Two steps forward in AIDS vaccine search.
Researchers seeking a vaccine to stem the spread of AIDS have taken two significant strides toward that goal. They have found a primate species besides humans and the endangered chimpanzee chimpanzee, an ape, genus Pan, of the equatorial forests of central and W Africa. The common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, lives N of the Congo River. Full-grown animals of this species are up to 5 ft (1. that they can use to test the safety and efficacy of possible AIDS vaccines. And they have developed an AIDS vaccine that provides protection in chimps against white blood cells-such as those in infected blood or semen-that carry the AIDS-causing virus HIV-1.
In the first discovery, a group led by Lawrence Corey of the University of Washington in Seattle has successfully infected with HIV-1 a common type of Indonesian monkey called the pigtail A cable that has an appropriate connector on one end and loose wires on the other. It is designed to patch into an existing line or to terminate the ends of a long run. Contrast with patch cord. macaque macaque (məkäk`), name for Old World monkeys of the genus Macaca, related to mangabeys, mandrills, and baboons. All but one of the 19 species are found in Asia from Afghanistan to Japan, the Philippines, and Borneo. . Because pigtail macaques are more plentiful than chimpanzeez -- the only other animals known to be susceptible to HIV-1 infection -- Corey and his colleagues say their finding should expand the number of candidate AIDS vaccines that researchers can evaluate at any given time. This, in turn, should speed the development of an effective vaccine, they say.
Corey's group tested whether HIV-1 could infect pigtail macaques after finding that the monkeys are especially vulnerable to HIV-2, a related but separate virus responsible for many AIDS cases in Africa. The researchers began by demonstrating that four different strains of HIV-1 could infect pigtail macaque white blood cells White blood cells
A group of several cell types that occur in the bloodstream and are essential for a properly functioning immune system.
Mentioned in: Abscess Incision & Drainage, Bone Marrow Transplantation, Complement Deficiencies grown in laboratory cultures and cause the cells to produce new infectious viruses.
Next, they injected a group of eight pigtail macaques with infected white blood cells, purified HIV-1 or a mixture of both. In a paper scheduled for publication in the July 3 Science, the researchers report that all of the monkeys became infected with HIV-1 and produced telltale antiobodies to the virus. Moreover, the monkeys developed swollen lymph nodes Lymph nodes
Small, bean-shaped masses of tissue scattered along the lymphatic system that act as filters and immune monitors, removing fluids, bacteria, or cancer cells that travel through the lymph system. , rashes and fever -- early symptoms of HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. infection that previously have been seen only in humans.
Corey says these results suggest that the pigtail macaques may later develop the wasting, loss of immune system immune system
Cells, cell products, organs, and structures of the body involved in the detection and destruction of foreign invaders, such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. Immunity is based on the system's ability to launch a defense against such invaders. function and neurological symptoms that afflict af·flict
tr.v. af·flict·ed, af·flict·ing, af·flicts
To inflict grievous physical or mental suffering on.
[Middle English afflighten, from afflight, humans with AIDS. This would make the monkeys the first true animal model for AIDS, because chimpanzees do not get sick following HIV infection.
AIDS vaccine researcher Jonathan S. Allan of the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research (SFBR) is a large private research institute located in San Antonio Texas.
With 400 staff and a 397 acre campus, SFBR is "one of the world's leading independent biomedical research institutions. in San Antonio, Texas “San Antonio” redirects here. For other uses, see San Antonio (disambiguation).
San Antonio is the second most populous city in Texas, the third most populous metropolitan area in Texas, and is the seventh most populous city in the United States. As of the 2006 U.S. , agrees that pigtail macaques offer "a nice alternative to chimps, or an addition to chimps" for AIDS vaccine testing. "They are more amenable to AIDS vaccine research," he says, "because there are enough around so that you could use statistically relevant numbers of unvaccinated controls" in vaccine studies.
Because of an international treaty barring the importation of chimpanzees -- whcih are endangered in their native Africa -- the National Institutes of Health funds a program to breed the animals in captivity (SN: 3/11/89, p.155). Even so, only some two dozen chimpanzees are available for AIDS vaccine studies each year. In contrast, between 200 and 300 pigtail macaques are born in U.S. breeding facilities annually, and there are no restrictions on their sale.
In the second AIDS vaccine development, a U.S.-French research team led by Patricia N. Fultz of the University of Alabama at Birmingham UAB began in 1936 as the Birmingham Extension Center of the University of Alabama. Because of the rapid growth of the Birmingham area, it was decided that an extension program for students who had difficulties which prevented them from studying in Tuscaloosa was needed. demonstrated that multiple immunizations with several HIV-1 protiens protected three chimpanzees from infection with HIV-1 carried by white blood cells. Although several AIDS vaccines have been shown to protect chimpanzees against infection with purified HIV (SN: 6/9/90, p.363), Fultz and her colleagues assert that this is the first time a vaccine has shield against cells carrying HIV. They report thier results in the June 19 Science.
Fultz says the finding suggests it will be possible to develop a long-acting human vaccine to protect against HIV particles carried by infected white blood cells. She says that one of the chimpanzees her group studied resisted infection from such cells even a year after its vaccination.