner, 1997; Jackson, Ervin, Gardner, & Schmitt, 2001; Newburger, 1999; Ono & Zovodny, 2003), some gender differences have been found in attitudes toward technology, intensity of Internet use, online applications preferred, and experience in cyberspace Coined by William Gibson in his 1984 novel "Neuromancer," it is a futuristic computer network that people use by plugging their minds into it! The term now refers to the Internet or to the online or digital world in general. See Internet and virtual reality. Contrast with meatspace. . Investigations of college student Web use have proven especially insightful, as research on this group allows for an examination of gender differences within an institution in which men and women generally have equal access to the Internet (Odell et al., 2000). The scholarship on gender and Web use is contradictory at times, demonstrating the dynamic nature of the interaction, as well as the need for continued investigation. In a study of college students' attitudes toward technology, Smith and Necessary (1996) found that males had significantly more positive attitudes toward computers than females did. Jackson et al. (2001) also found that females in general reported less favourable computer attitudes. Other literature, however, contradicts these findings. Several investigations have reported that gender had no significant effect on any of the dimensions of computer attitude studied (Jennings & Onwuegbuzie, 2001; Shaw & Gant, 2002). Zhang, (2002) observed that female college students possess more positive attitudes than their male peers. The inconsistency in·con·sis·ten·cy
n. pl. in·con·sis·ten·cies
1. The state or quality of being inconsistent.
2. Something inconsistent: many inconsistencies in your proposal. in these findings might be attributed to differences in methodology, or might reveal how the increasing number of female Internet users is altering women's attitudes regarding computers and the Web. It is noteworthy that the studies are separated by nearly half a decade. Within that time, with greater adoption of technology by women, the differences observed in the earlier studies could disappear in the latter studies. Bimber (2000) argued that the gender gap in the Internet is larger where more intensive Web use is concerned. Women are substantially less likely to be frequent users, equally likely to be infrequent in·fre·quent
1. Not occurring regularly; occasional or rare: an infrequent guest.
2. users, and more likely to be intermediate users. In short, females are less intensive Internet users than males. Bimber attributes this finding to a combination of gendered technology embodying male values, content that favours men, sex differences in cognition cognition
Act or process of knowing. Cognition includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning), as distinguished from an experience of feeling or of willing. and/or communication, and socioeconomic differences. Ono and Zovodny (2003) also found women to be less frequent and less intense users of the Internet. Concern about gender inequality has now shifted from access to intensity.
The most pronounced gender difference in Web use is found in the online applications used by males and female. Male college students are more likely than their female counterparts to use the Internet for recreational purposes (e.g., playing games online, visiting adult-only sites, gambling, accessing news groups and discussion forums, staying abreast of news developments, and seeking information for personal use), while females are more likely to use the Internet to talk to family and friends (Goodson, McCormick, & Evans, 2001; Jackson et al., 2001; Morahan-Martin & Schumacher, 1997; Odell, Korgen, Schumacher, & Delucchi, 2000; Scealy, Phillips, & Stevenson, 2002). These findings appear to reinforce the widespread assumption that men prefer to use the Web for information gathering and entertainment and women prefer to use the Internet for communication (Shaw & Gant, 2002).
The descriptive survey method was adopted for this study because it seeks to explore the Use of Electronic Resources by Postgraduate Students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. The data collected are the situation of information about the views of postgraduate student of Library School in universities within Delta state Delta State is a state in Nigeria, named for the Niger Delta. The state borders Edo State, Ondo State , Imo State, Anambra State and Bayelsa State. In the south west and south it has approximately 122 kilometres of coastline bounded by the Bight of Benin on the Atlantic ocean. .
Population for the Study
The estimated population for this study is 78 respondents drawn from among Masters and PhD students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka. The breakdown of the student population is as illustrated in table 1 below.
Sample and Sampling Technique
Due to the small number of respondents involved the entire population was used as the sample for the study.
The questionnaire titled Use of Electronic Resources by Postgraduate Students of Library School Questionnaire (UERPSLSQ) was used as the research instrument for this study. The questionnaire provides data on Use of Electronic Resources by Postgraduate Students of Library School in Delta State, Nigeria. And it is aimed at answering questions on: the level of ICT skill; the level of electronic resource experience and the Level of electronic resource Usage by postgraduate students of Delta State Library School. Moreso to ascertain if gender affects the use of electronic resources and the problems encountered in using electronic resources by postgraduate students of Delta State Library School.
Method of Data Collection
The questionnaire was sent out to the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka. The researcher employed the service of research assistants to administer the questionnaire one-on-one to the students and their response collected immediately. This method was preferred so as to achieve a high response rate.
Method of Data Analysis
Data collected from the questionnaires were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. using frequency counts and simple percentage.
Findings and Discussion
A total of 78 questionnaires were distributed to respondents and were successfully retrieved giving a 100% rate of return. The analyses of the distribution were as presented in figure 1 below.
From figure 1 above a majority of 47 (60%) respondents were females. This is in agreement with Adomi (2000) that there are more females than males in Library Schools in Nigeria.
From figure 2 above a majority of 65 (83%) respondents were Masters Degree students.
Figure 3: Pie Chart Showing Age Distribution of the Respondents
Research Question 1: What is the level of ICT skill of postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?
The results of the analysis is presented in table 2
From table 2, it was observed that there is a low level of skillfulness skill·ful
1. Possessing or exercising skill; expert. See Synonyms at proficient.
2. Characterized by, exhibiting, or requiring skill. in the use of ICT among respondents. Dutton (1990) suggested that the skills required to maximize the potential of electronic resources are much greater than those required for searching printed sources. These skills include a knowledge of the structure of the database and the instructions which must be input into the computer by the searcher, as well as an understanding of the ways in which the instructions are linked with one another. To this end, Brophy (1993) posited that students do not often appreciate the skills required to search electronic sources, stating that they are deceptively easy to use. Brophy argues that, it has reached a situation were the acquisition of information skills is acknowledged as one of the key learning objectives for every student entering a university, so that no student leaves without being fully equipped to cope with the information intensive world as an end-user (Brophy, 1993: 55).
Research Question 2: How does a postgraduate student of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka access electronic resources?
The results of the analysis are presented in figure 4.
Figure 4 above indicates that majority of the respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. access electronic resources from the cybercafe The first Internet cafe in the U.S. Founded in 1995 in New York, the menu is a selection of fine coffees and desserts along with Internet, e-mail, printing, scanning and faxing services. Hats, shirts and jackets are also available for purchase. . This corroborates Obuh, (2007) that cybercafes are the most readily available access to the electronic resources by users.
Research Question 3: In what medium are electronic resources used by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?
The results of the analysis are presented in figure 5.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
From table 2, it was observed that there is a low level of skillfulness in the use of ICT among respondents. Dutton (1990) suggested that the skills required to maximize the potential of electronic resources are much greater than those required for searching printed sources. These skills include a knowledge of the structure of the database and the instructions which must be input into the computer by the searcher, as well as an understanding of the ways in which the instructions are linked with one another. To this end, Brophy (1993) posited that students do not often appreciate the skills required to search electronic sources, stating that they are deceptively easy to use. Brophy argues that, it has reached a situation were the acquisition of information skills is acknowledged as one of the key learning objectives for every student entering a university, so that no student leaves without being fully equipped to cope with the information intensive world as an end-user (Brophy, 1993: 55).
Research Question 2: How does a postgraduate student of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka access electronic resources?
Figure 4 above indicates that majority of the respondent access electronic resources from the cybercafe. This corroborates Obuh, (2007) that cybercafes are the most readily available access to the electronic resources by users.
Research Question 3: In what medium are electronic resources used by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?
The results of the analysis are presented in figure 5.
Figure 5 above indicates that the internet is the most used medium used in sourcing electronic materials. This supports Kibirge, (2000) that more people are using the Internet to find information they need, information that is unmediated by the library.
Research Question 4: What is the level of web experience of postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?
The results of the analysis are presented in table 3.
From table 3, it was observed that there is a low level of electronic resource experience amongst respondents. This corroborates Dutton (1990) and Brophy (1993) that students do not often appreciate the skills required to search electronic sources, stating that they are deceptively easy to use.
Research Question 5 : What is the level of electronic resource Usage by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?
The result of the analysis is presented in table 4.
5. How often do you use the following type of electronic resources?
1 Entertainment Very Often 0 -- Often 9 11.54% Rarely 69 88.46% Never 0 -- 2. Educational/Academic Very Often 18 23.08% Often 60 76.92% Rarely 0 -- Never 0 -- 3. Sport Very Often 10 12.82% Often 68 87.18% Rarely 0 -- Never 0 -- 4. Religious Very Often 0 -- Often 0 -- Rarely 12 15.38% Never 66 84.62% 5. News Very Often 10 12.82% Often 51 65.38% Rarely 17 21.80% Never 0 -- 6. Commercial Very Often 0 -- Often 0 -- Rarely 21 26.92% Never 57 73.08% 7 Pornographic Very Often 0 -- Often 0 -- Rarely 10 12.82% Never 68 87.18% 8. Military Very Often 0 -- Often 0 -- Rarely 0 -- Never 78 100.00% 9. Library/Informational Very Often 48 61.54% Often 30 38.46% Rarely 0 -- Never 0 -- 10. Full text article databases Very Often 27 34.62% Often 51 65.38% Rarely 0 -- Never 0 --
The result of the research analysis in table 4 above revealed that students usage of electronic resources is quite high. A study of students of tertiary tertiary (tûr`shēârē), in the Roman Catholic Church, member of a third order. The third orders are chiefly supplements of the friars—Franciscans (the most numerous), Dominicans, and Carmelites. institution showed that they looked for the fastest way that would lead to satisfactory results when doing research, going for electronic information sources first (Valentine, 1993). According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Hall and Parsons (2001), dependence, coupled with easy access to technology, points toward students spending a substantial quantity of time on the Internet/online. Also from the result we could deduce de·duce
tr.v. de·duced, de·duc·ing, de·duc·es
1. To reach (a conclusion) by reasoning.
2. To infer from a general principle; reason deductively: that the frequency of usage of electronic resources is fairly high. electronic resources like library/informational, educational/academics, full text article databases, news, and sports are most frequently patronized pa·tron·ize
tr.v. pa·tron·ized, pa·tron·iz·ing, pa·tron·iz·es
1. To act as a patron to; support or sponsor.
2. To go to as a customer, especially on a regular basis.
3. unlike the religious, commercial, entertainment and pornographic por·nog·ra·phy
1. Sexually explicit pictures, writing, or other material whose primary purpose is to cause sexual arousal.
2. The presentation or production of this material.
3. resources are less likely patronized by respondents.
According to Hall (2000), the fact that the web has the ability to provide up-to-the-minute information and, secondly, this information can be obtained from around the world, made it a reliable source for news information. Thus, the news websites are highly patronized by students. From the result, there is a high level of students patronage of educational/academic resources, this is in agreement with the findings of Pascoe, Applebee, and Clayton, (1996) that ease, convenience, and accessibility were major factors influencing academic Internet use.
Research Question 6: Does gender affect the use of electronic resources by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka?
The results of the analysis are presented in table 5.
From table 5 the result of the analysis revealed a high frequency of usage by both male and female respondents. According to Goodson, McCormick, & Evans, (2001); Odell, Korgen, Schumacher, & Delucchi, (2000) the gender gap in Internet use has narrowed significantly in the college age group hence, the high frequency of usage observed here is of similar reason to that discussed by Davis, Bagozzi, and Warshaw (1992) that intrinsic motivation (enjoyment) and extrinsic EVIDENCE, EXTRINSIC. External evidence, or that which is not contained in the body of an agreement, contract, and the like.
2. It is a general rule that extrinsic evidence cannot be admitted to contradict, explain, vary or change the terms of a contract or of a motivation (usefulness) were key drivers of behavioral intention to use ICTs. And Vallerand (1997), that intrinsic motivation emphasizes on the pleasure and inherent satisfaction derived from a specific activity. Researches by Atkinson & Kydd, 1997; Vankatesh, (1999) have shown that the intrinsic motivation factor (enjoyment) not only had a positive effect on the extrinsic motivation factor (usefulness), it also had a positive effect on the intention to use information technology. Additionally, the extrinsic motivation factor (usefulness) was also found to have a positive effect on the intention to use computers (Igbaria, 1993).
Research Question 7: What are the problems encountered by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka in using electronic resources?
The results of the analysis is presented in table 6
From table 6 it was observed that there is a general endorsement by respondents that issues like large mass of irrelevant information, the need to filter the results from search are some of the basic problems encountered while using electronic resources, these corroborates Eliopoulos & Gotlieb, (2003) that the major problem with search engines is that search queries turn up far too many results, erring err
intr.v. erred, err·ing, errs
1. To make an error or a mistake.
2. To violate accepted moral standards; sin.
3. Archaic To stray. on the side of recall rather than precision. Other problems are download delay, failure to find information, inadequate/lack of search skills, high cost of access, power outages This is a list of famous wide-scale power outages. 1965
1. Plentiful; copious.
2. Giving or given freely and abundantly; extravagant: were profuse in their compliments. amounts of information are put on the Internet every day and in many cases, there is no editor, reviewer re·view·er
One who reviews, especially one who writes critical reviews, as for a newspaper or magazine.
a person who writes reviews of books, films, etc.
Noun 1. , or any other kind of review mechanism to determine the credibility, quality, accuracy, or timeliness of the material.
Summary of the Study
The research surveyed the Use of Electronic Resources by Postgraduate Students of Library School in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. Based on a detailed literature review a total of five (5) research questions were and tested on a sample size of 78 representing the total population of postgraduate MSc and PhD students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. The instrument employed for the collection of data was the questionnaire. Frequency counts and simple percentages were used in analyzing the data collected. From the data analysis the following findings were advanced.
There is a low level of skilfulness in the use of ICT among Postgraduate Students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka.
There is a low level of electronic resource experience amongst Postgraduate Students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka.
The internet via Cybercafe is the major facility used to access electronic resources by postgraduate students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University , Abraka.
The level of electronic resource usage by Postgraduate Students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka is high.
There is a high frequency of usage of electronic resources by both male and female Postgraduate Students of the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently gender gap in electronic resource usage is quite negligible This article or section is written like a personal reflection or and may require .
Please [ improve this article] by rewriting this article or section in an . .
Issues like large mass of irrelevant information, the need to filter the results from search, download delay, failure to find information, inadequate/lack of search skills, high cost of access, power outages, inaccessibility of some electronic resources, difficulties in navigating through electronic resources and so on are problems encountered when using electronic resources by Postgraduate Students the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka.
From the foregoing, it is obvious that Postgraduate Students of Library School in Delta State need to do more in order to improve on their ICT skills so as to equip e·quip
tr.v. e·quipped, e·quip·ping, e·quips
a. To supply with necessities such as tools or provisions.
b. them in utilizing the enormous benefits available in electronic formats. The high level of usage of electronic resources even as evident among both male and female gender is an indication to the fact that even without the expertise knowledge of manipulating information in an electronic environment, students are still getting satisfaction from the little they could get out of electronic sources although handicapped by their low level of ICT experience. This high level of use is also as a result of their perception of ease and usefulness of electronic sources such as the web.
Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations were made by the researcher;
* Library schools must reach a position where the acquisition of Information and Communication Technology skills is acknowledged as one of the key learning objectives for its students so that students will be fully equipped to cope with the information intensive world as an end-user. To this end more practical courses on ICTs should be inculcated into the curriculum.
* Government should equip schools with the enabling infrastructure such as adequate power supply, effective internet connectivity etc. that will encourage the usage of ICTs by students.
* ICT centres with well trained personnel should be established in the universities where students can have free access to computers, the web and other electronic sources.
* Library schools in Delta State should be staffed with more technical staff to impact ICT skills on students.
Abels, E., Liebscher, P., & Denman, D. (1996) Factors that influence use of electronic networks by science and engineering faculty at small institutions. Part I. Queries. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 47 (2): 146-158.
Adams, D. A., Nelson, R. R., & Todd, P. A. (1992). Perceived usefulness, ease of use, and usage of information technology: A replication. MIS Quarterly 16 : 227-247.
Adam, L., & F. Woods (1999) An investigation of the impact of Information And Communication Technologies in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Information Science 25 (4): 307-318.
Adomi, E. E. (2006). Mobile phone usage patterns of library and information science students at Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship.
Agarwal, R., & Karahanna, E. (2000) Time flies when you're having fun: Cognitive absorption and beliefs about information technology usage. MIS Quarterly 24 (4):665-694.
Agarwal, R., & Prasad Prasāda (Sanskrit: प्रसाद), prasād/prashad (Hindi), Prasāda in (Kannada), prasādam (Tamil), or prasadam , J. (1998). The antecedents and consequents of user perceptions in information technology adoption. Decision Support Systems 22 : 15-29.
Agbonlahor, R. O. (2006) Motivation for use of information technology by university faculty: a developing country perspective. Available: http://idv.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/22/4/261.
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour. Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Anadarajan, M., Igbaria, M., & Anakwe, U. P. (2002). IT acceptance in a less-developed country: A motivation factor perspective. International Journal of Information Management 22 (1): 47-65.
Anderson, K. J. (2001). Internet use among college students: An exploratory study. Journal of American College Health 50 (1): 21-26.
Atkinson, M., & Kydd, C. (1997). Individual characteristics associated with World Wide Web use: An empirical study of playfulness and motivation. The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems 28 (2): 53-61
Bagozzi, R. P., Davis, F. D., & Warshaw, P. R. (1992). Development and test of a theory of technological learning and usage. Human Relations human relations npl → relaciones fpl humanas 45 (7): 660-686.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , NY: W.H. Freeman.
Bandyopadhyay, A., & Chu, H. (1999). Electronic journals versus print journals: An evaluation framework. Proceedings of the Twentieth National Online Meeting. (New York Hilton).
Berners-Lee, T. (1996): The World-Wide-Web: Past, present and future. Available: http://www13.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/1996/ppf.html
Bilal, D. (2000). Children's use of the Yahooligans! search engine. I. Cognitive, physical, and affective affective /af·fec·tive/ (ah-fek´tiv) pertaining to affect.
1. Concerned with or arousing feelings or emotions; emotional.
2. behaviours on fact-based search tasks. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 51 (7): 646-65.
Bimber, B. (2000). Measuring the gender gap on the Internet. Social Science Quarterly 81 (3): 868-876.
Blandy, S.G., Libutti, P. (1995). As the cursor (1) The symbol used to point to some element on screen. On Windows, Mac and other graphics-based screens, it is also called a "pointer," and it changes shape as it is moved with the mouse into different areas of the application. blinks blink
v. blinked, blink·ing, blinks
1. To close and open one or both of the eyes rapidly.
2. To look through half-closed eyes, as in a bright glare; squint.
3. : Electronic scholarship and undergraduates in the library. Library Trends 44 (2): 279-305.
Blumenstyk, G. (2001). Publishers promote e-textbooks, but many students and professors are skeptical. Chronicle of Higher Education 47 (36): A35-A36.
Boneva, B., Kraut kraut
2. often Kraut Offensive Slang Used as a disparaging term for a German.
[German; see sauerkraut.]
Noun 1. , R., & Frohlich, D. (2001). Using e-mail for personal relationships: The difference gender makes. American Behavioural Adj. 1. behavioural - of or relating to behavior; "behavioral sciences"
behavioral Scientist 45 (3): 530-549.
Branch, R., Kim, D., & Koenecke, L. (2000). Online educational materials for use in instruction. Teacher Librarian 28 (1): 21-23.
Brenner, V. (1997). Psychology of computer use: XLVII. Parameters of Internet use, abuse and addiction: The first 90 days of the Internet Usage Survey. Psychological Reports 80 (3): 879-882
Brophy, P. (1993) Networking in British academic libraries. British Journal of Academic Librarianship 8 (1): 49-60.
Brosnan, M.J. (1998). The impact of computer anxiety and self-efficacy upon performance. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 14 (3): 223-235.
Brown, P., Challagalla, G., & Ganesan, S. (2001). Self-efficacy as a moderator moderator - A person, or small group of people, who manages a moderated mailing list or Usenet newsgroup. Moderators are responsible for determining which email submissions are passed on to the list or newsgroup. of information seeking Information seeking is the process or activity of attempting to obtain information in both human and technological contexts. Information seeking is related to, but yet different from, information retrieval (IR). effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology Journal of Applied Psychology is a publication of the APA. It has a high impact factor for its field. It typically publishes high quality empirical papers.
www.apa. 86 (5): 1043-1051.
Busselle, R., J. Reagan, B. Pinkleton, & Jackson, K. (1999). Factors affecting Internet use in a saturated-access population. Telematics and Informatics Same as information technology and information systems. The term is more widely used in Europe. 16 :45-58.
Burton, V. T., & Chadwick, S. A. (2000). Investigating the practices of student researchers: Patterns of use and criteria for use of Internet and library sources. Computers and Composition 17 (3): 309-328.
Campbell, N. 1990. High school students' computer attitudes and attributions: Gender and ethnic differences. Journal of Adolescent Research 5 :485-99.
Choo, C.W., Detlor, B., & Turnbull, D. (2000). Information seeking on the web: An Integrated model of browsing and searching. First Monday First Monday is a short-lived U.S. television drama centered on the U.S. Supreme Court. Created by JAG creator Donald Bellisario, the show aired on CBS from January until May of 2002. 5 (2). Available: http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue5_2/choo/index.html
Corston, R., & Colman, A. (1996). Gender and social facilitation Social facilitation is the tendency for people to be aroused into better performance on simple tasks (or tasks at which they are expert) when under the eye of others, rather than while they are alone. effects on computer competence and attitudes towards computers. Journal of Educational Computing computing - computer Research 14:171-83.
Cothey, V. (2002). A longitudinal study longitudinal study
a chronological study in epidemiology which attempts to establish a relationship between an antecedent cause and a subsequent effect. See also cohort study. of World Wide Web users' information-searching behavior. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 53 (2): 67-78.
Compeau, D.R., & Higgins, C.A. (1995). Computer self-efficacy: Development of a measure and initial test. MIS Quarterly 19 : 189-211.
Dalgleish, A., & Hall, R. (2000).Use and perceptions of the World Wide Web in an information seeking environment. Journal of Library and Information Science 32 (3): 104-16.
Davis, F.D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly 13 : 319-340.
Davis, F.D., Bagozzi, R.P., & Warshaw, P.R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science 35 (8): 982-1003.
D'Angelo, J., & Little, S. K. (1998). Successful web pages: What are they and do they exist? Information Technology and Libraries 17 (2): 71-81.
D'Esposito, J. E., & Gardner, R. M. (1999). University students' perceptions of the Internet: An exploratory study. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 25 (6): 456-461.
DeLone, W., & McLean, E. (1992). Information systems success: the quest for Verb 1. quest for - go in search of or hunt for; "pursue a hobby"
quest after, go after, pursue
look for, search, seek - try to locate or discover, or try to establish the existence of; "The police are searching for clues"; "They are searching for the the dependent variable. Information Systems Research 3 (1): 60-95
Dickhauser, O., & Stiensmeier-Pelster, J. (2002). Gender differences in computer work: Evidence for the model of achievement-related choices. Contemporary Educational Psychology 27 :486-96.
Durndell, A., Z. Haag, D. Asenova, and H. Laithwaite. 2000. Computer Self Efficacy And Gender. Pp. 78-85 in E. Balka and R. Smith, eds., Women, Work and Computerization: Charting a Course to the Future. Boston, MA : Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Dutton, B.G. (1990). An introduction to end-user searching. In: Bysouth, P.T. (ed) End-user searching: the effective gateway to published information. London : Aslib, 1-18.
Dyck, J.L. & Smither, J.A. (1994). Age differences in computer anxiety: the role of computer experience, gender and education. Journal of educational computing research 10 (3): 239-248.
Ehikhamenor, F.A. (2003) Internet facilities: use and non-use by Nigerian university scientists. Journal of Information Science 29, (1): 35-48
Eliopoulos, D., & Gotlieb, C. (2003). Evaluating web search results rankings. Online 27 42-48. Ford, N., & Mansourian, Y. (2006): The invisible web See deep Web. : an empirical study of 'cognitive invisibility', Journal of Documentation, Vol. 62 No. 5, pp. 584-96.
Ford, N. & Miller D. (1996) Gender differences in internet perception and use. In: Collier, M. & Arnold, K. (eds.): Electronic Library and Visual Information Research. ELVIRA 3: Papers from the Third ELVIRA conference 30 April-2 May 1996, pp. 87-100 London : ASLIB
Ford, N., Miller, D, & Moss, N. (2001) The role of individual differences in Internet searching: an empirical study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology, 52 (12): 1049-1066
Fourie, I. (2002): A review of web information-seeking/searching studies (2000-2002):implications for research in the South African context, in Bothma, I., & Kaniki, A.(Eds): Progress in Library and Information Science in Southern Africa (ProLISSA): Infuse in·fuse
1. To steep or soak without boiling in order to extract soluble elements or active principles.
2. To introduce a solution into the body through a vein for therapeutic purposes. , Pretoria, pp. 49-76.
Fourie, I. (2006): Learning from web information seeking studies: some suggestions for LIS LIS - Langage Implementation Systeme.
A predecessor of Ada developed by Ichbiah in 1973. It was influenced by Pascal's data structures and Sue's control structures. A type declaration can have a low-level implementation specification. practitioners , The Electronic Library, Vol. 24 No. 1, pp. 20-37.
Glaser, B. (1998): Doing Grounded Theory: Issues and Discussion, Sociology Press, Mill Valley, CA. Gartner, (2004). The Gartner glossary A term used by Microsoft Word and adopted by other word processors for the list of shorthand, keyboard macros created by a particular user. See glossaries in this publication and The Computer Glossary. of information technology acronym acronym: see abbreviation.
A word typically made up of the first letters of two or more words; for example, BASIC stands for "Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. and terms. Available at http://www.gartner.com (accessed March 20 2007)
Gates, K., Moore, J., Oberlin, J., Rusiecki, S., and Wascom, T. (2000) Equipping e·quip
tr.v. e·quipped, e·quip·ping, e·quips
a. To supply with necessities such as tools or provisions.
b. faculty for success with technology. In EDUCAUSE 2000: Thinking IT Through: Proceedings and Post-Conference Materials. Nashville, Tennessee “Nashville” redirects here. For other uses, see Nashville (disambiguation).
Nashville is the capital and the second most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee, after Memphis. , ERICDocument Reproduction Service, No. ED452798.
Gilmore, E. (1998) Impact of training on the information technology attitudes of university faculty. Doctoral Dissertation dis·ser·ta·tion
A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
1. , University of North Texas, Denton.
Goodson, C. (2001). Web-connected generation. The Futurist 35 (5): 9.
Goodson, P., McCormick, D., & Evans, A. (2001). Searching for sexually explicit materials on the Internet: An exploratory study of college students. Archives of Sexual Behaviour 30 (2): 101-118.
Hall, A. S., & Parsons, J. (2001). Internet addiction: College student case study using best practices in cognitive behaviour therapy. Journal of Mental Health Counselling 23 (4): 312-327
Heine, M., Winkworth, I., & Ray, K. (2000). Modeling service-seeking behavior in an academic library: A methodology and its application. Journal of Academic Librarianship 26 (4): 233-247.
Hill, J.R., & Hannafin, M.J. (1997). Cognitive strategies and learning from the World Wide Web. Educational Technology Research and Development 45 (4): 37-64.
Igbaria M. (1993) User acceptance of microcomputer microcomputer
Small digital computers whose CPU is contained on a single integrated semiconductor chip. As large-scale and then very large-scale integration (VLSI) have progressively increased the number of transistors that can be placed on one chip, the processing capacity technology: An empirical test. Omega 21 :73-90
Igabaria, M.T., Guimares, T., & Davis, G. B. (1995). Testing the determinates of microcomputer usage via a structural equation model. Journal of Management Information Systems The Journal of Management Information Systems (JMIS) is an academic journal that publishes original peer-reviewed research articles in the areas of Information Systems and Information Technology. 4 : 87-114
Jacobson, F.F. (1991). Gender differences in attitudes toward using computers in libraries: An exploratory study. Library and Information Studies Research 13 :267-279.
Jennings, S. E., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2001). Computer attitudes as a function of age, gender, math attitude, and developmental status. Journal of Educational Computing Research 25 (4): 367-384
Kibirge, H.M. & DePalo, L. (2000). The Internet as a source of academic research information: Findings of two pilot studies. Information Technology and Libraries 19: 11-16.
Koohang, A.A. (1986). Effects of age, gender, college status, and computer experience on attitudes toward library computer systems (LCS LCS - Language for Communicating Systems ). Library and Information Science Research 8 : 349-355.
Laguna, K. & Babcock, R.L. (1997). Computer anxiety in young and older adults: Implications for human-computer interactions in older populations. Computers in Human Behavior 13 : 317-326.
Laerum, H., Ellingsen, G., & Faxvaag A. (2001). Doctors' use of electronic medical records systems in hospitals: Cross sectional sec·tion·al
1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of a particular district.
2. Composed of or divided into component sections.
n. survey. British Medical Journal The British Medical Journal, or BMJ, is one of the most popular and widely-read peer-reviewed general medical journals in the world. It is published by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (owned by the British Medical Association), whose other 323 (7323): 1344-1348
Lazonder, A.W., Biemans, H.J.A., & Wopereis, I.G.J.H. (2000). Differences between novice and experienced users in searching for information on the World Wide Web. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 51 (6): 576-581
Levin, T., & Gordon, C. (1989). Effect of gender and computer experience on attitudes toward computers. Journal of Educational Computing Research 5 :69-88.
Lewis, B., & Behana, K. (2001). The Internet as a resource for consumer healthcare. Disease Management and Health Outcomes 9 (5): 241-248.
Lindsay, W., & McLaren, S. (2000). The Internet: An aid to student research or a source of frustration? Journal of Educational Media 25 (2): 115-128.
Majid, S. & Abazova, A.F. (1999). Computer literacy Understanding computers and related systems. It includes a working vocabulary of computer and information system components, the fundamental principles of computer processing and a perspective for how non-technical people interact with technical people. and use of electronic information sources by academics: A case study of International Islamic University International Islamic University may refer to:
McGuigan, G.S. (2001). Databases versus the Web: A discussion of teaching the use of electronic resources in the library instruction setting. Internet Reference Services Quarterly 6 (1): 39-47.
Meer, V., Fravel, P., Poole, H., & Van Valey, T. (1997). Are library users also computer users? A survey of faculty and implications for services. The Public-Access Computer Systems Review 8 (1). Available: http://info.lib.uh.edu/pr/v8/n1/vand8n1.html
Meyers, D. M. (2003). The impact of virtual office hours office hours,
n.pl See business hours. on in-class participation. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL, April 21-25.
Mitra, A., Willyard, J., Platt, C., & Parsons, M. (2005). Exploring web usage and selection criteria among male and female students. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 10 (3): article 10. Available: http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol10/issue3/mitra.html
Miura, I. (1987). The relationship of computer self-efficacy expectations to computer interest and course enrollment in college. Sex Roles 16 :303-11.
Nahl, D., & Tenopir, C. (1996). Affective and cognitive searching behavior of novice end-users of a full-text database. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 47 (4): 276- 86.
National Center for Education Statistics (2001). IPEDS IPEDS Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System
IPEDS Interactive Public Exhibits and Digital Signage College opportunities on-line: CUNY CUNY City University of New York
Newburger, E. C. (1999). Computer use in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . October 1997. Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau Noun 1. Census Bureau - the bureau of the Commerce Department responsible for taking the census; provides demographic information and analyses about the population of the United States
Bureau of the Census (pp. 1-11). Available: http://www.census.gov
Obuh, A. O. (2007). Accessibility and used of the Internet by undergraduate students of Nigeria University. Educational Trends 13 : 108-123.
Odell, P. M., Korgen, K. O., Schumacher, P., & Delucchi, M. (2000). Internet use among female and male college students. Cyberpsychology and Behaviour 3 (5): 855-862
Ono, H., & Zavodny, M. (2003). Gender and the Internet. Social Science Quarterly 84 (1): 111- 121. Pajares, F. (1997). Current directions in self-efficacy research. In: M. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.) Advances in motivation and achievement. Volume 10: 1-49. Greenwich, CT: JAI JAI Java Advanced Imaging
JAI Justice et Affaires Interiéures (French: Justice and Home Affairs)
JAI Journal of ASTM International
JAI Just An Idea
JAI Jazz Alliance International
JAI Joint Africa Institute Press.
Pascoe, C., Applebee, A., & Clayton, P. (1996). Tidal wave tidal wave, term properly applied to the crest of a tide as it moves around the earth. The wavelike upstream rush of water caused by the incoming tide in some locations is known as a tidal bore. or ripple? The impact of Internet on the academic. Australian Library Review 13 (2): 147-153
Pintrich, P.R., & Garcia, T. (1991) Student goal orientation and self-regulation in the college classroom. In: M. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (eds.) Advances in motivation and achievement: Goals and self-regulatory processes: 371-402. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Pintrich, P.R., & Schunk, D.H. (1995). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Reinen, I.J., & Plomp, T. (1997). Information technology and gender equality: A contradiction in terms Noun 1. contradiction in terms - (logic) a statement that is necessarily false; "the statement `he is brave and he is not brave' is a contradiction"
logic - the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference ? Computers & Education 28 :65-78.
Ren, W. (2000). Library instruction and college student self-sufficiency in electronic information searching. Journal of Academic Librarianship 26 (5): 323-328.
Sacks, C.H., Bellissimo, Y., & Mergendoller, J.R. (1994). Attitudes toward computers and computer use: The issue of gender. Journal of Research on Computing in Education 26 (2): 256-269.
Scealy, M., Phillips, J. G., & Stevenson, R. (2002). Shyness and anxiety as predictors of patterns of Internet usage. Cyberpsychology & Behaviour 5 (6): 501-515.
Schunk, D.H. (1994). Self-regulation of self-efficacy and attributions in academic settings. In: Schunk, D.H., & Zimmerman, B.J. Self-regulation of learning and performance: Issues and educational applications : 75-99. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Smith, B. N., & Necessary, J. R. (1996). Assessing the computer literacy of undergraduate college students. Education 117 (2): 188-193.
Shashaani, L. (1993). Gender-based differences in attitudes toward computers. Computers & Education 20 :169-81.
Shaw, L. H., & Gant, L. M. (2002). Users divided? Exploring the gender gap in Internet use. Cyberpsychology & Behaviour 5 (6): 517-527
Shih, C., & Gamon, J. (2001). Web-based learning: Relationships among student motivation, attitudes, learning styles, and achievement. Journal of Agricultural Education Agricultural education is instruction about crop production, livestock management, soil and water conservation, and various other aspects of agriculture. Agricultural education includes instruction in food education, such as nutrition. 42 (4): 12-20.
Spink, A. (2003): Web search: Emerging patterns. Library Trends 52 (4): 299-306.
Spink, A., & Jansen, B. (2004). Web search: Public searching of the Web. Dordrecht: Springer springer
a North American term commonly used to describe heifers close to term with their first calf. .
Tiamiyu, M.A. (2000). Information technology in Nigerian federal agencies: Problems, impact and strategies. Journal of Information Science 26 (4): 227-237.
Torkzadeh, G., Thomas, P., & Dyke, V. (2002). Effects of training on Internet self-efficacy and computer user attitudes. Computers in Human Behaviour 18 : 479-494.
Valentine, B. (1993). Undergraduate research behavior: Using focus groups to generate theory. Journal of Academic Librarianship 19 (5): 300-304.
Vankatesh, V., & Davis, F. D. (1996). A model of the antecedents of perceived ease of use: Development and test. Decision Sciences 27 (3): 451-481
Whitley, B. (1997). Gender differences in computer-related attitudes and behaviour: A meta-analysis. Computers in Human Behaviour 13 :1-22.
Whitmire, E. (2001a). The relationship between undergraduates' background characteristics and college experiences and their academic library use. College and Research Libraries 62 (6): 528-540.
Whitmire, E. (2001b). A longitudinal study of undergraduates' academic library experiences. Journal of Academic Librarianship 27 (5): 379-385.
Wilson, T. (2000). Web's gender shift more than a curiosity. Internet Week 827 : 28.
Young, B. J. (2001). Gender differences in student attitudes toward computers. Journal of Research on Computing in Education 33 (2): 204-16.
Young, J. R. (2001). A university that reverses tradition experiments with E-books. The Chronicle of Higher Education 47 (36): A39-A40.
Zhang, Y. X. (2002). Comparison of Internet attitudes between industrial employees and college students. Cyberpsychology & Behaviour 5 (2): 143-149.
Zhang, J., & Dimitroff, A. (2005). The impact of webpage content characteristics on Webpage visibility in search engine results. Part I. Information Processing information processing: see data processing.
Acquisition, recording, organization, retrieval, display, and dissemination of information. Today the term usually refers to computer-based operations. and Management 41 (3): 665-90.
Obuh Alex Ozoemelem
Department of Library and Information Science
Delta State University
Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria
Table 1: Showing the Population Breakdown for the Study Level of Study Population Percentage Population PhD 13 17% MSc 65 83% Total 78 100% Table 2: Showing Level of ICT skills of postgraduate students of Delta State Library School? S/N Items Options Frequency Percentage 1. I am skilled in the use of Agree 45 57.69% computer. Disagree 33 42.31% 2. I am skilled in the Agree 10 12.82% knowledge of database Disagreed 68 87.18% structures 3. I am skilled in working in Agree 18 23.08% an interactive platforms Disagreed 60 76.92% e.g. video conferencing, BBS, LISTSERV, Chat room etc. 4 I am skilled in formulating Agree 32 41.03% search queries Disagreed 46 58.97% 5 I am skilled in online Agree 49 62.82% navigation techniques Disagreed 29 37.18% 6 I am skilled in the use of Agree 25 32.05% electronic library tools Disagreed 53 67.95% e.g. CDROM, OPAC, Subject Gateways etc. 7 I am skilled in online Agree 15 19.23% acquisition Disagreed 63 80.77% procedures/techniques 8 I am skilled in working in a Agree 18 23.08% network environment Disagreed 60 76.92% 9 I am skilled in using Agree 5 6.41% internet telephony Disagreed 73 93.59% 10 I am skilled with computer Agree 58 74.36% system/application software Disagreed e.g. MS Windows XP, Linux, MS Office, etc. 11 I am conversant with Agree 20 25.64% electronic formats e.g. PDF, 25 32.05% JPEG, MPEG etc. Disagreed 53 67.95% Table 3: Showing Level of electronic resources experience of postgraduate students of Delta State Library School S/N Items Options Frequency Percentage 1 Experience with the Agree 69 88.46% Internet. Disagreed 9 11.54% 2 Experience with search Agree 35 44.87% engines e.g. Google, Disagreed 43 55.13% Altavista, yahoo etc. 3 Experience with CD--ROM Agree 10 12.82% Disagreed 68 87.18% 4 Experience with topic maps Agree 31 39.74% Disagreed 47 60.26% 5 Experience with site maps Agree 38 48.72% Disagreed 40 51.28% 6 Experience with website Agree 38 48.72% inbuilt search engines Disagreed 40 51.28% 7 Experience with online Agree 31 39.74% databases Disagreed 47 60.26% 8 Experience with ready made Agree 33 42.31% questions (FAQs) Disagreed 45 57.69% 9 Experience with navigating Agree 45 57.69% web links Disagreed 33 42.31%% 10 Experience with mailing list Agree 35 44.87% Disagreed 43 55.13% 11 Experience with site help Agree 27 34.62% Disagreed 51 65.38% 12 Experience with weblog Agree 0 --% Disagreed 324 100.00% Table 4 Level of electronic resource Usage by postgraduate students of Delta State Library School S/N Items Options Frequency Percentage 1. Do you use electronic Yes 78 100.00% resources No 0 -- 2. How often do you use Very Often 13 16.67% electronic resources Often 57 73.08% Rarely 8 10.26% Never 0 -- 3. For how long have you Below 1 year 23 29.47% been using electronic 1-2 years 27 34.63% resources 3-4 years 19 24.36% Above 4 years 9 11.54% 5. How often do you use the following type of electronic resources? 1 Entertainment Very Often 0 -- Often 9 11.54% Rarely 69 88.46% Never 0 -- 2. Education/Academic Very Often 18 23.08% Often 60 76.92% Rarely 0 -- Never 0 -- 3. Sport Very Often 10 12.82% Often 68 87.18% Rarely 0 -- Table 5: Showing Gender and usage of electronic resources by postgraduate students of Delta State Library School Gender Male S/N Items Options Frequency Percentage 1. Do you use electronic Yes 31 100.00% resources No 0 -- 2. How often do you use Very Often 21 67.74% electronic resources Often 10 32.26% Rarely 0 -- Never 0 -- 3. For how long have Below you been using 1year 10 32.26% electronic resources 1-2 years 7 22.58% 3-4 years 10 32.26% Above 4 4 12.90% years Female S/N Frequency Percentage 1. 47 100.00% 0 -- 2. 29 61.70% 18 38.30% 0 -- 0 -- 3. 13 27.66% 20 42.55% 9 19.15% 5 10.64% Table 6: Problems encountered while using electronic resources S/N Items Options Frequency Percentage 1. Information overload (or too Agree 34 43.59% many information) Disagree 44 56.41% 2. The need to filter the Agree 58 74.36% results from search Disagree 20 25.64% 3. Download delay Agree 55 70.51% Disagree 23 29.49% 4 Problem with credibility of Agree 12 15.38% information Disagree 66 84.62% 5 Failure to find information Agree 44 56.41% Disagree 34 43.59% 6 lack of search skills Agree 61 78.20% Disagree 17 21.80% High cost of access Agree 75 96.15% Disagree 3 3.85% 8 Power outages Agree 78 100.00% Disagree 0 -- 9 Inaccessibility of some Agree 40 51.28% websites Disagree 38 48.72% 10 Difficulties in navigation of Agree 50 64.10% some websites Disagree 28 35.90% Figure 1. Pie Chart Showing Gender Distributions of the Respondents Male, 31 40% Female, 47 60% Note: Table made from pie chart. Figure 2: Pie Chart Showing Distributions of the Respondents Ph.D, 13. 17% MSc, 65. 83% Note: Table made from pie chart. Figure 3: Pie Chart Showing Age Distribution of the Respondents 25-29 years, 3, 4% 30-34 years, 15, 20% 35-39 years, 23, 30% 40 years and above, 35, 46% Note: Table made from pie chart. Figure 4: Showing Access of Electronic Resources by Postgraduate Students of Delta State University Library, 0. 0% Department ICT Laboratory, 53, 0.8% Cybercafe, 05, 8.3% Home, 6, 0% University ICT Centre, 10, 13% Note: Table made from pie chart.