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Ultra performance liquid chromatography analysis of adenine nucleotides and creatine derivatives for kinetic studies/Adeniinnukleotiidide ja kreatiini derivaatide analuus ultralahutusvoimelise vedelikkromatograafia meetodil.

INTRODUCTION

The aim of the study was to develop a sufficiently rapid, high-throughput HPLC method for simultaneous determination of high-energy phosphorus compounds in biological samples that would be suitable for the analysis of ATP resynthesis in cardiac myocytes and, specifically, would be applicable for the elucidation of details of the creatine kinase (CK) reaction:

Creatine + [MgATP.sup.2-] [left and right arrow] [Phosphocreatine.sup.2-] + [MgADP.sup.-] + [H.sup.+] (1)

in this process. The CK reaction catalysed by its mitochondrial isoenzyme MtCK in the mitochondrial intermembrane space is directed towards the synthesis of another high-energy phosphorus compound, phosphocreatine (PCr), which is liberated into the cytoplasm through the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion selective channels (VDAC) leaving another reaction product, ADP, for further ATP resynthesis in the mitochondrial matrix.

Separation of adenine nucleotides, creatine (Cr) compounds, and other metabolites extracted from biological samples has been a routine task for decades, and a large variety of HPLC procedures have been proposed for performing it (cf. Brown et al., 1980; Grune and Siems, 1993 for review). In earlier studies ion-exchange HPLC columns have been used but found to be inconvenient due to their poor stability and/or long elution times required for re-equilibriation of the columns after applying the salt gradient. In parallel, common reversed-phase C18 columns have been used applying different isocratic or combined isocratic-gradient elution modes. HPLC methods applying the reversed phase technique, where the eluating buffer solution is supplemented by a large hydrophobic cationic, typically a tetrabutylammonium (TBA) compound, were probably first used for the separation of nucleotides by Juengling and Kammermeier (1980), who applied two separate isocreatic runs in different conditions to resolve Cr, PCr, and adenine nucleotides.

A number of similar HPLC separation protocols have further been described, which applied different elution modes. A selection of these protocols used to resolve Cr derivatives and nucleotide-related compounds in samples extracted from cardiac tissue or skeletal muscle is presented and analysed in greater detail in the Materials and Methods section. Briefly, elution of Cr and PCr (as well as creatinine, see First and Hallstrom, 1992) is performed in isocratic mode in the presence of TBA followed by elution of nucleotides in another buffer solution containing organic solvent ('step gradient'), or in continuous organic solvent gradient mode.

In the ion-pair HPLC method, the separation of (negatively) charged compounds is expectedly achieved due to (1) the modification of the column's surface by reversible binding of large hydrophobic cations, e.g., TBA; and (2) the binding of the complex of the cation with oppositely charged species formed in the mobile phase to the hydrophobic stationary phase (see, e.g., Grune and Siems, 1993). Nevertheless, for nucleotides as well as Cr and PCr only the first mechanism seems to hold as it was generally accepted years ago (Smith and Alberty, 1956a, 1956b) that TBA cation does not associate with phosphate-containing ligands in water solutions. This statement was confirmed in a more recent 31P NMR study (Cecconi et al., 2002) showing that TBA could be used as 'internal reference cation' (cf. Smith and Alberty, 1956a, 1956b), which did not induce any shifts in the NMR spectra of PCr in conditions where a weak association of PCr with Na+ (log [K.sub.ass] = - 0.5 [+ or -] 0.2) as well as [K.sup.+] ions (log [K.sub.ass] = - 0.3 [+ or -] 0.2) could be readily determined. Accordingly, positively charged hydrophobic reversed phase column surface covered with diffuse layer(s) of hydrophobic cations, thus supplying combined hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, seems to be the main separating factor for hydrophilic Cr and PCr as well as more hydrophobic nucleotides.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Chemicals

TBA bisulphate puriss p.a. for ion pair chromatography (Fluka), [Na.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4] (Fluka), and acetonitrile (Rathburn) were HPLC grade reagents. Soya bean trypsin inhibitor (STI), fatty acid free bovine serum albumin (BSA), pyruvate kinase (PK), leupeptin, ATP, ADP, PCr, ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethyl)-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulphonic acid (HEPES) were from Roche, N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)2-aminoethanesulphonic acid (BES), Cr, and other reagent grade chemicals used were from Fluka or Sigma.

Methods

Isolation of cardiac myocytes

Adult cardiomyocytes were isolated after perfusion of the rat heart with collagenase using the adaptation of the technique described previously (Saks et al., 1991). Briefly, male Wistar rats (300-350 g) were anaesthetized by 200 mg/kg pentobarbital with the addition of 500 U of heparin. The heart was quickly excised preserving a part of aorta and placed into washing solution (WS) of the following composition: 117 mM NaCl, 5.7 mM KCl, 4.4 mM NaHC[O.sub.3], 1.5 mM K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], 1.7 mM Mg[Cl.sub.2], 11.7 mM glucose, 120 mM sucrose, 10 mM Cr, 20 mM taurine, and 21 mM BES, pH 7.1 at 25[degrees]C. All solutions were saturated with oxygen. The heart was cannulated and washed with WS at a flow rate of 15-20 mL/min for 5 min. The collagenase treatment was performed by switching the perfusion to recirculating isolation medium (IM), which included 117 mM NaCl, 5.7 mM KCl, 4.4 mM NaHC[O.sub.3], 1.5 mM K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], 1.7 mM Mg[Cl.sub.2], 11.7 mM glucose, 10 mM Cr, 20 mM taurine, 10 mM PCr, 2 mM pyruvate, and 21 mM HEPES, pH 7.1, supplemented by 0.03 mg/mL Liberase Blendzyme I (Roche) at a flow rate of 5 mL/min for 50 min. Switching the perfusion to the initial WS for 2-3 min terminated the collagenase treatment. After the digestion, the heart was washed with the IM during 2-3 min and transferred into the IM containing 20 [mu]M Ca[Cl.sub.2], 10 [mu]M leupeptin, 2 [mu]M STI, and 2 mg/mL BSA. The cardiomyocytes were then gently dissociated by forceps and pipette suction. The cell suspension was filtered through a crude net and transferred into a tube for sedimentation. The initial supernatant was discarded and the calcium-tolerant contracting cells were allowed to freely sediment. The procedure was repeated twice. Cardiomyocytes were gradually transferred from IM containing 20 [mu]M free calcium into (nominally calcium-free) Mitomed. Finally, the cardiomyocytes were washed 5 times with the same solution containing BSA and the proteinase inhibitors as described above. Isolated cells were stocked in 1-2 mL volume and stored on ice during further experiments. Isolated cardiomyocytes contained 80-90% of rod-like cells when observed under a light microscope. The cells were quantified by protein content determined with the Pierce BCA Protein Assay Kit according to the manufacturer's instructions.

CK reaction

The reaction was performed in the conditions suggested for kinetic studies on the respiration of permeabilized cardiomyocytes (Kuznetsov et al., 2008) in the medium containing 0.5 mM EGTA, 3 mM Mg-acetate, 3 mM K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], 20 mM taurine, 20 mM HEPES, 110 mM sucrose, 0.5 mM dithiothreitol (DTT), 5 mg/mL BSA, 5 mM glutamate, and 2 mM malate at pH 7.1 (Mitomed) at 25[degrees]C by withdrawing aliquots of 100 [mu]L at 1.5 (or 3), 6, and 10 min.

Sample preparation

The withdrawn 100 [mu]L aliquots were added to 200 [mu]L ice-cold 1 M HCl[O.sub.4] solution, immediately supplemented with 5 [mu]L of 100 mM EDTA, and neutralized with 210 [mu]L of 0.952 M KOH for 0.5-1 min. The samples were held on ice for additional 10-15 min for proper precipitate formation and centrifuged at 4[degrees]C and 16 000 g for 2-3 min. The supernatants were immediately frozen (- 40[degrees]C) and analysed within 5-6 h after defrosting holding the samples in the thermostatted autosampler chamber at 4[degrees]C.

UPLC chromatography

Separations of Cr, PCr, and adenine nucleotides were performed on a 2.1 x 100 mm ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column packed with 1.7 [micro]m particles (Waters) by recording the optical density simultaneously at 210 nm for Cr and PCr and at 254 nm for adenine nucleotides. Sample volumes of 10 [mu]L were injected by an autosampler. The mobile phase consisted of buffer A (20 mM [Na.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4], 3 mM TBA bisulphate) and buffer B (200 mM [Na.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4], 10% (v/v) acetonitrile, 0.3 mM TBA bisulphate), both adjusted to pH 5.0 with 2 M phosphoric acid and filtered through a 0.2 [micro]m membrane filter. The elution was performed at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min in buffer A for 2 min followed by 1 : 1 gradient elution with buffers A and B up to 8.5 min and additionally with buffer B up to 10 min. After the analysis the column was re-equilibriated by washing for 1 min with water and 9 min with buffer A, thus resulting in the total recycling time of 20 min. The column was cleaned by washing with 80% methanol after every series of experiments, which typically included 25-30 chromatographic runs. Calibration stock solutions (0.1 M) were prepared in 0.2 M [Na.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4] at pH 7.0 and stored at - 40[degrees]C for not more than 2-3 days in order to minimize PCr and ATP degradation. Alternatively, calibration solutions were prepared in supernatant solutions obtained as described above (see 'Sample preparation').

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Previous studies and UPLC

The methods used for simultaneous separation of Cr compounds and adenine nucleotides generally include two types of protocols: (1) isocratic elution of these compounds in an organic solvent-free buffer followed by stepwise switch to another buffer contaning acetonitrile or methanol and (2) typical gradient elution method where Cr derivatives are eluted in isocratic conditions and adenine nucleotides by organic solvent gradient elution. In both types of protocols the choice of pH and ionic strength of the buffer solution and TBA concentration is highly variable in different studies (Table 1). Reportedly, the choice of the two isocratic elution modes gives shorter total elution times; however, the time required for full re-equilibriation of the column, i.e. the recycling time, is typically not specified (except, e.g., Cordis et al., 1988). The recycling time is typically specified in gradient elution protocols, which give recycling times of about 50 min. In general, while attempts for the separation of hydrophilic Cr derivatives (including creatinine, cf. Furst and Hallstrom, 1992) could face difficulties in proper peak resolution, the separation of nucleotides by ion-pairing HPLC could be achieved nearly in all conditions. Moreover, care should be taken to avoid too tight binding of the nucleotides in the column rather than make efforts to achieve properly resolved peaks for the species: it has been shown that dozens of nucleotide metabolites could be resolved in a single run (see Grune and Siems, 1993 for review).

Introduction of the UPLC methods that explore a new generation of small-diameter particles (1.7 [micro]m in the present case) along with the pertinent equipment ensured higher resolution and sensitivity and, importantly, an impressive reduction in analysis time (up to 10-fold in some cases, see Wilson et al., 2005) due to high, up to 1000 atm, pumping pressures used. Looking for a prototype for our UPLC protocol we proceeded from that proposed by Vives-Bauza and colleagues (Vives-Bauza et al., 2007). In this procedure, Cr and PCr are separated in a low ionic strength phosphate buffer (cf. Table 1) and nucleotides by gradient elution in high ionic strength phosphate buffer, which has a moderate acetonitrile concentration at a very low TBA concentration. The use of sodium salts instead of potassium salts used in the majority of other studies (Table 1) is also preferable due to the lower ability of [Na.sup.+] to the complex formation with PCr (Smith and Alberty, 1956b; Cecconi et al., 2002) as noted in Introduction. A representative chromatogram of standard compounds obtained in selected conditions is presented in Fig. 1 showing the elution of Cr close to the void volume of the column, isocratic elution of PCr followed by gradient elution of ADP and ATP taking in total 10 min.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Calibration curves for standards and actual calibration

It is typically stressed in HPLC studies that the peak area versus concentration plots give linear relationships over a certain (large) concentration range of the standard compounds. In the present conditions this assumption did not fully hold and the shape of the curves tended to depend on the structure of a particular compound (Fig. 2). The peak area versus concentration plot for Cr (Fig. 2a), which is eluted close to the void volume of the column (Fig. 1), exhibits a slight curvature and could be best fitted by the polynomic relationship y = [y.sub.0] + ax - [bx.sup.2]. A similar curvature can be observed for ADP and ATP (Fig. 2b). At the same time, the data for PCr gave a perfectly straight line (Fig. 2a) with 1.9% standard deviation in the slope value in the same concentration range (Table 2). These differences most likely demonstrate an excellent quality of the whole UPLC equipment rather than have any substantial practical meaning provided that the calibration has been properly used: typically, the observed [R.sup.2] > 0.99 in all cases regardless of whether the polynomic or linear equation was used for data fitting (Table 2). The difference between the two calibration equations is best visualized as an uneven distribution of the residuals from linear relationships as presented in Fig. 3, where the residuals are presented as percentage of actually determined peak areas. Evidently, deviations of the data from simple linear calibration plots observed at low concentrations make a minor contribution into the [R.sup.2] value but could substantially (more than 2-fold) distort the results. In this situation we preferred to perform standardizations in a shorter concentration range (typically 4 points and 4-fold change in the concentration), which covers the concentrations actually observed in kinetic studies, thus enabling to apply simple linear relationships for calibration. Actual calibration solutions were made up in the solution obtained after precipitation of the cells and proteins as described in Materials and Methods.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Sample preparation

The samples were prepared by stoping the reaction by the standard method of precipitation by perchloric acid, neutralization of the solution with KOH, and removal of the KCl[O.sub.4] and protein precipitates by centrifugation (cf. Brown et al., 1980; Grune and Siems, 1993) as described in Materials and Methods. The risk factors for the procedure are (1) instability of PCr as well as Cr at (highly) acidic pH values (see, e.g. Carter and Muller, 1990; Botker et al., 1994), (2) improper KCl[O.sub.4] precipitation, and (3) residual adenylate kinase (AK) activity, which cannot be fully and irreversibly inhibited by the applied acid treatment. The first two risk factors suggest that it is advisable to avoid double centrifugation steps (centrifugation of acid precipitate followed by centrifugation of KCl[O.sub.4] precipitate after neutralization), to perform acid precipitation and neutralization in a few minutes and centrifuge the pellet at least after 10 min for proper precipitate formation (cf. Botker et al., 1994) as described in Materials and Methods. Residual AK activity could be suppressed by a powerful AK inhibitor, diadenosinepentaphosphate (our unpublished observations); however, its use is inconvenient in the present case since the compound binds to the column too strongly thus prolonging the separation cycle due to the need for harsh conditions for its wash-out. Another simple and efficient way to suppress the AK activity is the use of EDTA as a strong [Ca.sup.2+]- and [Mg.sup.2+]-binding agent since it is well known that ATP-converting enzymes typically require the binding of both ATP and [Mg.sup.2+] for their activity, which, in turn, is often calcium-dependent. Surprisingly, to our knowlege this effect of EDTA (and EGTA) has been explored only in a single, relatively early study (Ally and Parks, 1992).

Sample run

The samples were run in isocratic mode in a low ionic strength Na phosphate buffer and moderate TBA concentration (3 mM) followed by gradient elution in a high ionic strength buffer solution containing a low TBA concentration (0.3 mM) and acetonitrile in 10 min as described in Materials and Methods. Further the column was flashed with water for 1 min and equilibrated with buffer A for 9 min. Shorter re-equilibrium times, e.g. 5 min, tended to result in shifts in retention times although the peak resolution and calculated peak areas remained unaffected. Thus, despite all advantages of the UPLC method, the total recycling time could be shorter not more than about two- to three-fold (cf. Table 1) in order to obtain solid results. Nevertheless, the procedure proved to be acceptable for common laboratory purposes allowing running a series of 30 samples in 6 h with the aid of an autosampler. Additional extensive washing of the column with 80% methanol after every series proved to be useful in order to preserve unchanged retention times and peak shape.

Kinetic studies

The main role of different isoenzymes of CK in cardiac muscle is to form a 'creatine shuttle', which means that the ATP synthesized in the mitochondrial matrix is used by MtCK for the synthesis of PCr in the mitochondrial intermembrane space to form a new energy-rich phosphoryl product; PCr then enters the cytoplasm and is transported to the myofibril by a facilitated diffusion mechanism. In myofibrils the energy-rich bond is 'returned' to ADP by another, MM CK isoenzyme to form locally a newly synthesized ATP, which ensures the muscle contraction in the myosin ATPase reaction (see Fig. 4 for details).

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

In relaxed cardiomyocytes supplemented by ADP and Cr one can simultaneously follow (1) the turnover of resynthesis of ATP in the matrix due to the respiratory substrates (malate and glutamate) in oxydative phosphorylation cascade reactions and (2) the transfer of the high-energy phosphoryl bond from ATP to Cr to form PCr in the CK reaction. Figure 5 shows a decrease in the ADP concentration to a low steady-state level. When plotted according to a formal (modified) first-order rate equation:

c = [c.sub.0] [e.sup.-kt] + B (2)

where [c.sub.0] denotes the initial [[ADP].sub.0] = 500 [mu]M, B the final steady-state ADP concentration, and k is the rate constant, the data gave the steady-state ADP concentration B = 27 [+ or -] 3 [mu]M along with the half-life time value [t.sub.1/2] = 0.63 [+ or -] 0.17 min in the present case (calculated from the rate constant k in Eq. 2). The corresponding increase in the ATP concentration from zero to the steady-state limit gave the value 445 [+ or -] 14 [mu]M along with the [t.sub.1/2] = 0.75 [+ or -] 0.04 min, which agrees well with the above [t.sub.1/2] for ADP disappearance. At the same time, the synthesis of PCr from Cr and ATP shows a permanent, nearly linear increase without any visible limits. The steady-state levels of ADP and ATP reflect well-known diffusion restrictions for adenine nucleotides (see for review Vendelin et al., 2004, 2007) for passing through the mitochondrial porin channel (VDAC) as well the absence of these restrictions for PCr--which should reach the cellular cytoplasm.

In another series of experiments, the CK reaction (Eq. 1) in cardiomyocytes was initiated in the presence of an excessive amount of PK and its substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which resulted in irreversible conversion of ADP produced in myofibrils and other reaction sites (cf. Fig. 4) into pyruvate, thus acting as an ADP trap:

ADP + PEP [right arrow] ATP + Pyruvate. (3)

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

In these conditions, ADP for the ATP resynthesis in the mitochondrial matrix is supplied exclusively by the reaction of MtCK isoform in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, which enables to determine the rate of this particular reaction avoiding possible contributions from other CK isoforms as well as from the hexokinase reaction (Gellerich and Saks, 1982). In these conditions, the ATP concentration remained on the steady-state level (4.60 [+ or -] 0.34 mM, cf. Fig. 6a), which corresponded to its initial concentration 4.50 mM, along with an increase in the PCr concentration due to the MtCK reaction in the presence of a large excess of Cr (Fig. 6b).

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

Simultaneous determination of the rate of unrestricted PCr release from respiring cardiomyocytes along with the attained steady-state ATP and ADP levels (Fig. 5) and determination of the rate of the reaction for MtCK in overall Cr shuttle (Fig. 6b) were the main goals of this study because the data could be used as 'landmarks' in the verification of the results of permanently developing mathematical modelling of cardiomyocyte functioning (cf. Aliev and Saks, 1997; Saks et al., 2007; Vendelin et al., 2007).

CONCLUDING REMARKS

The new generation of HPLC equipment designated as UPLC provides improved facilities in resolution power, sensitivity, and, which is particularly essential for this study, enables to increase the column recycling time 2-3-fold. When using UPLC special care should be taken in the calibration of the column in a large concentration range, particularly in the 0.005-1 mM range as in the present case. It is reasonable to fit the data to both the linear and the polynomic equation y = [y.sub.0] + ax - [bx.sup.2]. The present study showed that the two equations cannot be discriminated on the basis of [R.sup.2] values as in all cases [R.sup.2] > 0.99 was observed. The choice could be made only by analysis of the distribution of residuals obtained for both fitting types, thus avoiding possible large deviations of the data from the curves at low concentrations. As an alternative used in this study, the calibration could be performed in a pertinent narrow concentration range that does not exceed an order of magnitude. Application of the described UPLC procedure enabled us to provide direct evidence of the 'recycling' of ATP and ADP inside the mitochondria due to the diffusional restrictions at VDAC located in the mitochondrial outer membrane and along with unrestricted flow-out of PCr from the cells through this channel.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work was supported by grants Nos 7117 and 6142 from the Estonian Science Foundation and by grant SF 0180114As08 from the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research. The authors thank Mrs M. Peitel for technical assistance.

Received 1 September 2008, revised 13 October 2008, accepted 14 October 2008

REFERENCES

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Kuznetsov, A. V., Veksler, V., Gellerich, F. N., Saks, V., Margreiter, R., and Kunz, W. S. 2008. Analysis of mitochondrial function in situ in permeabilized muscle fibers, tissues and cells. Nature Protocols, 3, 1-12.

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* Corresponding author. peeter.sikk@kbfi.ee

Peeter Sikk *, Tuuli Kaambre, Heiki Vija, Kersti Tepp, Toomas Tiivel, Anu Nutt, and Valdur Saks

Laboratory of Bioenergetics, National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia
Table 1. Conditions for ion-pair HPLC separation and quantification of
creatine derivatives and adenine nucleotides extracted from cardiac
muscle preparations. A selection of reports

Reference           pH (a)   Elution conditions (b)

Juengling and        3.0     (A) 2.35 mM K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4] (0.2%),
Kammermeier, 1980            15 mM TBA phosphate (0.08%)
                     5.8     (B) 48 mM K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4] (0.65%),
                             8.8 mM TBA phosphate (0.65%), 21.8% AcN

Sellevold et al.,    6.25    (A) 215 mM [K.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4] 2.3 mM
1986                         TBA bisulphate
                             (B) Buffer (A) + 3.5% AcN

Sanduja et al.,      6.7     30 mM [K.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4], 15 mM TBA
1987                         bisulphate, 19% AcN

Cordis et al.,       5.8     (A) 48 mM K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], 1 mM TBA
1988                         phosphate
                             (B) Buffer (A) + 20% AcN

Ally and Parks,      6.0     (A) 35 mM [K.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4], 6 mM TBA
1992                         bisulphate, 125 mM EDTA
                             (B) Buffer (A) and AcN (1 : 1)

Scott et al.,        6.5     (A) 100 mM [K.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4] 0.01 mM
1992                         TBA phosphate,
                             (B) Buffer (A) + 40% C[H.sub.3]OH

Botker et al.,       6.0     (A) Cr compounds: 20 mM
1994                         [K.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4], 2.3 mM TBA
                             bisulphate
                     6.0     (B) Nucleotides: 60 mM
                             [K.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4], 11 mM TBA
                             bisulphate, 25% C[H.sub.3]OH

Karatzaferi          5.3     (A) 14.7 mM K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], 1.15
et al., 1999                 mM TBA phosphate
                     6.5     (B) 215 mM K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], 2.3 mM
                             TBA phosphate, 2% AcN

First and            5.5     (A) 100 mM [Na.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4], 5.9
Hallstrom, 1992              mM TBA bisulphate
                             (B) Buffer (A) and AcN (75 : 25)

Bernocchi et al.,    6.0     (A) 100 mM K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], 5 mM
1994                          TBA bisulphate, 2.5% AcN
                     5.5     (B) Buffer (A) + 25% AcN

Vives-Bauza          5.0     (A) 25 mM Na[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], 100
et al., 2007                 mg/L TBA sulphate
                     4.0     (B) 200 mM Na[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], 100
                             mg/L TBA sulphate, 10% AcN (0.3 mM TBA)

Volonte et al.,      ?       215 mM [K.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4], 2.3 mM TBA
2004                         sulphate, 4% AcN

Williams et al.,     6.0     (A) 100 mM [K.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4], 5 mM
2008                 5.5     TBA sulphate, 2.5% AcN
                             (B) Buffer (A) + 25% AcN

                               Elution
                     Elution    time,     Particle size, column size,
Reference           mode (c)   min (d)       column specification

Juengling and         Iso      ca. 5      ? [micro]m, 4 x 250 mm,
Kammermeier, 1980     Iso      ca. 8      Lichrosorb, Merck C8/C18

Sellevold et al.,     Iso      10         5 [micro]m, 150 mm,
1986                  Iso                 Supelcosil

Sanduja et al.,       Iso      25         5 [micro]m, 4.6 x 250 mm,
1987                                      Ultrasphere ODS

Cordis et al.,        Iso      4          4 [micro]m, 5 x 100 mm,
1988                  Iso      10         Nova-Pak C18
                               Total 35

Ally and Parks,       Iso      10         5 [micro]m, 4.6 x 250 mm,
1992                  Iso      10 + 5     Supelco LC18-T or
                                          5 [micro]m, 3.9 x 150 mm,
                                          Nova-Pak C18

Scott et al.,         Iso      8          3 [micro]m, 4.6 x 70 mm,
1992                  Iso      7          Ultrasphere ODS

Botker et al.,        Iso                 5 [micro]m, ? x 150 mm,
1994                  Iso                 Supelcosil LC 18-DB

Karatzaferi           Iso      ca. 12     5 [micro]m, 4 x 125 mm,
et al., 1999          Iso                 LiChrosphere HP

First and             Iso      5          5 [micro]m, 4 x 250 mm,
Hallstrom, 1992       0-17%    22         Hypersil ODS
                               Total 47

Bernocchi et al.,     Iso      3          3 [micro]m, 4.6 x 150 mm,
1994                  0-11%    2          Supelchem C18
                     11-100%   25

Vives-Bauza           Iso      3          3 [micro]m, 4.6 x 150 mm,
et al., 2007          0-10%               Waters YMC C18

Volonte et al.,       Iso      5          5 [micro]m, 4 x 250 mm,
2004                                      LichrocartRP 18

Williams et al.,      Iso      3          3 [micro]m, 4.6 x 150 mm,
2008                2.5-11%    2          Supelchem C18 or
                     11-25%    25         ? [micro]m, 4 x 250 mm,
                               Total 50   Hypersil ODS

(a) pH values are given as specified. Note that possible changes in pH
induced by addition of organic solvent are not reported in some
studies. (b) AcN = acetonitrile. (c) Iso = isocratic; details of
organic solvent gradient are specified. (d) In some cases, noted as
e.g. 'ca. 5', the elution times were estimated from original figures.
For gradient elutions limiting organic solvent concentrations are
indicated. Total column recycling times are presented when originally
specified.

Table 2. Parameters of the standard curves for pure compounds

Compound        [y.sub.0]               a x [10.sup.-5]

Cr         143.8 [+ or -] 158.8   0.7442 [+ or -] 0.0116(1.6%)
            1458 [+ or -] 863     0.5598 [+ or -] 0.0188(3.4%)
PCr        437.6 [+ or -] 974.5    1.185 [+ or -] 0.071(6.0%)
            1235 [+ or -] 936      1.073 [+ or -] 0.020(1.9%)
ADP          459 [+ or -] 472      1.933 [+ or -] 0.035(1.8%)
            2313 [+ or -] 1262     1.673 [+ or -] 0.028(1.6%)
ATP         5667 [+ or -] 433      2.311 [+ or -] 0.032(1.4%)
            4166 [+ or -] 2363     1.805 [+ or -] 0.052(2.9%)

Compound         b x [10.sup.-5]           [R.sup.2]

Cr         0.2001 [+ or -] 0.012(6.1%)      0.99983
                                            0.99214
PCr        0.1214 [+ or -] 0.0747(61.5%)    0.99824
                                            0.99757
ADP        0.2824 [+ or -] 0.0361(12.8%)    0.99983
                                            0.99810
ATP        0.5481 [+ or -] 0.0332(6.1%)     0.99988
                                            0.99432

Note: The curves were calculated from the peak area versus
concentration plots for the 0.005-1 mM concentration range
(9 points) according to the polynomic equation y = [y.sub.0] +
ax - [bx.sup.2] (upper rows) and linear equation y = [y.sub.0] + ax
by the least squares' fit. Standard errors and their
percentages in coefficients a and b are shown.
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Title Annotation:CHEMISTRY
Author:Sikk, Peeter; Kaambre, Tuuli; Vija, Heiki; Tepp, Kersti; Tiivel, Toomas; Nuut, Anu; Saks, Valdur
Publication:Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EXES
Date:Jun 1, 2009
Words:5749
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