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Typical school day experiences of Indian children in different contexts.



India is a vast, diverse country with a rich cultural heritage. Once a seat of consummate learning, colonialism brought socio-economic deprivations and inequalities, leading to significant illiteracy illiteracy, inability to meet a certain minimum criterion of reading and writing skill. Definition of Illiteracy


The exact nature of the criterion varies, so that illiteracy must be defined in each case before the term can be used in a meaningful
. A closer examination, however, reveals that the lineage of enlightenment and education is being inconspicuously in·con·spic·u·ous  
adj.
Not readily noticeable.



incon·spic
 carried on in lesser-known corners of the country. Three such centers can be found in the southern state of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu (tăm`əl nä`d), formerly Madras (mədrăs`, mədräs`), state (2001 provisional pop. . The three profiles in this article describe a typical school day for a student with special needs, a student in a tribal setting, and a student in a rural setting.

SCHOOL DAY PROFILE 1

Ten-year-old Akila has a congenital vision impairment and studies in an integrated setup at Coimbatore, in the state of Tamil Nadu. She is fortunate to attend school in a time when support for inclusive education is well-grounded. Her sister, who suffers from the same visual impairment Visual Impairment Definition

Total blindness is the inability to tell light from dark, or the total inability to see. Visual impairment or low vision is a severe reduction in vision that cannot be corrected with standard glasses or contact lenses and
, is now successfully attending an inclusive college. Nongovernmental service provided early detection and timely intervention for both girls.

Preparations for School

Because of her differential abilities, Akila does need to take measures to make preparations; to provide means.

See also: measure
 to make up for her variance from the mainstream society. Each evening, with the help of her parents and other family members, she reads through the lessons taught that day; she will do the homework on her own as a reinforcing exercise the next morning. She seems to adhere strictly to the adage about all work and no play All Work & No Play is the demo CD released by the Christian rock band Relient K in 1998. It caught the attention of dcTalk's Toby McKeehan, who subsequently signed them to Gotee Records. Only a limited number were ever produced. , ending her daily routine with a little television.

Every morning, Akila is out of bed by 5:30; immediately after washing up, she begins to do her homework. She still receives assistance from her parents, especially her mother, when getting ready, more because she is the youngest child of the family than because she is differently abled abled
Adjective

having a range of physical powers as specified: less abled, differently abled 
. The attention from her mother puts Akila in a cheerful mindset mind·set or mind-set
n.
1. A fixed mental attitude or disposition that predetermines a person's responses to and interpretations of situations.

2. An inclination or a habit.
, and she is ready to start for school.

Journey to School and Beginning of the School Day

Akila's ride to school takes an hour by bus. She requires some assistance, but she can identify and board the correct bus, buy her ticket, and get off at the correct step. She looks forward to traveling on her own, as her sister does.

Akila usually arrives at school just in time to attend the morning prayer session, which lasts about 15 minutes and also involves the reading of news and a pep talk by the Headmistress head·mis·tress  
n.
A woman who is the principal of a school, usually a private school.

Noun 1. headmistress - a woman headmaster
. Akila's favorite morning routine is on Fridays, when the students sing bajans (devotional de·vo·tion·al  
adj.
Of, relating to, expressive of, or used in devotion, especially of a religious nature.

n.
A short religious service.



de·vo
 songs). On Wednesdays, they have a special session of physical exercise. The prayer sessions end with the national anthem.

In the Classroom

Akila finds her classroom comfortable, with adequate furnishings. Being well-oriented to the architectural and spatial structure of the classroom, Akila is able to independently and freely move around and fend for Verb 1. fend for - argue or speak in defense of; "She supported the motion to strike"
defend, support

argue, reason - present reasons and arguments
 herself. The classroom is made lively with ample educational materials, maps, and informational charts that change according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 the current curriculum emphasis. The children generally seat themselves according to the teacher's directions; because of Akila's special needs, she is seated near an exclusively chosen peer guide, who is also one of her intimate companions.

Each class day does not follow any particular schedule. The classes begin at 9:30 a.m. and continue until 12:40 p.m., when the students break for lunch. A 15-minute mid-morning break is scheduled around 11 a.m. The afternoon session commences around 1:30 p.m. and continues until school closes at 4:00 p.m. There are no particular demarcations between periods. The class teacher, who conducts learning sessions in a child-centered way, handles all the subjects. She chooses the time and duration for teaching each subject, based on the students' interests.

Learning Activities

A usual day for a special child starts with a half-hour warm-up session in the resource room designed specifically for children with special educational needs. After checking homework, the resource teacher briefs the children on the activities planned for the classroom (which are discussed beforehand by the resource teacher and regular staff).

Akila finds the learning activities in the classroom to be very lively and stimulating. The teacher takes care to constantly reinforce and guide the attention of the rive rive  
v. rived, riv·en also rived, riv·ing, rives

v.tr.
1. To rend or tear apart.

2. To break into pieces, as by a blow; cleave or split asunder.

3.
 special needs children in her classroom (three have seeing difficulties and two have hearing difficulties). Akila's participation in classroom activities is in no way inferior or different from that of her sighted peers, except that she writes in Braille using slate and stylus stylus: see pen.


(1) A pen-shaped instrument that is used to "draw" images or select from menus. Styli (the plural of stylus, pronounced "sty-lye") come with handheld devices that have touch screens, such as PDAs and video games.
. She is especially conscious and proud of her proficiency in English.

Akila learns math, science, and social studies, along with the Tamil and English languages English language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Spoken by about 470 million people throughout the world, English is the official language of about 45 nations. . She finds the science sessions particularly fascinating. The children are encouraged to carry out experiments on their own, observing nature and learning for themselves scientific principles. Akila recalls with excitement how she learned about the evaporative evaporative

pertaining to evaporation.


evaporative loss
loss of body water by evaporation of water from the body to the air; a heat control mechanism and a factor in water balance studies.
 effects of the sun.

Akila is able to follow almost all the regular classroom teaching, except for math, which requires significant visual-spatial skills. Therefore, Akila calls on the resource room facilities, where she has access to special learning aids (like an abacus abacus, in architecture
abacus (ăb`əkəs), in architecture, flat slab forming the top member of a capital. In classical orders it varies from a square form having unmolded sides in the Greek Doric, to thinner proportions and
) to help in her computing, geometry, graphing, and other mathematical skills.

In addition, the resource staff helps Akila in other subjects through extended description, clarification, and reinforcement, and with the help of multisensory multisensory /mul·ti·sen·so·ry/ (mul?te-sen´sah-re) capable of responding to more than one kind of sensory input, as certain neurons in the central nervous system.  devices and aids like talking books talk·ing book
n.
A recorded reading of a book, designed for use by the visually impaired.


Talking Book
Noun

Trademark a recording of a book, designed to be used by the blind

Noun
 and three-dimensional, tactually tac·tu·al  
adj.
Tactile.



[Latin tctus, touch; see tact + -al1.
 manipulative aids. This assistance is provided outside regular class hours. The resource room is well-equipped with a Braille slate and stylus, 3D models, embossed em·boss  
tr.v. em·bossed, em·boss·ing, em·boss·es
1. To mold or carve in relief: emboss a design on a coin.

2.
 charts, an abacus, a Taylor frame, a talking book library, and other manipulative and tactual tac·tu·al
adj.
Tactile.
 devices.

Each learning day for Akila ends with a half-hour session in the resource room, where the special needs children are provided instructions and materials for doing their homework. Close cooperation among the regular teaching staff and the resource staff, as well as peer groups, makes the integrated process a success.

Evaluation

The students are periodically tested--weekly, at midterm mid·term  
n.
1. The middle of an academic term or a political term of office.

2.
a. An examination given at the middle of a school or college term.

b. midterms A series of such examinations.
, and at the close of each term. Akila writes her tests and exams in her Braille slate, which her resource teachers transcribe To copy data from one medium to another; for example, from one source document to another, or from a source document to the computer. It often implies a change of format or codes.  into writing for the regular teacher to correct. At this stage, Akila finds the time provided adequate to express herself in Braille. As they progress to higher classes, and the complexity of the content matter increases, children with visual impairments are allowed to use scribes Scribes is a text editor for GNOME that is simple, slim and sleek, and features no tabs, auto-completion and much more.

Scribes is Free Software licensed under the terms of the GNU GPL.
 when taking exams. Akila has always been an above-average student in her class, ranking in the top 15 among her 57 classmates Classmates can refer to either:
  • Classmates.com, a social networking website.
  • Classmates (film), a 2006 Malayalam blockbuster directed by Lal Jose, starring Prithviraj, Jayasurya, Indragith, Sunil, Jagathy, Kavya Madhavan, Balachandra Menon, ...
.

Experiences Extending Beyond Curriculum

Although certain realistic exemptions have been made to help Akila and other students with visual impairments (excusing them from visual activities like drawing, for example), innovative efforts are made to include them in all possible activities. A striking example is the training in classical dance. Through extensive tactual clues and guidance, Akila is learning to dance. Her preferred activity, however, is singing. She is an accomplished singer and almost all of the cultural events on campus include her melodious performance. The support Akila receives at school encouraged her to enter a musical competition, where she won a prize.

Breaks

Although Akila finds the learning sessions invigorating in·vig·or·ate  
tr.v. in·vig·or·at·ed, in·vig·or·at·ing, in·vig·or·ates
To impart vigor, strength, or vitality to; animate: "A few whiffs of the raw, strong scent of phlox invigorated her" 
, she equally relishes the breaks. She usually spends the mid-morning breaks in the company of her classroom friends, and customarily joins her sister for lunch. The staff offers eating etiquette help to the younger students and the special needs children. Akila feels secure in her sister's company, and enjoys recounting the half-day's happenings in the classroom, taking in her sister's reflections, and partaking of the afternoon repast together. Although Akila sometimes shies shies 1  
v.
Third person singular present tense of shy1.

n.
Plural of shy1.
 away from joining the other students at mealtimes, the authors believe that she will make progress towards gainful gain·ful  
adj.
Providing a gain; profitable: gainful employment.



gainful·ly adv.
 socializing, which is one of the primary purposes of inclusive education.

Recreation and Interpersonal Interaction

The school's special needs children have access in the resource room to such recreational and play materials as balls and a carom board. Another exceptional characteristic of the inclusive educational arrangement is that the nonhandicapped children also share and benefit from these special facilities.

Akila is friendly with all of her sighted peers in her regular class. Her first close acquaintance among them was Sathyarohini, who was specifically assigned as a peer guide by the class teacher on Akila's first day in the regular school. Today, after years of mainstream exposure, unencumbered Unencumbered

Property that is not subject to any creditor claims or liens.

Notes:
For example, if a house is owned free and clear (meaning the owner owes no mortgage to anyone), it is unencumbered.
 interactions, and social experiences, Akila's social interactions include the whole class; three others, apart from Sathyarohini, she considers her particular friends. She values their congenial con·gen·ial  
adj.
1. Having the same tastes, habits, or temperament; sympathetic.

2. Of a pleasant disposition; friendly and sociable: a congenial host.

3.
 behavior and willingness to extend help. This group of girls does almost everything together, except when Akila is at the resource room. Akila finds that all of her sighted peers interact with and help her.

Interactions between the regular staff and the students are formal and restricted to classroom instruction. In contrast, the ambience in the resource room is more informal and relaxed, and Akila is quite fond of her resource teacher, Ms. Sowmya.

Days of Festivity, Celebrations, and Rest

Apart from attending classes and learning, school life for Akila also includes celebrations, fun, and days of rest. All national celebrations, such as Independence Day, Republic Day, Gandhi Jayanthi, as well as multiethnic mul·ti·eth·nic  
adj.
Of, relating to, or including several ethnic groups.

Adj. 1. multiethnic - involving several ethnic groups
multi-ethnic
 festivals, including Christmas, Pongal This article is about the Pongal festival. For the dish of the same name, see Pongal (dish).
Pongal (Tamil: பொங்கல்) is a Harvest Festival, mostly celebrated in south India. Pongal in Tamil means "boiling over.
, and Deepavali, are customary school holidays. Commemorations and celebrations take place at the school on the eve On the Eve (Накануне in Russian) is the third novel by famous Russian writer Ivan Turgenev, best known for his short stories and the novel Fathers and Sons.  of the holidays, when there is prayer and sharing of traditional foods.

A school Annual Day is elaborately celebrated, marked with extensive cultural programs and annual prizes awarded for students' outstanding curricular and extracurricular achievements. A teacher's Day is also celebrated in a remarkable way, and the students organize various celebratory events.

Apart from these public events, student-centered celebrations are also part of the school routine. Students are encouraged to celebrate birthdays with nutritious fruits and vegetables (which are used during the noon meal preparation), rather than the usual sweets and savories. For her birthday, Akila provided the school kitchen with green leafy leaf·y  
adj. leaf·i·er, leaf·i·est
1. Covered with or having leaves.

2. Consisting of leaves: Spinach is a leafy green vegetable.

3. Similar to or resembling a leaf.
 vegetables. Special student achievements are also celebrated at school. When Akila won a prize at the inter-school music competition, she was applauded at the morning assembly.

Back to Home With Family

After a tiring day at school, Akila is eager to join her mother on the trip back home. Akila arrives at home happy to share her experiences with her family, especially her mother, before settling down to do her lessons. She has a set routine of reading assigned portions of lessons in the evening and then going to bed early.

The bulk of support for Akila's academic development seems to come from home. Her parents (especially her mother) constantly supervise Akila's lessons and motivate her to seek knowledge outside her textbooks. These interactions include narrating events and stories related to her lessons and also motivating her to experiment with the lessons learned. Akila's father also occasionally visits the school, and he makes it a point not to miss any of the important school celebrations. Her parents willingly contribute and participate in whatever assignments are recommended by the staff.

SCHOOL DAY PROFILE 2

Rohini is a 10-year-old girl from the tribal community of the Badugas, located in the rich green valleys among the Blue Mountains Blue Mountains, Australia
Blue Mountains, region of New South Wales, SE Australia. Located W of Sydney, this elevation is actually a plateau forming part of the Great Dividing Range.
 in southern India. The Badugas are a close-knit community that migrated from the neighboring neigh·bor  
n.
1. One who lives near or next to another.

2. A person, place, or thing adjacent to or located near another.

3. A fellow human.

4. Used as a form of familiar address.

v.
 state of Karnataka and settled in the mountain ranges of northwest Tamil Nadu. They adhere to adhere to
verb 1. follow, keep, maintain, respect, observe, be true, fulfil, obey, heed, keep to, abide by, be loyal, mind, be constant, be faithful

2.
 distinct language and cultural traditions that vary from those followed by the local inhabitants
:This article is about the video game. For Inhabitants of housing, see Residency
Inhabitants is an independently developed commercial puzzle game created by S+F Software. Details
The game is based loosely on the concepts from SameGame.
, the Tamils. The Badugas are a farm- and dairy-based community that only recently began pursuing formal education. For example, Rohini's parents were the first generation of literates in her family; they encouraged their younger siblings and their children to pursue education as well.

Rohini attends a rural public school accommodating students (mostly the children of the Baduga community, as well as a few native Tamils) from preschool to grade 5. The medium of instruction is English, a second language in both communities, and the teaching content adheres to the state syllabi syl·la·bi  
n.
A plural of syllabus.
.

Getting Ready To Go to School

As is common in most Baduga families, Rohini's grandparents grandparents nplabuelos mpl

grandparents grand nplgrands-parents mpl

grandparents grand npl
 and other relatives live together as an extended family. Family members help cook, do household and farm chores, and groom the children for school. The children eat breakfast separately. The adults pack meals for the children's lunches, and then drop off the children at school. Rohini spends the 15 minutes or so traveling to school sharing anecdotes and jokes with her companions; she says that much informal instruction is imparted during these fun-filled trips.

Time Before Class

The children usually reach school only a little before the morning assembly begins; Rohini loves to be the first to arrive at school. She takes the opportunity to romp around the tiny but picturesque school campus that is her newfound new·found  
adj.
Recently discovered: a newfound pastime.

Adj. 1. newfound - newly discovered; "his newfound aggressiveness"; "Hudson pointed his ship down the coast of the newfound sea"
 world. The younger students like Rohini usually spend any spare rime before the morning prayer engrossed en·gross  
tr.v. en·grossed, en·gross·ing, en·gross·es
1. To occupy exclusively; absorb: A great novel engrosses the reader. See Synonyms at monopolize.

2.
 in playing around the campus. The older students clean and dust; arrange desks and benches; water plants; and adorn the blackboards with drawings, adages, and details of students' attendance.

The prayer session in the school consists of a recitation rec·i·ta·tion  
n.
1.
a. The act of reciting memorized materials in a public performance.

b. The material so presented.

2.
a. Oral delivery of prepared lessons by a pupil.

b.
 and singing of the group prayer, and a short discourse by the head staff of the school. The talk usually centers on etiquette, traditional customs, and cultural and moral values. Honoring the national anthem is customary at the end of the daily prayer. Although Rohini is a bubbly child and full of energy, these sessions usually bring her to awe-inspired solemnity SOLEMNITY. The formality established by law to render a contract, agreement, or other act valid.
     2. A marriage, for example, would not be valid if made in jest, and without solemnity. Vide Marriage, and Dig. 4, 1, 7; Id. 45, 1, 30.
 as she pays serious attention. Thus, from the very start, the school emphasizes the convergence of spiritual, national, and traditional sentiments.

Teaching Sessions

Instruction in school follows the standard state syllabi. The staff teach and converse only in English and Tamil, the official language of the state. In this way, all the students are able to understand and interact with them on an equal footing.

Curricular instruction centers on the "3R's." Although the school cannot afford teaching materials more expensive than a blackboard and chalk, the teachers make innovative use of their natural surroundings, conducting many of the learning sessions outdoors and incorporating a lot of music and movement activities. Rohini finds this approach particularly enlivening en·liv·en  
tr.v. en·liv·ened, en·liv·en·ing, en·liv·ens
To make lively or spirited; animate.



en·liven·er n.
.

Breaks

The children get two breaks from the lively learning sessions, one in the mid-morning and another at lunch. The children are allowed to buy themselves food from the nearby community stores. Rohini's family often visits during the breaks and supplies refreshments. The children eat their lunch together with their teachers in the traditional communal fashion, sitting on mats that are spread out over the entire school ground. The teachers instruct the children on dining etiquette, nutrition, the significance of traditional recipes, and other topics. The children share food, which allows for exchange of information about the Tamil and Baduga cultures.

Recreation, Play, and Interpersonal Interaction

Physical instruction is an essential aspect of the schooling process, owing to owing to
prep.
Because of; on account of: I couldn't attend, owing to illness.

owing to prepdebido a, por causa de 
 its roots in the Baduga tradition. Most play and recreational activities in the school are oriented to traditional tribal activities. These games and activities involve a lot of music, do not rely on much equipment, and are cooperative rather than competitive.

Traditional folk arts folk art, the art works of a culturally homogeneous people produced by artists without formal training. The forms of such works are generally developed into a tradition that is either cut off from or tenuously connected to the contemporary cultural mainstream.  also are emphasized as a means of teaching curriculum and transmitting cultural values, and as a critical extracurricular activity. Rohini describes informal sessions during which senior students as well as staff help pass along traditional art skills, especially dancing and singing. These sessions also allow for cultural exchanges among students from different backgrounds. Rohini and other Baduga students pick up classical fine art skills from their peers, while imparting the nuances of Baduga tribal folk art.

Rohini always feels at home when in school, in large part because interactions between the teachers and their wards, and among the students themselves, are very informal and characterized by personal attention and care. Rohini recalls her teachers' insistence that she maintain her traditional dress, for example. The small teacher-student ratio also helps.

End of the School Day and Back Home

The school day formally ends with a group prayer; if time permits, however, Rohini joins other children for some group play or traditional dancing and singing before leaving for home. Rohini usually then walks home, often in the company of teachers. As peers and teachers continue their meaningful interactions, Rohini walks slowly in order to extend the trip as long as possible.

Rohini is delighted to return home, however, where she relates her school day experiences to a large and appreciative crowd of family members. After an early supper, Rohini sits down to study and do homework. She very much enjoys all the caring evident as her family cajoles her to be prompt with her homework. Her parents, and other elder family members, not only attend to her studies at home but also frequently visit her school and follow her advancement through interaction with the teachers. The family enthusiasm extends to volunteering at school and making monetary contributions.

The adults, of course, also play a crucial role in imparting to the children traditional cultural skills and art forms. Rohini's time after reading lessons and doing homework is mostly spent with the women and the children. The older generation teaches the children folk singing, dances, and folklore.

Holidays and Celebrations at School

Rohini enjoys holidays as much as she enjoys school days. The school participates in the Baduga festival for Hethaiamman (a cultural deity) by closing for eight days and by teaching about the significance of the event. Rohini is proud of having been included in the community dance troupe that performs at the festival.

School Day Profile 3

Nine-year-old Sharmila Sowbarani attends a primary school in the rural locale (programming) locale - A geopolitical place or area, especially in the context of configuring an operating system or application program with its character sets, date and time formats, currency formats etc.

Locales are significant for internationalisation and localisation.
 of Bhavani, the seat of a major irrigation irrigation, in agriculture, artificial watering of the land. Although used chiefly in regions with annual rainfall of less than 20 in. (51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice.  project and a predominantly agrarian sector in southern India. Education is becoming more of a priority in Bhavani as parents realize its connection to employment opportunities. The children receive the means for life-oriented education, with contributions from the latest informational and technological know-how. The learning process is equally based at home and at school, and the parents and the family play complementary roles in enriching the child.

Preparing To Go to School

Sowbarani's school day starts as early as 6:00 a.m. She wakes up to her mother's call and, after washing up, reviews the previous day's lessons. This practice is very typical of Bhavani's rural culture, which stresses the importance of early morning work for effective learning. Much of Sowbarani's morning is also taken up with chores and practical learning, in accordance with the Tamil adage Ettu churakai kariku udhavadhu, which means "The printed vegetable in the book will not help in cooking." For example, Sowbarani accompanies her mother to the family's vegetable garden, where she learns about tending plants. She is well acquainted with almost all of the native vegetables, their seeds, and farming procedures.

Breakfast consists of idli or dosa with chutney chut·ney  
n.
A pungent relish made of fruits, spices, and herbs.



[Hindi can
 and sambar. Unlike in the urban areas, where these recipes are mostly rice-based, in Sowbarani's rural home they also include coarse country cereals like millet millet, common name for several species of grasses cultivated mainly for cereals in the Eastern Hemisphere and for forage and hay in North America. The principal varieties are the foxtail, pearl, and barnyard millets and the proso millet, called also broomcorn millet , maize maize: see corn. , and ragi ra·gi  
n. pl. ra·gis
See finger millet.



[Hindi rg
. The elders instruct the children about the importance of each food item. Sowbarani reaches school after a brisk 15-minute walk. Vehicular conveyances are very rarely used in her part of the countryside.

The School

The school campus is Sowbarani's haven; it is set among trees, with a lot of open space for play and a variety of indigenous play materials and equipment. The school building incorporates mud floors, palm leaf-thatched roofs, and bamboo partitions for walls. The structure itself is symbolic of cost effectiveness and indigenous technology. Recently, however, plain concrete structures have been built on the school campus to adequately house new technology.

Time Before Class

Sowbarani and her friends prefer to arrive at the school around 8:30 a.m., almost an hour before the school day starts. They spend the time in active group play around the campus, as well as in meaningful activities like gardening. The older students tidy the classroom, clean the blackboard, and decorate the classroom with flowers. The school day begins with a prayer session each morning. The 15-minute routine includes group prayer, recitation of the national oath, review of news headlines, a short discourse by the head staff, and concludes with the national anthem. On the first day of the week, the assembly also includes a ceremonial flag hoisting and singing of patriotic songs. Sowbarani explains that these sessions help them to warm up and begin to focus their attention on academic tasks.

Teaching Sessions

The curriculum and teaching methodology is very similar to that practiced elsewhere in the country. The customary instructional matter includes the conventional subjects of math, science, and social science, along with instruction in the native tongue Tamil and in English. Apart from these regular academic subjects, Sowbarani greatly appreciates the substantial time spent on instruction in ethics and games and drill (almost an hour a day), physical health and moralistic mor·al·is·tic  
adj.
1. Characterized by or displaying a concern with morality.

2. Marked by a narrow-minded morality.



mor
 perseverance being the two priorities of rural Indian life. Of late, in keeping pace with contemporary developments in the field of education, instruction in computer operations has also become part of the daily schedule.

Teaching sessions are seldom restricted to the classroom limits. Often, they are conducted under the cool shade of the trees, and they include nature walks. Natural science concepts (e.g., seed germination germination, in a seed, process by which the plant embryo within the seed resumes growth after a period of dormancy and the seedling emerges. The length of dormancy varies; the seed of some plants (e.g. , geology) are explained through hands-on activities and field experiences. Students learn about conservation of the environment (soil erosion, top soil and water conservation, etc.), which is not surprising, given the centrality of these issues to rural life. The students appear to enjoy the age-old Indian tradition of reinforcement through oral recitation. According to Sowbarani, the rhythmic vocal exercises not only serve as memory reinforcers, but also are a stimulating recreation. Several of these educational recitation sequences form the base for rural folk games.

Breaks

The rural-based conception that adequate rest underlies good work is thoroughly reflected in the school schedule. Unlike the urban schools, where breaks tend to be short, Sowbarani's school emphasizes breaks and a leisurely lunch as a way for the children to refresh themselves and prepare for further instruction. The children enjoy home-made refreshments, as well as nutritious government-provided meals. The process of preparing lunch is itself a learning activity, as children take turns during their free time helping with the simple tasks of cooking. In the process, they learn practical information about nutrition, cooking, and teamwork. Sowbarani proudly relates several instances when, because of such experiences, she was able to pass on information about nutrition to her mother and other relatives.

Recreation, Play, and Extracurricular Activities

Recreation and play in this rural location are mostly synonymous with synonymous with
adjective equivalent to, the same as, identical to, similar to, identified with, equal to, tantamount to, interchangeable with, one and the same as
 vigorous physical activity accompanied by music and singing. The folk games in which Sowbarani and her friends participate have their roots in the essentials of communal country life, such as farming activities. Among the innumerable games they play, Sowbarani's favorite is the one about the pumpkin farmer and the traditional folk dance folk dance, primitive, tribal, or ethnic form of the dance, sometimes the survival of some ancient ceremony or festival. The term is used also to include characteristic national dances, country dances, and figure dances in costume to folk tunes.  of kummi. According to Sowbarani, each of these various folk games is tied to specific seasons and local events, like the harvest season. As more families begin to own televisions, the game of cricket has become popular.

The students spend considerable rime outside class hours on gardening, actively guided by the senior students and their teachers. The students bring all of the necessary raw materials--seeds, manure, and gardening tools--from home. Thus, the students are being initiated and exposed to community living and community development activities early in life. Time is also set aside for art, music, drama, and dance activities.

Interpersonal Interaction at School

Distinctly different from the urban context, a very private bond exists between teachers and students, and among the students themselves, in Sowbarani's rural school. Nevertheless, corporal punishment corporal punishment, physical chastisement of an offender. At one extreme it includes the death penalty (see capital punishment), but the term usually refers to punishments like flogging, mutilation, and branding. Until c.  is an integral practice of schooling practice. Sowbarani does not express personal concern about the mode of punishment; she states that the penalties only reflect the teachers' eagerness to coax the best out of their students.

The modest student staff ratio of one teacher for every 10 to 15 students may be the primary reason for the optimal interpersonal climate, along with the traditional rural congeniality con·gen·ial  
adj.
1. Having the same tastes, habits, or temperament; sympathetic.

2. Of a pleasant disposition; friendly and sociable: a congenial host.

3.
. Testimony to the close relationships can be found on any school day, as the students sit in an informal semicircle around the teacher under the shade trees lining the campus. The closeness is also reflected in the emotional and interpersonal interactions. Sowbarani touchingly recollects how all of her school teachers and classmates called upon her at home when she was critically iii during a summer vacation Summer vacation (also called summer holidays or summer break) is a vacation in the summertime between school years in which students are off for 3 months, depending on the country and district. .

Back at Home With Parents and Family

Sowbarani's busy day does not end at school. At home, she immediately sets about helping her mother with the domestic chores, which involve cleaning the house and feeding the cattle. If time permits, Sowbarani also gets to play. All outdoor activities have to be completed before the sun sets. Later, Sowbarani sits near the kerosene kerosene or kerosine, colorless, thin mineral oil whose density is between 0.75 and 0.85 grams per cubic centimeter. A mixture of hydrocarbons, it is commonly obtained in the fractional distillation of petroleum as the portion boiling off  lantern along with the other children of the household to do her homework. She sets aside most of her homework for the next morning, however, as she personally finds that the most opportune op·por·tune  
adj.
1. Suited or right for a particular purpose: an opportune place to make camp.

2. Occurring at a fitting or advantageous time: an opportune arrival.
 time for absorbing new information and ideas.

Sowbarani eagerly looks forward to dinnertime, when the family gathers around the lantern and shares their day's experiences. Sowbarani especially relishes the full moon evenings, when these family get-togethers take on added splendor as the dinner shifts to the open moonlit moon·lit  
adj.
Lighted by moonlight.


moonlit
Adjective

illuminated by the moon

Adj. 1.
 yard, and the children are allowed to play for longer after supper while the elders of the village gaily gai·ly also gay·ly  
adv.
1. In a joyful, cheerful, or happy manner; merrily.

2. With bright colors or trimmings; showily: gaily dressed in ribbons and flounces.
 chat away. However, now that the village is on the power grid, families seem to spend more time watching television. Although Sowbarani is thrilled by the inexhaustible source of information available from television, at the same time she longs for her previous moonlit endeavors. The authors' conversations with Sowbarani also revealed that the popularity of television has brought about more consumerist attitudes and interest in popular entertainment among the children at the school, replacing interest in folk traditions. One could observe a competitive eagerness among children to show off their latest purchases from among the commodities advertised on television, and time-tested, meaningful folk recreation giving way to an obsession with popular entertainment like cinema and cricket. Both teachers and parents need to ensure that the informational boon of the modern day does not mar the cultural and traditional heritage of these rural children.

Holidays and Celebrations at School

The local rural community's influence on Sowbarani's school system extends even to the school's holiday pattern. Contrary to the common tradition of closing school on Saturdays and Sundays, Sowbarani's school closes on Sundays and Mondays. This arrangement accommodates the weekly local country fair held on Mondays, which is a favorite destination for Sowbarani. Other term-end holidays are as elsewhere, and the quarterly holidays are made to coincide with the festival season of a locally popular temple.

According to Sowbarani, one of the few events celebrated at school is Annual Day; all the parents make time to attend this event. The day's celebrations are marked with elaborate cultural observances and the children are rewarded for their accomplishments in academics, general proficiency, extracurricular activities, athletics, special talents, conduct, and other areas. Apart from the Annual Day, Independence Day and Republic Day also are commemorated. Of course, what stands foremost in the minds of young children like Sowbarani on these days is the distribution of sweets.

All of these traditions contribute to developing responsible and productive members of the immediate community, as well as the larger nation. Ultimately, each school day is not only meaningful for Sowbarani's present life, but also a consequential step towards the future she has dreamt for herself.

CALL FOR PRESENTATIONS

Practices, Policies, and Procedures ... And All That Jazz! April 14-17, 2004 * Sheraton New Orleans Sheraton New Orleans, located at 500 Canal Street in the Central Business District of New Orleans, Louisiana, is a 48-story, 479 feet (146 m)-tall skyscraper.  Hotel * New Orleans New Orleans (ôr`lēənz –lənz, ôrlēnz`), city (2006 pop. 187,525), coextensive with Orleans parish, SE La., between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, 107 mi (172 km) by water from the river mouth; founded , Louisiana

The Program Committee invites proposals for presentations at the 2004 ACEI ACEI Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor
ACEI Association for Childhood Education International
ACEI Association of Consulting Engineers of Ireland
 Annual International Conference & Exhibition. Proposal topics must relate to the Conference theme and/or one of these specific subtopics:

a) Policy, Politics, and Educational Practice (understanding and influencing the political and legislative process; teachers as advocates; communicating with policymakers; finding common ground between policies and best practice; legal issues facing educators; empowerment; leadership in learning communities; interagency in·ter·a·gen·cy  
adj.
Involving or representing two or more agencies, especially government agencies.
 collaboration)

b) Curricular and testing Practices (standardized testing; standards-based curriculum; high-stakes testing A high-stakes test is an assessment which has important consequences for the test taker. If the examinee passes the test, then the examinee may receive significant benefits, such as a high school diploma or a license to practice law. ; alternative assessment; school reform efforts; education in rural and inner-city communities; educational research; best practice, Pre-K-college; teacher standards and testing: international curricular and testing practices)

c) Culturally Relevant Teaching Culturally relevant teaching and learning is a method of teaching and learning that builds on and values the cultural experiences and knowledge of all participants regardless of whether they are from the dominant culture.  (creating caring schools and communities; multicultural education; teaching for global understanding; character development; moral development; involving families and communities in schooling; addressing learning differences; intergenerational in·ter·gen·er·a·tion·al  
adj.
Being or occurring between generations: "These social-insurance programs are intergenerational and all
 programs)

d) teaching and Learning Throughout a Lifetime (curricular approaches; literacy for a lifetime; early care and education; early intervention ear·ly intervention
n. Abbr. EI
A process of assessment and therapy provided to children, especially those younger than age 6, to facilitate normal cognitive and emotional development and to prevent developmental disability or delay.
; universal pre-kindergarten; neuroscientific research and education; technology; second career educators; preservice and inservice education; induction year programs; national board certification board certification
n.
The process by which a person is tested and approved to practice in a specialty field, especially medicine, after successfully completing the requirements of a board of specialists in that field.
; service-learning; international concerns regarding lifelong learning Lifelong learning is the concept that "It's never too soon or too late for learning", a philosophy that has taken root in a whole host of different organisations. Lifelong learning is attitudinal; that one can and should be open to new ideas, decisions, skills or behaviors. )

e) teaching in an Embattled em·bat·tled  
adj.
1. Prepared or fortified for battle or engaged in battle: embattled troops; an embattled city.

2.
 World (the effect of world conflict and terrorism on classrooms; education and democracy; the role of nationalism in public education, patriotism and civic education; conflict resolution and peace education). Students and first-year teachers are encouraged to work with their instructors to prepare a proposal for presentation in a special Student Presenter Track. Proposals marked Student Presenter will be reviewed independently.

Proposals are subject to blind peer review by two members of the appropriate ACEI committee and the committee chair. The number of papers that can be accepted is determined by available meeting space. The proposal's originality; its relationship to the Conference theme; and the clarity of its objectives, organization, and methods of presentation are factors considered. The Committee also seeks to achieve an appropriate distribution of age levels addressed.
                        Deadlines        Notification

Concurrent Sessions     May 1, 2003      Aug. 2003
Research Sessions       June 1, 2003     Oct. 2003
Virtual Presentations   Sept. 15, 2003   Dec. 2003
Global Sharing Fair     Oct. 31, 2003    Nov. 2003
Hall of Excellence      Jan. 1, 2004     Jan. 2004
Hall of Celebration     Feb. 28, 2004    Mar. 2004


Only those proposals postmarked by the deadlines indicated will be considered.

Rules of Participation

1. No one may submit more than two proposals, either as a presenter or co-presenter of a session.

2. Persons whose proposals are accepted must participate at the rime scheduled by the Program Committee,

3. ACEI strives to keep the meeting affordable for classroom teachers and prospective teachers. Therefore, all participants, including presenters, are required to register for the ACEI Conference. Presenters must preregister pre·reg·is·ter  
v. pre·reg·is·tered, pre·reg·is·ter·ing, pre·reg·is·ters

v.intr.
To take part in preregistration.

v.tr.
To enroll (a student) during a period of preregistration.
 by October 1, 2003. Presenter registration is indication of your intent to participate.

4. ACEI does not underwrite the expenses of presenters.

5. If a presenter has a commercial product(s) or service to promote, this may be done by purchasing space in the Exhibit Hall. Presenters who have purchased space in the Exhibit Hall may mention their presence in the Exhibit Hall during their session, but may in no way make or solicit sales during the session. Contact the ACEI Conference Dept. for information about exhibiting.

General Submission Requirements

Only proposals adhering to the guidelines and postmarked or electronically date-stamped by the deadline for each category will be considered / reviewed. All categories of proposals must include the following:

1. One (1) copy of a cover sheet that includes: name, complete mailing address; daytime and home phone numbers; fax number; and E-mail address See Internet address.

e-mail address - electronic mail address
 for each person presenting during the session. Also include Student Presenter Track on the cover if proposal is submitted by a student or first-year teacher. To ensure a "blind" review, this information must hot be included any other place in the proposal. Information that in any way identifies the presenter(s) may not be included in the body of the proposal; this could disqualify To deprive of eligibility or render unfit; to disable or incapacitate.

To be disqualified is to be stripped of legal capacity. A wife would be disqualified as a juror in her husband's trial for murder due to the nature of their relationship.
 the proposal from consideration. The Title of the proposed session must be included on the cover sheet. All proposals must also include a hard (paper) copy of the proposal with appropriately labeled sections containing the following information:

2. Title of proposed session.

3. A highlighted Main Thrust of the proposal (25 words or less), to be included in the Conference Program Book if your proposal is accepted.

4. Electronic submission of proposals is strongly encouraged. Attached files must be virus free in either Microsoft Word A full-featured word processing program for Windows and the Macintosh from Microsoft. Included in the Microsoft application suite, it is a sophisticated program with rudimentary desktop publishing capabilities that has become the most widely used word processing application on the market.  ver. 5.0-6.0 or ASCII/text-only format. Submit to Conference@ACEI.org. TWO (2) stamped, self-addressed envelopes per presenter (unstamped if presenter is outside the U.S.) must be sent to the address below via regular mail on the same day the proposal is submitted electronically.

5. For proposals submitted via regular mail: In addition to one (1) hard (paper) copy, include the proposal on a virus-free 3.5" diskette The official name for the floppy disk. See floppy disk.

diskette - floppy disk
 (Macintosh or IBM compatible (computer) IBM compatible - A computer which can use hardware and software designed for the IBM PC (or, less often, IBM mainframes).

This was once a key phrase in marketing a new PC clone but now in 1998 is rarely used, the non-IBM wintel personal computer manufacturers such
) in Microsoft Word 5.0-6.0 or ASCII/text-only format. Label diskette with the title of proposal ONLY. Also enclose TWO (2) stamped, self-addressed envelopes per presenter (unstamped if presenter is outside the U.S.). Diskettes are not returnable. In the case of proposals submitted via email, a diskette is not required.

6. All proposals must be postmarked or electronically date-stamped no later than the deadlines indicated. All proposals (include name of proposal category) EXCEPT those for Virtual Presentations and those for the Hall of Celebration should be addressed to:

ACEI--2004 Conference 17904 Georgia Avenue Georgia Avenue is a major north-south artery in Northwest Washington, D.C. and Montgomery County, Maryland. Within the District of Columbia, Georgia Avenue is also U.S. Route 29. Both Howard University and Walter Reed Army Medical Center are on Georgia Avenue. , Ste. 215, Olney, MD USA 20832 301-570-2111; 301-570-2212 (fax); 800-423-3563 E-mail to: Conference@ACEI.org

Specific Submission Requirements

Concurrent Sessions

In addition to the items listed in the General Submission Requirements, all Concurrent Session proposals must contain the following:

1. Brief description (200-500 words maximum), typed and double-spaced, noting the purpose and scope of your presentation.

2. A highlighted Main Thrust of the proposal (25 words or less), including three (3) learning outcomes, to be included in the Conference Program Book if your proposal is accepted.

3. Audio/Visual Equipment needs. Presenters will be asked to share the expense for overhead and slide projectors, cassette and CD players, VCRs, and video display (LCD) equipment. More elaborate A/V (1) (Audio/Video) Refers to equipment and applications that deal with sound and sight. The A/V world includes microphones, tape recorders, audio mixers, still and video cameras, film projectors, slide projectors, VCRs, CD and DVD players/recorders, amplifiers and  needs will be provided entirely at the presenter's expense. Presenters must indicate and pay for A/V needs by the October 1, 2003, registration deadline.

4. Length of time. Regular presentations will run for 25 minutes (or multiples thereof). If necessary, indicate specific time or date needed to give your presentation. ACEI will try to accommodate such requests, but cannot guarantee specific placement.

5. Subject Area. Choose ONLY ONE category for review purposes: a) Infancy, b) Early Childhood 1--Preschool, c) Early Childhood 2--Kindergarten, d) Early Childhood 3--Primary Grades, e) Later Childhood, f) International/ Intercultural in·ter·cul·tur·al  
adj.
Of, relating to, involving, or representing different cultures: an intercultural marriage; intercultural exchange in the arts.
, g) teacher Education (content is of interest to those involved in the education of future teachers).

Research Submissions

In addition to the items listed in the General Submission Requirements, all Research Session proposals must include the following:

1. In addition to addressing the Conference theme and/or one of the subtopics, Research proposals must also address at least one of the following Emphasis Areas: a) Middle-Level Education, b) teacher Education (content is of interest to those involved in the education of future teachers), c) Action Research, d) International/Global Issues.

2. Description of the research, limited to three (3) single-spaced, typewritten type·write  
intr. & tr.v. type·wrote , type·writ·ten , type·writ·ing, type·writes
To engage in writing or to write (matter) with a typewriter.
 pages, including:

a) Abstract--100-200 words maximum.

b) Research Question--Identify the research question(s) studied.

c) Rationale--Provide a rationale for the study and relate it to findings. Identify how previous findings suggest this study is important.

d) Methodology--Describe the approach and procedures used to answer the question. Describe the subjects.

e) Analysis--Describe how the data were analyzed.

f) Findings--Identify the findings.

g) Implications--Discuss the implications for future research and classroom practice or educational policy.

3. Specify a Preferred Format (Highlighted, Roundtables, Forum, or Poster), or leave that assignment to the discretion of the review committee.

Virtual Presentations

In addition to the General Submission Requirements, all Virtual Presentation proposals must include the following:

1. A Description of the technologies involved in the presentation. Proposal must include information for any additional downloads participants would need to participate in the session, e.g., Adobe Acrobat Reader The former name of Adobe Reader. See PDF. .

2. Subject Area (choose one most appropriate category for review purposes): a) Infancy, b) Early Childhood 1--Preschool, c) Early Childhood 2--Kindergarten, d) Early Childhood 3--Primary Grades, e) Later Childhood, f) International / Intercultural, g) teacher Education (content is of interest to those involved in the education of future teachers).

3. All Virtual Presentation proposals are to be submitted to: njyost@iup.edu. Notification of acceptance of Virtual Presentation proposals will be via E-mail. All Virtual Presentation presenters must be registered for the Conference to have their presentation available to Conference attendees.

Global Sharing Fair

Friday, April 16--Poster/Display Submissions Hall of Excellence Saturday, April 17--Poster/Display Submissions Hall of Celebration Saturday, April 17--Poster/Display Submissions)

There are no items required in addition to those listed in the General Submission Requirements for Global Sharing Fair proposals, Hall of Excellence proposals, or Hall of Celebration proposals. The Hall of Excellence Guidelines also apply to Global Sharing Fair proposals and are available on-line at the ACEI Web site (www.ACEI.org) or upon request from the ACEI Conference Department. Call 800-423-3563 or 301-5702111; fax to 301-570-2212; or send an E-mail to ACEImc@aol.com. The Hall of Celebration presentations are intended exclusively to depict activities for Week of the Classroom teacher celebrations.

Submit ONLY Hall of Celebration proposals to:

Sue Martin,

Week of the Classroom teacher Committee Chair 80 Felstead Avenue, Toronto, Ontario Canada M4J 1G2

N. Jaya and G. Malar malar /ma·lar/ (ma´lar)
1. buccal; pertaining to the cheek.

2. zygomatic.


ma·lar
adj.
Of or relating to the cheekbone or the cheek.

n.
The cheekbone.
 

A vinashilingam Deemed University Deemed University is a status of autonomy granted to high performing institutes and departments of various universities in India. It is granted by the University Grants Commission (UGC) of India. , Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
COPYRIGHT 2002 Association for Childhood Education International
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
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Author:Malar, G.
Publication:Childhood Education
Date:Dec 22, 2002
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