Urban clusters: new waves of immigration have transformed the face of urban Canada. And, with a lower birth rate, the country will need more immigrants to keep the population from declining.
A hundred years ago I most immigrants to Canada were British. Between 1896 and 1905, the Canadian government started actively recruiting non-British immigrants from Poland, Germany, Ukraine, and Russia, mostly to farm the Prairies. They began to flood in Verb 1. flood in - arrive in great numbers
arrive, come, get - reach a destination; arrive by movement or progress; "She arrived home at 7 o'clock"; "She didn't get to Chicago until after midnight" during the first decade of the century: in 1901, 50,000 came; in 1913, there were 400,000 new arrivals.
During the 1960s, immigration policy An immigration policy is any policy of a state that affects the transit of persons across its borders, but especially those that intend to work and to remain in the country. reforms eliminated preferences for immigrants of European origin and implemented a points-based system for economic immigrants. This was to ensure maximum employability in an economy where skilled labour was becoming a priority. As more people from visible minorities started to settle, the character of communities changed.
In March 2004, Statistics Canada reported that there has been a phenomenal increase in visible-minority neighbourhoods--areas where at least 30 percent of the population comes from a single ethnic group. In 1981, Canada could count only six such neighbourhoods across the country. In 1991, there were 77, but by 2001, the number swelled to 254, nearly all of them in Toronto (135) and Vancouver (111), with some in Montreal (8).
In 2001, 73 percent of Canada's four million visible-minority citizens lived in the three cities
The Three Cities is a collective description of the three fortified cities of Cospicua, Vittoriosa, and Senglea on the Island of Malta, which are enclosed by the massive line of fortification created by the Knights of St John, the Cottonera Lines. . About one-third of them came here during the 1990s, one-third arrived before 1991, and the rest were born in this country.
More than 60 percent of these neighbourhoods were Chinese (157 out of 254), about one third were South Asian, with Blacks comprising only 13 of the total. By 2003, nearly 44 percent of the population of the Greater Toronto Area The Greater Toronto Area (widely abbreviated as the GTA) is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada. The GTA is a provincial planning area with a population of 5,555,912 at the 2006 Canadian Census. was foreign-born, and more than half of the population was visible minorities.
One community that has seen dramatic change is Thorncliffe Park Thorncliffe Park is a multi cultural neighbourhood in central east Toronto, Ontario, Canada, in the former Borough of East York. East York merged with five other municipalities and a regional government in 1998 to form the new "City of Toronto". in Toronto, home to one of the largest Afghan communities in the city. Thorncliffe is a community of high-rise apartment buildings, close to the city centre and public transit.
Heading east to Agincourt in North Scarborough where there are so many Asian residents that a Dragon Centre Dragon Centre (西九龍中心) is a shopping centre in the Sham Shui Po district of Kowloon in Hong Kong. The shopping centre spans 10 storeys. Sunlight can shine from the window on the roof to the first floor. , a Chinese shopping mall, was developed in 1984. It was a move that raised concerns among local residents that their community was being taken over.
While it's natural for immigrants to feel comfortable within their own ethnic neighbourhoods, the StatsCan report also raised concerns that by doing so they are becoming isolated from the rest of the community.
"Residential concentration of minority groups may result in social isolation and reduce minorities' incentives to acquire the host-country language or to gain work experience and educational qualifications," the study warned.
But, some say it's misleading to suggest that minorities who cluster in groups with family and friends don't adapt as well to their new home. Most of them still interact with people outside their ethnic community, whether it's at work or in school. Usha George, director of Canada's Joint Centre of Excellence for Research on Immigration immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important. and Settlement, says new immigrants could also be restricted to poor neighbourhoods with affordable housing because they are at the bottom of the socio-economic ladder in their new community.
"For a lot of them, the congregations in certain neighbourhoods are not by choice. Most of them are forced to do it," says Ms. George, who is also a professor in the University of Toronto's social work department.
The Statistics Canada report also found that visible-minority neighbourhoods are more likely to experience higher unemployment and lower income levels than other neighbourhoods.
In Toronto, the unemployment rate rises from 5.7% in neighbourhoods where less than one-tenth of the population is Chinese to 7.1% where the Chinese account for at least half of the community.
But, many argue that Canada needs immigrants as an answer to looming labour shortages. As the first statistical portrait of Canada in the 21st century, the 2001 census showed that the country's population growth rate has slowed to an all-time low. And, unless the birth rate goes up or tens of thousands more immigrants enter the country, our population is expected to start declining by 2011. Even for the population to stay where it is will require more immigrants: Canada's fertility rate Noun 1. fertility rate - the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 population per year
birth rate, birthrate, fertility, natality is just 1.5 children (the average number of children a woman will have over her lifetime), and that figure needs to be 2.1 children per woman to sustain the current level of population.
Economists and demographers expect the birth rate to continue to drop, and a result will be labour shortages within five years unless young immigrants are brought here to fill jobs. In the past, Canada has boosted immigration to counter its dropping birth rate, but in the last two decades, the immigrants Canada selected have been more educated and urbanized. So, they too have had fewer children. Many say the country needs more immigrants, beyond the current level of 210,000 people a year.
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. a 2001 report by the Urban Futures Institute in Vancouver, "the long term financial sustainability of Canada's pension plans, health care, income redistribution Income redistribution refers to a political policy intended to even the amount of income individuals are permitted to earn. This differs slightly from wealth redistribution or property redistribution, a policy which takes assets from the current owners and gives them to other programs, and other social services social services
welfare services provided by local authorities or a state agency for people with particular social needs
social services npl → servicios mpl sociales are dependent upon Canada having its current, or a higher, level of immigration in the future ... We must look at immigration ... as an investment in the future, ours and everyone else's. If we don't, we are all going to be a lot poorer."
There are many reasons why people come to Canada. According to a 2001 Statistics Canada study, 98 percent of newcomers to Canada between October 2000 and September 2001 said it was the only destination they applied to when they chose to leave their homeland, and they are developing a strong attachment to the country.
The study involved about 12,000 of the roughly 164,200 immigrants aged 15 and older who arrived that year. Many of them emigrated for economic reasons; some came to Canada to reunite re·u·nite
tr. & intr.v. re·u·nit·ed, re·u·nit·ing, re·u·nites
To bring or come together again.
[-niting, -nited with their family; others chose to leave their homeland for political or other personal reasons. Whatever the reason, most (91 percent) said they intended to settle here permanently and become Canadian citizens. And, most (78 percent) settled in areas where their network of friends and relatives lived. Three-quarters of them settled in Toronto, Vancouver, or Montreal. Those who moved outside these three large urban areas joined family and friends elsewhere (36 percent) or cited employment opportunities (32 percent) as the reason for their choice.
Education prospects (12 percent), lifestyle (six percent) and business prospects (six percent) were the other top reasons for many applicants to settle in areas other than the three largest cities. The survey also found that, prior to coming to Canada, the two most common occupational groups for men were natural and applied sciences and management; for women, they were business, finance and administration, as well as social science, education, government services, and religious occupations.
Shiploads of people from different countries would come across the ocean in the hopes of starting a life in the new world, Some settled in New Brunswick New Brunswick, province, Canada
New Brunswick, province (2001 pop. 729,498), 28,345 sq mi (73,433 sq km), including 519 sq mi (1,345 sq km) of water surface, E Canada. , but most moved on to other parts of Canada and the United States The United States and Canada share a unique legal relationship. U.S. law looks northward with a mixture of optimism and cooperation, viewing Canada as an integral part of U.S. economic and environmental policy. . Regardless of their destination, if they entered North America North America, third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. via the Saint John Harbour Saint John Harbour is a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick, Canada. It was represented from its creation for the 1995 election until October 13 2005 by Elizabeth Weir, the leader of the New Democratic Party of New Brunswick from 1988 to , they had to be inspected by quarantine quarantine (kwŏr`əntēn), isolation of persons, animals, places, and effects that carry or are suspected of harboring communicable disease. staff. From 1785 to 1942, Partridge partridge, common name applied to various henlike birds of several families. The true partridges of the Old World are members of the pheasant family (Phasianidae); the common European or Hungarian species has been successfully introduced in parts of North America. Island (right) served as North America's first Quarantine Station to prevent the spread of diseases.
In 1830, there were so many immigrants afflicted af·flict
tr.v. af·flict·ed, af·flict·ing, af·flicts
To inflict grievous physical or mental suffering on.
[Middle English afflighten, from afflight, with fever and smallpox smallpox, acute, highly contagious disease causing a high fever and successive stages of severe skin eruptions. The disease dates from the time of ancient Egypt or before. that they were housed in army tents. Hospitals often were overflowing. The most tragic years for Partridge Island were 1845-1847, when Irish immigration peaked. Dr. George Harding reported that on one day he had over 2,500 immigrants in quarantine. Sick people were forced to lie on bare ground, despite the weather. Partridge Island was designated a national historic site in 1947. Another important Quarantine Station was the island of Grosse lie, located close to the Port of Quebec.
The 2001 Canadian census showed that, for the first time in 100 years, Canada is growing more slowly than the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. .
According to the 2001 Canadian census, the population of Canada was then about 30 million, almost four million fewer people than live in the state of California.
In the 1950s, the average Canadian woman had four children over her lifetime.
Many countries, including Russia, Japan, and Germany, are having, or will soon have, real population declines.
1. The Centre For Diverse Visible Cultures is a community-based, provincial organization in Halifax, Nova Scotia For other uses, see Halifax.
Halifax, Nova Scotia may refer to any of the following:
2. With more than 170 different ethnic groups, speaking more than 100 languages, Toronto is recognized as one of the most multicultural cities in the world. The largest ethnic groups in the city are Chinese, Italian, English, East Indian East In·dies
Indonesia. The term is sometimes used to refer to all of Southeast Asia. Historically, it referred chiefly to India.
East Indian adj. & n.
Noun 1. , and Portuguese. Approximately 100,000 immigrants and refugees are attracted to the city each year. Many say the most intriguing aspect of the city is its distinct ethnic neighbourhoods--a taste of the world all in one city. Investigate how immigration has changed in your city or province over the last century, what skills each group of immigrants brought to their new country, and how they progressed with successive generations. Discuss how these immigrants have shaped Canada's identity as a multicultural country.
3. Set up a debate on the pros and cons pros and cons
the advantages and disadvantages of a situation [Latin pro for + con(tra) against] of ethnic enclaves that immigrants join when they leave their country of origin.
Diversity NOW--http:// www.diversitynow.ca/index. shtml
Diversity Watch--http:// www.diversitywatch.ryerson. ca/about/
Joint Centre of Excellence for Research on Immigration and Settlement--http:// ceris.metropolis.net/
Urban Futures Institute--http: //www.urganfumres.com