Urethane curatives: product lines reviewed.
AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS
Manufactures and markets an extensive line of additives for use in all types of polyurethane foam. Included are amine, morpholine and organometallic catalysts, crosslinkers and chain extenders, silicone and nonsilicone surfactants and mold release agents:
* Dabco 33-LV and BL-11, recommended for use in flexible slabstock and flexible molded systems, are tertiary amine catalysts that provide precise control of the gelling and blowing reactions.
* Dabco 8154 and BL-17 are delayed-action catalysts for use in flexible slabstock/flexible molded foam systems.
* Polycat 77 is a 100% active amine catalyst that promotes the gelling and blowing reactions in flexible and semi-flexible molded foam.
* Polycat 8 is an industry standard catalyst for spray systems and pour-in-place rigid applications.
* Polycat 46 catalyst, potassium acetate, and Dabco K-15 catalyst, potassium octoate, are used in isocyanurate lamination systems.
* Dabco TMR family of catalysts is used alone or in conjunction with polyurethane catalysts to customize the reactivities of polyisocyanurate foam systems.
* Dabco T-9, T-12 and 120 represent three types of tin-based catalysts that are useful in a variety of foam systems.
* Dabco NEM, NMM and NCM, morpholine-based catalysts, and Dabco B-16 catalyst are useful in polyester slabstock foam.
* Dabco DC5160 silicone surfactant provides both wide latitude and high efficiency stabilization in flexible slabstock processing.
* Dabco DC5164 silicone surfactant provides the highest cell stability and Dabco DC5241 silicone surfactant provides the greatest cell openness in flexible molded foams.
* Dabco DC193 silicone surfactant is designed to promote intimate mixing of reactants and is used in all rigid foam systems.
* LK-221 and LK-443 are unique non-silicone surfactants that improve adhesion in dual density elastomeric formulations and reduce pinholing in rigid foams, respectively.
* Airlift water-based mold-release agents allow excellent release and reduced build-up on molds and eliminate VOC emissions.
AKZO CHEMICALS INC.
Stanclere TL dibutyltin dilaurate is said to provide better hydrolytic stability in premixes containing polyol, water and silicone than stannous catalysts, giving the premix a longer storage life. In molded flexible PU foams, Stanclere TL reportedly promotes faster gassing while delaying gelation of the foam to allow complete filling of the mold before the foam begins to set. Dibutyltin bis IOTG is also offered.
In addition, the company offers liquid potassium acetate and potassium octate catalysts. These can be supplied at various concentrations in DEG or PEG. These materials are normally more cost-effective than amines for rigid urethane applications and can be blended with amines to achieve various end-point properties.
ANDERSON DEVELOPMENT CO.
Produces a series of urethane curatives called Curene. They include Curene 442, a standard mboca-type material, as well as Curene 185 for reduced hardness and Curene 3005, a liquid curative for polyester-based prepolymers.
ATOCHEM NORTH AMERICA INC.
(Formerly Pennwalt Corp.) Produces dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) which is said to be an effective, economical amine catalyst for flexible and rigid PU foams. Product reportedly is low-cost, reduces viscosity of the polyol mix, offers solvent properties to help disperse polyol-mix components, provides good latitude in adjusting cream and rise times. When combined with tin catalysts, DMAE is said to give better independent control of the PU foam reactions than other amine catalysts.
BASF CORP. INTERMEDIATES BUSINESS
Offers a variety of amine-based catalysts for use in several flexible and rigid applications, including: PM-DETA, TM-PDA, TM-HDA, N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine, N-methylmorpholine, N-ethylmorpholine, 1-methylimidazole, 1-2-dimethylimidazole, dimethylethanolamine, and triethylamine.
BUCKMAN LABORATORIES, INC.
Offers Bulab 600 tertiary amine catalysts and TMEDA (tetramethylethylene diamine). Both products are said to be fast, stable catalysts for use in rigid and flexible urethanes.
CALGON CORP. SUB. OF MERCK & CO., INC.
Metasol 57 is a specially prepared form of phenylmercuric propionate designed to catalyze urethane elastomers and foams. It is supplied as a free-flowing powder or as a 20% solution in dipropylene glycol (Metasol 57/DPG) for use in automatic metering equipment.
These products specifically catalyze the isocyanate/hydroxyl reaction and do not catalyze the isocyanate/water reaction. They are said to be stable, economical and able to function at low ambient temperatures with rapid gelling to permit fast demolding. Delayed induction period at low viscosity, followed by rapid cure, reportedly is provided, along with good demolding properties.
CARDINAL CHEMICAL CO.
Tin catalysts are available for use in flexible and rigid urethanes, including CC-1 (dibutyltin dilaurate), CC-3 (dibutyltin diacetate), and stannous octoate (including various solutions). A low-freezing-point version of CC-1 is offered for use in colder climates.
Offers proprietary organomercury compounds, trademarked Cocures, that function as polymerization or straight-chain catalysts for a wide range of castable two-component PU elastomers. Applications include industrial tires, conveyor belting, shock absorbers, printing rolls, wire sheathing, electrical insulation, seals, gaskets, and sporting goods. Available as liquids or powders and offered in a range of induction periods and cure times, Cocure products reportedly impart excellent elongation and tensile strength, are not affected by humidity, and can give satisfactory cures even at low ambient temperatures.
Other products available include:
* Cotins, a line of standard and proprietary organotins, including dibutyltin dilaurate and stannous octoate, are offered for urethane elastomers, rigid, and semirigid foam.
* Coscat 83, an organobismuth catalyst for two-component urethane elastomer systems, can be used in a wide range of elastomer formulations where reduced catalyst toxicity is desired. It is said to provide an alternative to lead, mercury, or tin-based catalysts.
* A complete line of amine catalysts includes Coscat T-33 (triethylenediamine), Coscat DM-8 (dimethylcyclohexylamine), Coscat DM-5 (pentamethyl DETA), Coscat NEM and NMM, Coscat DMEA, and Coscat B-1 (bis-dimethylaminoethylether). Coscat DP-30 is an amine system for isocyanurate foams.
DOW CHEMICAL CO.
Proprietary metal-salt complexes include Curithane 51 and 52 for controlled reaction of polyisocyanurate foams.
ENTERPRISE CHEMICAL CORP., LTD.
Quincat CQ-330 is a 33% solution of quinuclidene (1,4-ethylene piperidine) in dipropylene glycol. This amine catalyst reportedly shows activity equal to that of triethylenediamine-based catalysts, but at significantly lower use levels and lower cost. Foam properties are said to be comparable to those obtained with standard catalysts. This product is recommended for use in RIM, high-resilience (HR) foams, conventional flexible slabstock and rigid spray, pour-in-place and refrigeration-type foams.
FERRO CORP. CHEMICAL DIV.
Cata-Chek line of PU catalysts includes both stannous and alkyl tin systems used in PU foams and elastomers. Stannous octoate in various concentrations is available in the Cata-Chek 860 series. Also available is the standard dibutyltin dilaurate (Cata-Chek 820) and dibutyltin diacetate (Cata-Chek 867).
FOCUS CHEMICAL CORP.
Offers triethylenediamine and other amine catalysts for urethanes.
KENRICH PETROCHEMICALS, INC.
Offers titanate coupling agents as urethane catalysts that act via a polyolalcoholysis/NCO-alkylation mechanism. In a two-component RIM polyurethane, KR 55 titanate will produce a gel time of 16 sec, compared with a 27-sec gel time for dubutyltin dilaurate. An amino titanate, KR 44 reportedly will gel in 6.3 sec and provide an ultimate tensile strength of 21,570 psi at significantly lower cost, compared with 4450 psi for a dibutyltin dilaurate. Tg for urethane cured with KR 44 is 468 F versus 241 F for that cured with tin. Neoalkoxy titanates reportedly provide increased thermal and solvolytic stability.
MERCK & CO., INC.
See Calgon Corp.
MILLIKEN CHEMICAL CO.
Offers amine curing agents: phenyldiethanolamine and phenylethylethanolamine.
MOONEY CHEMICALS, INC.
Urethane catalysts available include dibutyltin dilaurate, potassium octoate, zinc octoate and lead neodecanoate.
See Atochem North America Inc.
ROHM AND HAAS CO.
Tetramethylethylenediamine is offered as a catalyst for PU foams.
SHEPHERD CHEMICAL CO.
Manufactures ferric acetyl acetonate and zinc acetyl acetonate urethane catalysts.
TEXACO CHEMICAL CO.
Company's Texacat (trademarked) series of amine catalysts is offered for a broad range of applications in PU foams:
* Texacat TD-33 is a 33.3% solution of triethylenediamine in propylene glycol for use in flexible, semiflexible and rigid foams and elastomers.
* Texacat TD-33A is a 33.3% solution of triethylenediamine in dipropylene glycol.
* Texacat DME, N,N'-dimethylethanolamine, is used with other Texacat catalysts to promote the gas-blowing reaction or to serve as an acid scavenger.
* Texacat TD-20 is a blend of 80% Texacat DME and 20% triethylenediamine for use in a wide range of rigid foams.
* Texacat DM-70 is used in flexible polyethers, polyesters and HR molded foams. Its advantages are said to include high reactivity, good surface cure and low odor.
* Texacat NEM, N-ethylmorpholine, is said to promote good top-skin cure in polyester foam molding.
* Texacat NMM, N-methylmorpholine, is for use in high-rise rigid foam panels.
* Texacat M-75 is a new low-odor catalyst used chiefly in production of polyester slabstock. It features reduced bun discoloration and broader processing latitude, resulting in more open-celled foams.
* Texacat DPA, a low-odor catalyst containing reactive hydroxyl groups, is designed primarily for low-density packaging foams.
Company also offers the following polyether catalysts in the Texacat line:
* ZR-70 is a dimethylarmoethoxylethanol for use in specialty packaging applications.
* ZF-22 is a 70% bis-(2-dimethylaminoethyl) ether diluted in dipropylene glycol amine catalyst used in flexible polyether slabstock foams and flexible molded foams.
* ZF-51 is a formulated amine catalyst used in flexible tabstock to promote higher block yield and is said to be especially useful in methylene chloride-blown foams.
* ZF-52 is a delayed-action, formulated amine catalyst for flexible stabstock foams.
* ZF-54 is a formulated amine for automotive seat molding. Delayed activity reportedly allows better flow, and the additive is also said to be useful as a co-catalyst with stronger gelation catalysts. More rapid demold is another claim made.
Also offered are the following specialty catalysts:
* DD is a high-boiling tertiary amine offered for use in flexible slabstock and flexible molding.
* DMDEE is a high-boiling tertiary amine with a balanced reactivity to blowing and gelation reactions.
* DMP (N,N-dimethylpiperazine) is a general-purpose catalyst for flexible and semi-flexible polyether foam.
THOR CHEMICALS, INC.
Manufactures proprietary organomercury and organotin catalysts for elastomers and some foams. Company's Thorcat 535 is a solvent-free, low-viscous, organomercury catalyst containing 35% metal, and said to have a long pot life and ambient cure.
TOSOH USA, INC.
Manufactures tertiary amine catalysts for rigid spray, molded foam, RIM, flexible, and HR foams. Pure and blended analogs of triethylenediamine (TEDA) are offered with various solvent systems for rigid, RIM, and flexible foams:
* Toyocat SPF, N-81, and N-31, recommended for flexible and molded foams, are blended catalysts compatible with blended polyols and highly synergistic with organotins.
* Toyocats TF and THN delayed-action catalysts based on TEDA are said to provide excellent retarding effects and gelling characteristics in rigid and RIM systems.
* Toyocats HX4, HX4W, and HX35 reportedly produce good physical properties with no stain in semirigid systems containing PVC.
* Toyocat MR is a strong gelling catalyst; Toyocat DT is a strong blowing catalyst. Both are recommended as replacements for conventional catalysts used in appliances.
UNION CARBIDE CORP. SPECIALTY CHEMICALS DIV.
Offers a broad range of Niax amine catalysts for all types of urethane foams. Product line includes both a high-activity A-series group and standard catalysts. Union Carbide is now supplying a line of tin-based catalysts from Cardinal Chemical Co.
JIM WALIER RESOURCES, INC.
Offers potassium octoate compounds in a diethylene glycol carrier for isocyanurate foams. Percent of potassium by weight ranges from 12.8% to 15%, with respective viscosities in the 5000 and 7000 cps range.
WITCO CORP. ORGANICS DIV.
Offers the Fomrez series of tin-based compounds for various types of urethanes, including rigid, flexible, high-resilience, and microcellular foams, as well as cast and RIM elastomers.
WYROUGH AND LOSER, INC.
Supplies a comprehensive line of urethane additives, including tertiary amines, tins and other catalysts for every urethane application. Included in its catalyst product mix are additives equivalent to Air Products' Dabco, Dabco 33LV and Polycat 8, and Union Carbide's Niax series such as A-1 and A-107.