Tungtungan and Lupon: crossing paths to maintain peace Bokod.The community of Daklan, Bokod, Benguet Bokod is a 4th class municipality in the province of Benguet, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 11,705 people in 2,242 households.
The municipality is bounded on the north by Kabayan, on the south by Itogon, on the west by Atok, and on the has successfully webbed their indigenous conflict-resolution system into the dominant national sociopolitical so·ci·o·po·li·ti·cal
Involving both social and political factors.
of or involving political and social factors system.
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Ben Sinas, a member of the Lupong Barangay, the people of Daklan traditionally resolve conflicts through the "Tungtungan".
"The tungtungan, which is the indigenous way of settling conflicts, means peaceful reconciliation among the people of the community," John Tampoc said.
The tungtungan is composed of elders whose responsibility is to resolve problems in the community. The elders were the natural members of the tungtungan because of their acquired wisdom and numerous experiences which makes it possible for them to decide wisely, Pio Tacio, a former barrio bar·ri·o
n. pl. bar·ri·os
1. An urban district or quarter in a Spanish-speaking country.
2. A chiefly Spanish-speaking community or neighborhood in a U.S. city. lieutenant of the community, said. Whenever conflicts arose among community members, the elders were counted upon to resolve the disagreements. The people naturally respected and followed whatever decision the elders arrived at. Decisions made by the elders were not in written form. The elders were not given any monetary compensation for their services. The elders also served to maintain the practices, beliefs and values in the community. Any community member who displayed undesirable conduct was reprimanded by the elders.
The tungtungan was thus not only a way to resolve conflicts but also to inculcate in·cul·cate
tr.v. in·cul·cat·ed, in·cul·cat·ing, in·cul·cates
1. To impress (something) upon the mind of another by frequent instruction or repetition; instill: inculcating sound principles. values of love, peace, forgiveness, humbleness and honesty--values that the community forefathers forefathers npl → antepasados mpl
forefathers npl → ancêtres mpl
forefathers npl → Vorfahren prized also.
With the integration of the indigenous communities into the national system and the imposition of national laws on the existing indigenous system, the tungtungan was integrated into the Lupon, which now resolves conflicts in the communities.
Through the Lupon, the people were able to preserve their indigenous conflict-resolution schemes.
The Lupon resolves all conflicts at the barangay level. Any case which cannot be resolved at this level is taken to the municipal court. The lupon is composed of 10-15 elders who receive a modest compensation of PhP 600.00 a year. Decisions made by the Lupon are properly recorded and signed by the lupon, the complainant A plaintiff; a person who commences a civil lawsuit against another, known as the defendant, in order to remedy an alleged wrong. An individual who files a written accusation with the police charging a suspect with the commission of a crime and providing facts to support the allegation and offender. Women are allowed to be members of the lupon.
The Lupon has facilitated the swift resolution of cases in the community. According to Bernarda Solonio, the Lupon has helped lessen expenses and has saved on effort and time. She said that it has also further strengthened the relationships of people.
The members of the Lupon who were interviewed expressed their hopes of imparting im·part
tr.v. im·part·ed, im·part·ing, im·parts
1. To grant a share of; bestow: impart a subtle flavor; impart some advice.
2. this kind of settling conflicts to the next generation.
"Tungtungan will serve as a guide and example of what our ancestors Our Ancestors (Italian: I Nostri Antenati) is the name of Italo Calvino's "heraldic trilogy" that comprises The Cloven Viscount (1952), The Baron in the Trees (1957), and The Nonexistent Knight (1959). did in order to preserve peace in the community," Sinas said.
"This is part of our identity that should be kept as a treasure for our grandchildren's children to use," Tacio said.
Jenefer Kiong is a participant of the Project GROW (Enabling Women to Become Gender-Responsive Writers). She is from Bokod, Benguet.