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Understanding patterns of resource use and consumption: a prelude to co-management.

For co-management of conservation areas to be effective, detailed information on local people's use of natural resources is essential. This chapter offers one method to obtain some of that information, a household recordkeeping study. It is simple to implement and analyze, and provides useful, quantitative data on resource use and income levels. Here we describe the method and present data derived from three such studies of Malay and Iban communities in and around the Danau Sentarum National Park in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. These data show the strong reliance of Malay and Iban peoples on fisheries and forests respectively, and suggest avenues for working with both groups to manage and conserve local resources. This is a companion article to one entitled, "understanding Local People's Use of Time: A Pre-Condition for Good Co-Management" (published in Environmental Conservation) in which we suggest a time allocation method for use in community-based conservation work.

Introduction

In recent years the importance of working with local people in protected areas has been increasingly recognized. There has been a continual stream of information showing how forest people participate in complex systems of resource management and use, often based on long experience with local conditions and involving extensive indigenous knowledge about local flora and fauna. That such ecological knowledge and local natural resources are often intimately interwined with forest people's cultures and ways of life has also become clear.

However, success in the implementation of such desirable management cooperation has been limited (cf. Wells 1997; Western and Wright 1994), partly we would argue because outside managers often lack appropriate knowledge about local people and how they have traditionally used and managed resources. In order to manage a protected area in a manner that both protects that environment and either maintain or enhances the quality of life of the people residing in and around it, managers need to know more about existing human impacts on and benefits from that environment. Knowledge of such human patterns can also help managers identify shared goals between local people and conservationists and provide insights on ways to tap into the real management potential that local people represent.

That management of protected areas requires biophysical expertise has long been acknowledged. However, with the recognition that local people must often be involved in formal management, the importance of expertise from the social sciences has increasingly been recognized. There are several kinds of social science expertise that are needed in the management of protected areas, including, for example,

* Anthropological description of the extant human uses of and benefits from the environment (as described in this chapter), as well as the values, norms and goals local people have

* Skills and knowledge of group dynamics for facilitating cooperative interaction and sharing of perspectives among local stakeholders

* Political knowledge to provide a "vertical" bridging function between local stakeholders and the wider governmental, industrial, and conservation worlds

These kinds of expertise have only recently begun to be available to managers of protected areas. Often responsibility for such ethnographic investigations, group dynamics, and political know-how fall to biophysical scientists who may be, quite understandably, poorly prepared to take on such additional (and perhaps unforeseen) responsibilities.

This chapter, based on the conclusion that management of protected areas will increasingly be conducted in a co-management, or partnership, mode, provides one simple recordkeeping method for learning about local people's uses and benefits from natural resources. Because this volume is focused on the management of Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP), there is more detail about that park than is necessary strictly to demonstrate how to use the method.

Based on experience with people living in other forested areas of Kalimantan and from Giesen's (1986) study of DSNP, we identified a number of issues that seemed significant for improving management there:

* What are the people using from their environment?

* What quantities of important products are they harvesting?

* Who is managing and/or collecting these products?

* Who is profiting from them, and by how much?

* Where are they finding what products?

* What is the balance between subsistence and market uses?

Developing a management plan for DSNP that both protects the environment and maintains or enhances local people's way of life requires knowledge of existing patterns of resource use and standard of living. Without such knowledge, park management could disadvantage local people, fail to mobilize potential positive contributions and, equally important, arouse unnecessary opposition to overall conservation goals.

Capturing the obvious human variation in the area--as the recordkeeping study does--was an important first step at DSNP. Some of the important local variation that emerged from the study, and is discussed below in more detail, includes:

* different resources provided the basis for different ethnic groups' livelihoods--e.g. Iban rice cultivation vs. Malay fishing;

* different seasons brought different products--e.g. for the Malay, honey in January, increased fishing in July and August;

* different resource use patterns characterized different communities--e.g. floating gardens in Bukit Rancong, none in nearby Ng. Kedebu'; and

* men and women dominated in different activities--e.g. for the Iban, male circular migration, female dominance in rice cultivation.

These kinds of variation are common among forest dwellers. Diversity in sources of income and subsistence represent an effective mechanism for dealing with the very real risks that characterize agricultural endeavours in tropical rain forest areas (Dove 1988; Colfer et al. 1997a; Wadley 1997a; Puri 1997). There is also commonly specialization or a kind of division of effort, among ethnic or user groups, such as the Malay concentration on wetlands and the Iban focus on uplands. In Long Segar, East Kalimantan, for instance, Golfer found the Kutai emphasizing commercial rattan collection, and the Kenyah avoiding it, with an explicit "division of labor" philosophy. In Sitiung, West Sumatra, the Minangkabau planted rubber and other tree crops which the Javanese eschewed, the Sundanese planted elaborate home gardens including fishponds, and the Javanese focused on rice, soybeans, and cassava production (Golfer et al. 1989:91). Each emphasized the link between their crops and their ethnicity. (This sort of specializ ation appears to have deep historical and prehistorical roots throughout Southeast Asia [see e.g. Higham 1989].)

Such ethnic specialization has important implications for natural resource management and for co-management in general. Although such diversity of use may appear to complicate the managers' tasks, taking it into consideration can contribute to more realistic planning, improved trust and cooperation from local people, nurturing of their initiative, and avoidance of unnecessary and counter-productive conflicts with them. Building on the opportunities, in terms of "social capital" or human resources, available from any community, requires quite specific information about their different forest use patterns (e.g., which plants are most important for which group of people? Where are those plants found? During which seasons are they abundant?).

The kind of data provided by the recordkeeping study must be augmented by cooperative input from biophysical scientists who must play a central role in understanding the conservation implications of these details of local forest use. Local names of flora and fauna must be converted to scientific names; ecological interdependencies must be interpreted in light of the impacts of local use on resource availability; the use of indigenous ecological knowledge requires communication and evaluation by those with related expertise (including zoologists, ecologists, fisheries biologists, and botanists).

Another, equally important, component of such co-management, not fully addressed here but mentioned above, is the process of working together with local people. Biophysical scientists and conservation area managers tend to be less accustomed to regular interaction with local people in a partnership mode than are anthropologists. Such interaction, however, is essential for effective co-management. Managing together requires regular communication, as well as an understanding of local values, norms and beliefs. The collection of data in the studies reported here and elsewhere (Colfer et al. forthcoming) can serve as a mechanism for facilitating and ensuring regular interaction between formal conservation area managers and local people--a function of critical importance. (Jeanes [1997] provides a very thorough examination of factors affecting management at DSNP.)

Household Recordkeeping

In this chapter, data from Malay and Iban communities serve as a means to explain a simple method, household recordkeeping, that can help managers to understand how local people use local resources. Such understanding is a necessary first step in using and building on indigenous management systems to fashion new approaches that incorporate conservation concerns in a more meaningful way.

The design of the recordkeeping study was based on a couple of months of data gathering by three of the authors at DSNP, and on Giesen's (1987) ecological monograph.

* the Malay were avid fisherfolk, suggesting a need to know which fish they caught, and which ones supplied them with the most income and food.

* the Iban collected a number of non-timber forest products, suggesting the need to know the repertoire of useful NTFPs in the area--in both flooded (primarily Malay) and hilly (primarily Iban) areas.

* Agriculture was obviously important for the Iban, but little was known beyond the simple observation that it was a swidden system. What were their crops and how dependent were they on agriculture for food and cash? What about agriculture among the Malay, whose agricultural activities would have a more direct effect on DSNP?

* Local interest in income generation seemed probable, but how dependent were these groups on cash income? Determining both what they were doing to make money, and just how poor they really were, had important management implications.

* Finally, documenting people's eating behavior would grant a better understanding of which plants and animals were really crucial to human wellbeing in the area, and which ones they might be persuaded to stop harvesting (all within the Wildlife Reserve; and endangered ones outside it).

More importantly, perhaps, the results could be used while the study was in progress, to plan additional activities and to keep the project "on track." It also served the function of beginning to integrate project activities with those of the local people, and vice versa.

The search for this range of information was motivated by the conviction that understanding existing forest and other resource uses would enhance cooperation and effective collaborative management with local people. Such knowledge and cooperation would prove valuable in trying to change any harmful practices and in promoting traditional practices with conservative effects.

Study Sites

Because this chapter appears with a great deal of other research on the area, Very little introductory information about locale, beyond the introduction of main study villages, (1) is presented here. Ng. Kedebu' is a small Malay fishing community of 108 people (Colfer's de jure census, 1992) in the heart of the DSNP (see Figure 1). It claims an area of 70.54 [km.sup.2], including a protected area (Hutan Nung) shared with other communities (Dennis et al. 1998). Its inhabitants are formally registered as residents of the larger community, Selimbau, on the Kapuas River, from which there is a yearly inundation of additional fishers during the dry season (raising the de facto population in October 1992, to 199). They are Muslims, sharing significant common cultural features with related peoples described by Firth (1966), Harrisson (1970), Furukawa (1994), and Scott (1985). Based on time series, remote sensing data (1973, 1990 and 1994), Dennis et al. (1998) concluded that local management of forest resources appea red to be sustainable (minimal change in forest cover); (2) their fisheries management, less so (see Dudley, this volume).

Wong Garai is an Iban longhouse to the northeast of DSNP. Its inhabitants have resided in the area for over one hundred and fifty years. Within a traditionally-defined territory of around 24 [km.sup.2], they practice a complex agroforestry system based on swidden rice cultivation, forest gardens, hunting, fishing, and wages earned on trips across the border to Malaysia (described in detail in Wadley 1997a, 1997b, n.d.a; Wadley et al. 1997, n.d.; Colfer et al. 1997a). Their belief system includes a mixture of Christianity and traditional ancestor worship (Wadley n.d.b), and they share many characteristics with other Iban and Ibanic groups (as described by Freeman 1970; Padoch 1982; Sutlive 1988; Dove 1981; Drake 1982).

Bemban, site of a partial study, is an Iban longhouse of 15 households, including 71 people (village records, 1992) on the western edge of DSNP. Its territory comprises 67.28 [km.sup.2] (Dennis et al. 1998), and is adjacent to the lakes, making the community's resource use somewhat more similar to the Malay patterns than are the other Iban communities. Half of the community is Protestant, half Catholic, all with a considerable animist admixture.

Comparable remote sensing data are unavailable for Wong Garai, but their system includes rotating of fields with long forest fallows (see Colfer et al. 1997a; Wadley n.d.a). Bemban has a similar system. The ecologist, Peters (1993) comments, "All factors considered, the [Bemban] system comes very close to the ideal of sustainable forest utilization." (p. 35). The remote sensing data from Bemban (Dennis et al. 1998) suggest more forest change there than in Wong Garai, but the shifting patterns of forest type over the years (1974, 1990, and 1994) suggest a normal long rotation forest fallow system, with probable sustainability under recent conditions. (3)

Methods

This study was conducted in Ng. Kedebu' and Wong Garai, and briefly in Bemban. In Ng. Kedebu', 8 to 10 families (20% of households) kept records; in Bemban, eight families (67%); and in Wong Garai, the entire longhouse of 13 families (100%). Each recordkeeping component (Fishing, Agriculture/ Agroforests, Forest Products, Wage Labor, and Food Consumption) had its own forms in the appropriate language: Malay or Iban.

Families filled in forms in booklets with multiple sheets for each month of the studies. Literate members of participating families recorded what their members caught, found, produced, sold, and ate, as fully as possible. If possible, they also specified producer, harvester, owner, and seller. They kept records every day for one month every quarter (4) resulting in four months of data during 1992-93, from Ng. Kedebu' and Wong Garai, and one month (December 1992) from Bemban.

In Ng. Kedebu', Golfer began the study and later supervised a village assistant, Sahar, after he took a lead role in monitoring the recordkeeping. Golfer resided there from August--October 1992; in a distant DSNP community from November 1992--February 1993; and at the DSNP headquarters, a short canoe ride from Ng. Kedebu', from March--July 1993. An attempt was made to reflect the limited community diversity by selecting half the respondents from "upriver" newcomers and half from "downriver" oldtimers, and by including one woman-headed household and one riverboat dweller. There was a slight change in cooperators over the year.

In Wong Garai, recordkeeping forms were modified by using the Iban language and adding a form on rice cultivation for use during the February rice harvest (See Golfer et al. 1993b; also Wadley 1997a for a fuller analysis of rice). This form included information on land use and ownership, and agricultural production. The entire community participated, under Wadley's resident supervision.

Colfer started supervising the study in Bemban but due to constraints on her time and low levels of literacy in the community, only one month of data collection was possible. The Wong Garai Iban forms were also used in Wong Garai.

Significant problems with the method included: difficulties finding sufficiently literate family members, people's fears about the confidentiality and use of the results, and difficulty reading people's handwriting, which became particularly acute during data entry. (5) This could be overcome by more regular supervision, which would also increase interaction with community members. Another difficulty was the rather amazing number of ways people measured things. As will be clear from the tables A-C and I-K, this problem was never satisfactorily resolved. A related problem was translation and comparison of different Iban and Malay resource categories, particularly regarding forest use (see discussion on Agriculture/Agroforests and Forest Products below).

Results of Recordkeeping

Fishing

Fish and Fishing Gear

Many types of fish were recorded by local people (Appendices A-C). But it is important to note that their List by no means includes all fish species in these waters (cf. Dudley, this volume; Widjanarti 1995, for biological studies of local fish), but rather indicates those fish that local people consider important in their daily lives. There are inevitably some inconsistencies in identification of fish by local people (as well as some difficulty in linking common names to scientific names). However, these data, imperfect as they are, indicate the variety of fish people recognize and use, as well as the relative abundance of useful species.

Because project activities emphasized work in the park's lakes area, work to match scientific with Malay fish names has proceeded further than with Iban fish names. (Appendices A-C). It is almost certain that many of the same species recorded in the Malay data set are also in the Iban data set, but this match to local names has not yet been made. Nevertheless, species habitat preferences result in real differences between the fish fauna in the two areas. The Iban fish names are included to show the depth of indigenous knowledge of fish among that group and the comparative abundance of species, leaving for future researchers the task of matching the local and scientific names.

Differences between Iban and Malay emphases on fishing are related to the very different environments they inhabit. On one hand, Malay live in the lakes area which has been an extremely rich fishery for much of the year, while the Wong Garai Iban live in the headwaters of a Leboyan tributary. The people of Wong Garai have complained of increased fishing by communities downriver from them which they believe have decreased local yields. These factors no doubt contribute to some of the differences between Ng. Kedebu', and Wong Garai.

The lists of fish caught also show the significant differences in amount of fish caught in the three communities. Analysis of fishing records was complicated significantly by the fact that some fish were recorded by "tail" (ekor in Malay, iko' in Iban, which refers to counts of individual fish) and some were recorded by kilogram (Appendices A-C). Ng. Kedebu' average total catches reported in kg were more than seven times those recorded in Wong Garai, and more than twice Bemban catches. The dominance of Ng. Kedebu' in fisheries was even more pronounced in the comparisons by "tails."

Malay fisherfolk are much more likely than Iban swidden cultivators to be comfortable making estimates in kilograms, because many Malay commercial transactions require sale by kg. There is considerably greater fishing success among the people of Ng. Kedebu', where they of course also put considerably greater effort into such activities.

The three communities employed a variety of gear to catch fish (Table 1). These data are important because of the varying efficiency of different fishing gear and their consequent potential impact on fish stocks. Again, the frequencies show the different importance and methods of fishing among the Malay vis-a-vis the Iban. Although 60% of the cases of gear use among the Iban coincided with Malay gear, five of the twelve Iban methods were not mentioned by the Malay. The Malay identify at least 45 fishing gear types (Dudley 1996b) but recorded only 13 gear types (ignoring the unknown methods recorded by both ethnic groups).

The fishing implements used by the Wong Garai Iban reflect their reliance on fast-moving streams and small rivers. The small number recorded in Bemban is due in part to the fact that the recordkeeping study only encompassed the month of December.

Despite the Iban reputation for using poisons in fishing, these data (supplemented by Wadley's long term, day to day exposure to life in Wong Garai) suggest limited use of natural poisons in fishing by these communities. Where commercial interests come into play poison may be more likely to be used (see Aglionby 1995).

Fish and Money

Ng. Kedebu' is comparatively more dependent on income derived from fish than the Iban communities (Table 2).

The variety of valuable fish and the amount of selling evident in Ng. Kedebu' is in obvious contrast to the pattern in Wong Garai (where no fish were sold) and Bemban, where only the very valuable soft-shelled aquatic turtle was exported for a very good price, across the Malaysian border. This fairly large amount of money (Rp. 176,400) was obtained by one man from the sale of one or two large turtles. (6)

Fish as a contribution to normal family incomes is only important in Ng. Kedebu', where fishing forms the economic base for all families. Table 3 shows the monthly incomes from fishing by study families in Ng. Kedebu'. The wild fluctuations are clear, as is the low overall average income from fishing (See Figures 5 and 6, for the place of fishing in overall income).

One important point concerning the Bemban data is that they come from December, a month of typically high water, when people normally do not fish much. Given their proximity to the Lakes, Bemban fishing and income derived from fishing are likely to increase in the dry months. This is in contrast to the upriver Wong Garai Iban, who fish for household consumption only--reflected in their absence in these data.

The average monthly income from fishing is about Rp. 175,000, reasonably substantial for rural forest dwellers in Kalimantan. The problem for local people arises from the rather extreme variations in income. DSNP fisherfolk live with a high degree of uncertainty. Sometimes they catch fish of high value or in large quantities, while at other times they catch or are able to sell nothing. In addition to the perversities (from the human perspective) of fish reproduction and movements, there are uncertainties related to transport. During the dry season, trade boats have difficulty getting to many communities, thus sometimes interfering with the sale of fish when fish are most easily caught.

In Ng. Kedebu', the average cash received per trip is Rp. 1800. In Wong Garai, it is nothing, and in Bemban it is Rp. 3000 (statistically significant differences, using Kruskall-Wallis nonparametric test, [chi square] = 49.09 with 2 d.f. (P < 0.001). This yields an overall average of Rp. 1,800/trip. The fisheries related income in Ng. Kedebu (1), the lack of fisheries-related income in Wong Garai, and the dramatic (but more occasional) fisheries-related income in Bemban reflect local patterns of resource use. Malay rely for a low, marginal income, on fisheries. Iban experience occasional, windfall profits from fisheries, but they do not rely on fish for primary subsistence needs (except as part of one's own diet, see last "Results" section; also Wadley 1997a).

Ng. Kedebu', as the only location with recurring income from fisheries, provides the only opportunity to examine income data, disaggregated by gender. There, males earn an average of Rp. 1,500/trip and females, Rp. 1,200/trip, with mixed outings yielding an average of Rp. 3,900/trip. The overall average income per trip is Rp. 1,800. The lower female earnings may relate to their tendency to "fish for supper." The higher earnings for mixed groups cannot be disaggregated from the fact that a mixed group is, by definition, more than one person, where a single sex trip is often a single fisher. The amount of cash received by mixed gender groups is significantly greater than that received by single sex outings, whether male or female (Kruskall-Wallis nonparametric test, [chi square] = 100.2 with 2 df, P < 0.00).

Level of effort

One simple indicator of level of efforts is the number of fishing trips undertaken. Tables 4 and 5 show these, disaggregated by gender, for Ng. Kedebu' and Wong Garai, respectively.

In both Iban and Malay data sets, there is no statistically significant difference in length of trips by men and women, but among the Malay trips involving males and females together were significantly longer than single-sex ones.

Bemban is excluded from this comparison because the sample was too small. For the Malay, the predominance of mixed gender trips in June, a comparatively busy fishing season, is striking when contrasted with the other months, in which single-sex outings are more common. An increase in fishing by both genders during the dry season (typically June-August) was also demonstrated in a time allocation study conducted in Ng. Kedebu' (Colfer et al. forthcoming).

Among the Iban, the greater involvement of men in fishing contrasts with the greater involvement of women in subsistence agriculture (see Wadley 1997a). On the one hand, men fish more in the months when they must get fresh food to feed guests during post-harvest rituals (June) and after rice planting, their peak agricultural labor (September). Women, on the other hand, who are overwhelmingly more involved in rice cultivation, thus have less time for fishing. The months where there is no recorded female fishing reflect periods when women are busy preparing and attending post-harvest rituals (June) as well as weeding hill swiddens and planting swamp swiddens (September).

The much higher number of trips among the Malay also provides further confirmation that fishing is a major economic activity among these people. The larger number of trips undertaken in Ng. Kedebu' vis-a-vis Wong Garai is statistically significant ([chi square] = 55.69 with 2 d.f., P < 0.001).

The amount of time consumed in fishing differed significantly by community as well. In Ng. Kedebu' the mean number of hours per trip was 4.88; in Wong Garai, 1.64, and in Bemban, 1.51. Fishing trips made in Ng. Kedebu' are significantly longer than trips in the other two locations (Kruskall-Wallis nonparametric test, [chi square] = 803.43 with 2 d.f. (P < 0.001).

A number of other researchers have noted the active involvement of women in Indonesia's inland fisheries (e.g., Upton and Susilowanti 1992; Pollnac and Malvestuto 1992; Malvestuto 1989; C. Bailey et al. 1990; Colfer et al. forthcoming). These data confirm such involvement, though to a statistically significant lesser degree than male involvement (Tables 4 and 5).

Malay spend more time fishing, and they have access to much denser (seasonal) populations of fish. In all probability, Bemban patterns, were data available, would more closely parallel the Malay during the dry months.

Agriculture/Agroforestry

Almost as obvious as the Malay dependence on fisheries is the Iban dependence on agriculture. Their economic base is rice cultivation (cf. Wadley 1997a; Colfer et al. 1993b). Although Iban cultural, economic, and ritual dependence on rice is essential to understand, it is not a monocrop system. Instead rice cultivation is part of a larger agroforestry system. Rice fields themselves are really multicrop gardens with rice as the principal crop.

During data collection, an attempt was made to provide comparable categories for Malay and Iban. In doing so, Iban field, garden, and managed forest categories were collapsed into a broader category of "things that are tended or cultivated" (utai ke dipara). Thus in these data there are a number of products that might best be placed in the forest products section, and indeed there is considerable overlap with that section (see below). This shows that a neat division of cultivation and forest is a rather foreign concept to Iban, and results in the cumbersome category of "agriculture/agroforestry" used here.

Crops Harvested

Comparing Iban rice fields and gardens to Malay gardens in the field, the greater diversity of crops is obvious at Wong Garai. In this data set, Wong Garai collaborators recorded 21 items, and Ng. Kedebu', 17 (Appendices D and E). Add to this, products from Iban agroforests (including the animals captured in agroforests and uncultivated plants collected), and Iban "crop" diversity is far higher.

For the Malay data, the Latin names were not determined on the basis of identified samples but rather on the basis of the best estimates of botanically trained fieldworkers in the Reserve. For the Wong Garai data, the Latin names were determined from the extensive ethnobotanical work of Hanne Christensen (n.d.b) at a closely related longhouse just across the border in Sarawak. The animals captured were identified by Wadley in the field.

In Bemban, in December, people reported a preponderance of corn, cucumbers and cassava. These are crops normally available at that time of the agricultural cycle.

Crop Locations

The diversity of crop locations is among the Iban is in striking contrast to the Malay agricultural system. In Ng. Kedebu' only one source was listed, the tayak, or small fields located directly behind the village. Colfer measured a sample of nine (of 45) fields, and they ranged in size from 24 [m.sup.2] to 297 [m.sup.2], with the mean being 117 [m.sup.2]. These fields were flooded most of the year, and the ability to bring a crop to fruition was greatly influenced by the timing of the annual flood. Table 6 shows the Wong Garai locations from which people harvested crops or collected/captured agroforest products. The much more complex agroforestry system of the Iban is reflected in the variety of locations listed below.

Harvesting, Ownership and Gender

Besides crops and locations, the division of labor by sex in these two communities had potential management implications. Participating households recorded who harvested the crops recorded, shown in Table 7. The predominance of women harvesters is evident in both communities, though much more dramatically so in Ng. Kedebu.'

There is a significantly different gender pattern among the three villages. In Ng. Kedebu', women are very dominant, probably because of their emphasis on tayak cultivation. In contrast, among the Iban, men's and women's contributions are more evenly spread although women still dominate. Men's involvement in agroforest management is relevant here.

Given the importance of tenure considerations to sustainable forest management (e.g., Prabhu et al. 1996; Golfer et al. 1997b), recorders were asked to indicate who owned the land from which the crops were harvested.

In Ng. Kedebu', women were the primary land owners (though the land owned covers a remarkably small area), (7) (Table 8). In Wong Garai, the pattern shifts, from one slightly dominated by women to one where mixed gender ownership is predominant, with males having a significantly greater part in land ownership than women. The "unspecified" category is also likely to be mixed gender; it refers to "same household" and "kin in another household."

This pattern at Wong Garai is probably a product of the prevailing patrilocal residence, whereby a woman goes to live with her husband's family upon marriage. Consequently, men are more likely to be regarded as the formal heads of households and thus more likely to be listed as land owners. However, this oversimplifies the matter because among the Iban, households own land, not individuals (Wadley 1997a, 1997b).

Furthermore, in many areas of Borneo, crops can be owned on land belonging to someone else. Participants in the study therefore also indicated who owned the crops that were harvested (a separate issue from land ownership, in many cases). In Ng. Kedebu', the land owner and the crop owner were in all cases identical, i.e., women own the plants as well as the land.

This was not the case in Wong Garai where the largest category of plant ownership (almost 40%) came from land belonging to the unspecified category (i.e., "same household" or "kin in another household"). Women were the second largest category of plant owner (29%). Men were the least likely to own the plants (13%), in contrast to their more meaningful position in land ownership (28%). This represents evidence for local acceptance of the idea that allocating one's labor confers rights (sometimes called "sweat equity")--a commonly stated view in Borneo and other areas of Indonesia.

Again, however, for the Iban this conflates notions of ownership. Women are listed as "owners" for two reasons: (1) They were more likely to have planted the items in question, and (2) with high rates of male absence due to labor migration, women might have been listed as owning something because they were the effective household heads. The predominance of mixed gender (including "unspecified") shows that gender is not a particularly important ownership issue in Iban households.

This pattern with women or mixed categories dominating suggests that efforts by conservation area managers to intensify agriculture, improve fallow management, or develop income generation projects related to agroforestry would do well to include local women. In the DSNP context, approaching formal male leaders is an important prelude to cooperation with communities. However, once such cooperation has been secured, planning, implementation and evaluation will need to involve women as well (cf. Golfer et al. 1997c). The complete dominance of women in Ng. Kedebu' agriculture makes it particularly important there. The wider distribution of responsibilities among the Iban suggests that both need to be involved, although women do dominate in rice cultivation (cf. Wadley 1997a).

Forest Products

The forest product portion of the recordkeeping study prompts some conclusions about people's dependence on the forest, forest culture interaction, and indigenous knowledge--all issues of relevance for sustainability (Golfer 1995).

Four issues emerge as important from this portion of the study:

1. The repertoire of items that were collected by people in the three communities. This indicates existing patterns of use, probable areas of indigenous knowledge, and hints about potential for expansion or need for reduction in harvesting.

2. The uses to which those items were put. If a large number of items was necessary for subsistence (food, fuel, building materials, etc.), this would suggest a strong dependence of local people on the forest. It could also, less directly, reflect indigenous knowledge of forest products usage, including possibly environmentally benign areas for income generation.

3. The locations from which the items were collected. The number of locations mentioned can provide an indication of the people's indigenous geographical knowledge--and provide useful hints to their use of space within the park.

4. The income derived from these products. This would reflect people's dependence on forests for cash, either as part of subsistence or as supplementary income.

Repertoire of Forest Products

A variety of forest products are collected throughout the year in each of the three communities (Appendices F-H). The Wong Garai data set (Appendix G) is much more extensive than either of the other two, reflecting greater Iban forest use than Malay forest use; and also the longer research period, vis-a-vis Bemban (Appendix H). Again, as with the data on agriculture/agroforests, there is some overlap here with "cultivated" categories.

Although the Bemban data set is not comparable (because of the reduced period of time for which records were kept), the Bemban Iban represent an intermediate category. This is not surprising but nonetheless interesting because their community is located much closer to the Lakes than Wong Garai. One might therefore expect Bemban forest use to take an intermediate position between the Wong Garai forest use patterns and those of Ng. Kedebu'.

The data reveal a rather sharp (and not surprising) division between the pattern of forest use of the Malay, on the one hand, and the Iban, on the other. The 207 forest products recorded by the Malay were exclusively wood and rattan (with one exception). The Iban of Wong Garai, in sharp contrast, recorded primarily foods (556 items), with a few other forest products (60).

Our attempts to determine amounts of forest products collected have been somewhat confusing primarily because of the different "counters" (or units) used for different kinds of item (appendices I-K). The Malay recorded the fewest ways of measuring quantities of forest products (Appendix I), with three (sticks, canoesful, and sheets) standards.

A greater number of measurements for forest produce (eight) were used, as well as a greater variety of products collected from the forests of Wong Garai. The terms used to count items collected are stick (batang), seed (igi'), bundle (tungkus), tail (iko'), backpack (ladong), sheet (keping), basket (raga'), and stem (tangkai) (Appendix J).

The products, the amounts regularly used in all three communities, and the effort required (measured as number of trips) to search for them, varies between the communities.

Uses of Forest Products

The uses for these forest products were also recorded. In Ng. Kedebu' people use forest products in three primary ways--as firewood (24.5%), for smoking fish (33.2%), and for sale (27.4%). In Bemban they use forest products for making mats (35.0%), boat construction (22.5%), and food (15.0%). In Wong Garai people use forest products for eating (92.3%) and cooking (5.9%). The Malay use forest products commercially although also for subsistence purposes.

Among the Iban, forest products are primarily foods or items used in subsistence. This reflects the Iban tendency to take for granted the many forest products that they use daily. Golfer had difficulty obtaining comparable information on non-food uses of forest products from a similar group (the Uma' Jalan Kenyah of East Kalimantan). This was simply because the local people could not conceive of someone a) not knowing about these products and their uses already, or b) having any particular interest in something so common. The items, not typically in short supply, were used daily by the people themselves (see Colfer et at. 1997a). (8)

Certainly Iban dependence on forest fibres, firewood, and timber is more obvious when one is confronted with their lifestyle (housing, cooking and agricultural implements, binding materials, weaving materials for mats and containers of various kinds, furniture, boats, etc.) than is evident from these data. Their extensive ecological knowledge and lexicon for forest resources further support this view (e.g. Golfer et at. 1997b; Wadley n.d.a; Christensen n.d.a; Pearce et at. 1987).

The Bemban data, though minimal, again reflect an intermediate position between Ng. Kedebu' and Wong Garai, in the comparative dominance of wood products collected. Besides firewood, foods, and construction materials, the people of Bemban collect forest products for ceremonies. Again, in all three villages, the subsistence uses (or commercial uses which are then immediately converted to subsistence uses) of--and thus dependence on--the forest are clear.

Locations from Which Forest Products were Collected

The final analysis on this data sub-set revolves around the areas in which people collect forest products (appendices L-N). The fact that Bemban's data set is smaller than the others derives from the fact that data were only collected for one month there. However, as with the other results, Bemban seems to represent an intermediate situation between Ng. Kedebu' and Wong Garai.

The Wong Garai data sets includes a large number of items in a small number of locations; whereas the Ng. Kedebu' dataset includes a smaller number of items in a larger number of named locations. There are several possible interpretations to this observation. First, the terrestrial homeland of the Wong Garai Iban (lowland Dipterocarp forests) is richer in terms of the repertoire of forest products than the flooded forest areas which the Malay inhabit. (9) The Malay may require a more refined geographical knowledge base--Where do we find the few products available, during what periods of the year?--compared to the greater botanical and zoological knowledge base required in the Iban context--Which of the many products are useful/edible?

The most probable interpretation, however, is related to the codes used: Malay codes represent specific named locations while Iban codes refer to categories of places, which have many specific names. For example, within Wong Garai territory, there are 26 (named) old longhouse sites and over 46 (named) forest or tree reserves (including sacred sites) (see Golfer et al. 1997b).

This difference is probably researcher-derived. In trying to produce comparable categories in the data collection, the Malay category of forest (hutan) encompasses a range of Iban forest types (managed forest, preserved forest, and fallow forest), each of which has its own set of sub-categories. In asking the Iban to record forest products, this range of location types had to be identified on the forms in order for all types to be included. Another result of this effort was the considerable overlap in items between agriculture/agroforests and forest data sets (see above).

Income from Forest Products

One important issue conservation managers must understand in local contexts is the degree of market dependence among local people. Table 9 provides a clear indicator of the relative market involvement of the Malay and the Iban. Interestingly, the Malay often sell forest products in small amounts vis-a-vis the Iban who rarely sell forest products, but receive much larger amounts of money for them.

The sample families in Ng. Kedebu', taken together, earned Rp. 699,244 from the sale of forest products during the four recordkeeping months. This results in an average monthly income per family of Rp. 19,513 (Figure 5). Extrapolating from these data, one gets over Rp. 2,000,000 for a whole year for those families, or an estimated Rp. 10,500,000 village annual income from forest products. (10)

The Iban in Wong Garai, by contrast, recorded a total income from forest products of Rp. 330,950 (representing only 17 records of forest product sales, from seven households). Bemban families recorded no income from forest products, during the month they kept records. Both Iban and Malay are dependent on forest products for their livelihoods, but in very different ways.

Looking more closely at the Ng. Kedebu' data set, where money is a more pervasive element in people's lives, there is an interesting pattern, with one family having a much larger income than the others (Figure 2). Golfer also found this pattern in a similar study of Kenyah income patterns in Tanah Merah and Long Segar, East Kalimantan (Golfer et al. 1997a).

A slightly different pattern exists in Wong Garai, where seven of the thirteen families sold forest products and with one household making Rp. 92,950 from one sale of illipe nuts and another, Rp. 130,000 from three such sales.

There is a significant gender difference in the amount of income received for forest products in Ng. Kedebu' (Using Kruskall-Wallis nonparametric test, [chi square] = 7.41 with 2 d.f (P < 0.025). There, men received an average of Rp. 8,100, while women only received an average of Rp. 3,600, with mixed gender outings averaging less than Rp. 1,000. The overall average income from these products was Rp. 6,300.

From the 17 records in Wong Garai, Iban women generate more cash from forest products than men. From only six records of selling illipe nuts, women earned Rp. 265,450--80% of the total earned and Rp. 44,000 for the average transaction. In contrast, men earned only Rp. 65,500 from the sale of rubber and palm wine; this was from 11 records of two households (only 20% of the total and only Rp. 5,900 for the average transaction).

Wage Labor

Despite this source of income, people in all three communities are poor. The Malay are dependent on cash (from fishing, fish processing, and forest product collection) to buy their rice and other non-fish foods; and they are dependent on the forest to supply many of their daily subsistence needs (boats, houses, construction materials, etc.).

The Iban use less cash in daily life, though they may have access to more wealth than the Malay through remittances and goods brought back by the circular migrant men. Almost all of their food comes from the surrounding agroforests.

Conservation area managers have often devoted considerable effort to increasing incomes in conservation areas, as a means to enhance protection of local resources. Indeed, CIFOR has devoted one of its ten projects to trying to assess the truth of this widely held belief, in East Kalimantan. This issue was considered important enough to include in the recordkeeping study.

The jobs performed in Ng. Kedebu' included private chainsaw operator, carpenter, and fish processing (Table 10). One man served as a guide for the timber company (P.T. Mekanik) in transporting logs through the Reserve, another hired out himself and his canoe.

Wong Garai recordkeeping included very little wage labor. Of the three individuals recording any income from wage labor in Ng. Kedebu', two were outsiders who had come for the busy fishing season. All the recorded wage was from the months of September and October. The overall income recorded totaled Rp. 100,500. If extrapolated to the entire community of about 50 households, this would yield an annual village income from wage labor of roughly Rp. 1,500,000.

Five Ng. Kedebu' families reported earnings from fish processing (either sale of smoked, dried, or salted fish). The important fish are listed in Table 11, along with related income. The total fish processing income for the year for these five families was Rp. 315,050, which converts to an annual village income from this source of over Rp. 4,700,000 (11)--considerably more important than wage labor, per se, which provided only Rp. 100,500 to four individuals.

No families recorded wage labor or fish processing income from Bemban. Although there is unquestionably income coming into this village from wage labor performed elsewhere, apparently none of the circular migrants returned during the period of recordkeeping. At Wong Garai, there were eight cases of locally-generated wage labor income--six cases of carrying lumber or other things, one case of escorting outsiders, and one of a village official receiving a fee of Rp. 36,000 from a local logging company (Table 10). The total income amounts to only Rp. 67,150 or Rp. 5,165 if averaged across households. Of the eight cases, three involved women while the majority (six) involved teenagers working for money primarily to pay for school supplies, though such money was also subject to use for other household expenses. Given the small amount of cash Iban appear to use for daily subsistence, the money earned here stands out as important.

The income from wage labor is quite small, and even the fish processing income recorded in Ng. Kedebu' does not represent a particularly significant amount for an entire village. Ironically, the poverty of the people of Ng. Kedebu', who need cash every day for food and who do report some wage labor, is more observable than the poverty of the Iban, who recorded little involvement in wage labor, or income therefrom.

The explanation lies in regular circular labor migration to Malaysia and Brunei by Iban men. There they work in a range of jobs including logging and construction, and receive very high wages by Indonesian standards. (12) The average monthly wage ranges from US$170 to US$900, or Rp. 340,000 to Rp. 1,800,000 at early 1990s rates (US$1 = Rp. 2,000). The amounts of money men remit to their families range from around US$50 to US$600 (or Rp. 100,000-1,200,000) (see Wadley 1997a for a full analysis).

However, no remittances were ever recorded in these data, nor is there any record of men's wages when they returned (as we would expect in the June recordkeeping when men regularly come home to visit). These omissions may have two causes: (1) People are extremely reticent to discuss money matters, particularly how much money they actually might have. Wadley was unable to get complete information on income from circular labor migration because of this. (2) The data recorders may have fallen into the habit of writing down things collected and produced by resident household members. Because people become so accustomed to male absence, they might have thought non-resident production beyond the scope of the study.

Figs. 3-6 provide an overview of incomes. The people of Ng. Kedebu' are much more dependent for subsistence on cash incomes than are those of Wong Garai; and substantial additional, unrecorded cash is available in Wong Garai from remittances (Figures 3 and 4).

Figures 5 and 6 are pie charts, showing the distribution of sources of family cash income recorded in the two communities. These data do clearly show the importance of natural resources are very important to these people, and are used in very different ways by the two ethnic groups (Figures 5 and 6).

Foods

The people of Danau Sentarum are poor by most outside standards. It is therefore especially important to be able to assess and monitor their nutritional situation. Food consumption recordkeeping gives a reasonably accurate portrayal of the kinds and distribution of foods available to people in the area. It also provides an indicator of people's dependence on local resources as well as hints on which local resources are critically important for subsistence.

Repertoire of Foods

Overall, there were 127 types of foods listed in the data set. The most striking feature is the dominance of rice in the local diet. Mentioned 4,511 times, 1,582 of them come from Ng. Kedebu' and the rest come from Wong Garai. The second most frequently mentioned food item was cassava leaves, with 648 occurrences--127 come from Ng. Kedebu' and the rest come from Wong Garai.

There was a significantly different pattern of food consumption between the Malay fisherfolk and the Iban swidden cultivators. This can be seen in Appendices o and P, which show the frequencies of foods consumed by month for each ethnic group. One important difference between the two ethnic groups is the Iban preference for eating three times a day, and the Malay tendency to eat only twice.

This kind of information is important in attempts to work with local people. If certain animals, for instance, form a critical part of local diets, forbidding people to hunt them may be unrealistic. On the other hand, extended protection of old growth forest may serve to maintain populations of forest pig, which is prized by Iban and is not illegal to hunt outside the Reserve (see Wadley et. al. 1997). Similarly if people's most basic food item, rice, is rooted in swidden cultivation, attempts by conservation managers to persuade people not to cut forest lands are unlikely to succeed (without very attractive incentives and alternatives). However, efforts to work with farmers to improve fallow management in order to sustain the economically and ritually important swiddens may be met with a good deal of interest.

Timing is another issue that influences management. Certain foods may be abundant at certain times of the year, whereas there may be times of scarcity as well. Among the Iban, for example, green leafy foods and vegetables are more common from October to December when those crops are ripe in the hill swiddens. Thereafter they are increasingly scarce until the next farming year (see Figure 8).

Nutritional Categories of foods

The distribution of foods among the different nutritional categories can give some hints (though not a definitive statement) about the nutritional status of local people. Again, there is a divergence of situations existing in Ng. Kedebu' and Wong Garai (Figures 7 and 8).

The primary carbohydrate in both communities is rice-although in Ng. Kedebu' it is virtually all bought, and in Wong Garai it is all home grown. In previous analyses of comparable data from Dayaks, we deleted rice from our graphs and figures, because of its overwhelming dominance in the local diet (e.g., Colfer and Soedjito 1996; Golfer et al. 1997a). In this study we retain it, for local comparative purposes.

Sources of Foods

Another important, food-related issue for natural resource management is the source f people's foods. The degree to which people are integrated into a cash economy is important, and the proportion of their food that is bought represent two indicators of this integration (or its lack). The two ethnic groups differ dramatically in the amount of food

That they buy, with the Malay purchasing an average of 59 % of their food, and the Iban purchasing 9 %, during the four months of study periods (figure 9 and 10).

In both Ng. Kedebu' and Wong Garai aquatic and bought sources of food are significant in their agroforestry systems. The people of Ng. Kedebu' are intimately integrated into a money economy, but at the bottom end of the economic hierarchy. The Iban, of the other hand, do not use their money for subsistence purposes; rather they are more likely to buy consumer goods and pay for their children's education (Wadley 1997a). Both communities' dependence on natural resources is equally clear (primarily rivers and lakes for the Malay; the forest for the Iban).

Summary and Conclusions

What then is the use of all this information and its gathering process about local people, in the pursuit of better conservation area management?

First, and most simply, in the process of supervising data collection, a manager meets with the local people, ensuring continuing data entry and asking questions about records that are unclear. In this way, a holistic understanding of local people's constraints and opportunities critical to good co-management begins to emerge. The rapport building process, necessary in co-management, progresses.

Second, the specific results help the manager in the creative process of developing management strategies, where a variety of goals, assumptions, and practices by different stakeholders need to come together into an integrated and complementary whole.

Although a manager may quickly recognize that there are two ethnic groups in the area, the extent of their differences in resource use is not immediately obvious to most biophysical scientists whose attention is normally directed elsewhere. This recordkeeping provides the very specific kinds of information that are often needed to make links between, for instance, biodiversity and human use issues. Who uses what, and how much of it?

Knowing how dependent are particular groups on particular resources can help managers to accept or reject various management ideas they may have. A manager who knows how dependent local people are on a specific endangered species will have a much clearer idea of how much effort may be required to protect it. The level of integration into a monetary economy also may influence managers' decisions about various potential strategies (e.g., to develop income generating activities or not; to propose management actions that require monetary expenditures or financial sacrifice on the part of local people or not).

The recordkeeping also provides information on the division of labor within households and communities. This kind of information is crucial for a manager in trying to tap into and enhance local management practices. DSNP managers who may want to reduce agricultural activity within the Reserve, for example, need to know that women are the farmers there; managers need to address their efforts to them, whether the technique is encouraging floating gardens, income generation activities, or awareness campaigns.

Conversely, if DSNP management wants to focus on a particular habitat (like flooded forest or old growth), this kind of data can clarify what is taken from that habitat by whom and in what quantities. Patterns of resource use emerge quite clearly and, combined with the biophysical knowledge of most managers, can be used to pinpoint problem areas, potential benign marketing strategies, and areas of useful indigenous knowledge and management (potential or extant).

Finally, these data, easily quantifiable, provide convenient material to support management's conclusions about appropriate "next steps" in local management. They can also help to explain problem areas (e.g., trying to protect an endangered otter in a community where fishing is a critical subsistence base). Very pragmatically, these data are useful in demonstrating to funding agencies, evaluators, and central planners, the reasons behind local management decision, in areas where the needs of local people are considered important.

Appendix A

Fish Reported Captured, Ng. Kedeu', 1992-93.

Malay Name                        Probable Latin Name



Bilis                             Clupeichthys bleekeri
Lais                              [various kinds]
* Lais                            Pelteobagrus cf ornatus
* Lais butu                       Ompok hypophthalmus
* Lais                            Kryptopterus apogon
jungang
* Lais p                          ?
* Lais banga                      Kryptopterus micronema
* Lais sengro                     ?
* Lais panak                      ?
Total Lais [various kinds]
Patik/Baung
* Patik                           Mystus nemurus
* Baung                           Mystus planiceps
Total Patik/Baung
Total Recorded as Lais or Patik/
 Baung (1)
Umpan                             Puntioplites waandersii
Kelabau                           Osteochilus melanapleura
Landin                            Mystus nigriceps
Jelawat                           Leptobarbus hoevenii
Kapas                             Rohteicthys microlepis
Buin                              Cyclocheilichthyssp.
Genus
Channa
* Toman                           Channa micropeltes
* Delak                           Channa striata
* Runtuk                          Channa sp.
* Piyang                          Channa maruljoides
Total for Genus Channa
Kelampak                          Parachela oxygastroides
Tengku-lan                        ?
Nuayang                           Pseudeutropius sp.
Juara                             Pangasius polyuranodon
Belantau                          Macrochirichihys
                                  mnacrochirus
Palau                             Osteoclzilus kahajanensis
Emperas                           Cyclocheilichthys apogon
Patung                            Pristolepis fasciata
Belida                            Chitala lopis
Ulang uli                         Botia macrachantus macracanthus
Entukan                           Thynnichihys thynnoides
Kebali                            Osteochilus schlegelil
Tebirin                           Belondotichthys dinema
Senara                            Paradoxcodacna piratica
Butug                             ?
Bauk                              [various kinds]
# Bauk                            ?
# Bauk ketup                      Thynnichthys polylepis
# Bauk tuduy                      ?
Total Bauk
Tilan                             Macrognathus maculatus
Kenyuar                           Luciosoma trinema
Bundong                           ?
Tapah                             Wallago leeri
Biawan                            Helostoma temminckii
Tengalan                          Puntioplites bulu
Siluari                           Lycothrissa crocodilus
Kelik                             Clarias sp.
Lipi                              Parachela spp.
Other fishes *                    [various kinds, reported
                                  less than 5 times]
Undifferentiated Species
# BK                              [large fish]
# BT                              [medium size]
# BTK                             [med. Large]
# Ikan barang                     [junk fish]
# Ikan campur                     [mixed fish]
Total Undifferentiated species

Total

Malay Name                        No. times   Percent    Amount
                                   reported     times  reported
                                             reported     in Kg

Bilis                                   552      21.2   3251.45
Lais
* Lais                                  344      13.2    284.00
* Lais butu                              79       3.0     23.00
* Lais                                   42       1.6      4.00
jungang
* Lais p                                 21       0.8         0
* Lais banga                             19       0.7      7.00
* Lais sengro                             1       0.1         0
* Lais panak                              3       0.1         0
Total Lais [various kinds]              509      19.5    318.00
Patik/Baung
* Patik                                 469      18.0   1680.30
* Baung                                  39       1.5     69.70
Total Patik/Baung                       508      19.5   1750.00
Total Recorded as Lais or Patik/       1029      39.5   2132.00
 Baung (1)
Umpan                                   176       6.8    292.25
Kelabau                                  99       3.8     93.40
Landin                                   51       2.0    427.00
Jelawat                                  41       1.6         0
Kapas                                    39       1.5     70.00
Buin                                     38       1.4     56.00
Genus
Channa
* Toman                                  20       0.7    129.50
* Delak                                  16       0.6     78.50
* Runtuk                                  2       0.1      1.00
* Piyang                                  1       0.1      1.00
Total for Genus Channa                   39       1.5    210.00
Kelampak                                 37       1.4      8.00
Tengku-lan                               33       1.3     72.50
Nuayang                                  31       1.2     43.80
Juara                                    30       1.1     22.50
Belantau                                 23       0.9     11.00

Palau                                    22       0.8     24.00
Emperas                                  22       0.8     18.50
Patung                                   21       0.8     22.50
Belida                                   20       0.8     64.00
Ulang uli                                20       0.8         0
Entukan                                  19       0.7     75.00
Kebali                                   17       0.6     22.50
Tebirin                                  16       0.6     27.50
Senara                                   15       0.6      1.00
Butug                                    14       0.5         0
Bauk
# Bauk                                    7       0.3     60.00
# Bauk ketup                              3       0.1     32.00
# Bauk tuduy                              1       0.1      4.00
Total Bauk                               11       0.4     96.00
Tilan                                    11       0.4     15.50
Kenyuar                                  10       0.4      7.50
Bundong                                  10       0.4         0
Tapah                                     8       0.3     10.50
Biawan                                    8       0.3     18.50
Tengalan                                  8       0.3     11.00
Siluari                                   7       0.3         0
Kelik                                     6       0.2         0
Lipi                                      6       0.2      0.13
Other fishes *                           32       1.8     45.50

Undifferentiated Species
# BK                                     25       1.0    134.00
# BT                                     17       0.6     72.00
# BTK                                     5       0.2     16.00
# Ikan barang                            28       1.1     74.30
# Ikan campur                             3       0.1      9.00
Total Undifferentiated species           78       3.0     305.3

Total                                  2599     100.0   7462.33

Malay Name                          Amount
                                  reported
                                   in Ekor

Bilis                                    1
Lais
* Lais                               18457
* Lais butu                           4763
* Lais                                 775
jungang
* Lais p                              1222
* Lais banga                           123
* Lais sengro                           10
* Lais panak                            90
Total Lais [various kinds]           25440
Patik/Baung
* Patik                                238
* Baung                                 92
Total Patik/Baung                      330
Total Recorded as Lais or Patik/     26658
 Baung (1)
Umpan                                  424
Kelabau                                228
Landin                                  79
Jelawat                                770
Kapas                                  139
Buin                                    88
Genus
Channa
* Toman                                 16
* Delak                                  8
* Runtuk                                 2
* Piyang                                 0
Total for Genus Channa
Kelampak                               452
Tengku-lan                              36
Nuayang                                350
Juara                                   46
Belantau                                75

Palau                                   24
Emperas                                100
Patung                                  87
Belida                                   7
Ulang uli                             2004
Entukan                                 57
Kebali                                  39
Tebirin                                 38
Senara                                  96
Butug                                  658
Bauk
# Bauk                                   0
# Bauk ketup                             0
# Bauk tuduy                             0
Total Bauk                               0
Tilan                                    6
Kenyuar                                 37
Bundong                                330
Tapah                                    5
Biawan                                   0
Tengalan                                17
Siluari                                 27
Kelik                                   29
Lipi                                    17
Other fishes *                        1247

Undifferentiated Species
# BK                                     4
# BT                                   127
# BTK                                    0
# Ikan barang                          441
# Ikan campur                            0
Total Undifferentiated species         572

Total                                34759

(1)These are trips where lais or patik/baung, or both lais and
patik/baung together were caught.

* Names of fish which were reported less than 5 times, in Ng. Kedebu',
1992-93: Seluang (Rasbora sp.), Temunit (Labeo chrysophekadison),
Ketutuk (Oxyelotris marmorata), Tamban (?), Tengadak (Barbodes
schwanenfeldii), Keroyak (?), Langkung (Hampala macrolepitoda), Kujam
(Labiobarbus spp.), (Tetraodon spp), Kedukul (Amblyrhynchthys
truncatus), Kelukoi, Ringau (Datnoides microlepis), Tawang (?), Piyam
(Leptobarbus melanopterus).
Appendix B

Fish Reported Captured, Wong Garai, 1992-93.

Iban Name                         Probable Latin Name       No. times
                                                             reported


Lais [various kinds]
* Lais                            Pelteobagrus cf. Ornatus          1
* Lais                            Kryptopterus micronema           24
banga
* Lelipai                         Silurichthys spp.                13
Total Lais                        [various kind]                   38
Patik/
Baung
* Baung                           Mystus planiceps                 68
Total Patik/Baung                                                  68
Total Recorded as Lais or Patik/                                  106
Baung (1)
Banta'                            Osteochilus                      74
                                  microcephalus
Undai                             [shrimp]                         59
Enseluai                          Rasbora sp.                      53
Keli'                             Clarias sp.                      43
Geregit                           Leiocassis cf. Stenomus          29
Pansik                            Botia hymenophysa                25
Palau                             Osteochilus kahajanensis         20
Kujam                             Labiobarbus spp.                 16
Kemujuk                           ?                                14
Gerama'                           Gecarcinus spp.                  13
Tekuyong                          [snails]                         12
Genus
Channa
* Toman                           Channa micropeltes                1
* Delak                           Channa striata                   10
Total for Genus Channa                                             11
Buing                             Cyclocheilichthys sp.            11
?                                 Macrognathus maculatus            8
Gerang                            ?                                 8
Adong                             Hampala macrolepitoda             7
Buntal                            Tetraodon sp.                     6
Unknown                                                             6
Other                             [various kinds, reported         56
                                  less than 5 times]
Fishes *

Total                                                             577

Iban Name                          Percent  Amount  Amount in
                                     times   in Kg      "Iko"
                                  reported

Lais [various kinds]
* Lais                                 0.2       0          0
* Lais                                 4.2    4.00         41
banga
* Lelipai                              2.2    3.00         20
Total Lais                             6.6    7.00         61
Patik/
Baung
* Baung                               11.7   12.00        134
Total Patik/Baung                     11.7   12.00        134
Total Recorded as Lais or Patik/      18.3   19.00        195
Baung (1)
Banta'                                12.8   21.00        100

Undai                                 10.2   11.55         63
Enseluai                               9.3    8.00        135
Keli'                                  7.4    7.00        110
Geregit                                5.0    6.50         85
Pansik                                 4.3    1.50         39
Palau                                  3.5    4.50         16
Kujam                                  2.8    3.50         14
Kemujuk                                2.4    0.50         14
Gerama'                                2.2       0         42
Tekuyong                               2.1    4.00          0
Genus
Channa
* Toman                                0.2       0          0
* Delak                                1.8   11.00         10
Total for Genus Channa                 2.0   11.00         10
Buing                                  1.9       0        115
?                                      1.4    1.00          4
Gerang                                 1.4       0         17
Adong                                  1.2    0.50          3
Buntal                                 1.0    5.00         28
Unknown                                1.0       0          8
Other                                  4.9   15.00        205

Fishes *

Total                                100.0  121.05       1247

(1)These are trips where lais or patik/baung, or both lais and
patick/baung together were caught.

* Names of fish which were reported less than 5 times, in Wong Garai,
1992-93: Nyenyuar (Luciosoma trinema), Lelabi [soft-shelled turtles],
Kerimpok (?), Patong (Pristolepis fasciata), Engkarit (Punitius
eugrammus), Lelekat (?), Bauk (?), Pama [frogs], Ngewai (?), Runto'
(Ophiocephalus sp.), Keyulong (Xenentodon conciloides), Memuri'
[tadpoles], Riu' (Pangasius macronema), Leladin (Mystus nigriceps),
Rusit (?), Anak beluh (?), Bah (?), Belau (Ophiocephalus sp.), Buntat
(?), Empelasi' (Betta spp.), Entebali (?), Gerau (?), Keripalu (?),
Memayut (?), Empelung (?), Peranak (?), Surik (?).
Appendix C

Fish Reported Captured, Bemban, 1992.

Iban Name  Probable Latin Name       No. times   Percent  Amount
                                      reported     times   in Kg
                                                reported

Baung      Mystus planiceps                 14      25.5   13.50
Leladin    Mystus nigriceps                 13      23.6    7.00
Runto'     Ophiocephalus sp.                 7      12.7    0.10
Bawan      Helostoma temminckii              6      10.9    1.00
Lais       Pelteobagrus cf. Ornatus          4       7.3       0
Patong     Pristolepis fasciala              2       3.6       0
Kerimang   ?                                 2       3.6    1.00
Ni         ?                                 2       3.6    3.00
Delak      Channa striata                    1       1.8       0
Lelabi     [Soft-shelled turtles]            1       1.8   49.00
Gerinung   ?                                 1       1.8       0
Kerandung  Ophiocephalus                     1       1.8       0
           pleurothakmus
Padi       ?                                 1       1.8       0

Total                                       55     100.0   74.60

Iban Name  Amount in
               "Iko"


Baung            157
Leladin           81
Runto'             5
Bawan             95
Lais               0
Patong             0
Kerimang          15
Ni                40
Delak              0
Lelabi             4
Gerinung           0
Kerandung          0

Padi               0

Total            397
Appendix D

Crops Harvested in Ng. Kedebu', 1992-93.

Local Names          Probable Latin Names        Frequency  Percentage

Retak                [Green beans]                      52        22.3
Buah perenggi        [Squash]                           46        19.7
Daun ubi             Manihot esculenta [cassava         31        13.3
                     leaves]
Retak panjang        Vigna sinensis [longbeans]         31        13.3
Jagung               Zea mays [corn]                    23         9.9
Daun retak panjang   Vigna sinensis [longbean            8         3.4
                     leaves]
Daun retak           [Green beans leaves]                7         3.0
Ubi                  Manihot esculenta[cassava]          6         2.6
Entimun              Cucumis sativus [cucumber]          6         2.6
Daun perenggi        [Squash leaves]                     5         2.1
Kacang duduk         [peanuts]                           4         1.7
Buah kusut (Gambas)  ?                                   4         1.7
Daun cangkok         Sauropus spp.                       4         1.7
Terong cina          [Chinese eggplant]                  2         0.9
Daun timun           Cucumis sativus [cucumber           2         0.9
                     leaves]
Daun kangkung        Ipomoea aquatica [swamp             1         0.4
                     cabbage]
Paku' manis          [fern]                              1         0.4
Appendix E

Agricultural/Agroforest Products in Wong Garai, 1992-93.

Field and Garden Products

Local Names         Probable Latin Names            Frequency

Cangkok             Sauropus spp.                          36
Daun empasa'        Manihot esculenta [cassava             27
                    leaves]
Daun ensabi         Allantospermum borneensis              21
Kebari              Bittermelon?                           20
Tebu                Saccharum officinarum                  16
                    [sugarcane]
Retak               [Green beans]                          16
Empusut             Luffa aegyptica                        11
Terong              Solanum spp. [eggplant]                10
Daun subung         [Xanthosoma mafaffa leaves]             4
Terong pipit        Solanum torvum                          4
Lia'                Zingiber spp. [ginger]                  3
Kacang (Cabe)       Capsicum frutescens [chillie]           3
Terong cina         Chinese eggplant                        1
Buah rampo'         Cucumis sativus [cucumber]              1
Buah empasa'        Manihot esculenta[cassava]              1
Pisang              Musa spp. [banana]                      1
Daun entaban        Poikilospernum spp.                     1
Daun jebuk          Celosia argentea                        1
Pako' & Cangkok                                             1

Local Names         Percentage

Cangkok                    8.5
Daun empasa'               6.4

Daun ensabi                5.0
Kebari                     4.7
Tebu                       3.8

Retak                      3.8
Empusut                    2.6
Terong                     2.4
Daun subung                0.9
Terong pipit               1.0
Lia'                       0.7
Kacang (Cabe)              0.7
Terong cina                0.2
Buah rampo'                0.2
Buah empasa'               0.2
Pisang                     0.2
Daun entaban               0.2
Daun jebuk                 0.2
Pako' & Cangkok            0.2

Agroforests Products

Local Names         Probable Latin Names            Frequency

Ai' ijuk            [Wine of] Arenga pinnata               48
Buah rian           Durio zibethinus [durian]              32
Buah sibau          Nephelium reticulatum                  17
Buah pedalai        Artocarpus sericicarpus                15
Dedabai             Canarium odontophyllum                 13
Kayo' api           [Firewood, various kinds]              13
Bukoh               Artocarpus integer                     13
Engkabang           Shorea macrophylla                      9
Ketuntum                                                    8
Kulat               [mushroom]                              6
* Kemiding          Stenochlaena spp.                       6
Upa' panto'         Eugeissonia utilis                      6
Engkala             Litsea garciae                          5
Buah asam           Mangifera decandra                      5
Rembai              Baccaurea motleyana                     4
Tubo'               [Bamboo shoots]                         4
Karet/getah         Harvea braziliensis                     3
* Kayo' engkelong   Shorea quadrinervis                     3
Daun koko           Theobroma cacao                         3
Asam pauh           Mangifera petandra                      2
Nangka              Artocarpus heterophyllus                2
Buah rungan         Carica papaya                           2
* Tucung kecala'    Etlingera elatior                       2
* Daun sabong       Gnetum gnemon                           2
Petai               Parkia speciosa                         2
* Wi                [various species of rattan].            2
* Kulat mata jane'  Calostoma spp.                          1
Inyak               Cocos nucifera                          1
Belimbing           Averrhoa bilimbing [starfruit]          1
** Kijang           Muntiacus spp.                          1
** Pelandok         Tragulus spp.                           1
** Jane'            Sus barbatus [wild pig]                 1
* Upa' encala                                               1
Mawang              Mangifera pajang                        1
Engkeranje'         Dialium indum                           1
Purur               Artocarpus communis                     1
Ruas                [Lengths of Bamboo]                     1
Upa' payau                                                  1

Local Names         Percentage

Ai' ijuk                  11.4
Buah rian                  7.6
Buah sibau                 4.0
Buah pedalai               3.6
Dedabai                    3.1
Kayo' api                  3.0
Bukoh                      3.0
Engkabang                  2.1
Ketuntum                   1.8
Kulat                      1.4
* Kemiding                 1.4
Upa' panto'                1.4
Engkala                    1.2
Buah asam                  1.2
Rembai                     0.9
Tubo'                      0.9
Karet/getah                0.7
* Kayo' engkelong          0.7
Daun koko                  0.7
Asam pauh                  0.5
Nangka                     0.5
Buah rungan                0.5
* Tucung kecala'           0.5
* Daun sabong              0.5
Petai                      0.5
* Wi                       0.5
* Kulat mata jane'         0.2
Inyak                      0.2
Belimbing                  0.2
** Kijang                  0.2
** Pelandok                0.2
** Jane'                   0.2
* Upa' encala              0.2
Mawang                     0.2
Engkeranje'                0.2
Purur                      0.2
Ruas                       0.2
Upa' payau                 0.2

* Uncultivated plants

** Game animal
Appendix F

Forest Products with Number of Collecting Trips Recorded in Ng. Kedebu'
(1992-93).

Species (Local Name)  Latin/English Name         Number of    Yearly
                                                   Trips    estimate *

Kayu api/bakar        [various kinds, firewood]     62         248
Rotan antu            Calamus sp [Rattan]           61         244
Kayu Ntangis          Randia sp                     28         112
Kayu kelansau         Dryobalanops abnormis         11          44
Kayu mengkupas        wood?                          9          36
Kayu limut            Casaeria sp. nov.              6          24
Kayu putat            Barringtonia acutangula        6          24
Kayu tahun            Garcinia sp                    5          20
Kayu jijap            Eugenia sp                     4          16
Kayu ngkurung         Grewia spp                     2           8
Atap emang            Hopea griffithii               2           8
Atap sirap            [various kinds, shingles]      2           8
Kayu sikop            Garcinia celebica              1           4
Kayu kebesi           Memecylon edule                1           4
Kayu ngkunik          Antidesma stipulare            1           4
Kayu merandap         wood                           1           4
Kayu tembesuk         Fragraea fragrans              1           4
Kayu kemarauan        Shorea platycarpa              1           4
Kayu ngkelopak        wood                           1           4
Papan pukul           Shorea virescens               1           4
Kayu belanti          Baccaurea bracteata            1           4
Unknown                                              1           4

* The results from the four months of recordkeeping (number of trips)
were multiplied by 3 to estimate the yearly number of trips.

This estimate must be taken with a grain of salt, since there are a
number of species marked by real seasonality (i.e., likely to occur only
once a year).
Appendix G

Forest Products with Number of Collecting Trips Recorded in Wong Garai
(1992-93)

Species (Local Name)  Latin / English Names       Number of    Yearly
                                                    Trips    Estimate ~

* Daun empasa'        Cassava leaves                 101        404
Kayo' api             Firewood [various kind]         64        256
Tubo'                 Bamboo shoots                   46        184
* Buah empasa'        Cassava roots                   39        156
Pako'                 Fern                            31        124
Kemiding              Stenochlaena spp.               28        112
* Daun subong         Xanthasoma mafaffa leaves       25        100
Terong                Solanum spp.                    25        100
Kulat                 Mushroom [general]              22         88
Upa' panto'           Eugeissonia utilis              20         80
* Tebu                Saccharum officinarum           16         64
Pako' ikan            Diplazium esculentum            11         44
Entaban               Poikilospernum spp.             11         44
* Empusut             Luffa aegyptica                 11         44
Daun rebung           Callaria spp.?                   9         36
Ai'ijuk               Arenga pinnata                   8         32
Buah pedalai          Artocarpus sericicarpus          8         32
Pako' kero'           Nephrolepis bisserata            7         28
Dedabai               Canarium odontophyllum           7         28
* Kacang (cabe)       Capsisum frutescens              7         28
** Munsang            Various species of civet         6         24
Upa' entibap          Arenga saccharifera              6         24
Buah rian             Durio zibethinus                 6         24
Buloh                 Bambusa vulgaris                 6         24
Tubo' betong          Gigantochloa latifolia           5         20
Buah bukoh            Artocarpus integer               5         20
Kulat mata jane'      Calostoma spp.                   5         20
Daun daup             Bauhinia spp.                    5         20
** Jane'              Sus barbatus                     5         20
Kulat buab            Hygrocybe sp.                    4         16
Kulat bulu            Panus rudia                      4         16
Kulat ikan            Pleurotus sp.                    4         16
Daun gelabak          Pseuderanthenum borneense        4         16
** Kijang             Muntiacus spp.                   4         16
Daun                  Various kind of leaves           4         16
Buah asam kecala      Etlingera elatior                4         16
Ramo'/papan           Lumber [various kind]            4         16
Upa' encala           ?                                3         12
Kulat kerop           [mushroom]                       3         12
Kulat lepit           Auricularia auricula-judae       3         12
Buab asam             Mangifera decandra               3         12
Kulat dilah kepayang  Pleurotus sp.                    3         12
Asam pauh             Mangifera petandra               3         12
Kulat jalong          Cookeina sulcipes                2          8
Kulat gelos           Lentinus sp                      2          8
** Nyumboth           Macaca nemestrina                2          8
* Cangkok             Sauropus spp.                    2          8
Kayo'jijap            Eugenia sp                       2          8
Kayo' engkelong       Shorea quadrinervis              1          4
** Empeliau           Hylobates muelleri               1          4
Daun arak             Ficus oleaefolia?                1          4
Inyak                 Cocos nucifera                   1          4
* Kebari'             bittermelon?                     1          4
Buah sibau            Nephelium reticulatum            1          4
Kulat burak           Gerronema and other              1          4
Kulit pukul           Tree bark for house siding       1          4
Kulan                 Pandanus spp.                    1          4
Kayo' limut           Casaeria sp. nov.                1          4
Kayo' belanti         Baccaurea bracteata              1          4
Unknown               ?                               33

~ The results from the four months of recordkeeping (number of trips)
were multiplied by 3 to estimate the yearly number of trips.

* Cultivated plants

** Game animal
Appendix H

Forest Products with Number of Collecting Trips, Bemban (December 1992).

Local Names   Latin/English Names            Number of Trips

Empukung      Termite nest                          14
Senggang      Hornstedtia scyphifera                 5
Tubo'         Bamboo shoots                          4
Kulan         Pandanus spp.                          4
Papan         Board [various kinds]                  3
Kulit pukul   Tree bark for siding of houses         2
Buloh         Bambusa vulgaris                       2
Kayu api      Firewood [various kinds]               2
Daun daup     Bauhinia spp.                          1
* Babi        Sus barbatus                           1
Kayu ntangis  Randia sp.                             1

* Game animal
Appendix I

Quantities of Forest Products Gathered in Ng. Kedebu' (1992-93).

Species (Local Name)  Latin Names                    Measures
                                               Stick     Canoeful

Kayu ntangis          Randia sp                  178           16
Rotan antu' *         Calamus sp                   0            0
Kayu bakar            [various kind]             500           43
Kayu belanti          Baccaurea bracteata          2            0
Papan pukul           Shorea virescens             0            0
Atap sirap            [various kind]               0            0
Atap emang            Hopea griffithii             0            0
Kayu ngkelopak        wood?                        0            0
Kayu kemarauan        Shorea platycarpa           15            0
Kayu tembesuk         Fragraea fragrans            7            0
Kayu mengkupas        wood?                        2            0
Kayu merandap         wood?                       10            0
Kayu kelansau         Dryobalanops abnormis      416            0
Kayu ngkunik          Antidesma stipulare        100            0
Kayu jijap            Eugenia sp                   0            4
Kayu tahun            Garcinia sp                  0            4
Kayu putat            Barringtonia acutangula      0            3
Kayu limut            Casaeria sp. nov.            0            5
Kayu ngkurung         Grewia spp                   0            2
Kayu kebesi           Memecylon edule              0            2
Kayu sikop            Garcinia celebica            0            1

Species (Local Name)   Measures
                      Sheet

Kayu ntangis              0
Rotan antu' *          8429
Kayu bakar                0
Kayu belanti              0
Papan pukul              10
Atap sirap              600
Atap emang              750
Kayu ngkelopak           15
Kayu kemarauan            0
Kayu tembesuk             0
Kayu mengkupas            0
Kayu merandap             0
Kayu kelansau           496
Kayu ngkunik              0
Kayu jijap                0
Kayu tahun                0
Kayu putat                0
Kayu limut                0
Kayu ngkurung             0
Kayu kebesi               0
Kayu sikop                0

* We find it rather odd that the people measure rattan in "sheets," but
that is how they recorded it.
Appendix J

Quantities of Forest Products Gathered in Wong Garai (1992-93).

Species      Latin                          Measures
(Local       Names
Name)
                                Stick  Seed      Bundle    Tails

Kayo'        Baccaurea                                         6
belanti      bracteata
Kayo'        Eugenia sp                                        2
jijap
Kayo'        Casaeria
limut        sp. nov.
Kayo' api    firewood                                 4
             [various
             kinds]
Kulan        Pandanus                                 2
             sp
Ramo'/       Beam                                     2
papan        [various
             kinds]
Buloh        Bambusa
             vulgaris
Tubo'        Bamboo                      22           8       24
             shoots
Kulit        Tree bark
pukul        for siding
             of houses
Jane'        Sus                                               3
             barbatus
Daun         [various
             kinds]
Daun         Bauhinia
Daup         sp
Kemiding     Stenoch-                                          4
             laena spp.
Kacang       Capsicum                                 5        1
(cabe)       frutescens
Terong       Solanum                      6          13       10
             spp.
Asam         Mangifera                                2
pauh         petandra
Daun         cassava                5                 6       30
empasa'      leaves
Buah         cassava                     18           4       11
empasa'      roots
Buah rian    Durio
             zibethinus
Kulat        Calostoma
mata jane'   spp.
Kulat        Gerronema
burak        and other
Kulat        Pleurotus                                2
dilah        sp.
kepayang
Kulat        Mushroom                                          3
             [general]
Buah         Nephelium                    1
sibau        sp
Dedabai      Canarium                                         13
             odonto-
             phyllum
Kebari'      Bittermelon
             ?
Daun         Xantho-                                  2        1
subong       soma
             mafaffa
             leaves
Empusut      Luffa
             aegyptica
Buah         Artocarpus                   4
bukoh        integer
Buah         Artocarpus                  20           5        6
pedalai      serici-
             carpus
Pako'        fern                                              3
             [general]
Cangkok      Sauropus
             spp.
Upa'         Arenga                11     2           2
entibap      sacchari-
             fera
Upa'         Eugeis-                3                 6       19
panto'       sonia utilis
Buah         Mangifera                                         3
asam         sp
Nyur/        Cocos
inyak        nucifera
Entaban      ?                      1
Kayo' api    Firewood                                16        2
             [various
             kinds]
Ai'ijuk      Arenga
             pinnata
Kijang       Muntiacus                                         5
             spp.
Daun         Callaria                                11        6
rebung       spp.?
Daun arak    Ficus
             oleaefolia
Tucung       Etlingera
kecala       elatior
Nyum-        Macaca                                            1
boh          namestrina
Pako' ikan   Dipazium                                          8
             esculentum
Tubo'        Giganto-                     5
betung       chloa
             latifolia
Daun         Pseuderan-                               6
gelabak      thenum
             borneense
Kulat ikan   Pleurotus                                         3
             sp.
Munsang      Various                                           6
             species of
             civet
Kulat lepit  Auricularia
             auricula-
             judae
Kulat bulu   Panus                                    8
             rudia
Empe-liau    Hylobates                                         1
             muelleri
Kulat        Lentinus sp
gelos
Kulat        Cookeina
jalong       sulcipes
Pako'        Nephrolepi                               1        5
kero'        s biserrata
Kulat        a mush-                                           1
kerop        room
Kulat        Hygrocybe
buah         sp.
Upa'
encala
Kayo'        Shorea                                            9
engke-       quadri-
long         nervis
Tebu         Saccharum                    6          15
             officinarum
Unknown      ?                                       13        9

Species                      Measures
(Local
Name)
             Backpack  Sheet     Basket    Stem

Kayo'
belanti
Kayo'
jijap
Kayo'                                 1
limut
Kayo' api          61                 2


Kulan

Ramo'/              1                 3
papan

Buloh               6                 1

Tubo'               5             28.10

Kulit                                 1
pukul

Jane'               2

Daun                3                 2

Daun                                  5
Daup
Kemiding                          20.63

Kacang              2                 3
(cabe)
Terong              5             11.20

Asam                1                 1
pauh
Daun               26      2      57.95
empasa'
Buah               21                16
empasa'
Buah rian           6

Kulat                              3.50
mata jane'
Kulat                              0.25
burak
Kulat               1              0.50
dilah
kepayang
Kulat               6              9.20

Buah
sibau
Dedabai


Kebari'             2

Daun                8             13.85
subong


Empusut                              11

Buah                3                 1
bukoh
Buah                1
pedalai

Pako'               7             22.26

Cangkok                               2

Upa'                1                 1
entibap

Upa'                6
panto'
Buah                5
asam
Nyur/                                 1
inyak
Entaban                           10.25
Kayo' api           9                 2


Ai'ijuk                              13

Kijang

Daun                1              2.55
rebung
Daun arak                          0.50

Tucung                             1.13       2
kecala
Nyum-                                 1
boh
Pako' ikan          2                 4

Tubo'               2              1.05
betung

Daun                                  3
gelabak

Kulat ikan                         0.26

Munsang             1


Kulat lepit                        0.31


Kulat bulu                         2.13

Empe-liau

Kulat                              2.13
gelos
Kulat                              1.50
jalong
Pako'                                 6
kero'
Kulat                              2.05
kerop
Kulat                                 4
buah
Upa'                2                 1
encala
Kayo'
engke-
long
Tebu                5              7.05

Unknown            10              9.10
Appendix K

Quantities of Forest Products Gathered in Bemban (December 1992).

Spesies      Latin/English                   Measures
(Local       Name
Names)
                            Stick       Seed      Canoeful  Bundle

Kayu         Randia sp          0          0             0       0
Ntangis
Kayu api     Firewood           7          0             3       0
             (various
             kind]
Empukung     Termite            0         80             0       0
             nest
Kulan        Pandanus           0          0             0       6
             spp.
Senggang     Hornstedtia        0          0             0       8
             scyphifera
Papan        Board             49          0             0       0
             [various
             kind]
Buloh        Bambusa            4          0             0       0
             vulgaris
Tubo'        Bamboo             5         30             0       0
             shoots
Kulit pukul  Tree bark         20          0             0       0
             for siding
             of houses
Babi         Sus                1          0             0       0
             barbatus
Daun daup    Bauhinia           1          0             0       0
             spp.

Spesies            Measures
(Local
Names)
             Backpack  Sheet

Kayu                1      0
Ntangis
Kayu api            0      0


Empukung           16      0

Kulan               0      0

Senggang            0      0

Papan               0      0


Buloh               0      0

Tubo'               0      0

Kulit pukul         0      0


Babi                0      0

Daun daup           0      0
Appendix L

Frequency of forest product collected in Ng. Kedebu', 1992-1993, by
location.

Location           Kind of Forest Product

                   1          2        3         4         5

Bangkal begetah
Batang                        1        1
Pengembung
Belibis                      18
Danau
Dua Menanga        3          9        5
Kuran Besar                            1
Lebak Resau
Lebak T.H.                    1        1
Lengkong                               2
Lengkong Pangas               2
Lengkung Bt.       2                   2
Tekenang
Lubuk Mensidang
Lungai                                 1
Menyuku'                               1
Ng.Santik/         3                   9
Lengkong Santik
Ngkuran            8          3        1
Penyelawat                             4
Pintas Jenat                           7
Pintas Senten                 2
Pulau Midin
Seberang Batu                          2
Petuleh
Seberang kampung              1
Sepandan                      5        2
Sepandan Kerinan   1                   2
Sg. Lebak Langkan  9                   2
Sg. Nanga                     1
Sg. Panjang                   7
Sg. Pekah                     3
Sg. Ramut                     1
Sikeng Telak                  1
tonggak
Suak Panjang                  3
Sumpa'                        5
Tekenang
Telok Jengger      1
(Selimbau)
Tepi Tawang        1          1        2                   1
Tong                                   4
Tong                          2        7         1
Besar/Pulaunya

Location           Kind of Forest Product

                   6         7         8         9         10

Bangkal begetah                                             1
Batang
Pengembung
Belibis
Danau
Dua Menanga
Kuran Besar
Lebak Resau
Lebak T.H.
Lengkong
Lengkong Pangas
Lengkung Bt.
Tekenang
Lubuk Mensidang
Lungai
Menyuku'
Ng.Santik/
Lengkong Santik
Ngkuran
Penyelawat                   2
Pintas Jenat
Pintas Senten
Pulau Midin
Seberang Batu
Petuleh
Seberang kampung
Sepandan
Sepandan Kerinan
Sg. Lebak Langkan
Sg. Nanga
Sg. Panjang
Sg. Pekah
Sg. Ramut                    1
Sikeng Telak
tonggak
Suak Panjang
Sumpa'
Tekenang
Telok Jengger                                    1
(Selimbau)
Tepi Tawang        2
Tong
Tong
Besar/Pulaunya

Location           Kind of Forest Product

                   11        12        13        14        15

Bangkal begetah
Batang
Pengembung
Belibis
Danau
Dua Menanga
Kuran Besar                             1
Lebak Resau
Lebak T.H.
Lengkong
Lengkong Pangas
Lengkung Bt.
Tekenang
Lubuk Mensidang     1
Lungai
Menyuku'
Ng.Santik/          6
Lengkong Santik
Ngkuran                                                     2
Penyelawat                              9
Pintas Jenat
Pintas Senten
Pulau Midin                                                 1
Seberang Batu       1
Petuleh
Seberang kampung                                            1
Sepandan                      1
Sepandan Kerinan                                            1
Sg. Lebak Langkan
Sg. Nanga
Sg. Panjang
Sg. Pekah
Sg. Ramut           1                             1
Sikeng Telak
tonggak
Suak Panjang
Sumpa'
Tekenang
Telok Jengger
(Selimbau)
Tepi Tawang                             1
Tong
Tong
Besar/Pulaunya

Location           Kind of Forest Product

                   16        17        18        19        20

Bangkal begetah
Batang
Pengembung
Belibis
Danau
Dua Menanga
Kuran Besar
Lebak Resau
Lebak T.H.
Lengkong
Lengkong Pangas
Lengkung Bt.
Tekenang
Lubuk Mensidang
Lungai
Menyuku'
Ng.Santik/          1                             1
Lengkong Santik
Ngkuran             1         1                             1
Penyelawat
Pintas Jenat        1
Pintas Senten                           1
Pulau Midin         1
Seberang Batu
Petuleh
Seberang kampung                        1
Sepandan                                          1
Sepandan Kerinan    1
Sg. Lebak Langkan
Sg. Nanga                               3
Sg. Panjang
Sg. Pekah
Sg. Ramut
Sikeng Telak
tonggak
Suak Panjang
Sumpa'
Tekenang
Telok Jengger
(Selimbau)
Tepi Tawang
Tong
Tong
Besar/Pulaunya

Location           Kind of
                   Forest
                   Product

                   21

Bangkal begetah
Batang
Pengembung
Belibis
Danau
Dua Menanga
Kuran Besar
Lebak Resau
Lebak T.H.
Lengkong
Lengkong Pangas
Lengkung Bt.
Tekenang
Lubuk Mensidang
Lungai
Menyuku'
Ng.Santik/
Lengkong Santik
Ngkuran
Penyelawat
Pintas Jenat
Pintas Senten
Pulau Midin
Seberang Batu
Petuleh
Seberang kampung
Sepandan
Sepandan Kerinan
Sg. Lebak Langkan   1
Sg. Nanga
Sg. Panjang
Sg. Pekah
Sg. Ramut
Sikeng Telak
tonggak
Suak Panjang
Sumpa'
Tekenang
Telok Jengger
(Selimbau)
Tepi Tawang
Tong
Tong
Besar/Pulaunya

1 = Kayu ntangis (wood)

2 = Rotan antu' (rattan)

3 = Kayu bakar (firewood)

4 = Kayu belanti (wood)

5 = Papan pukul (wood)

6 = Atap sirap (shingles)

7 = Atap emang

8 = Kayu ngkelopak (wood)

9 = Kayu kemarauan (wood)

10 = Kayu tembesuk (wood)

11 = Kayu mengkupas (wood)

12 = Kayu merandap (wood)

13 = Kayu kelansau (wood)

14 = Kayu ngkunik (wood)

15 = Kayu jijap (wood)

16 = Kayu tahun (wood)

17 = Kayu putat (wood)

18 = Kayu limut (wood)

19 = Kayu ngkurung (wood)

20 = Kayu kebesi (wood)

21 = kayu sikop (wood)
Appendix M

Frequency of forest product collected in Bemban, December 1992, by
location.

Location                            Forest Product

                  kayu      em-       kula-     seng-     papan
                  api       pu-       an        gang
                            kung

Babas(forest)        1        13          4         5
Bangkal begetah      1
Danau
Danau Pegah
(lake)
Emperan                                                       2
(floodplain)
Lubuk Mensidang      1
Ng. Santik/          6
Lengkong Santik
Ngkuran
Penyelawat           4
Pintas Jenat         3
Seberang             4                    1
kampung
Sepandan Kerinan                                              1
Sg. Empaik           1         1                              1
Sg. Lebak
Langkan
Tembawai (ex-
housesite)

Location                            Forest Product

                  buluh     tubu      kulit     babi      daun
                                      pukul


Babas(forest)                  1                             1
Bangkal begetah
Danau                                                        1
Danau Pegah                                        1
(lake)
Emperan               1        6
(floodplain)
Lubuk Mensidang
Ng. Santik/
Lengkong Santik
Ngkuran
Penyelawat
Pintas Jenat
Seberang                                           4         1
kampung
Sepandan Kerinan
Sg. Empaik                                2
Sg. Lebak
Langkan
Tembawai (ex-         1        4
housesite)

Location            Forest
                   Product

                  daun
                  dacip


Babas(forest)         1
Bangkal begetah
Danau
Danau Pegah
(lake)
Emperan
(floodplain)
Lubuk Mensidang
Ng. Santik/
Lengkong Santik
Ngkuran
Penyelawat
Pintas Jenat
Seberang
kampung
Sepandan Kerinan
Sg. Empaik
Sg. Lebak
Langkan
Tembawai (ex-
housesite)
Appendix N

Frequency of forest product collected in Wong Garai, 1992-1993, by
location

Forest Product                             Location

                         1       2         3        4         5

Kayu belanti
Kayu jijap
Kayu limut

Kayu api                 1       2         4                  1
Kulaan
Papan                                      1
Buluh                                      2
Tubu (Rebung)                    2        42
Kulit pukul                                1
Babi/Jane'               1
Daun                                       1
Daun daup
Kemiding                 2      13         2                  1
Kacang (Cabe)            3                 2
Terong                  19
Asam pauh
Daun empasak            37                27
Buah empasak            22                 7
Buah rian                                  1
Kulat mata jane                  2         2
Kulat burak                      1
Kulat dilab kepayang     1       1                            1
Kulat                    3       5         6
Buah sibau               1
Dedabai                  1                 5
Kebari'
Daun subung             13       2         4                  1
Empusut                  1
Buah bukoh               1       1         1
Buah Pedalai                               7
Pako'                    1       6        17                  2
Cangkok                                    2
Upa' entibab                               3
Upa' panto'              2                 1
Buah asam
Buah asam keeala                 1
Nyur/inyak                                 1
Enteban                          1         1
Ai' ijok                 1                 5
Kijang                   2                 1
Daun rebung                                4        1
Daun arak                        1
Tucung kecala                              2
Nyumboh                          1
Pako' ikan               2                 7                  1
Tubo betung                                4
Daun gelabak                               4
Kulat ikan                                 4
Munsang                          1         1
Kulat lepit                      1         2
Kulat bulu                       1         1
Empeliau                         1
Kulat gelos                      1         1
Kulat jalong                               2
Pako kero                        3         3
Kulat kerop                                3
Kulat buah                                 2
Upa' encala
Kayo engkelong           1
Tebu                     7                 4
Unknown                 11                12

Forest Product                             Location

                      6         7          8         9        10

Kayu belanti
Kayu jijap                                           1
Kayu limut                                           1

Kayu api              1                   43         6
Kulaan
Papan                                      1
Buluh                                      1         3
Tubu (Rebung)                              1
Kulit pukul
Babi/Jane'                                                     1
Daun                                                 1
Daun daup                                            5
Kemiding                                            10
Kacang (Cabe)         1                              1
Terong                                     1         5
Asam pauh                                  2
Daun empasak          1                   20        13
Buah empasak                               2         7
Buah rian             1                    1         2
Kulat mata jane
Kulat burak
Kulat dilab kepayang
Kulat                                      3         3
Buah sibau
Dedabai
Kebari'                                              1
Daun subung                                1         1
Empusut                                   10
Buah bukoh                      1
Buah Pedalai
Pako'                                                5
Cangkok
Upa' entibab                               1         2
Upa' panto'                                1         6
Buah asam                                            2
Buah asam keeala                                     1
Nyur/inyak
Enteban                                    6         3
Ai' ijok                                             2
Kijang
Daun rebung           1                              1
Daun arak
Tucung kecala
Nyumboh                                    1
Pako' ikan                                           1
Tubo betung
Daun gelabak
Kulat ikan
Munsang                                              1
Kulat lepit
Kulat bulu                                 1         1
Empeliau
Kulat gelos
Kulat jalong
Pako kero
Kulat kerop
Kulat buah                                 1         1
Upa' encala                                          2
Kayo engkelong
Tebu                                       1         4
Unknown                                    1         3

Forest Product         Location

                      11

Kayu belanti
Kayu jijap
Kayu limut

Kayu api
Kulaan
Papan
Buluh
Tubu (Rebung)
Kulit pukul
Babi/Jane'
Daun
Daun daup
Kemiding
Kacang (Cabe)
Terong
Asam pauh
Daun empasak
Buah empasak
Buah rian
Kulat mata jane
Kulat burak
Kulat dilab kepayang
Kulat
Buah sibau
Dedabai
Kebari'
Daun subung
Empusut
Buah bukoh
Buah Pedalai
Pako'
Cangkok
Upa' entibab
Upa' panto'
Buah asam
Buah asam keeala
Nyur/inyak
Enteban
Ai' ijok
Kijang
Daun rebung
Daun arak
Tucung kecala
Nyumboh
Pako' ikan
Tubo betung
Daun gelabak
Kulat ikan
Munsang
Kulat lepit
Kulat bulu
Empeliau
Kulat gelos
Kulat jalong
Pako kero
Kulat kerop
Kulat buah
Upa' encala
Kayo engkelong
Tebu
Unknown                3

1 = Lake (Danau)

2 = Forest (Babas)

3 = Floodplain (Emperan)

4 = Housegarden (Redas/Kebun)

5 = Tree reserve (Pulau)

6 = Rubber grove (Kebun)

7 = Old longhouse site (Tembawai)

8 = Hill field (Umai bukit)

9 = Fallowed forest (Damun)

10 = Swamp (Paya')

11 = Unknown
Appendix O

Frequencies of foods consumed by month, Ng. Kedebu' (1992-93)

Food Category/   Latin/              Sept. 92            Dec. 92
Local Names      English              Freq/%              Freq/%
                 Names

Carbohydrates                     441       38.5     326        37.0
 Nasi            Oryza            414       36.2     295        33.5
                 sativa
 Ubi             Manihot           10        0.9      21         2.4
                 esculenta
 Mie             Noodles            7        0.6       4         0.5
 Kerupuk ikan    Belida             5        0.4       2         0.2
                 chips
 Kentang         Solanum            3        0.3       1         0.1
                 spp.
 Keladi          Taro               1        0.1       3         0.3
Green Leaves                      111        9.7      14         1.6
 Daun ubi        Cassava           73        6.4       9         1.0
                 leaves
 Daun            Squash            15        1.3
 perenggi        leaves
 Perenggi
 Daun retak      Long-             13        1.1
 panjang         bean
                 leaves
 Panjang
 Daun entimun    Cucumis            4        0.3
                 sativus
                 leaves
 Sawi            ?                  4        0.3
 Kangkung        Ipomoea            3        0.3       1         0.1
                 aquatica
 Daun            Sauropus                              2         0.2
                 spp.
 Cangkok
 Paku'           fern                                  2         0.2
 kemiding        [general]                                        .2
 Paku' kubuk     ?
 Paku' keruk     Nephro-
                 lepis
                 biserrata
 Paku' ikan      Diplazium
                 esculentum
 Bayam           Amaran-
                 thus spp.
 Kucai           Allium
                 tuberosum
 Kantu rungan    Papaya
                 leaves
Vegetables                        134       11.7     190        21.6
 Entimun         Cucumis           42        3.7      66         7.5
                 sativus
 Kacang/cabe     Capsicum          23        2.0      40         4.6
                 frutescens
 Lungkang jeli'  Baby              18        1.6
                 corn
 Buah perenggi   Squash             9        0.8      65         7.4
 perenggi
 perenggi
 Terong          Solanum            8        0.7
                 spp.
 Jagung          Zea                7        0.6
                 mays
 Nangka          Artocarpus         6        0.5       7         0.8
                 integer
 Kol             Cabbage            4        0.3       1         0.1
 Terong Cina     Chinese            4        0.3
                 Eggplant
 Empusut         Luffa              2        0.1
                 aegyptica
 Kepare          Bittermelon        2        0.2       1         0.1
 Labu            Gourd              1        0.1
 Rebung          Bamboo             1        0.1       7         0.8
                 shoots
 Tomat           Tomato             1        0.1
                 Chinese
                 Cucumber
 Cangkok         Sauropus                              3         0.3
                 spp.
 Jantung         banana
                 flower
 pisang
 Lia'            Zingiber
                 sp

Legumes                           166       14.5       8         0.9
 Retak panjang   Green            163       14.2
                 beans
 Jengkol         Pithecellobium     2        0.2       7         0.8
                 jiringa
 Kacang          ?                  1        0.1       1         0.1
 duduk
Fish/Meat                         263       23.0     301        34.2
 Patik/Baung     Mystus            67        5.9      33         3.8
                 spp.
 Lais            [various          46        4.0      15         1.7
                 kind]
 Ikan asin       Salt-             43        3.8      12         1.4
                 Dried
                 fish
 Landin          Mystus            29        2.5
                 nigriceps
 Belida          Chitala           16        1.4       3         0.3
                 lopis
 Ringau          Datnoi-           10        0.9
                 des
                 micro-
                 lepis
 Ikan            Fish               8        0.7      15         1.7
                 [general]
 Telor ayam      Chicken            6        0.5       3         0.3
                 egg
 Bauk            [various           6        0.5      44         5.0
                 kind]
Genus Channa                        5        0.4      24         2.7
 * Toman         Channa             4        0.3      23         2.6
                 microl-
                 peltes
 * Delak         Channa             1        0.1       1         0.1
                 striata
 Tapah           Wallago            4        0.3       1         0.1
                 leeri
 Bawan           Helosto-           4        0.3
                 ma tem-
                 minckii
 Bangah          ?                  4        0.3       3         0.3
 Telor Ikan      Fish egg           4        0.3
 Juara           Panga              3        0.2      10         1.1
                 sius
                 poly-
                 urano-
                 don
 Tengalan        Puntio-            2        0.2       1         0.1
                 plites
                 bulu
 Patung          Pristo-            2        0.2       1         0.1
                 lepis
                 fasciata
 Kenyuar         Lucio-             2        0.2
                 soma
                 trinema
 Kelabau         Osteo-             2        0.2       2         0.2
                 chilus
                 melanopl
                 eura
 Sarden          Sardines           1        0.1       3         0.3
 Kaloi           Osphron            1        0.1
                 emus
                 goramy
 Bantak          Osteo-             1        0.1
                 chilus
                 micro-
                 cephalus
                 Salai fish         1        0.1
 Jukut           Fermen-            1        0.1
                 ted fish
 Tebirin         Belon-             1        0.1
                 dotich-
                 thys
                 dinema
 Bilis           Clu-                                 86         9.8
                 peichthys
                 bleekeri
 Keli'           Clarias                               2         0.2
                 sp.
 Ayam            Chicken                               5         0.6
 Kijang          Munti-                               38         4.3
                 acus sp.
 Bayak           ?
Fungi
 Kulat           Mush-
                 room
Fruits                             19        1.7       7         0.8
 Tempoyak        Durio             14        1.2
                 zibethi-
                 nus
 Nuyr            Cocos              4        0.3
                 nucifera
 Asam kandis     ?                  1        0.1
 Pisang          Musa                                  1         0.1
                 spp.
 Nenas           Ananas                                6         0.7
                 comosus
 Rampai
 Unknown                           11        0.9      33         3.7

Total Record                     1145      100.0     879       100.0

Food Category/         Mar. 93               June 93
Local Names             Freq/%                Freq/%


Carbohydrates    334        41.3       638      44.2
 Nasi            296        36.6       577      40.0

 Ubi               6         0.7        38       2.6

 Mie              13         1.6        16       1.1
 Kerupuk ikan     15         1.9         4       0.3

 Kentang           3         0.4         3       0.2

 Keladi            1         0.1
Green Leaves      28         3.5        48       3.3
 Daun ubi         16         2.0        29       2.0

 Daun                                    1       0.1
 perenggi
 Perenggi
 Daun retak
 panjang

 Panjang
 Daun entimun     48         5.9


 Sawi              2         0.2
 Kangkung          1         0.1         2       0.1

 Daun                                    1       0.1

 Cangkok
 Paku'             2         0.2         3       0.2
 kemiding
 Paku' kubuk                             8       0.6
 Paku' keruk                             2       0.1


 Paku' ikan                              1       0.1

 Bayam             2         0.2         1       0.1

 Kucai             3         0.4

 Kantu rungan      1         0.1

Vegetables        89        11.0     1,206       8.3
 Entimun          48         5.9         8       0.6

 Kacang/cabe      21         2.6        32       2.2

 Lungkang jeli'                          1       0.1

 Buah perenggi    10         1.2         1       0.1
 perenggi
 perenggi
 Terong            3         0.4        45       3.1

 Jagung

 Nangka            2         0.2        10       0.7

 Kol
 Terong Cina                             3       0.2

 Empusut

 Kepare
 Labu              4         0.5         1       0.1
 Rebung                                 15       1.0

 Tomat
                                         1       0.1

 Cangkok

 Jantung                                 1       0.1

 pisang
 Lia'              1         0.1


Legumes           18         2.2         1       0.1
 Retak panjang

 Jengkol          18         2.2

 Kacang                                  1       0.1
 duduk
Fish/Meat        264        32.7       603      41.8
 Patik/Baung      84        10.4        98       6.8

 Lais             58         7.2        64       4.4

 Ikan asin        33         4.1        89       6.2


 Landin            7         0.9         6       0.4

 Belida           10         1.2         5       0.3

 Ringau            3         0.4         6       0.4



 Ikan              6         0.7       125       8.7

 Telor ayam        5         0.6         8       0.6

 Bauk              3         0.4        37       2.6

Genus Channa      11         1.3        37       2.5
 * Toman          11                    31       2.1


 * Delak                                 6       0.4

 Tapah             1         0.1

 Bawan             2         0.2         5       0.3


 Bangah            2         0.2        17       1.2
 Telor Ikan        1         0.1
 Juara             7         0.9        22       1.5




 Tengalan                                8       0.6


 Patung                                  2       0.1


 Kenyuar                                 1       0.1


 Kelabau                                 1       0.1



 Sarden            6         0.7         3       0.2
 Kaloi


 Bantak



                   3         0.4        49       3.4
 Jukut             1         0.1

 Tebirin                                 7       0.5



 Bilis            15         1.9         9       0.6


 Keli'                                   2       0.1

 Ayam                                    1       0.1
 Kijang            6         0.7

 Bayak                                   1       0.1
Fungi                                    5       0.3
 Kulat                                   5       0.3

Fruits            10         1.2        17       1.2
 Tempoyak          9         1.1


 Nuyr              1         0.1

 Asam kandis
 Pisang                                  7       0.5

 Nenas                                   9       0.6

 Rampai                                  1       0.1
 Unknown          65         8.0        11       0.7

Total Record     808       100.0      1434     100.0
Appendix P

Frequencies of Foods consumed by month, Wong Garai (1992-93)

Food/           Latin/            Dec. 92                Mar. 93
Category/       English           Freq/%                 Freq/%
Local Names     Names

Carbo-                       355       27.1       511       40.6
hydrates
  Asi'          Oryza        350       26.7       434       34.5
                sativa
  Buah          Manihot        3        0.2        27        2.1
  empasa'       escu-
                lenta
  Mie           Noodles        1        0.1
  Kerupuk       Belida                              1        0.1
  ikan          chips
  Buah          Colo-          1        0.1        49        3.9
  subong        casia
                esculenta
Green Leaves                 150       11.4       154       12.2
  Daun          Cassava       13        1.0       104        8.3
  empasa'       leaves
  Daun          Squah          2        0.2         3        0.2
  entekai       leaves
  Daun          Cucumis      103        7.9         1        0.1
  rampo'        sativus
  Ensabi        Allanto-
                spp.
  Daun          Sauropus       4        0.3         3        0.2
  cangkok       spp.
  Pako'         ferns          4        0.3         8        0.6
  [general]     [general]
  Pako'         Steno-         8        0.6         4        0.3
  kemiding      chlaena
                spp
  Pako'
  kubuk
  Pako' kero'   Neph-                               1        0.1
                lorepis
                biserrata
  Pako' ikan    Dipla-                              1        0.1
                zium
                esculen-
                tum
  Bayam         Amaran-        2        0.2
                thus spp.
  Kucai         Allium         2        0.2        19        1.5
                tubero-
                sum
  Kantok        Papaya
  rungan        leaves
  Daun          Poikilosp      2        0.2
  entaban       ernum
                spp.
  Daun          Gnetum         7        0.5         2        0.2
  sabong        gnemon
  Daun          Xanthoso       2        0.2
  subung        ma
                mafaffa
                leaves
  Kantok        ?              1        0.1         4        0.3
  lekan
  Kantok        Lygo-                               4        0.3
  remat         dium
                spp.?
  Ketuntum      ?
  Kantok        ?
  mawan
Vegetables                   496       37.8       358       20.5
  Buah          Cucumis                            99        7.9
  rampo'        sativus
  Kacang/       Capsi-                              2        0.2
  cabe          cum
                frute-
                scens
  Kelapong      Baby           4        0.3
                corn
  Lingkau
  Buah          Squash        96        7.3        86        6.8
  entekai
  Terong        Solanum      176       13.4
                spp.
  Lingkau       Zea           85        6.5        23        1.8
                mays
  Upa'          Palm
                cabbages
  Terong        Chinese
  Cina
                eggplant
  Empusut       Luffa          4        0.3
                aegyp-
                tica
  Kebari'       Bittermel      6        0.5
                on
  Genok         Gourd         72        5.5         5        0.4
  Tubo'         Bamboo        20        1.5        18        1.4
                shoots
  Tomat         Tomato         7        0.5
  Tungkul       Banana                              1        0.1
  pisang        flower
  pisang
  Lia'          Zingiber                           10        0.8
                sp
  Bungai        Squash        19        1.4
  entekai       flower
  Daun arak     Ficus          4        0.3
                oleae-
                folia
  Tucung        Etlingera      2        0.2         2        0.2
  kecala'       elatior
  Upa'          Arenga         1        0.1         3        0.2
  entibap       sacchari-
                fera
  Terong        Solanum                             4        0.3
  pipit         torvum
  Upa' panto'   Eugeis-                             5        0.4
                sonia
                utilis
Legumes                       12        0.9        38        3.0
  Retak         Long-         12        0.9        38        3.0
                beans
  Petai         Parkia
                spp.

Fish/Meat                    154       11.7       256       20.3
  Patik/        Mystus                              2        0.2
  Baung         spp.
  Ikan Baror    Salt-         60        4.6        79        6.3
                Dried
                fish
  Ikan          Fish          13        1.0        51        4.1
                [general]
  Telo'         Chicken       14        1.1        13        1.0
  manok         egg
  Genus         Channa
  Channa        spp.
  * Delak       Channa
                striata
  * Toman       Channa
                micro-
                peltes
  Tapah         Wallago
                leeri
  Bangah        ?
  Telo' ikan    Fish egg
  Tengalan      Puntio-
                plites
                balu
  Sarden        Sardines
  Kaloi         Osphro-
                nemus
                goramy
  Bantak        Osteo-
                chilus
                micro-
                chepalus
  Salai         Smoked        15        1.1        35        2.8
                fish
  Jukut         Pickled        1        0.1        20        1.6
                fish
  Undai         shrimp         6        0.5        18        1.4
  Bilis         Clu-
                peichthys
                bleekeri
  Keli'         Clarias                            14        1.1
                sp.
  Manok         Chicken                             1        0.1
  Kijang        Munitia        8        0.6         2        0.2
                cus spp.
  Buing         Cyclo-
                chei-
                lichthys
                sp.
  Gerama'       Gegar-         2        0.2         3        0.2
                cinus
                spp.
  Pama'         Frog           1        0.1         2        0.2
  Jane'         Sus           29        2.2        14        1.1
                barbatus
  Kesa'         Ant nest       1        0.1
  Capi          Cow            4        0.3
  Lelabi        Soft-                               1        0.1
                shelled
                turtle
  Empeliau      Hylo-                               1        0.1
                bates
                muelleri
  Rusit         Dried
                fish
  Burong        Birds
                [general]
  Rasong        Nasalis
                larvatus
Fungi                         13        1.0         9        0.7
  Kulat         [mush          7        0.5         9        0.7
                room]
  Kulat burak   Gerro-         2        0.2
                nema
                and other
  Kulat mata    Calo-          2        0.2
  jane'         stoma
                spp.
  Kulat dilah   Pleuro-        1        0.1
                tus spp.
  Kepayang
  Kulat muyong  ?              1        0.1
  muyong
  Kulat risik   ?
Fruits                       120        9.2        17        1.3
  Empikau/      Durio          5        0.4
  tempoyak      zibethi-
                nus
  Inyak         Cocos         31        2.4
                nucifera
  Pisang        Musa sp.       1        0.1         3        0.2
  Buah          Ananas                              9        0.7
  brunei        comosus
  Buah          Arto-         55        4.2
  pedalai       carpus
                spp.
  Buah          Baccau-
  rembai        rea
                motle-
                yana
  Buah asam     Mangi-         1        0.1
                fera
                decandra
  Buah          ?             12        0.9
  punsut
  Buah purur    Artocar-       3        0.2         1        0.1
                pus
                commu-
                nis
  Buah          Canari-        9        0.7
  dedabai       um
                odonto-
                phyllum
  Buah          Arto-          3        0.2         4        0.3
  bukoh         carpus
                integer
  Buah          Horn-
  senggang      stedtia
                scyphi-
                fera
  Buah sibau    Nephe-
                lium
                reticu-
                latum
  Limau         Citrus
                spp.
  Tebu          Saccha-
                rum
                offici-
                narum

Unknown                       12        0.9        15        1.2

Total Record               1,312      100.0     1,358      100.0

Food/                  June 93                Sep. 93
Category/              Freq/%                 Freq/%
Local Names

Carbo-            810       37.2      1412       37.8
hydrates
  Asi'            770       35.4      1347       36.1

  Buah             17        0.7        30        0.8
  empasa'

  Mie               6        0.3        24        0.6
  Kerupuk
  ikan
  Buah             17        0.8        11        0.3
  subong

Green Leaves      289       13.3       511       13.7
  Daun            177        8.2       227        6.1
  empasa'
  Daun              3        0.1       129        3.5
  entekai
  Daun
  rampo'
  Ensabi                                 1       0.03

  Daun             21        1.0        32        0.9
  cangkok
  Pako'             8        0.4        21        0.6
  [general]
  Pako'            19        0.9        35        0.9
  kemiding

  Pako'             3        0.1         1       0.03
  kubuk
  Pako' kero'


  Pako' ikan        2        0.1



  Bayam                                  7        0.2

  Kucai            12        0.6         6        0.2


  Kantok                                12        0.3
  rungan
  Daun              2        0.1         6        0.2
  entaban

  Daun             32        1.5         6        0.2
  sabong
  Daun              4        0.2        15        0.4
  subung


  Kantok            1        0.1         2        0.1
  lekan
  Kantok
  remat

  Ketuntum          5        0.2        10        0.3
  Kantok                                 1       0.03
  mawan
Vegetables        292       13.5       445       12.0
  Buah              2        0.1         8        0.2
  rampo'
  Kacang/           9        0.5         3        0.1
  cabe


  Kelapong

  Lingkau
  Buah              2        0.1        83        2.2
  entekai
  Terong          100        4.6        43        1.2

  Lingkau           1        0.1         1       0.03

  Upa'                                   5        0.1

  Terong            1        0.1         1       0.03
  Cina

  Empusut                                1       0.03


  Kebari'           1        0.1       176        4.7

  Genok                                  2        0.1
  Tubo'            86        4.1        58        1.6

  Tomat
  Tungkul
  pisang
  pisang
  Lia'              2        0.1         2        0.1

  Bungai
  entekai
  Daun arak


  Tucung            6        0.3         5        0.1
  kecala'
  Upa'              7        0.3         8        0.2
  entibap

  Terong            5        0.2         4        0.1
  pipit
  Upa' panto'      70        3.2        45        1.2


Legumes             3        0.1        20        0.5
  Retak             3        0.1        15        0.4

  Petai
                                         5        0.1

Fish/Meat         672       30.9     1,184       31.8
  Patik/           14        0.6         1       0.03
  Baung
  Ikan Baror      132        6.0       166        4.5


  Ikan            164        7.5       119        3.2

  Telo'            48        2.2
  manok
  Genus            11        0.6        12        0.3
  Channa
  * Delak           1        0.1        11        0.3

  * Toman          10        0.5         1       0.03


  Tapah             2        0.1

  Bangah            1        0.1
  Telo' ikan                           102        2.7
  Tengalan          1        0.1


  Sarden                                 3        0.1
  Kaloi


  Bantak                                 1       0.03



  Salai            71        3.3       132        3.5

  Jukut             6        0.3       208        5.6

  Undai            47        2.2        11        0.3
  Bilis             1        0.1


  Keli'             1        0.1         5        0.1

  Manok            34        1.6        53        1.4
  Kijang           37        1.7         8        0.2

  Buing                                  1       0.03



  Gerama'           6        0.3


  Pama'            12        0.6         2        0.1
  Jane'            36        1.7       312        8.4

  Kesa'
  Capi                                   1       0.03
  Lelabi                                10        0.3


  Empeliau                              17        0.5


  Rusit            48        2.2        10        0.3

  Burong                                 7        0.2

  Rasong                                 3        0.1

Fungi              14        0.6        38        1.0
  Kulat            12        0.6        23        0.6

  Kulat burak       1        0.1        12        0.3


  Kulat mata                             2        0.1
  jane'

  Kulat dilah

  Kepayang
  Kulat muyong                           1        0.1
  muyong
  Kulat risik       1        0.1
Fruits             76        3.5        88        2.3
  Empikau/                              21        0.5
  tempoyak

  Inyak            12        0.6

  Pisang            4        0.2         2        0.1
  Buah              1        0.1
  brunei
  Buah             29        1.3
  pedalai

  Buah              5        0.2
  rembai


  Buah asam        10        0.5        15        0.4


  Buah              2        0.1        23        0.6
  punsut
  Buah purur        3        0.1



  Buah              1        0.1
  dedabai


  Buah              7        0.3        24        0.6
  bukoh

  Buah              1        0.1
  senggang


  Buah sibau        1        0.1



  Limau                                  1       0.03

  Tebu                                   2        0.1




Unknown            18        0.8        29        0.8

Total Record    2,174      100.0     3,727      100.0

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

Figure 5

Pie chart showing the percentages of average monthly income per family
from various sources in Ng. Kedebu' (Rp 228,849) during the study
periods.


Forest Product                 Rp. 19,513, -  (9%)
Wage Labour & Processing Fish  Rp. 36,147, - (16%)
Fishing                        RP. 173,219,- (75%)

Note: Table made from pie chart
Figure 6

Pie chart showing the percentages of average monthly income per family
from various sources in wong Garai (Rp 7,655) during the study periods.


Wage Labour & Processing Fish  RP. 1,291, - (17%)
Forest Product                 RP. 6,364, - (83%)

Note: Table made from pie chart

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]

Table 1

Frequencies of Fishing Gear/Methods Recorded in Ng. Kedebu', Wong Garai
and Bemban, 1992-93.

Gear/Methods        Ng. Kedebu'     Wong Garai      Bemban
                  Freq.     %     Freq.    %     Freq.    %

Gillnet            1612    61.3      56    9.5       3    5.1
Flat liftnet        444    16.9
Castnet             267    10.2      33    5.6
Small trap           81     3.1
Multiple             59     2.2
hooks/long lines
Individual hooks     59     2.2      40    6.8       4    6.8
Large meshed         41     1.6
gillnet
Speargun/diving      18     0.7     125   21.3
Tube trap            15     0.6
Larger trap           9     0.3
Longline              7     0.3
By hand               1    <0.1       7    1.2
Fish trap                           191   32.5      48   81.4
Wide mesh                           110   18.7
basket
Poison                               11    1.9
Bush knife                            9    1.5
Unknown              16     0.6       6    1.0       4    6.8

Total              2629   100.0     588  100.0      59  100.0
Table 2

Income from Most Valuable Fish Sold in Ng. Kedebu' and Bemban.

Local Names              Latin Names [Probable]    Total Money (Rp)
                                                 Received During 4 mo.
                                                   Ng. Kedebu' Bemban

Bilis                    Clupeichthys bleekeri     1,444,270
Lais [various kind]
  * Lais                                           1,004,450
  * Lais butu            Ompok hypophthalmus         133,500
  * Lis p                                              2,500
  * Lais banga           Kryptopterus micronema       81,500
  * Lais jungana         Kryptopterus apogon           2,500
      Total Lais                                   1,224,450
Patik/Baung
  * Patik                Mystus nemurus              860,395
  * Baung                Mystus planiceps             96,350
      Total Patik/Baung                            1,053,095
Toman [various kinds]    Channa spp.
  * Toman                Channa micropeltes          178,600
  * Delak                Channa striata               71,400
  * Piyang               Channa marulioides              500
      Total Toman                                    250,500
Lelabi                   Soft shelled turtles                   176,400
Ulang uli                Botia macracanthus          176,225
Umpan                    Puntioplites wandersii       86,350
Other fish                                           531,245
Total                                              4,766,135    176,400

Note: No fish were sold Wong Garai.
Table 3

Average cash received from fishing by family and month in Ng. Kedebu'
(1992-93).

Family                                   Month
               September  December  March 1993  June 1993    Family
                  1992      1992                           Average (Rp)

C                109,400   112,035     381,000     91,750       173,546
H                 49,400    37,200     120,350    124,540        82,873
L                 16,170     1,200       9,000     59,900        21,568
M                     NA    82,000     305,900    186,050       191,317
J                     NA   123,375     120,550     54,850        99,592
F                     NA         0      45,350          0        15,117
N                 14,150     5,475      31,500         NA        17,042
E                     NA        NA     192,150    163,500       177,825
G                     NA        NA     157,850    169,145       163,498
D                 53,650        NA          NA         NA        53,650
O                      0        NA          NA         NA             0
B                      0        NA          NA         NA             0
Q                      0        NA          NA         NA             0
I                     NA    35,645          NA         NA        35,645
P                     NA        NA     713,100         NA       713,100
K                     NA        NA          NA    992,200       992,200
A                     NA        NA          NA    207,750       207,750

Month average     30,346    49,616     207,675    204,969       173,219

NA refers to months when that family was not included in the study.
Table 4

Number of Trips by Gender and Month--Ng. Kedebu' (1992-93).

Gender                                 Month
              September 1992       December 1992         March 1993
          Freq.       Percent   Freq.      Percent   Freq.     Percent

Male        156         63.1%     377        70.3%     710       72.5%
Female       49         19.4%      89        16.6%     231       23.6%
Mixed        44         17.5%      70        13.1%      38        3.9%

Gender           Month
               June 1993
          Freq.     Percent

Male        649       76.1%
Female        0          0%
Mixed       204       23.9%

[chi square] = 333.2 with 6 df, P < 001.
Table 5

Number of Trips by Gender and Month--Wong Garai (1992-93).

Gender                                Month
              December 1992         March 1993          June 1993
          Freq.        %       Freq.       %       Freq.       %

Male         81      76.4%       135     75.0%       151     100.0%
Female       25      23.6%        45     25.0%         0         0%

Gender            Month
              September 1993
          Freq.         %

Male        151       100.0%
Female        0           0%

[chi square] = 84.0 with 3 df, P < 0.001.
Table 6

Sources of Agricultural/Agroforest Products, Wong Garai, 1992-93.

English Names         Iban Names   Frequency  Percentage

Homegarden            Kebun/Redas        142     33.6
Forest reserve        Pulau               95     22.5
Old longhouse site    Tembawai            74     17.5
Floodplain            Emperan             63     14.9
Hill rice field       Umai bukit          21      5.0
Newly fallowed field  Temuda              11      2.6
Longhouse yard        Laman                7      1.7
Forest cemetery       Pendam               4      0.9
Fallow forest         Damun                3      0.7
Rubber grove          Kebun getah          1      0.2
Swamp rice field      Umai paya'           1      0.2
Table 7

Gender of Harvester in Ng. Kedebu.' Wong Garai and Bemban, 1992-1993.

Gender                                Villages
                   Ng. Kedebu'            Wong Garai         Bemban
             Freq             N       Freq            N       Freq

Male           42           18.0%      159          37.7%        7
Female        190           81.6%      230          54.5%       35
Mixed           0               0       23           5.5%       51
Unspecified     1            0.4%       10           2.4%        1
Total         233            100%      422           100%       94

Gender        Villages
               Bemban    Total
               N

Male          7.4%     208
Female       37.2%     455
Mixed        54.3%      74
Unspecified   1.1%      12
Total         100%     749

[chi square] = 281.9 with 4 d.f (P < 0.001), there is a different gender
pattern among three villages.

In this table 12 observations are missing.
Table 8

Gender of Land Owners from Which Crops were Harvested, Ng. Kedebu and
Wong Garai, 1992-93.

Gender             Ng. Kedebu'        Wong Garai
                  (N)      (%)      (N)     (%)

Female            230     98.7       28      6.6
Male                1      0.4      118       28
Mixed gender        2      0.9      182     43.1
Unspecified         0        0       94     22.3

Totals            233      100      422      100
Table 9

Totals and Mean Money Received from Forest Products, Ng. Kedebu' and
Wong Garai, 1992-93.

Villages     Total Rp. Received (Rp)  N   Mean Rp Received

Ng. Kedebu'          699,244          82        8,527
Wong Garai           330,950          17       19,500

(Here we have combined data from "forest" and "agroforest" sections.)
Table 10

Kinds of work performed in Ng. Kedebu and Wong Garai, 1992-1993.

Work                         Ng. Kedebu'              Wong Garai
                       Frequency  Percentage  Frequency  Percentage

Sale of dried fish        29        56.9          0            0
Carpenter                 13        25.5          0            0
Sale of smoked fish        5         9.8          0            0
Operate boat (logging      2         3.9          0            0
company)
Chainsaw operator          1         2.0          0            0
Escort/guide               1         2.0          1         12.5
Carry things               0           0          6         75.0
Logging fee                0           0          1         12.5
Table 11

Average kilograms, prices, and income from fish sale by month, Ng.
kedebu' (1992-93). *

Fish              September 1992                  December 1992
               Kg.  Price     Income        Kg.   Price     Income

Bilis            0     0           0       4.78    1362      6624
Lais          1.43  3625        6013          0       0         0
Landin       15.25  1000       15250          0       0         0
Patik            0     0           0          0       0         0

Fish                March 1993
              Kg.   Price     Income

Bilis       21.67   1267       26367
Lais         3.00   5167       15167
Landin          0      0           0
Patik          17    650       11050

* No fish sale from June 1993

Acknowledgments

We are indebted to many people and organizations. Colfer and Dudley thank Asian Wetlands Bureau (now Wetlands International-Indonesia Programme), Indonesia's Forest Protection and Nature Conservation Agency (PHPA), and the Overseas Development Administration of the United Kingdom (now Department for International Development) for their support during the research (1992-1993). Wadley's research (1992-94) was funded by the US National Science Foundation (Grant No. BNS-9114652), Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Sigma Xi, and Arizona State University, and was sponsored by the Balai Kajian Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional Pontianak with permits from the Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia. (Any conclusions or opinions drawn here are not necessarily those of the above agencies.)

Throughout most of 1992-93, we were working only with local data collectors, Pak Sahar of Ng. Kedebu', Pak Andi Erman of Pulau Duri', and boat driver, Pak Markan of Cincin. All three provided invaluable support and help to this research.

This analysis was conducted under the auspices of the Center for International Forestry Research in Bogor, Indonesia. The research contributes to CIFOR's projects, "Local Livelihoods, Community-Based Management and Devolution" (led by Dr. Eva Wollenberg, whose support and careful critiques of this manuscript are gratefully acknowledged), "Assessing Sustainable Forest Management: Testing Criteria and Indicators" (led by Dr. Ravi Prabhu), and to gender analysis at CIFOR (led by Golfer). Thanks also to Rona Dennis for her help with maps, and to John Tumbull and Wil de Jong for their constructive comments. Special thanks go to Yvonne Byron for her extensive and constructive editing.

We would finally like to thank the people of Ng. Kedebu', Wong Garai, and Bemban who must remain nameless, but to whom we owe so much for their kindness, generosity, and patience.

(1.) We use pseudonyms throughout this chapter in order to protect the privacy and trust of the people whose lives we studied.

(2.) Dudley points out, as counter-evidence, the increasing scarcity of tembesu' (Fragraea fragrans), the most popular local building material, and the presence of many large stumps throughout the area (an undetermined number deriving from previous authorized, large scale logging in the area). He acknowledges that much of the forest remains, but questions why, feeling that low demand, lack of valuable timber, and regular flooding are more important factors than good management.

(3.) There is some evidence that with the current Indonesian financial problems, these conditions may worsen. There is renewed interest in establishing a huge 47,000 ha oil palm plantation to the north of DSNP, and a transmigration settlement is apparently proceeding to the northeast as well as smaller oil palm projects along the middle and lower Leboyan river (see Wadley 1998).

(4.) We paid participating families a nominal Rp. 15,000 per month for this work; this was roughly US$7.50 at the exchange rate of the time, US$1 = Rp. 2,000.

(5.) This handwriting problem was compounded by language barriers as those who entered the data were from Java and unfamiliar with Malay and Iban. This resulted in numerous errors which we could only correct by returning to the original forms.

(6.) In late 1993, Wadley recorded from only one of many such transactions in Lanjak, a boat-load of 111 hard-shelled turtles (buko' or biuku)--1,191 kg. total-and nine soft-shelled turtles (lelabi)--87.5 kg. total. They sold for Rp. 800 per kg. and Rp. 2,750 per kg. respectively. A Nanga Badau merchant bought them for further marketing into Sarawak, where turtles are reportedly sold as far away as Miri at very good profit (Wadley 1998). The Iban who had caught the turtles (and bought some from others) came from a longhouse on the eastern edge of the Reserve. So, like the Malay, Iban living within easy access of the Lakes also rely on them to make money.

(7.) Dennis et al. (1998) found a total of only 31 ha of cleared forest in their total territory of 7,054 ha, based on 1994 remote sensing data. The cultivated area behind the village was not more than 5 ha in 1992.

(8.) One other factor here may involve the method and its implementation at Wong Garai. Most data recorders were schoolchildren of various ages (none younger than 10 years), and they were less likely to be involved in collection of non-edible forest products. In addition and given their diligence at recording meals, they may have placed an over-emphasis on food items compared to the other entries. On several occasions Wadley had to ask them why they had not recorded certain things (e.g. lengths of bamboo for cooking) when it was obvious that members of their households had collected them.

(9.) Numerous researchers have commented on the relative poverty of these flooded forests in terms of flora and fauna (Giesen 1987, 1996). In his surveys in upland and lowland areas of this area, Peters (1993:7) found 133 species in the upland areas compared to only 44 species in the lowlands. Its "claim to fame" is uniqueness rather than abundance or diversity.

(10.) These estimates were computed by multiplying the per family income by three (to reflect the unrecorded remainder of the year) and then multiplied again based on the proportion of the community's households included in the studies. The figures, of course, must be taken with a grain of salt, since many local products are truly seasonal, i.e., only available during a short period--so even though we tried to reflect seasonal variation, by scheduling our recordkeeping every three months, in tropical rain forests this kind of estimate is less reliable than it would be in many contexts.

(11.) We get village total income during the periods of study by multiplying the total income that we got from survey by 5, to represent the sample of 20% of the community extrapolated to the whole community. Then we get the annual village income by multiply the village total income during the periods of study by 3 to represent the rest of the months that we extrapolated.

(12.) Wadley (1997a) found that in areas where smallholdings of rubber or pepper were profitable (i.e., stable prices and close markets), the incidence of labor migration was lower than in Wong Garai.

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RELATED ARTICLE: Fisheries and Management Issues

* Which fish are most commonly caught? Does this reflect abundance in the Reserve? What sorts of management considerations are needed to safeguard these fish, from both biodiversity and production points of view?

* How much fish do the various communities actually catch?

* What are the management implications of these kinds and amounts of gear? Are they likely to result in serious resource degradation? What regulatory regimes would best safeguard the fish while maintaining the people's livelihoods?

* Which fish are most important economically? Are these fish abundant in the area? How can we make sure they remain abundant? If they are abundant, how can we enhance the profitability of their use to local people?

* How do people's incomes vary over the course of the year? What is their standard of living, as measured by incomes? What management actions are feasible, given this level of income for local people?

* How do the different communities differ in their incomes from fishing? What sorts of management differentiation will these differences imply?

* Who fishes and who receives the cash from fishing? How do we ensure that those who benefit now from fishing do not lose out under new management regulations?

* How does the distribution of fishing effort by gender and ethnicity differ over the course of the year?

* How much time do people spend fishing? How does this differ among the different communities?

Agriculture/Agroforestry and Management Issues

* What agroforestry products do the people in these communities grow and collect? In what quantities?

* Where do local people gather and grow these products? What management strategies might be useful in intensifying existing land uses, such as through fallow improvement in order to minimize expansion of agricultural areas?

* Who grows and collects these products? Who would be appropriate partners in efforts to improve or experiment with new management techniques?

* Whose permission will be needed to experiment with new management techniques on village lands?

Forest Products and Management Issues

* What products do the local forests provide for local people? How intense is this use? How might forest management be improved to protect biodiversity while accommodating local people's needs?

* What quantities of which forest products are being harvested? Is this putting a strain on biodiversity or on the resources? How might these products be better managed, or protected?

* Where are local people finding the forest products they use? Are there areas that are over-harvested? Are there special niches for particular forest products?

* How important are forest products to the people's livelihoods and to their cash incomes? What effect would reduction in access bring? Could we increase revenues through processing or improved marketing of the same amount of produce?

* Who gains the income from sale of forest products? How much income do forest products provide to men and women?

Wage Labor and Management Issues

* What kinds of wage labor are available in the area? How involved are local people in wage labor?

* How reliable and how profitable are fisheries related work in the Reserve? Are there ways to stabilize incomes, or to increase incomes, without increasing harvesting, through better marketing or improved processing methods?

* Who are the wage laborers in and around the Reserve? How common is wage work?

* What is the dependence of these people on cash incomes? What is the distribution of sources of income in the various study communities?

Food and Management Issues

* What foods do people in the main study communities eat? How balanced is their diet, or how balanced could it be, given local resources? How does this vary over the course of a year?

* How nutritious is the diet available to local people?

* Where are the main sources of food for local people and how do these vary by ethnic group?

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Author:Dudley, Richard G.
Publication:Borneo Research Bulletin
Geographic Code:90SOU
Date:Jan 1, 2000
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Previous Article:Introduction to Danau Sentarum National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. (Research Notes).
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