Trends in school counseling journals: the first fifty years.The school counseling profession has published three journals in the course of its history. All articles in these journals were coded as to authorship, article type, content, and the core areas of the 2001 Council for Accreditation accreditation,
n a process of formal recognition of a school or institution attesting to the required ability and performance in an area of education, training, or practice. of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP CACREP Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs ) Standards. Distributions of articles in each category are discussed by decade, and the three journals are compared. Implications of the findings are discussed.
The first known school guidance program in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. dates to 1889, when a Detroit Detroit, city, United States
Detroit (dĭtroit`), city (1990 pop. 1,027,974), seat of Wayne co., SE Mich., on the Detroit River and between lakes St. Clair and Erie; inc. as a city 1815. school principal, Jesse Jesse (jĕs`ē), in the Bible, the descendant of Rahab, the grandson of Boaz and Ruth, and the father of David. Referring to the restoration of the Davidic monarchy, the Book of Isaiah speaks of a shoot coming from the "stump of Jesse. B. Davis, introduced a guidance curriculum that was delivered in each English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is class in his school (Coy, 1999). In response to the industrialization industrialization
Process of converting to a socioeconomic order in which industry is dominant. The changes that took place in Britain during the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and 19th century led the way for the early industrializing nations of western Europe and and urbanization that was taking place in the country, the first decade of the 20th century saw increased concern for vocational guidance vocational guidance: see guidance and counseling. (Aubrey Au·brey , John 1626-1697.
English antiquarian and writer whose Brief Lives, published posthumously, contains character sketches of his notable friends, including Thomas Hobbes, John Milton, and Francis Bacon. , 1992). Between 1914 and 1918, school guidance programs were initiated in several large cities around the United States (Poppen & Thompson Thompson, city, Canada
Thompson, city (1991 pop. 14,977), central Man., Canada, on the Burntwood River. A mining town, it developed after large nickel deposits were discovered in the area in 1956. , 1974). While vocational guidance came to include educational or academic guidance in the 1930s, counseling was originally conceived of as a tool or technique to assist in the guidance program (Aubrey).
It was not until the middle of the 20th century that the field of school counseling attained at·tain
v. at·tained, at·tain·ing, at·tains
1. To gain as an objective; achieve: attain a diploma by hard work.
2. the status of a profession. That milestone is marked by the formation of a professional organization, the American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of School Counselor A school counselor is a counselor and educator who works in schools, and have historically been referred to as "guidance counselors" or "educational counselors," although "Professional School Counselor" is now the preferred term. Association (ASCA ASCA American School Counselor Association
ASCA Australian Shepherd Club of America
ASCA Arab Society of Certified Accountants
ASCA American Swimming Coaches Association
ASCA American Society of Consulting Arborists
ASCA Association of State Correctional Administrators ), in 1952. As ASCA is celebrating its 50th anniversary, now is an appropriate time to reflect on "where it has been, where it is now, and where it is going" (Brown, 1969). ASCA was formed at close to the same time as the American Personnel and Guidance Association, forerunner A family of ATM adapters from Marconi (formerly Fore Systems). See Marconi. of the American Counseling Association The American Counseling Association (ACA) is a non-profit, professional organization that is dedicated to the counseling profession. ACA is the world's second largest association exclusively representing professional counselors. (ACA ACA - Application Control Architecture ). APGA APGA American Public Gas Association
APGA American Public Gardens Association (Wilmington, Delaware)
APGA All Progressives Grand Alliance (Nigeria)
APGA American Personnel and Guidance Association was inaugurated and became the fifth division to formally join the larger organization in 1953. This alliance was an important one, as "ASCA and ACA sort of grew together" (McDaniels, quoted in Simmons Simmons may refer to:
The importance of school counseling was reflected in the movement by states to develop and implement counseling certification standards. The first certificate (Pupil Personnel Service Certificate, Guidance and Counseling guidance and counseling, concept that institutions, especially schools, should promote the efficient and happy lives of individuals by helping them adjust to social realities. ) was issued in Ohio in 1955 (Coy, 1999). The newly legitimized profession of school guidance and counseling received a boost from Title V of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA NDEA
National Defense Education Act ), which was passed in 1958 in reaction to the launching of Sputnik Sputnik: see satellite, artificial; space exploration.
Any of a series of Earth-orbiting spacecraft whose launching by the Soviet Union inaugurated the space age. by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Rus. Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, former republic. It was established in 1922 and dissolved in 1991. . This act provided funding for expanding school testing programs and for training institutes for school counselors, both novice and experienced (Poppen & Thompson, 1974). The effect was an increase in the number of school counselors from 6,780 in 1951 to more than 30,000 in 1965 (Aubrey, 1992). Further support for expanded school guidance and counseling came from the James James, person in the Bible
James, in the Gospel of St. Luke, kinsman of St. Jude. The original does not specify the relationship.
James, rivers, United States
James. B. Conant Co·nant , James Bryant 1893-1978.
American educator who was president of Harvard University (1933-1953) and served as ambassador to West Germany (1955-1957). report on American education, published in 1959 (Poppen & Thompson). In 1960, a White House Conference on Children and Youth Under the leadership of Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Herbert Hoover, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, and Richard Nixon, White House Conferences on Children Youth involving many thousands of delegates from around the country, were held. also stressed the need for school counseling programs. The 1960s saw national upheaval concerning the issues of human and civil rights, which was a factor in the APGA national convention in 1968 (Simmons, 2002b). In the 1970s, Title III Title III Program is a U.S. Federal Grant Program to improve education History
The Title III Program began as part of the Higher Education Act of 1965, which sought to provide support to strengthen various aspects of the schools through a formula grant program to accredited, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act “Title I” redirects here. For other uses of "Title I", see Title I (disambiguation).
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) (Pub.L. 89-10, 79 Stat. 77, ) is a United States federal statute enacted April 111965. provided funding for elementary school elementary school: see school. guidance and counseling programs.
The present focus on developmental guidance and counseling in the schools can be traced to the influence of Robert Robert, Henry Martyn 1837-1923.
American army engineer and parliamentary authority. He designed the defenses for Washington, D.C., during the Civil War and later wrote Robert's Rules of Order (1876).
Noun 1. Mathewson Math·ew·son , Christopher Known as "Christy." 1880-1925.
American baseball player who won 373 games as a right-handed pitcher for the New York Giants (1900-1916). , who, as early as 1949, proposed that the school guidance program should be organized and implemented in a developmental fashion. He argued that teachers alone could not provide the necessary experiences required for optimal development of students, and he saw guidance programs as the most critical educational factor in enhancing student development (Aubrey, 1992).
A profession's journals can be viewed as a reflection of the history of the profession. Goodyear (1984), on the occasion of the publication of the inaugural issue of the newly titled Journal of Counseling and Development, reviewed the content of the previous journal (Personnel and Guidance Journal) as a means of evaluating the development of the profession to that point. At various times in the journal's history, other authors have examined the journal as a tool for self-reflection self-re·flec·tion
self-re·flec . Weinrach, Lustig, Chan, and Thomas (language) Thomas - A language compatible with the language Dylan(TM). Thomas is NOT Dylan(TM).
The first public release of a translator to Scheme by Matt Birkholz, Jim Miller, and Ron Weiss, written at Digital Equipment Corporation's Cambridge Research Laboratory runs (1998) commented that, "Studies such as these need to be conducted periodically to provide the profession with information about itself" (p. 428).
In 1954, the first journal dedicated exclusively to the school counseling profession, The School Counselor, was published by ASCA. In 1967, a second periodical periodical, a publication that is issued regularly. It is distinguished from the newspaper in format in that its pages are smaller and are usually bound, and it is published at weekly, monthly, quarterly, or other intervals, rather than daily. , Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, was added. In 1997, the two journals were merged, and the flagship journal of the organization, Professional School Counseling, was introduced. As individuals reflect on 50 years of professional school counseling, an analysis of the journals provides a unique perspective from which to review its development. Although other researchers have considered a portion of the school counseling literature, this analysis is unique in that it covers the entire history of all of the school counseling journals.
Our research questions were:
* How has authorship affiliation changed over time, and how has it differed among the three journals?
* To what extent have practitioners and academicians collaborated on articles in the journals?
* How have the types of articles changed over time and differed among journals?
* How have the topics covered in the journals changed over time and differed among journals?
* How have important events in the history of the profession influenced journal content?
* Which theoretical approaches have been covered, and what differences are found over time and among journals?
* How well have the eight areas of competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. identified in the 2001 CACREP Standards been covered by the journals?
All volumes of all three journals devoted exclusively to school counseling (Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, The School Counselor, and Professional School Counseling) were obtained by the researchers via personal collections, university libraries, and interlibrary in·ter·li·brar·y
Existing or occurring between or involving two or more libraries: an interlibrary loan; an interlibrary network. loan. A total of 2,585 articles were perused, which included 43 volumes of The School Counselor (1954-1996), 31 volumes of Elementary School Guidance and Counseling (1967-1997), and the first four volumes of Professional School Counseling (1997-June, 2001). The authors created a coding form based on an examination of previous studies analyzing journal articles and on current research questions. The coding form was pilot tested by the researchers who coded the same volume of Elementary School Guidance and Counseling and compared their results. The coding form was revised, and the reviewers then applied the new form to an issue of The School Counselor. The reviewers determined that the coding form was adequate, with the exception of the topics category. The coding form recorded the number of authors of each article and the work affiliation of each of the first three authors, as given in the author information for each article. Work affiliation categories were: K-12, University, Dual Affiliation (K-12 and University), Other (e.g., clinical setting, community agency), and Dual Affiliation (Other and University).
Next, researchers categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat each article as Empirical (Quantitative or Qualitative), Case Study, Theoretical, Practical, Professional Issue, or Other. For this category, only one type was selected, so that the primary focus of the article was the basis for the decision. Empirical articles were always coded as such, even if the focus of the research was a professional issue, for example. If the purpose of the article was to describe a theory, it was coded as such. If the theory was secondary to the main focus of the article, that focus was coded and theory was not. However, there was a separate category for coding a specific theory mentioned in an article even when the focus of the article was something other than theory. The final item on the code sheet was "Topic." It was decided that due to differing categorizations of topics in the pilot test of the coding sheet, researchers would record a descriptive phrase and/or and/or
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.
Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing. title for each article for later discussion by all researchers. The authors decided to follow the procedure put forth by Pope-Davis, Ligiero, Liang Liang
The name of two Chinese dynasties, the Earlier Liang Dynasty (502-557) and the Later Liang Dynasty (907-923). , and Codrington Codrington may refer to: People
1. Of, relating to, or including several cultures.
2. Of or relating to a social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only a mainstream culture. Counseling and Development developed new categories rather than rely on those of previous researchers because they believed that earlier categories might not capture changes over time.
The body of literature was then divided among the six researchers and independently coded. The data were then compiled. In order to devise a categorization system for the topics, two of the researchers selected a random sample of articles and examined the descriptions that had been recorded under Topics. General topic categories were created to describe the sample of articles, with the process continuing until it appeared that all further articles could be categorized by this system. Next, another random sample of 100 articles was selected to test the utility of the categorization system, and changes were made until the 14 categories were deemed exhaustive. (These categories are listed and defined in the Appendix.) Then, four of the researchers met to place each article in one of the aforementioned a·fore·men·tioned
The one or ones mentioned previously.
Adj. 1. categories by consensus. It was determined that some articles fit into more than one category (e.g., group counseling for African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. males, which fit into the counseling approaches and diversity categories), and when needed, two categories were recorded for one article.
In order to investigate the extent to which the articles in the journals were aligned with the eight common core areas described in the 2001 CACREP Standards, the first author categorized each article that clearly fit the standards into one or more of the eight core areas. To establish inter-rater reliability Inter-rater reliability, Inter-rater agreement, or Concordance is the degree of agreement among raters. It gives a score of how much , or consensus, there is in the ratings given by judges. , a random sample of 100 articles was independently coded by another researcher, with 99% agreement.
After data were compiled and tabulated, results were grouped by decade, examined, and compared with a list of historical highlights of the profession based on Baker (2000).
Because this study accessed the entire population, inferential statistics inferential statistics
see inferential statistics. are not necessary. Data are generally reported as percentages to best reflect differences, because of the varying number of articles in different decades and journals. First, analyses by decade will be presented, followed by a comparison of the three journals.
Authorship. The mean number of authors for all articles in this analysis is 1.63 (SD = .83). Interestingly, the number of authors per article has increased in a linear fashion from a mean of 1.14 (SD = .39) in the 1950s to a mean of 1.87 (SD = .96) in the 1990s. The mean for the current decade is 1.83 (SD = .84). The percentage of articles grouped by affiliation of the senior author is presented in Table 1; Table 2 shows similar information for the first two authors. The trends are presented visually in Figure 1, which was constructed by combining articles authored by one or two K-12 affiliated authors, articles written by one or two university-affiliated authors, and articles with one K-12 and one university-affiliated author, without regard to senior authorship. It is notable that representation in school counseling journals by school counselors (K-12 affiliations) has decreased markedly from the 1950s to the present, whereas the number of university authors has increased in an opposite but equally marked trend. That is, school counselors' proportional proportional
values expressed as a proportion of the total number of values in a series.
the patient is a miniature without disproportionate reductions or enlargements of body parts. contributions to the school counseling journals have decreased steadily since the 1950s, while at the same time university contributors have increased, It is also notable--and somewhat contrary to the general trend--that articles with a K-12 writer as senior author in collaboration Working together on a project. See collaborative software. with university authors have increased from 1.7 percent in the 1950s to 6.6 percent in the 1990s. Collaborative col·lab·o·rate
intr.v. col·lab·o·rat·ed, col·lab·o·rat·ing, col·lab·o·rates
1. To work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort.
2. contributions by university authors and K-12 coauthors peaked in the 1970s and have decreased since.
Article type. A summary of the types of articles published by decade is presented in Table 3. Practical articles (those with direct application to counseling practice such as description of specific programs or techniques) dominated the earliest issues of The School Counselor, published in the 1950s, representing 70% of articles in that decade. This type of article represented half of all articles published from 1970 to 2000, but has a lesser presence in the new millennium. Professional issues articles (those that focus on such themes as the role of the school counselors) peaked at 3696 in the 1960s, when the number of school counselors increased due to the NDEA passage in 1958, and then maintained a ratio below 20% until 2000, when the largest percentage of articles (41%) in the Professional School Counselor were of this type. The percentage of empirical articles increased gradually from the 1950s through the 1980s and has maintained the same level (approximately 25%) since that time; the percentage of qualitative and quantitative research Quantitative research
Use of advanced econometric and mathematical valuation models to identify the firms with the best possible prospectives. Antithesis of qualitative research. articles is roughly the same throughout this period. Theoretical articles represented a small fraction of the articles, with slightly larger percentages found in the 1980s and the 2000s. Case studies have maintained a small but consistent presence in the literature throughout its history, whereas literature reviews (defined as articles with the sole purpose of describing the literature on a particular topic) are almost nonexistent non·ex·is·tence
1. The condition of not existing.
2. Something that does not exist.
Because only approximately 4% of all articles in the school counseling journals discussed a particular counseling theory, Table 4 includes only theories mentioned in at least five articles. Adlerian Ad·le·ri·an
Of or being a psychological school based on the belief that behavior arises in subconscious efforts to compensate for inferiority and that psychological illness results from overcompensation for the perceived inferiority. Theory has received the most attention, followed by Behavioral behavioral
pertaining to behavior.
see psychomotor seizure. Theory, Play Therapy, and Systems Theory, in that order. Solution-Focused Brief Therapy does not appear in the literature until the 1990s, and is the most discussed theory in the current decade through the end of 2001.
Content. Three types of content have dominated in the school counseling journals. Articles discussing professional issues (e.g., roles and responsibilities, ethics ethics, in philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a , needs of counselors, counselor training, professional development, perceptions and evaluation of counselors, research and evaluation of counseling programs), approaches and techniques (including groups, peer counseling, different theoretical approaches), and educational and career-oriented articles (focusing on curriculum, teachers, underachievement, dropouts, discipline, individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. educational programs, prevention programming, use of computers) represent 28%, 21%, and 18%, respectively, of all articles published in the history of these journals. Interestingly, articles focusing on violence (prevention and intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant. , bullying Bullying
Chowne, Parson Stoyle
terrorizes parish; kidnaps children. [Br. Lit.: The Maid of Sker, Walsh Modern, 94–95]
bully; becomes thief in Fagin’s gang. [Br. Lit. , dating violence Dating Violence is defined as the perpetration or threat of an act of violence by at least one member of an unmarried couple on the other member within the context of dating or courtship. ) did not begin to appear in the journals until the 1970s, but in the current decade, this issue represents 10% of articles, due in part to a special issue of Professional School Counseling focusing on violence. Table 5 presents these data.
Core areas of CACREP standards. The percentages of articles in each decade reflecting the common core areas identified in the 2001 CACREP Standards as essential in the training of all counselors, including school counselors, are presented in Table 6. Of the 2,585 total articles, 1,958 fit the descriptions for these core areas, representing about 75% of all articles. Articles focusing on education-specific issues were most likely to be outside the core areas. Professional issues have consistently been the best represented of the core areas. Attention to social and cultural diversity has increased steadily, as have articles in the human development core (with the exception of the current decade to date).
Authorship. The mean number of authors per article differs by journal, with The School Counselor having the lowest mean, 1.59 (SD = .82), followed by Elementary School Guidance and Counseling with a mean of 1.64 (SD = .83) mad Professional School Counseling with the largest number of authors per article, a mean of 1.91 (SD = .89). Author affiliation did not differ dramatically by journal. However, it is notable that The School Counselor published a greater percentage of articles by K-12 school counselors and the smallest percentage of articles by university-affiliated authors than either of the other journals. Tables 7 and 8 present the percentage of contributors of each affiliation by journal.
Type of article. Table 9 presents a comparison of the three journals by the type of article. Practical articles represented approximately one half of total articles in both Elementary School Guidance and Counseling and The School Counselor, with that percentage declining to 39% in Professional School Counseling. The proportion of articles focusing on professional issues is greatest in Professional School Counseling (28%), whereas these issues are discussed in 15% and 23%, respectively, of the articles in Elementary School Guidance and Counseling and The School Counselor. The percentage of articles reporting research studies, both qualitative and quantitative, is consistent across the three journals, at slightly less than 25%. Theoretical and case study articles are infrequently in·fre·quent
1. Not occurring regularly; occasional or rare: an infrequent guest.
2. published in these journals, with The School Counselor publishing fewer of each category.
Content. Regarding topical topical /top·i·cal/ (top´i-k'l) pertaining to a particular area, as a topical antiinfective applied to a certain area of the skin and affecting only the area to which it is applied.
adj. content of articles in the three journals, Table 10 presents the percentage of articles in each content category by journal. A focus on professional issues ranges from 22% of articles in Elementary School Guidance and Counseling to 32% in The School Counselor. Both mental health concerns and family issues were the topic of more articles (8% and 11%, respectively) in Elementary School Guidance and Counseling than in the other two journals, whereas educational issues received the most attention in The School Counselor. Coverage of diversity was greatest in Professional School Counseling (10%); coverage of violence also was more prominent in that journal (5%) than in its two predecessors. Topic areas categorized as Other were represented in all three journals in similar proportions.
Core areas of CACREP standards. For Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 74% of articles (661 of 895) were coded for a core area. For The School Counselor, 74% (1,077 of 1,458) of articles were coded as such, whereas the percentage of articles coded for core areas increased to 89% (206 out of 232) for Professional School Counseling. Professional School Counseling also has the greatest percentage of coverage of the social and cultural diversity core area. Distribution of core areas in the three journals is shown in Table 11. Of the core areas, articles about professional identity have been most prominent in all three journals, with the percentage being greatest in current issues of the journals.
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Weinrach et al. (1998), concern about the absence of practitioner contributions to the professional counseling literature was voiced as early as 1958, when it was observed that in the first 5 years of the Personnel and Guidance Journal, practitioners represented only 14.9% of contributors. The paucity pau·ci·ty
1. Smallness of number; fewness.
2. Scarcity; dearth: a paucity of natural resources. of practitioner contributions was lamented la·ment·ed
Mourned for: our late lamented president.
la·mented·ly adv. again in 1984. Between 1978 and 1993, 31% of contributors to the Journal of Counseling and Development were practitioners (Weinrach et al.,). Although the school counseling journals began with an even larger representation of practitioners (66%) in the 1950s, the proportion has been steadily declining. In contrast, the percentage of contributions by university-affiliated authors has been steadily increasing. One wonders if the readership read·er·ship
1. The readers of a publication considered as a group.
2. Chiefly British The office of a reader at a university. of the journals would similarly reflect the dominance of university interests. The fact that practitioners' contributions were greater early in the history of the journals suggests that as the profession matured, it has become increasingly dominated by university interests. An examination of the editorial board of the Professional School Counselor (February February: see month. 2000 issue) reveals that of 24 members, only two are affiliated with K-12 school districts, and all editors are affiliated with universities. The lack of representation of practitioners on the editorial board may imply to school counselors that the journal is inaccessible inaccessible Surgery adjective Unreachable; referring to a lesion that unmanageable by standard surgical techniques–eg, lesions deep in the brain or adjacent to vital structures–ie, not accessible. See Accessible. to them.
In addition to the declining contributions by practitioners, the small percentage of collaborative work by practitioners and university faculty is disappointing. If these journals are to inform the profession, and provide a vehicle for school counseling professionals to contribute to the knowledge base of their field, a stronger presence in the literature is needed. A factor that cannot be ignored is the lack of support school counselors receive for such efforts. While university professors are expected to engage in scholarly publication and rewarded for doing so, practicing school counselors get little if any time or support for such activity. This is unfortunate, because such contributions enhance the profession.
Practical articles dominated the first years of the publication, which is the time during which practitioners contributed to the greatest extent. Articles with practical application have declined in the early years of the new millennium. This change coincides with the decreased level of contributions from school counselors. It is notable that articles on professional issues were published in the highest proportion in the 1960s, which is consistent with the increase in the number of school counselors at that time.
As the profession grew in numbers in numbered parts; as, a book published in numbers.
See also: Number and importance, it is logical that issues related to counselors' roles and responsibilities would be of high interest. The proportion of such articles decreased from the 1970s through the 1990s, when it is reasonable to assume that the profession had become more established and defined. However, in the first few years of the present decade, the proportion of articles on professional issues is at the highest level ever. This finding suggests a resurgence re·sur·gence
1. A continuing after interruption; a renewal.
2. A restoration to use, acceptance, activity, or vigor; a revival. of concerns that may be elevated due to the current focus on educational accountability and reform. Pelsma and Cesari (1989) observed that as the definition of counselors' roles has changed, the topics in the journals have reflected this change. The question is whether counselors' roles are again in flux flux
In metallurgy, any substance introduced in the smelting of ores to promote fluidity and to remove objectionable impurities in the form of slag. Limestone is commonly used for this purpose in smelting iron ores. . One criterion for determining whether an occupation has achieved the status of a profession is that proposed by Greenwood Greenwood.
1 City (1990 pop. 26,265), Johnson co., central Ind.; settled 1822, inc. as a city 1960. A residential suburb of Indianapolis, Greenwood is in a retail shopping area. Manufactures include motor vehicle parts and metal products. (1962), who maintained that an occupation attains professional status when both internal and external consensus is achieved on what services the occupation provides (cited in Poppen & Thompson, 1974). Greenwood believed that consensus had occurred following the passage of the NDEA. If so, the current resurgence of interest in these questions is puzzling puz·zle
v. puz·zled, puz·zling, puz·zles
1. To baffle or confuse mentally by presenting or being a difficult problem or matter.
Perhaps Gail Farwell's comment (Simmons, 2002b) about the counseling profession applies to school counseling as well. He said, "I still see some of the stuff in '02 as I saw in '52." It is interesting to note that professional issues were least prominent in Elementary School Guidance and Counseling. Culbreth, Scarborough Scarborough, town (1991 pop. 36,665) and district, North Yorkshire, NE England, on the North Sea. The town, primarily a resort, is also an important conference and retirement center. The area was recognized at an early time for its strategic location. , Solomon Solomon, d. c.930 B.C., king of the ancient Hebrews (c.970–c.930 B.C.), son and successor of David. His mother was Bath-sheba. His accession has been dated to c.970 B.C. According to the Bible. , and Banks-Johnston (2001) found that elementary school counselors reported lower levels of role conflict and role ambiguity Ambiguity
ultimate authority in ancient Greece; often speaks in ambiguous terms. [Gk. Hist.: Leach, 305]
pledge to husband has double meaning. [Arth. than did their counterparts in middle and high school. Elementary school counselors were also more satisfied with their jobs. These findings suggest that the upsurge in current interest in professional issues may reflect an increasing level of role conflict and ambiguity for school counselors.
Articles describing research, quantitative or qualitative, have been maintaining a steady level since the 1960s at a rate of approximately 25%. Although Sink (1999) did not specify exactly what he meant by "balance," one can infer that a greater contribution of research was hoped for. In the 1960s, Greemvood advocated a "scientist-practitioner" approach to the field, arguing that as accountability became more important, it was imperative that school counselors demonstrate the efficacy of their work (Poppen & Thompson, 1974). Forty years later, when accountability seems to be even more critical, the profession has yet to increase its research emphasis.
Theoretical approaches have not received much attention in the school counseling literature, with only 112 out of 2,585 articles being theory based. Adletian theory has garnered the most attention and has been represented in every decade from the 1960s through the 1990s, although it has yet to be mentioned in the current decade. Behavioral theory has had a similar pattern, with only slightly fewer articles. Play therapy has had a consistent presence from the 1970s through the 1990s, with interest gradually increasing. Solution-Focused Brief Therapy did not appear in the journals until the 1990s, but, due to its recent emergence, it has received the most coverage to date in the 2000s. This theory is gaining in popularity, perhaps due to the limited time available to school counselors to conduct counseling sessions. It is hoped that the current journal will continue to enlighten en·light·en
tr.v. en·light·ened, en·light·en·ing, en·light·ens
1. To give spiritual or intellectual insight to: school counselors about innovations in theory and with research on how each theory performs in practice.
Content analysis revealed a preponderance pre·pon·der·ance also pre·pon·der·an·cy
Superiority in weight, force, importance, or influence.
Noun 1. preponderance of articles in all journals focused on professional issues. Approaches and techniques as well as educational and career topics were also widely covered. Although diversity issues might be expected to have been more prominent in the 1960s, attention to this area began to increase in the 1990s. It is hoped that this important area will continue to be prominent. An additional topic of increasing focus is that of violence; and given the current context, this topic should continue to be examined. It is disappointing to discover that issues counselors must deal with in their schools were in general not adequately covered. We refer to issues of abuse, death and loss, gender, suicide, and substance abuse. Because counselors in today's world must be familiar with these issues, more extensive space devoted to these topics would be helpful to practitioners. Again, research on effectiveness of programs directed to these issues is sorely sore·ly
1. Painfully; grievously.
2. Extremely; greatly: Their skills were sorely needed. needed.
In the 1950s, the profession of school counseling was becoming established and formalized for·mal·ize
tr.v. for·mal·ized, for·mal·iz·ing, for·mal·iz·es
1. To give a definite form or shape to.
a. To make formal.
b. . The fact that half of all articles published in that decade addressed issues of professional identity would be expected during the early development of a profession. By the 1960s, the profession was booming as funding increased and elementary school counseling programs were added. The professional roots in vocational guidance are apparent in the attention to educational and career counseling Noun 1. career counseling - counseling on career opportunities
counseling, counselling, guidance, counsel, direction - something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action , which comprised 25% of the articles in that decade. Declining school enrollments in the 1970s caused a reduction in school counselors, and by 1987, a task force examined school counseling as a profession at risk. The next year, comprehensive developmental guidance programs were promoted as an antidote antidote
Remedy to counteract the effects of a poison or toxin. Administered by mouth, intravenously, or sometimes on the skin, it may work by directly neutralizing the poison; causing an opposite effect in the body; binding to the poison to prevent its absorption, for the profession's problems, and the 1990s saw increasing energy and attention devoted to this movement. This interest is reflected in the increasing percentage of articles on human growth and development, along with the gradual return to a focus on professional identity topics. A greater proportion of articles on research and program evaluation Program evaluation is a formalized approach to studying and assessing projects, policies and program and determining if they 'work'. Program evaluation is used in government and the private sector and it's taught in numerous universities. is also seen in the 2000s, which is consistent with the model's emphasis on this component. Beginning in the 1990s, attention to multiculturalism multiculturalism or cultural pluralism, a term describing the coexistence of many cultures in a locality, without any one culture dominating the region. increased after the publication of a special issue, Multiculturalism as a Fourth Force in Counseling, of the Journal of Counseling and Development. Less than 2% of articles in the 1950s had multicultural content, whereas by the 2000s, that proportion had increased to 13%. In the early 2000s, the profession worked to develop and promote a national model of school counseling, whereas the Education Trust initiative was directed toward transforming the education of school counselors. These important developments, coupled with the national attention to educational reform, may account for the resurgence of articles discussing professional issues and professional identity.
The three journals did not vary dramatically in the extent of their coverage of most areas, with the possible exception of the greater attention to approaches and techniques as well as family issues in Elementary School Guidance and Counseling and the stronger emphasis on educational and career-oriented topics in The School Counselor. These different emphases might be a refection REFECTION, civil law. Reparation, reestablishment of a building. Dig. 19, 1, 6, 1. of the different ages and consequent con·se·quent
a. Following as a natural effect, result, or conclusion: tried to prevent an oil spill and the consequent damage to wildlife.
b. concerns of the populations with which readers of these two journals dealt. It is encouraging to note that the current journal has devoted the greatest proportion of articles to diversity, and that violence, a pressing concern for all, is also getting much-needed attention.
If school counseling students are to develop a professional habit of reading the literature, it would be helpful if article topics were related to the core areas described in the 2001 CACREP Standards. In comparing these standards with the foci of articles in the journals, it is notable that the professional identity core is more than adequately covered. This may be quite useful for soon-to-be counselors acculturating to their profession. The core areas of social and cultural diversity as well as human growth and development have also been a consistent presence in the literature. The declining emphasis on helping relationships, noted since the 1980s, may be explained by the current emphasis on classroom guidance over responsive services. It is hoped that even when counselors spend less time counseling individual students, they are well-informed well-informed
knowing a lot about a great variety of subjects or about one particular subject
Adj. 1. well-informed - possessing sound knowledge; "well-informed readers"
intelligent and skilled in their interventions. Because of time pressures in schools, group work is widely used; it is unfortunate that more attention has not been devoted to group counseling. The most conspicuous con·spic·u·ous
1. Easy to notice; obvious.
2. Attracting attention, as by being unusual or remarkable; noticeable. See Synonyms at noticeable. absence of the core areas is that of assessment, which has received diminishing di·min·ish
v. di·min·ished, di·min·ish·ing, di·min·ish·es
a. To make smaller or less or to cause to appear so.
b. coverage since the 1960s. Although school counselors typically do not administer psychological or diagnostic tests, they are often in consultation with psychologists This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. and diagnosticians regarding testing results and, therefore, need to be knowledgeable in this area. With only 1% of articles in the 2000s to date (and only 2% in each of the two preceding decades) devoted to these tests, counselors will have to search elsewhere in the literature for this important information. Research and evaluation, while consistently recommended, still occupies a small proportion of space in the journals.
In 1986, Lewis, Hayes Hayes, river, c.300 mi (480 km) long, rising in a lake NE of Lake Winnipeg, central Manitoba, Canada, and flowing NE to Hudson Bay. It was the chief route used by Hudson's Bay Company traders from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg and the interior; York Factory, an , and Lewis commented on the future needs of professional counselors. While their comments were not specific to school counselors, several of their forecasts apply to that specialty. An examination of their projections to see whether the literature has addressed these needs seems appropriate at this milestone. These authors predicted that counselors would need a strong sense of professional identity. The considerable attention devoted to this topic in the literature perhaps indicates professional identity is an ongoing quest. The need for counselors to have the ability to work with diverse populations was also noted, and we are pleased to see the increasing attention to diversity issues in the school counseling journals. A developmental orientation was recommended by Lewis et al. for future counselors, and the journals have mirrored the concern of those schools that have placed major emphasis on developmental counseling programs. The journals perhaps have taken more of a professional issues approach than one of examining developmental issues as a separate focus. A corollary corollary: see theorem. to the developmental perspective is the need for holistic Holistic
A practice of medicine that focuses on the whole patient, and addresses the social, emotional, and spiritual needs of a patient as well as their physical treatment.
Mentioned in: Aromatherapy, Stress Reduction, Traditional Chinese Medicine , interdisciplinary in·ter·dis·ci·pli·nar·y
Of, relating to, or involving two or more academic disciplines that are usually considered distinct.
Adjective orientation. Although theory has not been a major focus of the school counseling journals, it is notable that a variety of theories have been covered. It is hoped this coverage has expanded the awareness of school counselors about available approaches.
This analysis has examined the history of the school counseling journals. Goodyear (1984) noted that the counseling journals speak to two constituencies, academicians and practitioners. It appears this dual audience is a difficult one to serve, in providing material of interest to both groups and providing an outlet for publication for both groups. The profession of school counseling is firmly established with a professional organization celebrating its 50th anniversary, an ethical code Noun 1. ethical code - a system of principles governing morality and acceptable conduct
system of rules, system - a complex of methods or rules governing behavior; "they have to operate under a system they oppose"; "that language has a complex system , training standards, a recognized body of knowledge, and a credentialing Credentialing is the administrative process for validating the qualifications of licensed professionals, organizational members or organizations, and assessing their background and legitimacy. process. The journals' emphasis on professional issues indicates that the profession still appears to be struggling with an "identity" crisis. Once such issues are resolved, the profession will be able to dedicate ded·i·cate
tr.v. ded·i·cat·ed, ded·i·cat·ing, ded·i·cates
1. To set apart for a deity or for religious purposes; consecrate.
2. more of its resources to researching and evaluating current practices, which have taken a back seat in the journals and in the profession for too long.
APPENDIX Topical Category Descriptions Category Description Professional Issues Roles of responsibilities of counselors, coun- selor training, needs of school counselors, professional development, perceptions of coun- selors, research and evaluation of programs. Mental Health Issues such as school phobia, alienation, social isolation, anorexia, bulimia, stress, depression, ADD/ADHD, schizophrenia, self- esteem, relocation problems, crisis situation Counseling Approaches Working with groups, various theoretical & Techniques approaches, behavior modification, peer counseling Physical Health Such topics as obesity, homelessness, physical well-being, runaways, body posture, acne Education Guidance curriculum, consulting with faculty and staff, underachievement, dropouts, career counseling programs, exceptional children, relaxation training, IEPs, study skills, anti- smoking campaigns, computer-based prevention programs, alcohol education Diversity Minority students and cultures, LEP students Family Parent-teacher issues, family variables, family systems, children of divorces, COAs, parent consultation, intergenerational issues, assessing family functioning Development Adolescent identity, development of mentally or physically challenged students, moral development, school transitions, behavioral adjustments Violence Violence prevention and interventions, bullying Abuse Battered children, sexual and physical abuse, child abuse Death & Loss Bereavement, grief, dealing with death Gender Female roles, female body image, homosexuality Suicide All issues relating to suicide Substance Abuse Alcoholism, drug abuse, inhalant use, specific substances, counseling students with substance abuse problems Other Article did not fit any of the above categories ADD/ADHD = attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; IEPs = individualized educational programs; LEP = limited English proficiency; COAs = change of addresses. Table 1. Percentage of Articles for Senior Authors in Each Affiliation in Each Decade Decade Senior Author 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s (n = 62) (n = 478) (n = 603) (n = 699) K-12 64.5 39.1 23.4 18.0 K-12 and University 0.0 1.0 1.0 2.3 Other 4.8 7.5 10.9 9.4 Other and University 0.0 0.0 0.5 2.0 University 30.6 51.9 63.9 68.0 Decade Senior Author 1990s 2000s (n = 623) (n = 76) K-12 17.0 6.6 K-12 and University 1.0 3.9 Other 6.0 5.3 Other and University 1.0 1.3 University 75.4 82.9 Note. Totals will not always add to 100 because of rounding. Table 2. Percentage of Articles by Each Author Combination in Each Decade Decade First Author Second Author 1950s 1960s 1970s (n = 59) (n = 428) (n = 508) K-12 K-12 5.1 4.0 3.5 University University 3.4 12.1 24.8 K-12 University 1.7 3.7 3.9 University K-12 3.4 3.3 10.0 University No Second 25.4 41.6 37.6 K-12 No Second 61.0 35.3 19.5 Decade First Author Second Author 1980s 1990s 2000s (n = 561) (n = 548) (n = 66) K-12 K-12 3.4 3.3 1.5 University University 31.6 39.1 48.5 K-12 University 6.6 6.6 4.5 University K-12 9.6 7.8 4.5 University No Second 37.3 34.9 39.4 K-12 No Second 11.6 8.4 1.5 Note. Totals will not always add to 100 because of rounding. Table 3. Percentage of Types of Article Published in Each Decade Decade Type of Article 1950s 1960s 1970s (n = 70) (n = 495) (n = 609) Case Study 1.4 2.2 3.3 Literature Review 0.0 0.4 0.0 Practical 70.0 39.2 52.4 Professional Issue 18.6 36.4 17.6 Qualitative Research 0.0 2.6 6.1 Quantitative Research 8.6 17.8 13.6 Theoretical 0.0 1.2 1.3 Other or missing 1.4 0.2 5.8 Total 100 100 100 Decade Type of Article 1980s 1990s 2000s (n = 706) (n = 628) (n = 76) Case Study 4.0 2.1 3.0 Literature Review 0.3 0.0 1.3 Practical 51.3 50.5 21.1 Professional Issue 13.3 17.0 40.8 Qualitative Research 4.0 4.9 5.3 Quantitative Research 21.2 21.3 21.1 Theoretical 4.4 2.5 6.6 Other or missing 1.5 1.6 0.0 Total 100 100 100 Note. Totals will not always add to 100 because of rounding. Table 4. Number of Articles in Each Decade Focusing on a Particular Theoretical Perspective Decade Theory 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Adlerian 0 3 7 4 4 Behavioral 0 6 7 2 2 Play Therapy 0 0 2 6 7 Systems 0 0 1 5 6 Bibliotherapy 0 1 1 5 2 Cognitive-Behavioral 0 0 1 4 3 Rational-Emotive 0 1 3 2 2 Therapy Family Therapy 0 0 0 5 1 Solution-focused Brief 0 0 0 0 4 Therapy Rogerian Person-centered 0 1 3 0 2 Reality Therapy 0 1 3 0 1 Total 0 13 28 33 34 Decade Theory 2000s Total Adlerian 0 18 Behavioral 0 17 Play Therapy 0 15 Systems 0 12 Bibliotherapy 0 9 Cognitive-Behavioral 0 8 Rational-Emotive 0 8 Therapy Family Therapy 1 7 Solution-focused Brief 2 6 Therapy Rogerian Person-centered 0 6 Reality Therapy 1 6 Total 4 112 Note. Only theories mentioned in five or more articles are included in the table. Because overall percentages are so small, frequencies were selected to better present the data. Table 5. Percentage of Articles in Each Content Category by Decade Decade Content 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Professional Issues 50.7 39.0 27.6 20.8 24.2 Counseling Approaches 16.4 21.0 28.4 20.1 18.1 & Techniques Educational & Career 19.2 25.0 15.1 20.3 15.0 Family Issues 1.4 3.8 7.2 11.1 6.6 Mental Health 2.7 1.5 5.0 7.8 8.6 Multicultural 1.4 2.6 5.4 4.3 8.5 Development 5.5 5.8 3.2 5.5 5.5 Physical Health 1.4 0.2 0.9 1.6 3.4 Gender 0.0 0.9 2.8 1.0 1.2 Death & Loss 0.0 0.0 2.5 1.0 1.2 Substance Abuse 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.8 2.4 Abuse 0.0 0.0 0.9 2.4 9.0 Violence 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.6 1.8 Suicide 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 2.4 Not classified 1.4 0.2 0.6 0.5 0.3 Total 100 100 100 100 100 Decade Content 2000s % of Total (N = 2,932) Professional Issues 37.0 27.9 Counseling Approaches 10.2 21.2 & Techniques Educational & Career 8.3 18.1 Family Issues 8.3 7.4 Mental Health 4.6 6.0 Multicultural 13.0 5.6 Development 3.7 5.0 Physical Health 0.9 1.6 Gender 0.0 1.4 Death & Loss 0.9 1.2 Substance Abuse 0.9 1.2 Abuse 0.0 1.1 Violence 10.2 1.0 Suicide 1.9 0.9 Not classified 0.0 0.4 Total 100 100 Note. Totals will not always add to 100 because of rounding. Some articles are coded in more than one category. Table 6. Percentage of Articles in Each Decade Reflecting the Common Core Areas of the 2001 CACREP Standards Decade 1950s 1960s 1970s Core Area (n = 60) (n = 395) (n = 417) Professional Identity 50.0 42.0 31.4 Social & Cultural Diversity 3.3 5.3 7.4 Human Growth & 5.0 9.6 22.3 Development Career Development 15.0 9.1 7.0 Helping Rclationships 16.7 14.9 16.3 Group Work 3.3 9.6 9.6 Assessment 3.3 6.3 2.9 Research & Program 3.3 3.0 3.1 Evaluation Total 100 100 100 Decade 1980s 1990s 2000s Core Area (n = 522) (n = 490) (n = 74) Professional Identity 24.7 31.2 43.2 Social & Cultural Diversity 9.6 12.7 13.5 Human Growth & 24.9 29.8 21.6 Development Career Development 9.6 5.3 2.7 Helping Rclationships 20.1 11.4 4.1 Group Work 3.4 3.1 5.4 Assessment 1.9 2.4 1.4 Research & Program 5.7 4.1 8.1 Evaluation Total 100 100 100 Note: N = 1,944 articles, or 75% of all articles. Some articles were coded in more than one core area. Table 7. Percentage of Affiliations for First Author in Each Journal First Author SC ESGC PSC (1954-1996) (1967-1997) (1997-2001) K-12 26.7 19.2 18.5 Dual (K-12 & University) 1.2 1.1 1.7 Other 9.0 8.9 3.4 Dual (Other & University) 0.5 15. 0.4 University 60.2 68.3 75.9 Missing 2.3 1.0 0.0 Total 100 100 100 Note. Totals will not always add to 100 due to rounding. SC: = The School Counselor, ESGC = Elementary School Guidance and Counseling; PSC = Professional School Counselor. Table 8. Percentage of Affiliations for Co-Authors in Each Journal SC ESGC Senior Author Second Author (1954-1996) (1967-1997) K-12 University 4.8 5.4 University K-12 5.7 11.3 K-12 None 22.6 13.6 University None 37.1 40.2 K-12 K-12 3.6 3.5 University University 26.2 26.0 Total 100 100 PSC Senior Author Second Author (1997-2001) K-12 University 6.6 University K-12 8.1 K-12 None 10.4 University None 28.9 K-12 K-12 2.8 University University 43.1 Total 100 Note. Totals will not always add to 100 because of rounding. SC = The School Counselor; ESGC = Elementary School Guidance and Counseling; PSC; = Professional School Counselor. Table 9. Percentage of Types of Articles Published in Each Journal Type of Article Journal SC ESGC PSC (1954-1996) (1967-1997) (1997-2001) (n = 1,458) (n = 895) (n = 232) Case Study 2.4 3.7 3.4 Literature Review 0.0 0.4 0.4 Practical 48.7 51.1 38.8 Professional Issue 23.0 15.0 27.6 Qualitative Research 4.5 4.0 5.2 Quantitative Research 18.4 18.3 19.4 Theoretical 1.4 3.9 4.7 Other or missing 1.7 3.6 0.0 Total 100 100 100 Note. Totals will not always add to 100 because of rounding. SC = The School Counselor, ESGC = Elementary School Guidance and Counseling PSC = Professional School Connselor. Table 10. Percentage of Articles in Each Content Category Published in Each Journal Journal SC ESGC PSC Content (1954-1996) (1967-1997) (1997-2001) Professional Issues 32.1 21.5 27.4 Counseling Approaches & Techniques 15.8 29.5 21.1 Education & Career 21.8 14.6 10.7 Multicultural 5.8 3.7 10.4 Family 5.3 10.5 7.6 Mental Health 4.8 7.6 6.3 Violence 0.3 1.1 4.7 Development 5.2 4.9 4.1 Physical Health 1.1 2.0 2.8 Death & Loss 0.6 1.4 1.6 Suicide 0.6 0.4 1.3 Substance Abuse 0.7 1.1 1.3 Gender 2.5 0.0 0.6 Abuse 1.1 1.5 0.0 Other 1.1 0.2 0.0 Total 100 100 100 Note. Totals will not always add to 100 because of rounding. SC = The School Counselor; ESGC = Elementary School Guidance and Counseling; PSC = Profesional School Counselor. Table 11. Percentage of Articles in Each Journal Reflecting the Common Core Areas of the 2001 CACREP Standards Core Area SC ESGC PSC (1954-1996) (1967-1997) (1997-2001) Professional Identity 34.7 27.2 40.7 Social & Cultural Diversity 9.1 7.7 12.4 Human Growth & Development 20.0 24.8 21.1 Career Development 11.2 3.5 3.3 Helping Relationships 13.2 20.5 10.5 Group Work 5.3 6.9 6.2 Assessment 3.5 3.0 1.9 Research & Program Evaluation 2.9 6.5 3.8 Totals 100 100 100 Note. Totals will not always add to 100 because of rounding. Some articles were coded in more than one core area. Note. N = 1,944 articles, or 75% of all articles. SC = The School Counselor; ESGC = Elementary School Guidance and Coanseling; PSC = Professional School Counselor.
Aubrey, R. (1992). A house divided: Guidance and counseling in 20th-century America America [for Amerigo Vespucci], the lands of the Western Hemisphere—North America, Central (or Middle) America, and South America. The world map published in 1507 by Martin Waldseemüller is the first known cartographic use of the name. . In D. R. Coy, C. Cole, W. Huey Huey may refer to:
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American poet whose works include Divine Comedies (1976), which won a Pulitzer Prize. .
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NASSP North American Society of Social Philosophy Bulletin, 83(603), 2-8.
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Sheri Sheri is a given name, and may refer to:
(networking) edu - ("education") The top-level domain for educational establishments in the USA (and some other countries). E.g. "mit.edu". The UK equivalent is "ac.uk". .
Jason Siegel Siegel, a surname, is associated with two ethnic groups.
As a Jewish surname Siegel (סג"ל) it could be an acronym of Segan Levi (סגן לוי), meaning "Assistant Levite". and Lia Falco Falco
a genus of the family Falconidae (birds of prey). Includes F. biarmicus—lanner falcon, F. columbaris—kestrel, pigeon hawk or merlin, F. mexicanus—prairie falcon, F. peregrinus—peregrine falcon, F. rusticolus—gyrfalcon, F. are doctoral students in the Educational Psychology Department.
Gerald Gerald - ["Gerald: An Exceptional Lazy Functional Programming Language", A.C. Reeves et al, in Functional Programming, Glasgow 1989, K. Davis et al eds, Springer 1990]. Szymanski is a doctoral student in the Higher Education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. Department.
April Davis and Karen Karen
Any member of a variety of tribal peoples of southern Myanmar (Burma). Constituting the second largest minority in Myanmar, the Karen are not a unitary group in any ethnic sense, as they differ among themselves linguistically, religiously, and economically. Seabolt were students in the program at the time this article was written. All are in the College of Education, University of Arizona (body, education) University of Arizona - The University was founded in 1885 as a Land Grant institution with a three-fold mission of teaching, research and public service. , Tucson Tucson (t`sŏn'), city (1990 pop. 405,390), seat of Pima co., SE Ariz.; inc. 1877. .