US Army Chemical Corps Hall of Fame inductees.
General Anthony McAuliffe
General Anthony McAuliffe had a distinguished career that spanned almost fifty years and took him from the ravaged battlefields of Europe following World War I to the command of US Army, Europe, in the 1950s. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross in 1944 for his inspirational leadership in the defense of Bastogne, Belgium.
General McAuliffe was the commander of division artillery for the 101st Airborne Division when he parachuted into Normandy on 6 June 1944 (D-Day) and when he entered Holland by glider later that same year. In December of 1944, during the absence of General Maxwell Taylor, he acted as commander of the 101st and attached troops to forces besieged in Bastogne during the Battle of the Bulge. When American forces were surrounded and the Germans demanded their surrender, he sent back a one-word reply--"Nuts!" His reply strengthened the troops' resolve to deny this vital crossroads town to the Nazis. General McAuliffe's leadership was instrumental to the American victory. Following the Battle of the Bulge, he took command of the 103d Infantry Division.
When General McAuliffe returned to the United States, he was appointed the ground forces advisor to the commander of Joint Army-Navy Task Force One during Operation Crossroads (the testing of atomic bombs at Bikini Atoll). He was then appointed the Army Secretary of the Joint Research and Development Board at Army Headquarters, Pentagon. Subsequently, he was designated Deputy Director for Research and Development of the Logistics Division, Army General Staff. General McAuliffe's record with the Joint Research and Development Board and the Army Logistics Division, coupled with his knowledge of new weapons (particularly in bacteriological and atomic warfare) made him President Truman's choice for Chief of Chemical. He served in this position for two years.
General McAuliffe's leadership represented the flexibility and broad knowledge base a successful officer should possess. While his direct service with the Chemical Corps was brief, General McAuliffe's career-long connection with all areas of the Corps merits his rightful place in the Chemical Corps Hall of Fame.
Major General Gerald Watson (Retired), a fellow member of the Chemical Corps Hall of Fame and former Chief of Chemical, accepted the certificate and medallion on behalf of General McAuliffe.
Dr. Irving Langmuir
Dr. Irving Langmuir was a physical chemist whose studies of molecular films on solid and liquid surfaces opened new fields in colloid research and biochemistry. In 1906, he completed his doctorate work in Germany under the mentorship of Professor Waiter H. Nernst, a chemical weapons inventor for Germany during World War I. After completing his work, Dr. Langmuir returned to the United States to develop listening devices for detecting submarines.
In 1940, the National Defense Research Committee established a project on smoke and filters. Dr. Langmuir studied the size and color of particles in artificial fogs to find the properties essential for maximum screening capability. He learned that the effect of a smoke screen on the eye was a mix of physiological, optical, and psychological reactions. In his experiments, he found that white particles with a 0.3-micron radius produced the best scattering effect. Dr. Langmuir worked to produce a smoke generator capable of producing fog particles of the fight size for use by the Army and the Navy. The Chemical Warfare Service (which was later renamed the Chemical Corps) was so impressed with the new generator that it bypassed normal procedures and rushed the generator into production. In 1942, it was adopted as the Ml mechanical smoke generator. Within two years, the Ml was used extensively by US troops to screen hostile artillery fire.
After the war, Dr. Langmuir worked on combating ice buildup on airplanes and with forms of weather control, to include cloud seeding. While at General Electric, his work resulted in improved vacuum techniques, gas-filled lamps, the atomic hydrogen torch, improved x-ray tubes, new electronic devices, and many other inventions and discoveries.
Dr. Langmuir's lasting contribution to the Chemical Corps was reflected in the Soldiers' extensive use of the Ml. His lifelong quest for better technology has helped to strengthen the Corps. It is with great honor that the Corps welcomes Dr. Langmuir to the Chemical Corps Hall of Fame.
Mr. David Chuber, Chemical Corps Historian, accepted the Hall of Fame certificate and medallion on behalf of Dr. Langmuir.
Mr. James Bacon
Mr. James Bacon served the Chemical Corps as an engineer and manager and retired from the position of Program Manager of Chemical Demilitarization in Aberdeen, Maryland. As the program manager, he was responsible for projects ranging from chemical stockpile disposal (involving older chemical weapons) to cooperative threat reduction (which supported the effort of the Department of Defense to aid the Russian Federation's chemical weapons destruction program).
In his capacity as Executive Assistant of Pine Bluff Arsenal, he improved the working relationship with the state of Arkansas to strengthen their chemical emergency response program--a program now recognized as the best in the business. Under Mr. Bacon's guidance, Pine Bluff Arsenal completed site remediation programs, constructed new state-of-the-art disposal facilities, and established Environmental Protection Agency-qualified laboratories.
In 1985, Mr. Bacon received the prestigious Meritorious Civilian Service Award for his contribution to the Army's Binary Chemical Munitions Program. This program proved invaluable to the United States and the free world when it led to Russian participation in chemical treaty negotiations. Through Mr. Bacon's efforts, Pine Bluff Arsenal became a world leader in the chemical weapons treaty arena and hosted the first treaty inspection. Pine Bluff Arsenal emerged as the preferred site for training in international treaty inspections.
Serving as the Deputy On-Scene Coordinator for the removal of World War I era munitions from the Spring Valley area of Washington, D.C., Mr. Bacon organized the efforts of more than 400 personnel in the first National Service Response Force. His expertise, dedication, and hard work in the Spring Valley Project earned him a second Meritorious Civilian Service Award.
Responding to the Army's need for the accelerated certification of protective masks in the early 1980s, Mr. Bacon established the foundation for the Rock Ready Program. Pine Bluff Arsenal became the Department of Defense's center of expertise and the Army's sole facility for rebuilding protective masks. During Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield, Mr. Bacon managed Pine Bluff Arsenal's accelerated delivery of conventional ammunition items, tripled the output of chemical protective masks, and orchestrated the establishment of a protective mask inspection facility in Saudi Arabia.
Mr. Bacon is a leading expert in chemical matters, a prominent community leader, and a man of integrity and high moral value. It is with great honor that the Chemical Corps welcomes Mr. Bacon to the Hall of Fame.
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|Publication:||CML Army Chemical Review|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2005|
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