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Unannounced and unexpected: the desegregation of Houston Public Library in the early 1950s.



ABSTRACT

Houston Public Library Houston Public Library is the public library system serving Houston, Texas.

It can trace its founding to the Houston Athaneum in 1854. After a large contribution from Andrew Carnegie it was chartered as the Houston Lyceum and Carnegie Library in 1904.
 operated as a racially segregated system until 1953, when it quietly changed its policy to one of token integration. Occurring some seven years before the Houston Independent School District The Houston Independent School District (HISD) is the largest public school system in Texas and the seventh-largest in the United States.[1] Houston ISD serves as a community school district for most of the city of Houston and several nearby and insular municipalities.  began to desegregate de·seg·re·gate  
v. de·seg·re·gat·ed, de·seg·re·gat·ing, de·seg·re·gates

v.tr.
1. To abolish or eliminate segregation in.

2.
, the public library's policy change depended on a few key individuals. Drawing on the library's records of discussions and events, this article traces the history of a major shift in philosophy and practice at a large urban public library in the U.S. South.

**********

Historian William Henry Noun 1. William Henry - English chemist who studied the quantities of gas absorbed by water at different temperatures and under different pressures (1775-1836)
Henry
 Kellar's book, Make Haste Slowly: Moderates, Conservatives, and School Desegregation The attempt to end the practice of separating children of different races into distinct public schools.

Beginning with the landmark Supreme Court case of brown v. board of education, 347 U.S. 483, 74 S. Ct. 686, 98 L. Ed.
 in Houston (1999), examines how it was possible for the largest segregated public school system in the nation to desegregate peacefully in the fall of 1960. In 1954 the federal Supreme Court had declared unconstitutional the separate but equal policy in public schools in its Brown vs. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas This article is about the state capital of Kansas. For other uses, see Topeka (disambiguation).

Topeka is the capital of the U.S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Shawnee County, which is named after the Shawnee Indians.
 decision. In response, some Deep South states declared they would organize massive resistance against court-ordered desegregation desegregation: see integration. . In September of 1957 Arkansas governor Orval Faubus Orval Eugene Faubus (7 January 1910 – 14 December 1994) was a six-term Democratic Governor of Arkansas, having served from 1955-1967. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied  ordered state troops to prevent nine black students from attending the all-white Central High School. President Eisenhower responded by sending federal troops and the National Guard to escort the Little Rock Nine as they entered the school amidst a crowd of threatening, cursing, spitting whites. In June of 1963, Alabama governor George Wallace This article is about the American politician, former governor of Alabama and former presidential candidate. For other uses, see George Wallace (disambiguation).
George Corley Wallace Jr.
 personally, physically blocked two black students from entering the University of Alabama The University of Alabama (also known as Alabama, UA or colloquially as 'Bama) is a public coeducational university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA. Founded in 1831, UA is the flagship campus of the University of Alabama System. , giving his infamous "schoolhouse door" speech proclaiming that the federal government had no right to tell the state how to run its public school system. President Kennedy sent the National Guard to the campus and Wallace left, but his term as governor was marked by state-supported violence against blacks, most notably in Montgomery, Selma, and Birmingham.

But between Little Rock in 1957 and Tuscaloosa in 1963, Houston desegregated its public schools. Kellar does a very good job of telling the story of the civil rights movement in Houston, a city largely overlooked in the huge body of literature on the civil rights era, despite the fact that several key court cases originated in Texas. He finds that the combination of an educated, motivated, and well-established black elite and middle class, with effective community organizations and three black-owned newspapers, along with a white business elite intent on avoiding the economic disaster that befell Arkansas as a result of the bad press around Little Rock, led to peaceful integration of the Houston Independent School District (HISD HISD Houston Independent School District (Texas)
HISD Highway Information Services Division (Maryland) 
). Kellar notes that by the fall of 1960, when twelve black students were quietly admitted to elementary schools elementary school: see school.  and thus token integration was achieved, the city's golf courses and buses had already integrated and the local Catholic schools were already admitting black students.

What Kellar does not mention is that Houston Public Library also had already desegregated, and it had done so in August of 1953, several months before the Brown decision. Houston Public Library in fact appears to have established the pattern of quiet token integration that HISD would follow seven years later. The same combination of black activism and white business leaders' desire for expediency ex·pe·di·en·cy  
n. pl. ex·pe·di·en·cies
1. Appropriateness to the purpose at hand; fitness.

2. Adherence to self-serving means:
 was also at work.

In 1904 the Houston Lyceum Lyceum, gymnasium near ancient Athens
Lyceum (līsē`əm), gymnasium near ancient Athens. There Aristotle taught; hence the extension of the term lyceum to Aristotle's school of philosophers, the Peripatetics.
 and Carnegie Library Carnegie libraries are libraries which were built with money donated by Scottish-American businessman Andrew Carnegie. Over 2,500 Carnegie libraries were built, including public and university libraries. Carnegie earned the nickname Patron Saint of Libraries.  had opened downtown in a newly constructed edifice funded by steel baron Andrew Carnegie. In 1913 the Colored Carnegie Library opened its new building nearby, again funded by the patron who had made millions in steel. The Colored Carnegie Library operated independently until 1921, when it became a branch of the newly renamed Houston Public Library (Malone, 1999). By 1953 the system included the main library downtown, six branches, a few small deposit stations, and two bookmobiles, all for the exclusive use of whites, and the Colored Carnegie Branch and three deposit stations in a high school, an elementary school, and a park for African Americans African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race.  (Houston Public Library, 1958, p. 2).

So the library system did provide collections and services to blacks as well as whites, but in a segregated arrangement that blacks were no longer willing to accept forty years after its instigation INSTIGATION. The act by which one incites another to do something, as to injure a third person, or to commit some crime or misdemeanor, to commence a suit or to prosecute a criminal. Vide Accomplice. . Desegregation of public transportation, accommodations, and institutions in Houston took place in waves set in motion by two significant civil rights victories in Texas. The first of these was Smith v. Allwright Smith v. Allwright, 321 U.S. 649 (1944), was an important decision of the United States Supreme Court with regard to voting rights and, by extension, racial desegregation.

Lonnie E.
 (1944), which outlawed the state's whites-only primary elections (Hine, 1979). The second case was Sweatt v. Painter Sweatt v. Painter, 339 U.S. 629 (1950), was a U.S. Supreme Court case that successfully challenged the "separate but equal" doctrine of racial segregation established by the 1896 case Plessy v. Ferguson.  (1950), which ruled that black students must be allowed to attend the University of Texas Law School since the existing separate law school for blacks was not the equal of it (Pitre, 1999).

Soon after the Supreme Court rendered its decision in the Sweatt case, influential blacks in Houston turned their attention to the central library. In a letter to the library board quoted by the Houston Informer Informer
Battus

revealed theft by Mercury; turned to touchstone. [Gk. and Rom. Myth.: Walsh Classical, 47]

Cenci, Count Francesco

old libertine ravishes his daughter Beatrice. [Br. Lit.
, five African American leaders and activists, including Lonnie Smith

    For other people named Lonnie Smith, see Lonnie Smith (disambiguation).
Lonnie Smith( born December 22, 1955 in Chicago, Illinois) is a former Major League Baseball outfielder.
 of the Smith v. Allwright case, noted that they could probably win a lawsuit against the library if they chose to file, but they preferred "a voluntary solution" because such an approach "would go a long way toward establishing a better understanding and feeling between white and colored people of Houston." (1) The writer, and apparently other leading black citizens, thus saw the effort to desegregate the public library as historically significant, a logical next step in their long fight to secure citizenship rights and educational opportunities.

Working with them was attorney Herman Wright Herman Wright- A jazz bassist from Detroit, Michigan. He began on drums as a teen before ultimately settling on. He did notable work with Dorothy Ashby, Terry Gibbs, Yusef Lateef, George Shearing, and Doug Watkins. He also can be heard on Allen Ginsberg's Ginsberg Sings Blake. . He and his partner, Arthur J. Mandell, had represented the Congress of Industrial Organizations in Texas in the 1930s and 1940s. Both had become members of the Houston branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), organization composed mainly of American blacks, but with many white members, whose goal is the end of racial discrimination and segregation.  (NAACP NAACP
 in full National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

Oldest and largest U.S. civil rights organization. It was founded in 1909 to secure political, educational, social, and economic equality for African Americans; W.E.B. Du Bois and Ida B.
) in 1947 (Pitre, 1999, p. 72). Wright, as a member of the NAACP's Legal Redress Committee, followed up on the group's first approach after library board members failed to respond. Early in October of 1950 he talked by phone with board president Mrs. Roy L. Arterbury regarding the possibility of arranging a meeting between the board and the NAACP's Legal Redress Committee. She apparently was noncommittal because Wright followed up again, this time with a letter on November 17. He stated that if the board had not arranged a meeting by November 27, the committee would consider filing suit. Library director Harriet Dickson Reynolds promptly wrote back, saying that Arterbury and other board members were out of town and that a quorum A majority of an entire body; e.g., a quorum of a legislative assembly.

A quorum is the minimum number of people who must be present to pass a law, make a judgment, or conduct business.
 could not be reached. She assured Wright that Arterbury would call him when she returned, although she did not say when that would be. (2) It was a classic case of "don't call us, we'll call you."

Harriett Reynolds was stalling. She sent Wright's letter and her reply to assistant city attorney Herman W. Mead. At the end of January 1951, Arterbury and another long-time board member, Mrs. R. L. Young, met with Mayor Oscar Holcombe to discuss ways to increase the library's budget. During their visit, Holcombe instructed them not to meet with the NAACP committee and not to entertain the possibility of desegregating the library? Holcombe had been mayor throughout the 1920s and off and on through the next three decades, and after a very brief membership in Houston's Ku Klux Klan Ku Klux Klan (k' klŭks klăn), designation mainly given to two distinct secret societies that played a part in American history, although other less important groups have also used  chapter, had decided neither to participate in nor interfere with that organization during its heyday hey·day  
n.
The period of greatest popularity, success, or power; prime.



[Perhaps alteration of heyda, exclamation of pleasure, probably alteration of Middle English hey, hey.
 in the 1920s (Kellar, 1999, p. 15).

Another year passed and another group took up the project of pressing for access to the library. In February 1952 board president Arterbury and librarian Reynolds met with a white woman, Mrs. Newton Rayzor, and a black man, Charles Shaw Charles Shaw can refer to:
  • Charles Shaw, Baron Kilbrandon (1906–1989), British law lord
  • Charles F. Shaw, founder of the Charles Shaw wine brand
  • Charles B.
, representing the Church Alliance Council. In a memo written after the meeting, Reynolds noted that "Mr. Shaw pounded on the point of political equality. Mrs. Rayzor talked of Christian brotherhood." Rayzor and Shaw asked for two things: that Houston's black residents be allowed to use any and all of the city's libraries and that they be given representation on the library board. Reynolds and Arterbury tried to appease ap·pease  
tr.v. ap·peased, ap·peas·ing, ap·peas·es
1. To bring peace, quiet, or calm to; soothe.

2. To satisfy or relieve: appease one's thirst.

3.
 them by pointing out that blacks could use the central library for reference work and they could request that books from the central collection be sent to the (Colored) Carnegie Library for their use. Reynolds also suggested that the Carnegie Library needed a Friends of the Library group to help increase the use of and donor support for the branch. (4)

With the election of Roy M. Hofheinz as mayor, the city's official treatment of African American residents began to change. Soon after taking office early in 1953, Hofheinz appointed Gould Beech beech, common name for the Fagaceae, a family of trees and shrubs mainly of temperate and subtropical regions in the Northern Hemisphere. The principal genera—Castanea (chestnut and chinquapin), Fagus (beech), and Quercus , his executive assistant, to advise the library board. Beech went to the board's meeting in February, where the board talked with him about strategies for increasing the library's budget. He then broached the subject of desegregation, asking board members what they thought about the possibility. Present were board members Arterbury, Mrs. A. T. Carleton, and Carl F. Stuebing and librarian Reynolds, but their responses are not recorded in the minutes of the meeting. (5)

Then, in May, Mayor Hofheinz himself attended the library board's meeting. He told the board members that he thought it was time to desegregate the library. He noted that Houston's black residents were taxpayers who should have access to the municipal services This article or section deals primarily with the United Kingdom and does not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page.
 their taxes supported. He alluded to a court case to desegregate the city golf course, acknowledging that the city expected to lose and would not appeal. He reassured the board that Houstonians were ready to accept blacks in the library, especially since those who would take advantage of the opportunity would be "serious minded and with good demeanor" and would follow the same rules as whites who used the library. He told the board to desegregate quietly, making no announcements to the news media or to the NAACP. (6) Neither long-time board members Arterbury or Young were present. Arterbury, who had served on the board since her appointment in 1931 by Mayor Walter Monteith mon·teith  
n.
A large punch bowl having a notched rim on which cups can be hung.



[Possibly after Monteith (Monteigh), an eccentric 17th-century Scotsman who wore a cloak scalloped at the hem.]
, resigned in March. (7) Replacing her as board president was Carl F. Stuebing. Young, a strong supporter of Mayor Holcombe, died in late April. (8) In June Mayor Hofheinz appointed Jack Valenti as her replacement. A native Houstonian, Valenti had distinguished himself as a pilot during World War II and had earned a bachelor's degree from the University of Houston before completing his M.B.A. at Harvard in 1952. He had returned to Houston and was a partner in the political consulting Political consulting is the business which has grown up around advising and assisting political campaigns, primarily in the United States. As democracy has spread around the world, American political consultants have often developed an international base of clients.  and advertising firm of Weekley and Valenti at the time of his appointment to the library board. (9)

At Valenti's first library board meeting on July 21, 1953, library services to African Americans appeared on the agenda in two different but telling ways. Billy B. Goldberg, chair of the library board's expansion program committee, suggested that the library hire a consultant or work with staff in the city's planning department to create a coherent expansion program. The board agreed that he should work with the planning department on a study that would inform such a program. Goldberg also raised the idea of selling both the Colored Carnegie Branch on Frederick Street and the Carnegie Branch on Henry Street, since circulation statistics were decreasing at both locations. In the context of a proposed program of expanding library collections and services, the board members' interest in freeing themselves from the burden of upkeep on declining properties made sense. They had approved more than $1,000 in roof repairs at the Colored Branch in the past couple of years. Although it did not come up at the July board meeting, they also probably recognized that the demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data.  of the neighborhood around the branch had changed after World War II. The location that had seemed convenient to many black Houstonians when the Colored Branch opened no longer did. And because other library buildings were off-limits to African Americans, the consequences were more pronounced than would otherwise have been the case. In the context of increased civil rights activism, the decreasing level of library availability rankled.

At their July 1953 meeting, the board also discussed the matter of implementing the mayor's desegregation policy. (10) Library Director Reynolds outlined the library's policies and practices regarding African Americans. Only the Colored Carnegie Branch and three deposit stations allowed black readers to borrow books. If a black person asked for service at another location, the staff would refer that person to the Colored Branch. A black patron who needed to use reference materials or the card catalog catalog, descriptive list, on cards or in a book, of the contents of a library. Assurbanipal's library at Nineveh was cataloged on shelves of slate. The first known subject catalog was compiled by Callimachus at the Alexandrian Library in the 3d cent. B.C.  not available at the Colored Branch would be served at the central library, under certain conditions. The patron was not allowed in the front door but had to use a side entrance. The patron was not allowed to use the reading rooms or the card catalog but had to sit in a designated area of the mezzanine mez·za·nine  
n.
1. A partial story between two main stories of a building.

2. The lowest balcony in a theater or the first few rows of that balcony.
 and wait for staff to bring the requested reference works or catalog drawers. (11)

Reynolds told the board that she was concerned about desegregating children's services. She pointed out that library service to children involved far more than the reference and circulation functions typically used by adults. The library offered children story hours, sponsored clubs, and fostered other group activities that could be construed as having a social component. Some white parents would object to such activities if black children participated, Reynolds said. Therefore, she recommended, the library should take an incremental Additional or increased growth, bulk, quantity, number, or value; enlarged.

Incremental cost is additional or increased cost of an item or service apart from its actual cost.
 approach to desegregated service by expanding access to adults. Black adults would be allowed to use the central library's adult collection and reading rooms. The discussion that followed touched on what the board members saw as related issues, such as whether whites and blacks would be allowed to use the same toilets, water fountains, and club rooms. Board members considered the definition of "adult." The board also talked about the administrative problems that might arise as library staff attempted to deal with restrictions that applied to some of their clientele but not others. Board member Waldo Bernard moved that they approve Reynolds's recommendation to desegregate adult services. But no one seconded the motion. Valenti moved that the issue be considered at a subsequent meeting, and everyone agreed. (12)

Back in June, soon after Mayor Hofheinz told the board to desegregate the library, Reynolds had written to the city attorney for guidance. She asked whether the library board could act alone or whether the city council would have to approve its decisions. She asked whether there were laws requiring segregation, either of the library itself or of facilities such as toilets and drinking fountains within the library. The reply from the city attorney is dated July 21, the day of the board's meeting, and the minutes do not refer to it, so it seems unlikely that Reynolds had seen it before the meeting took place. What City Attorney Sears told her was that the board had full authority and responsibility for governing and managing the library, according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 the City Code. He also noted that constitutional law required that any segregated facilities or services the library might offer would have to be "substantially equal." (13)

At the board's next meeting in August, Valenti moved "That all adult facilities at the central library be opened to Negroes; and, that for this purpose, an adult is defined as anyone of senior high school age and up." Waldo Bernard seconded the motion and all seven board members approved. Mrs. Roland Ring, board secretary, recorded in the minutes that Valenti, Bernard, and Billy Goldberg agreed that the board's decision represented progress. Board members agreed that they would monitor developments and consider expanding access later. Ring also noted for the record that adult reading rooms, adult collections, and adult clubrooms were open for use by African Africans as of August 21, 1953. In keeping with the mayor's wishes, the library would not announce the policy change to the public. (14)

On paper, the change made some 200,000 library books and the central and branch libraries available to Houston's black adults. But without a public announcement, black adults learned of their availability only slowly. The first to register did so on August 28, only a week after the official decision. A Texas Southern University for Negroes (TSUN) student, he apparently expected to be turned away when he asked to borrow books. Library staff reported that the library's willingness to issue him a borrower's card took him by surprise. By the end of the year, fewer than fifty blacks had registered as borrowers at the central library; most were TSUN students. The library's annual report for 1953 noted that they returned the borrowed books on time, with only one exception. (15) That the librarian thought this noteworthy suggests that some white staff members may have assumed that black readers would be irresponsible. But this small piece of data may have been offered in support of Mayor Hofheinz's expressed belief that because only serious and courteous cour·te·ous  
adj.
Characterized by gracious consideration toward others. See Synonyms at polite.



[Middle English corteis, courtly, from Old French, from cort, court; see
 blacks would take advantage of their new library privileges and would follow the rules, whites had nothing to fear from opening the library to them.

Even the partial desegregation of Houston's main library put that agency ahead of many other institutions in the city. It was not until March 4, 1960, that black students in Houston, following the lead established at the first lunch counter sit-in a month earlier in Greensboro, North Carolina “Greensboro” redirects here. For other uses, see Greensboro (disambiguation).
Greensboro, North Carolina (IPA: [ɡɹiːnsbʌɹəʊ]) is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
, began to stage sit-ins and take other forms of direct action that resulted in restaurants, train stations, buses, hotels, and other private businesses and public accommodations beginning to desegregate (Cole, 1997). It was not until September Until September is a 1984 romantic drama set in France. It stars Karen Allen as an American tourist in Paris who falls in love with a married Frenchman (Thierry Lhermitte). External links  of 1960 that public schools in the city began incremental integration, six years after the Brown decision and one month after a federal district judge ordered desegregation of all first-grade classes (Hurley Hurley has become the English version of at least three distinct original Irish names: the Ó hUirthile, part of the Dál gCais tribal group, based in Clare and North Tipperary; the Ó Muirthile, based around Kilbritain in west Cork; and the OhIarlatha, from the district of , 1966).

Despite the changed policy at the central library, the Colored Carnegie Branch continued its activities, with emphasis on services for children and young adults. The branch librarian, Anita Sterling, visited four elementary schools and one senior high in her efforts to interest young people in using the library. She organized a reading club for teens, held story hours for children, and hosted a variety of activities in observance of Book Week. She also submitted columns and information to local newspapers to publicize pub·li·cize  
tr.v. pub·li·cized, pub·li·ciz·ing, pub·li·ciz·es
To give publicity to.


publicize or -cise
Verb

[-cizing, -cized]
 the branch. As at the central library, TSUN students were relatively heavy users of the branch's collections and services. (16)

The branch would continue to operate for a few more years, but by the late 1950s it had outlived its usefulness, and not just because it was a relic of Jim Crow Jim Crow

Negro stereotype popularized by 19th-century minstrel shows. [Am. Hist.: Van Doren, 138]

See : Bigotry
. The forty-year-old structure needed constant repairs, circulation was dwindling dwin·dle  
v. dwin·dled, dwin·dling, dwin·dles

v.intr.
To become gradually less until little remains.

v.tr.
To cause to dwindle. See Synonyms at decrease.
, and the outdated collection suffered from neglect and abuse. The branch ultimately did not die because it was an offensive physical reminder of segregation days, nor was its demise caused by lack of use. In the nation's sixteenth largest city, the branch simply sat in the path of a major street extension. It was Houston's traffic problem that led the board to sell the building and the buyer to tear it down. Mayor Lewis Cutrer's office informed librarian Reynolds in the summer of 1959 that the Clay Avenue Extension project would begin in December. The extension of one of downtown Houston's main arteries would pass through the site of the library. The building would need to be moved or demolished de·mol·ish  
tr.v. de·mol·ished, de·mol·ish·ing, de·mol·ish·es
1. To tear down completely; raze.

2. To do away with completely; put an end to.

3.
 in the fall. The board wanted to sell the building and property, but they were unsure of their legal authority to do so. An attorney in the city's legal department thought that if the building were no longer used as a library, it would have to revert to the ownership of the trustees of the Colored Carnegie Library Association. Reynolds checked the city directory and found that only two of the original trustees, W. L. D. Johnson and L. H. Spivey, were listed. She also checked the deed and found no reversion reversion: see atavism.  clause but merely the stipulation An agreement between attorneys that concerns business before a court and is designed to simplify or shorten litigation and save costs.

During the course of a civil lawsuit, criminal proceeding, or any other type of litigation, the opposing attorneys may come to an agreement
 that the property was "for the use and benefit of colored not of the white race; - commonly meaning, esp. in the United States, of negro blood, pure or mixed.

See also: Color
 people of Houston." Reynolds asked the board to consider the issue of how to serve black readers once the branch closed. Mice Stewart, supervisor of extension services, reported that the worn bookmobile, known as the Traveling Branch for Negroes, needed to be replaced. (17)

A few days after the meeting, Reynolds followed up with a letter to Charles Easterling in the city's legal department. She relayed some two dozen questions from the board's discussion regarding the fate of the Colored Carnegie Branch. Among their key concerns were how the library would be compensated for the loss of the property, and how that compensation might be applied to other library services. The trustees wondered how broadly they could interpret the phrase "for the use and benefit of colored people." They wondered, for instance, whether they could build a new branch elsewhere for use by whites and blacks and still adhere to adhere to
verb 1. follow, keep, maintain, respect, observe, be true, fulfil, obey, heed, keep to, abide by, be loyal, mind, be constant, be faithful

2.
 the spirit of a stipulation written when the end of residential segregation was nowhere in sight. They also questioned how they would offer equivalent service to blacks once the branch designated for their use was gone. They expressed a desire to build another branch in a predominantly black neighborhood in exchange for the loss of the Colored Carnegie Branch, but because funding for such a project was not in the library's budget, they wondered about the possibility of providing additional bookmobile service or of renting space for the collections. Finally, they asked, "Will loss of major branch for Negroes affect de-segregation of library?" (18) Six years after token integration of the central library, the board understood the implication of closing the black branch. It would no longer serve as a way to siphon off Verb 1. siphon off - convey, draw off, or empty by or as if by a siphon
siphon, syphon

draw, take out - take liquid out of a container or well; "She drew water from the barrel"
 black library users in an attempt to keep them out of the system's other buildings.

A month later three board members met and heard the city attorney's confirmation that there was no reversionary re·ver·sion·ar·y   also re·ver·sion·al
adj. Law
Of or connected with the reversion of an estate.

Adj. 1. reversionary
 clause in the deed but that the library had to comply with the "for the use and benefit of the colored people" covenant. Easterling urged them to ask the mayor and city council for full compensation for the loss of the building and property and full authority to use that compensation as they saw fit, within the bounds of the covenant. The three members present passed a motion to implement Easterling's recommendations, and the four members not present assented by telephone. They were determined to realize the full value of the real estate under their authority and to retain control over expending it. (19) By August board members had begun discussing in which predominately black neighborhood they should situate sit·u·ate  
tr.v. sit·u·at·ed, sit·u·at·ing, sit·u·ates
1. To place in a certain spot or position; locate.

2. To place under particular circumstances or in a given condition.

adj.
 a new branch. They included the proposed branch along with other branches, work on existing buildings, and construction of a storage facility in a five-year capital improvement plan. (20) A bond election for library expansion passed in September. In October Reynolds reported to the board the availability of $312,000 in library bonds and another potential $550,000 when all of the library bonds had sold. She also reported that the city would grant the library $52,335 to compensate for the Colored Branch. (21)

At its meeting in July of 1961, the board voted unanimously to close the Colored Carnegie Branch as of July 31, with no public announcement. (22) Reynolds sent a memorandum to Mayor Lewis Cutrer informing him of the fact and noting that the branch circulated a mere ten books daily. She assured the mayor that a bookmobile would continue to visit predominately black neighborhoods on a regular schedule. And then she acknowledged the significance of the board's act. "With the closing of the Colored Carnegie Branch," Reynolds wrote, "the library system is for all practical purposes integrated." (23)

Several months before the branch closed in mid-1961, the library had launched its capital improvement program, which would involve the construction of branches all over the city through the 1960s. The city auctioned off the original Colored Carnegie Library building in February 1962. The highest bidder HIGHEST BIDDER, contracts. He who, at an auction, offers the greatest price for the property sold.
     2. The highest bidder is entitled to have the article sold at his bid, provided there has been no unfairness on his part.
 demolished it immediately, saving only the cornerstone. (24) The library that was considered a replacement for the Colored Branch opened at 3511 Reed Road, in a predominately black neighborhood. City and library officials dedicated the new facility, named the W. L. D. Johnson Sr. Branch in honor of one of the founders of the original Colored Carnegie Library, on June 16, 1964 (Houston Public Library, 1966, p. 17).

ARCHIVAL SOURCES

Houston Public Library (HPL HPL - Language used in HP9825A/S/T "Desktop Calculators", 1978(?) and ported to the early Series 200 family (9826 and 9836, 68000). Fairly simple and standard, but with extensive I/O support for data acquisition and control (BCD, Serial, 16 bit custom and IEEE 488 interfaces), ). Annual Reports, Archives, Houston Metropolitan Research Center (HMRC HMRC Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (UK)
HMRC Health Management Research Center (University of Michigan)
HMRC Helicopter Multi-Role Computer
HMRC Hierarchical Maximal Ratio Combining
).

HPL, Minutes, Meetings of Board of Trustees board of trustees Politics The posse of thugs who oversee an institution's administration. See Board of directors. , HMRC. Cited as HPL Minutes.

REFERENCES

Cole, T. R. (1997). No color is my kind: The life of Eldrewey Stearns and the integration of Houston. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Hine, D. C. (1979). Black victory: The rise and fall of the white primary in Texas. Millwood, NY: KTO Kto Konto (German: Account)
KTO Korea Tourism Organization
KTO Kuwaiti Theater of Operations
KTO Korean Theater of Operations
KTO Keep Tube Open (enteral feeding pump feature) 
 Press.

Houston Public Library. (1958). Annual report for 1957. Houston: The Library.

Houston Public Library. (1966). Annual report for 1965. Houston: The Library.

Hurley, M. (1966). Decisive years for Houston. Houston: Houston Magazine.

Kellar, W. H. (1999). Make haste slowly: Moderates, conservatives, and school desegregation in Houston. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

Malone, C. K. (1999). Autonomy and accommodation: Houston's Colored Carnegie Library, 1907-1922. Libraries & Culture, 34(2): 95-112.

Pitre, M. (1999). In struggle against Jim Crow: Lulu B. White and the NAACP, 1900-1957. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

NOTES

(1.) Quoted in "The Houston Library Fight," Houston Informer, March 25, 1953, clipping (1) Cutting off the outer edges or boundaries of a word, signal or image. In rendering an image, clipping removes any objects or portions thereof that are not visible on screen. See scissoring. See also WCA.  in the HMRC.

(2.) Herman Wright to Mrs. Roy L. Arterbury, November 17, 1950; Harriet Dickson Reynolds to Wright, November 21, 1950, HPL Minutes, v. 10, 1948-1950.

(3.) Harriet Dickson Reynolds to Herman W. Mead, November 24, 1950, HPL Minutes v. 10, 1948-1950; Board Members visit Mayor (undated un·dat·ed  
adj.
1. Not marked with or showing a date: an undated letter; an undated portrait.

2.
 typescript), HPL Minutes, v. 11, 1951-1953.

(4.) H. D. Reynolds, untitled (undated typescript), HPL Minutes v. 11, 1951-1953.

(5.) Minutes, Meeting of Board Members, February 20, 1953, HPL Minutes, v. 11, 1951-1953.

(6.) Notes on Mayor Hotheinz's talk at Board Meeting, May 18, 1953 (undated typescript), HPL Minutes v. 11, 1951-1953).

(7.) "Mrs. Arterbury's Library Service," Houston Post The Houston Post was a newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States that was established on February 19, 1880, by Gail Borden Johnson.

Though that original publication ceased in October 1884, the Houston Post was re-established with the merger of the
, March 25, 1953 (clipping), HPL Minutes, v. 11, 1951-1953.

(8.) "Mrs. Young, Club Woman, Dies Here," Houston Post, April 29, 1953 (clipping), HPL Minutes, v. 11, 1951-1953.

(9.) A Look at Jack Valenti, retrieved December 19, 2000, from http://www.mpaa.org/about/jack/index.htm. Valenti met Lyndon Baines Johnson in 1955 and later served under President Johnson as his special assistant until 1966, when he resigned to become head of the Motion Picture Association of America, a post he held until mid-2004.

(10.) Minutes, Meeting of Board Members, July 21, 1953, HPL Minutes, v. 11, 1951-1953.

(11.) Ibid., 2.

(12.) Ibid., 2-3.

(13.) Harriet Dickson Reynolds to Will G. Sears, June 2, 1953; Sears to Reynolds, July 21, 1953, HPL, Minutes v. 11, 1951-1953.

(14.) Minutes, Meeting of Board Members, August 21, 1953, and July 21, 1953, HPL Minutes v. 11, 1951-1953.

(15.) Minutes, Meeting of Board Members, July 21 and December 11, 1953, HPL Minutes, v. 11, 1951-1953; HPL Annual Report 1953 (typescript).

(16.) A. Sterling, HPL Colored Carnegie Branch Annual Report 1953, (typescript), HMRC.

(17.) Minutes, Regular Meeting of Board Members, June 12. 1959, HPL Minutes, v. 14, 1958-1960.

(18.) Colored Carnegie Branch: Demolishment: Questions brought out at Board Meeting of June 12, 1959, HPL Minutes, v. 14, 1958-1960.

(19.) Library Board Committee meeting minutes, July 10, 1959, HPL Minutes, v. 14, 1958-1960.

(20.) H. D. Reynolds to Mayor Lewis Cutrer, August 28, 1959, HPL Minutes, v. 14, 1958-1960.

(21.) Regular meeting of Board Members minutes, October 14, 1960, HPL Minutes, v. 14, 1958-1960.

(22.) Regular meeting of Board Members minutes, July 14, 1961, HPL Minutes, v. 15, 1961-1962.

(23.) Harriet Dickson Reynolds to Mayor Lewis Cutrer, July 22, 1961, HPL, Minutes, v. 15, 1961-1962.

(24.) Minutes, Regular Meeting of Board Members, February 23, 1962, 4; Minutes, Regular Meeting of Board Members, October 13, 1961, 3, HPL Minutes, v. 15, 1961-1962.

Cheryl Knott Malone is an associate professor in the School of Information Resources (1) The data and information assets of an organization, department or unit. See data administration.

(2) Another name for the Information Systems (IS) or Information Technology (IT) department. See IT.
 and Library Science at the University of Arizona (body, education) University of Arizona - The University was founded in 1885 as a Land Grant institution with a three-fold mission of teaching, research and public service. , where she teaches information literacy Several conceptions and definitions of information literacy have become prevalent. For example, one conception defines information literacy in terms of a set of competencies that an informed citizen of an information society ought to possess to participate intelligently and  instruction, online searching, government information sources and policy, and other courses. In addition to researching and writing about the history of libraries for African Americans in the segregated South, she is involved in a collaborative investigation of the development and impact of industrial classification.
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