USAIC fields two new intelligence manuals.
FM 2-22.3 will supersede FM 34-52, Intelligence Interrogation, which was published in 1992. FM 2-22.3 is currently in Final Draft form and USAIC&FH has placed it on our Army Knowledge Online (AKO) Collaboration web site for review by all Army proponent agencies. You may contact ATZS-FDC-D@hua.army.mil for authorization to access the draft.
The Army is developing FM 2-22.3 in response to a recognized need for a document that contains updated tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP). FM 2-22.3 also tackles the change from a relatively narrow focus on tactical interrogation to the broader spectrum of HUMINT collection activities. In addition, it addresses the employment of HUMINT collection teams within the framework of changing Army doctrine. (Figure 1 shows the tactical HUMINT organization.) The inclusion of the J2X/G2X element and streamlined command and reporting channels has brought the depiction of command and control (C2) functions up to date.
Why the changes? In 2003, USAIC&FH approved new operation and organization (O&O) plans for both HUMINT and counterintelligence (CI) operations, which effectively separate the two disciplines. Consequently, FM 2-22.3 describes the deployment of HUMINT collection teams (HCTs), whose military component consists of enlisted 97Es (HUMINT Collector) and 351E (Human Intelligence Collection Technician) warrant officers. Previously a mixture of CI and HUMINT personnel had deployed as a tactical HUMINT team (THT). This new employment strategy acknowledges the different missions that CI and HUMINT have and aims at employing HUMINT collectors more closely in accordance with their training and capabilities (see Figure 2).
There have been significant advances in technology since we fielded FM 34-52, and FM 2-22.3 brings the subject up to date. The new manual addresses the automation, biometric, and communication technologies that are vital to the success of HUMINT collection in the modern Army. The automation piece explains the hardware and software capabilities required to allow the HUMINT collector to access and interface with distributed databases and digital communications on the battlefield and elsewhere.
"Biometrics" is the study of measurable biological characteristics and the Army currently fields equipment that uses this technology. FM 2-22.3 describes the current capabilities of man-packed equipment to record identifying characteristics, such as fingerprints and unique iris patterns and store them in a database for retrieval by any authorized user of the system. There is also a discussion of biometric equipment to help HUMINT collectors determine the truthfulness of a source. The new FM also presents automated analysis tools such as time and event charts, association matrices, and link-analysis diagrams that increase predictive analysis capability.
The introduction of FM 2-22.3 brings about other changes. The chapter on Approach Techniques has been expanded and introduces some additional rapport-building methodologies that support debriefing and elicitation rather than only addressing interrogation in the tactical setting. Other methodologies include expanded questioning techniques for debriefing, and a discussion of various types of HUMINT contacts.
Instruction on analysis for HUMINT collectors had previously been available only in the Warrant Officer Technical Certification Course, but it is now part of the 97E enlisted curriculum. As a result,
FM 2-22.3 devotes an entire chapter to HUMINT analysis. The manual contains detailed descriptions and examples of time and event charts, association matrices, and link-analysis diagrams (see Figure 3), and other analytical tools.
FM 2-22.3 has greatly expanded appendices to include extensive extracts from the Law of Land Warfare (FM 27-10 dated 18 July 1956 as changed 15 July 1976) and Allied Joint Publication (AJP) 2.5, Handling of Captured Personnel, Equipment and Documents, which contains the complete guide to the international system of allocating interrogation serial numbers. In the past, this document has been difficult to obtain; with increased emphasis on coalition operations, it is a sorely needed asset. FM 2-22.3 includes a guide for S2s as well as a questioning quick reference guide for the trained HUMINT collector, example forms, and a source and information reliability index. The final appendix in the FM contains instructions for document exploitation (DOCEX) and handling.
The HUMINT collectors' participation in DOCEX has been deemphasized. In the past, HUMINT collectors were assumed to be the proper people to conduct DOCEX due to their language capabilities. Current doctrinal thought acknowledges that a document exploiter does not need HUMINT training to translate a document, and that the unit can better employ the HUMINT collector in pursuit of the mission he or she was trained to do. FM 2-22.3 not only addresses HUMINT support to DOCEX, but also DOCEX support to HUMINT. This approach to the topic recognizes that DOCEX is an Army-wide responsibility and that HUMINT is one part of it and a consumer of DOCEX information, rather than the major provider.
FM 2-22.3 is the result of hard work and dedication by the Doctrine staff at USAIC&FH to capture the numerous changes in the training and employment of the HUMINT collector. However, the emerging doctrine for the Army Future Force has spread the responsibility to collect intelligence information to every soldier. "Every Soldier is a Sensor" has become the motto and indeed every soldier can provide information that contributes to the commander's situational understanding. To aid this effort, USAIC&FH produced a Tactical Questioning Guide that was very well received in the field.
In March 2004, Major General James A. Marks, Commander, USAIC&FH, approved a special text called ST 2-91.6, Small Unit Support to Intelligence, which is an expanded version of the Tactical Questioning Guide and supercedes it. ST 2-91.6 is not theater-specific and is designed to help all soldiers collect information through tactical questioning, enemy prisoner of war (EPW) handling, and document and equipment handling in all operations. The ST stresses adherence to the Geneva Convention throughout the text.
Much of the information in ST 2-91.6 is geared toward patrols, personnel working traffic control points (TCPs) or roadblocks, and other situations where soldiers would come in contact with the local population. Once they collect information, they must, of course, report it in order for it to be of value. To close this loop, ST 2-91.6 provides guidelines to S2s for debriefing patrols and others, and it provides sample reporting formats. ST 2-91.6 also provides a TTP for operations with an interpreter and describes the different categories of interpreters and how to work effectively with them.
ST 2-91.6 is not designed to turn soldiers into intelligence collectors. However, it does introduce the basics of tactical questioning and provides some tools for patrols and S2s.
ST 2-91.6 is available on AKO in PDF format. USAIC&FH has also formatted the manual as a generic appendix which would be suitable for inclusion in any field manual that needs to provide a tactical questioning TTP. The appendix is available in Microsoft[TM] Word format and is available from the author at the E-mail address below.
Time for Subscription Renewal?
If you notice a "#" or "*" in the address block on the back cover or the mailing label, then it is time to renew your subscription. The "#" means you have one more issue coming, the "*" means that this is your last issue. You can renew either by calling us at (520) 538-1009 or DSN 879-1009 (with a credit card handy) or by sending us the completed subscription form on page 71. If you wish to keep this issue intact, you may make a photocopy of the form and mail or fax it to us.
Read Any Good Books Lately?
We welcome reviews of books related to intelligence professional development or military history. Please mail or E-mail your book reviews with your phone number, address, the title, author, publisher, price, number of pages, and the publisher's address (listed on the book's copyright page). Please send your reviews to firstname.lastname@example.org or mail them to ATTN: ATZS-FDT-M USAIC & Fort Huachuca, 550 Cibeque St, Fort Huachuca, AZ 85613-7017.
Stephen Clarke (Chief Warrant Officer Two, U.S. Army, Retired) is the Project Leader for HUMINT doctrine at the USAIC&FH Doctrine Division. Readers may contact him vie E-mail at email@example.com and by telephone at (520) 538-1004 or DSN 879-0971.