Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,728,043 articles and books

Trees and their economic importance.

  I. Abstract
 II. Introduction and Classification of Trees
III. The Economic Importance of Trees
     A. Trees as a Source of Timber
     B. Trees in the Restoration, Reclamation and Rejuvenation of
            Denuded and Disturbed Soils
     C. Ecological, Ecodevelopmental and Environment Uses of Trees
         1. Natural Purifiers of the Environment
         2. Environment Screens
         3. The Physical Environment
         4. Wildlife
         5. Urban and Rural Afforestation Programs
         6. Road Safety
         7. Protection of Road Surfaces
     D. The Educational and Recreational Value of Trees
         1. Shade and Shelter (or Avenue Trees)
         2. Ornamental Flowering Plants
         3. Ornamental Foliage Plants
         4. Ornamental Fragrance Plants
         5. Ornamental Fruiting Plants
         6. Ornamental Hedges
         7. Live Screens and Fences
         8. Sculpture and Topiary
         9. Education
        10. Landscaping and Bioaesthetic Planning
        11. Veneration
        12. Art and Culture
     E. Trees as a Source of Sustenance
         1. Food
         2. Sugars
         3. Starches
         4. Spices and Condiments
         5. Nonalcoholic Beverages
         6. Fumitories, Masticatories and Narcotics
         7. Medicines
         8. Essential Oils
         9. Fatty Oils and Vegetable Fats
        10. Waxes
        11. Soap Substitutes
        12. Vegetable Ivory
        13. Fodder
        14. Fuel, Bioenergy or Biofuel
        15. Fertilizers
        16. Fibers
        17. Pulp and Paper
        18. Tannins
        19. Dyes
        20. Rubber and Other Latex Products
        21. Gums
        22. Resins
        23. Cork
        24. Food for Silkworms
 IV. Conclusions
  V. Literature Cited

II. Introduction and Classification of Trees

Trees are important to humankind not only economically, environmentally and industrially but also spiritually, historically and aesthetically, for they sustain human life through direct and indirect gains by providing a wide range of products for survival and prosperity. However, it is not always easy to define "tree." A tree is a large, long-lived (i.e., perennial) woody plant that attains a height of at least 6 m (20 ft) at maturity in a given locality and usually--but not always--has a single main self-supporting stem called a "trunk" or a "bole," which gives off spreading branches, twigs and foliage to make a crown (Venkatesh, 1976; Panshin & de Zeeuw, 1980; Hawkins, 1986). Since the diameter at breast height (dbh) of trees is determined internationally at 1.35 m (4.5 ft) above the ground, a tree must be unbranched--i.e., with a single trunk--at least up to 1.5 m (5 ft) from the ground. But this definition does not cover the following (Venkatesh, 1976), which are also considered trees:

* Palms are typically unbranched trees with only one trunk (columnar stem), called the "caudex," which ends in a crown of large leaves.

* Bamboos are trees without a main trunk but with a cluster of culms arising from the underground rhizome. These culms are unbranched, with distinct nodes and internodes that give them a jointed appearance.

* The banana tree (plant) has only a thick false stem (pseudostem), which is not woody but made up of a central core of soft tissues concealed by the fibrous and sheathing bases of large leaves. Strictly speaking, the banana plant is a giant herb.

* Tree ferns like Cyathaea and Alsophila have erect rhizomes with generally unbranched trunks, topped by a crown of graceful, feathery fronds that form a rosette at the apex.

* Bonsai--i.e., tailored or humanmade miniature or dwarfed living trees that have been prevented from reaching their normal size--are grown in pots and kept in greenhouses, drawing rooms, etc. This technique was first perfected by the Japanese.

In addition to the above definitions, the scientific distinction between trees, shrubs, lianas and undershrubs or semishrubs is not always clear. For example, many species of trees--.g. Rhododendron spp., which are large under normal conditions--become shrubs when growing near their altitudinal and latitudinal limits. Woody plants in which several branches arise from near the base, giving the plant a bushy appearance, are called "shrubs." Likewise, certain species of figs (Ficus spp.) begin their life as woody climbers called "lianas" but eventually end up as trees; i.e., they become arborescent. Similarly, Grewia scabrophylla at times is an undershrub, when exposed to annual fires; in other places, however, it grows into a tall shrub (Panshin & de Zeeuw, 1980). The science dealing with the study of woody plants--i.e., trees and shrubs--is called "dendrology."

Trees can be classified in several ways: Depending upon their utility or end products, they may be called "avenue," "ornamental," "shade bearing," "fragrant," "fruit bearing," "medicinal" or "drug yielding," "timber yielding," "fodder yielding," "nitrogen fixing," "venerated," "fuel yielding," "fiber yielding," "multipurpose trees," etc. Those trees that remain green in their dormant season due to persistence of leaves are called "evergreen trees." In such trees all the leaves do not fall off simultaneously, and the plants are never leafless. Those trees in which all the leaves of a plant fall at the end of one growing season one by one or simultaneously, leaving the plant leafless in the dormant season, are called "deciduous trees." All cone-being trees are called "conifers" or "coniferous trees," and all trees that are not cone bearing but are flower bearing are called "flowering trees" or "broad-leaved trees." Whereas conifers have needle-shaped leaves, flowering trees have broad or flattened leaves.

A conifer usually has a conical appearance and has an excurrent stem; i.e., its main stem is thickest at the base and gradually tapers toward the apex, with lateral branches in an acropetal succession. A flowering tree usually has a dome-shaped appearance and a deliquescent or decurrent stem in which the main trunk divides at some distance from the ground into several branches, which branch again and again, making the trunk appear to deliquese or melt away.

Ornamental trees that have showy flowers are called "ornamental flowering trees," and those with beautiful foliage and inconspicuous flowers are called "ornamental foliage trees." The former are usually deciduous; the latter, evergreen.

Those trees in which seeds are borne naked are called "gymnosperms" (from the Greek gymnos [naked] and sperma [seed]), and those trees in which seeds are enclosed within an ovary/fruit wall are called "angiosperms" (from the Greek angeon [vesicle] and sperma [seed]). The angiospermic trees are further classified into dicotyledonous or dicot trees, if they have two cotyledons in their seeds, and monocotyledonous or monocot trees, if they have only one cotyledon in their seeds. Both gymnosperms and angiosperms are sometimes placed under one division, called "spermatophyta," "siphonagama" or "phanerogams." "Spermatophytes" (from the Greek sperma [seed] and phyton [plant]) are those plants that are seed bearing. "Siphonagama" (from the Greek siphon [tube] and gamous [marriage]) are those plants in which fertilization occurs by means of a pollen tube. "Phanerogamous" (from the Greek phaneros [open] and gamous [marriage]) are those plants in which reproduction is not concealed or hidden but open; i.e., they bear flowers and produce seeds. Trees belonging to gymnosperms and angiosperms not only constitute the dominant component of any vegetation but also add to the biodiversity or biological diversity of any particular region.

III. The Economic Importance of Trees

Trees represent one of the important components of each and every terrestrial ecosystem and are a part of nature's precious gifts. Some are deciduous; others are evergreen. Some have beautiful flowers; others have beautiful fruits or foliage. Some are scented; others are ugly but economically very important. The welfare of humankind is affected not only by their density and diversity but also by their direct and indirect values, which are beyond estimation. In fact, each letter of the plural word "TREES" has a logical meaning (Seth, 2002):

   T Timber, the first and the foremost use of trees

   R Restoration, reclamation and rejuvenation of denuded and disturbed
     soils by using trees to control soil erosion and desertification,
     protect watersheds, improve soil nutrient status (by growing
     nitrogen-fixing trees) and retain moisture in the soil

   E Ecological, ecodevelopmental and environmental use of trees for
     effective and efficient purification of the environment because
     trees act as oxygen banks and eliminate air pollutants; for
     abating or moderating temperature, noise and wind by planting
     trees as environmental screens, thus affecting the microclimate;
     for harboring wildlife; for maintaining biodiversity; and for
     conserving energy

   E Educational and recreational value in gardening, landscaping,
     bioesthetic planning, art, culture and religion

   S Source of sustenance; i.e., food, fuel, fodder, fertilizer,
     fiber, medicine, tannin, dyes, oils, etc.

A. TREES AS A SOURCE OF TIMBER

Trees are woody perennial plants, i.e. they are capable of producing wood through the meristematic activity of the vascular cambium. The latter gives rise to secondary xylem (nontechnically called "wood") toward its inner side and to secondary phloem (nontechnically called "bark") toward its outer side. Wood produced by cycads is called "manoxylic." It is not compact--i.e., it is loose, not dense--with wide rays, pith and cortex and thus useless commercially. Wood produced by conifers, taxads, Ginkgo biloba and dicots is called "pycnoxylic." It is compact and dense, with narrow rays, pith and cortex and hence commercially very useful. The commercially useful woods are called "timbers," and timber that is used for building purposes is called "lumber." Tectona grandis (teak) and Cedrus deodara (deodar) are, respectively, considered the best angiospermic and gymnospermic timbers in the world.

Woods obtained from timber trees are used for construction and other miscellaneous purposes like agricultural implements, boat and ship building, carts and carriages, carving and turnery, cooperage (barrel making), electric poles, engraving and printing blocks, furniture and cabinet work, matches and match boxes, mathematical instruments, musical instruments, packing cases and boxes, pencil and pen holders, picture framing, railway carriage and wagon building, railway sleepers, rifle parts, shoe heels and boot lasts, shuttles, sports goods, tea chests, toys, etc. For examples of these one may consult Anonymous (1970-1972, 1983) and Trotter (1940, 1944).

B. TREES IN THE RESTORATION, RECLAMATION AND REJUVENATION OF DENUDED AND DISTURBED SOILS

Planting trees on denuded and waste land, along roads, railway tracks, deserted areas, watersheds, etc. protects soil from erosion by wind or water by firmly binding it with roots and by diverting runoff during rains. The sides of the roads, railway tracks and watersheds can thus be protected. Desertification can likewise be controlled by planting trees. The trees also retain moisture in the soil, and if nitrogen-fixing trees are grown, the nutrient status of the soil can be enriched tremendously.

The sap of Cassia fistula (amaltas) leaves contains certain chemicals that have a purgative action on the digestive organs of grazing animals like goats, cows and buffalo, and thus amaltas is well suited for planting on wastelands. Wild fruit trees like Zizyphus jujuba (ber) and Morus alba (toot) can also be propagated on wastelands in and around villages.

C. ECOLOGICAL, ECODEVELOPMENTAL AND ENVIRONMENT USES OF TREES

1. Natural Purifiers of the Environment

Plants, including shrubs and trees, act as biological filters by helping cleanse the environment. They are the best natural purifiers of environment pollution; i.e., they improve the quality of the air we breathe. First, they act as the oxygen banks on this planet. They play an important role in maintaining the oxygen cycle, which is essential for the survival of all forms of life. Second, they may help reduce pollution. Leaves can absorb gaseous pollutants on their surfaces, especially if their surfaces are waxy, spiny or hairy. In addition, stems, branches and twigs can intercept particulates. Third, they reduce oxides of carbon in the air, can also fix atmospheric nitrogen, disintegrate waste and act as sinks of pollution or pollutant scavenges by absorbing and metabolizing toxic gases and heavy metals (Chakraverty & Jain, 1984).

Different species as well as individuals within a species can vary in their tolerance to pollutants. High concentrations of pollutants can damage and even kill many tree species. Trees that are particularly sensitive could be used as early warnings of high pollution levels.

2. Environmental Screens

When properly grown in urban and rural areas, trees act as wind barriers by decreasing the force of the wind and reducing the level of noise from highways and other sources. Even individual trees, if strategically planted around a house, can provide relief from noise and annoying lights at night. Trees thus reduce stress on human beings. Ecologically they act as wind breaks and shelter belts, thus providing protection against soil erosion and a defense against encroachment by seas, floods and deserts.

3. The Physical Environment

Trees help to reduce temperature by providing shade and by intercepting, absorbing and reflecting solar radiation, especially in warmer places, where there is year-round warmth and sunshine (Schubert, 1979). Trees also function as natural air conditioners by evaporating water from their leaves through the process of transpiration. A single large, well-watered city tree can transpire about 380 liters (100 gallons) of water in one day, thus producing the cooling effect of five average room air conditioners running 20 hours a day (Schubert, 1979). Trees thus improve the microclimate; i.e., they help control and stabilize the climate of the region and of the world as a whole. A single tree standing alone may not affect the overall surrounding much, but a belt or groups of trees or many trees scattered throughout the neighborhood can be quite effective (Schubert, 1979).

4. Wildlife

Trees, both native and ornamental, harbor wildlife. They directly feed and house the majority of world's creatures and animals like insects, birds, small mammals and reptiles, which we need in order to live. Thus they play a major role as one of the important components of natural and humanmade biodiversity.

5. Urban and Rural Afforestation Programs

Large-scale urbanization and industrialization have led to the development of severely eroded, barren and denuded areas, rocks, cliffs, etc. on which direct plantation of trees is difficult. In such cases shrubs act as the primary colonizers of denuded areas. The successful growths of shrubs create favorable conditions for tree growth by way of retaining moisture, increasing soil nutrient status and sheltering the trees from frost, wind and other biotic interferences through the process of secondary succession. The whole forest-management program can thus bring not only greenery to the Himalayas and other urban and rural regions of India but also stability to the environment by restoring the ecological balance (Maithani et al., 1991).

6. Road Safety

The presence of shrubs and trees along roadsides makes their edges and curves conspicuous, thus making a natural guide for safe driving, and for this purpose the lower portions of their stems are usually painted white (Chakraverty & Jain, 1984).

7. Protection of Road Surfaces

The semimelting of tar or bitumen in summers, cracking of road surfaces during hot weather and mechanical damage to road surfaces by heavy downpours and hailstorms can largely be prevented by growing roadside trees with thick crowns (Chakraverty & Jain, 1984).

D. THE EDUCATIONAL AND RECREATIONAL VALUE OF TREES

Increased urbanization and industrialization have resulted in isolating humans from nature. Trees can help make urban areas green, livable and beautiful. Trees with colorful flowers or foliage add extra attractiveness. They are the dominant elements of gardens and contribute substantially to the garden atmosphere.

According to Kohli (1996), the comfortable urban life needs better avenue trees and shrubs, because:

* An agricultural component is not feasible;

* Comfortable temperatures and microclimates for residents are needed;

* Pollutants that pose major problems are to be removed;

* Cool shade is needed in summer; and

* Dense populations need vegetation for gaseous exchange.

Trees are thus a source of pleasure and recreation when they are planted along roads and railway tracks and in botanical gardens, arboreta, city parks, squares, home gardens, public places, industrial areas, etc. The cultivation of trees for their aesthetic or recreational value is known as "arboriculture." In an ornamental garden they are usually planted either as specimen trees or in groups. The educational and recreational value of trees can be studied under the following headings:

1. Shade and Shelter (or Avenue Trees)

The concept of avenue planting is as old as the vedic period. It was during the period of Ashoka (260 B.C.) and later during the reign of Kanishka (A.D. 78-101) and the Mughals, however, that the foundations of proper roadside avenues were laid.

When properly grown, the tall, fast-growing and majestic trees with thick foliage along roadsides provide not only shade for pedestrians and travelers but also shelter for stray animals from scorching heat, wind, rain, etc. Species selected for such purposes should not be thorny or prickly (Chakraverty & Jain, 1984).

The other important factors for selection of roadside trees, according to Chakraverty and Jain (1984) and Randhawa (1961, 1965-1983), are:

* The trees should be branchless up to 3-4 m above the soil surface so that vehicles can pass easily, particularly on narrow roads.

* On national highways or on very wide roads, two to three deep rows of large trees spaced 5-6 m apart should be planted. These trees should have good, dense crowns so they can provide adequate shade and protection from rain, sun and hail.

* Dwarf trees or medium-sized-to-large shrubs, preferably ever blooming in nature, should be selected for boulevards and road medians.

* The trees should not have spreading crowns that might obstruct the growth of trees in the opposite row.

* Trees on the two sides of the road should not be opposite each other; they should be planted alternately.

* Fuel-wood species and fodder species should not be chosen for the roadsides, because they are likely to be lopped, pruned and chopped by the neighboring inhabitants, thus destroying the landscaping and giving the avenue a shabby appearance.

* The root system of the trees should be neither very spreading nor very shallow. Trees with very robust and spreading root systems damage the masonry work of roads, foot paths and adjacent buildings. On the other hand, trees with shallow root system, like Millingtonia hortensis (mahanim), topple over in storms and obstruct traffic. Thus trees with deep root systems should be selected.

* Trees like Ficus benghalensis (bat or barghad) have hanging aerial roots, which would obstruct traffic and pedestrians, so they should not be selected.

* Soft-wooded and brittle trees like Albizia lebbek, Cassia siamea, Eucalyptus spp., Eugenia jambolana, Ficus glomerata, Millingtonia hortensis and Sygyzium cumini should not be planted along roadsides, for they tend to break in storms and block traffic.

* During summers and rainstorms, protection from sun and rain are most needed, so trees that shed their leaves during these periods should not be planted. Moreover, fallen leaves in the rainy season make the road slippery and block the drainage system.

* Various species of Acacia, Zizyphus, etc., which are prickly or thorny, should not be planted because the fallen prickles or thorns cause trouble for pedestrians, animals and people and may also damage the tires of cycles and vehicles.

* The trees should have the ability to withstand winter lopping, when little shade is required. These loppings can be utilized as fuel wood (Singhal & Khanna, 1991).

* Too many species should not be mixed within short distances, particularly on roads away from cities and towns.

Randhawa (1965-1983) recommended avenue trees for planting purposes: as foliage trees for outer avenues for town roads, Albizia procera (safed siris), Anthocephalus cadamba (kadam), Averrhoea carambola (kamrak), Bassia latifolia (mahua), Callistemon lanceolatum (lal botal brush), Dalbergia sissoo (shisham), Eugenia operculata, Mangifera indica (mango), Melia azedarach (drek), Pithecolobium saman (rain tree), Platanus orientalis (chinar), Polyalthia longifolia (ashoka), Putranjiva roxburghii, Sterculia alata, Tamarindus indica (imli), etc; as flowering trees for inner avenues for town roads, Bauhinia purpurea (gulabi kachnar), B. variegata (kachnar), Cassia fistula (amaltas), Colvillea racemosa (kilbili), Gliricidia maculata (madre tree), Grevillea robusta, Jacaranda mimosaefolia (nili-gul-mohur), Lagerstroemia flosreginae (jarul, crepe flower), L. thorelli (barri sanwani), Peltophorum ferrugineum (ivalvagai), Poinciana regia (gul mohur), Spathodea nilotica (fountain tree), etc.

2. Ornamental Flowering Plants

Ornamental trees that have showy flowers are called "ornamental flowering trees." India has the largest number of flowering trees in the world, indigenous as well as exotic, that can be utilized for beautifying towns. Many trees bloom at a particular season and appear more effective when planted in groups.

In small and medium-sized gardens, ornamental trees should be planted only in the boundaries as foundation planting. An "arboretum" is a garden of trees. While planting a tree, beauty and utility should be combined deftly. The best time for planting trees is during the rainy season.

Dwarf ornamental flowering trees suitable for small compounds are Acacia auriculiformis, Alangium lamarckii, Bauhinia purpurea, B. variegata, Brownea ariza, B. coccinea, Butea frondosa, Cassia fistula, C. javanica, C. marginata, Cochlospermum gossypium, Cordia sebestena, Crataeva religiosa, Erythrina blakei, E. cristagalli, Gliricidia maculata, Guaicum officinale, Holarrhena antidysentrica, Jacaranda mimosaefolia, Kleinhovia hospita, Lagerstroemia thorelli, Mesua ferrea, Milletia auriculata, Plumeria alba, P. rubra, Pongamia glabra, Saraca indica, Solanum wrightii, Spathodea nilotica, Sterculia colorata, Tecomella undulata, Thespesia populnea, etc. (Cowen, 1950; Randhawa, 1965-1983).

For large compounds, some examples of beautiful flowering trees are Anthocephalus indicus, Bombax malabaricum, Cassia grandis, C. nodosa, Chorisia speciosa, Colvillea racemosa, Lagerstroemia flos-reginae, Millingtonia hortensis, Peltophorum ferrugineum, Poinciana regia and Sterculia colorata (Cowen, 1950; Randhawa, 1965-1983).

Trivedi (1983, 1987, 1996) recommended the following small trees for the hills: Acacia alata (with bright yellow flowers), A. dealbata (with light yellow flowers), Bauhinia variegata (with rose, purple and white flowers), Magnolia grandiflora (with white flowers), Prunus serrulata (with pink flowers), Rhododendendron arboreum (with crimson flowers) and R. campanulatum (with magenta flowers). Trivedi also recommends a few trees for cultivation on the plains.

3. Ornamental Foliage Plants

Ornamental trees with beautiful foliage but inconspicuous flowers are called "ornamental foliage trees." Common examples are palms, evergreen conifers, Acacia auriculiformis, Averrhoa carambola, Callisternon lanceolatum, Citharexylum subserratum, Diospyros embryopteris, Eucalyptus spp., Ficus infectoria, F. retusa, Kigelia pinnata, Phyllanthus emblica, Polyalthia longifolia, Putranjiva roxburghii, Tamarindus indica and Terminalia arjuna (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983).

Evergreen shrubs and trees provide a structure for the garden during winter months. Without them the garden will look bleak and dull, when the foliage of most herbaceous perennials disappears, leaving only bare stems and branches.

In temperate regions conifers constitute the most important and showy group of plants. Many varieties show symmetrical growth and are frequently used in formal gardens. They keep their ornamental effect even in winter, when most broad-leaved trees shed their leaves. Common examples of foliage trees in the hills are the species of Araucaria, Cryptomeria and Cupressus (Trivedi, 1983, 1987, 1996).

4. Ornamental Fragrance Plants

Many trees combine beauty with fragrance. Some trees that are commonly cultivated for scent or fragrance are Acacia podalyriaefolia, Anthocephalus indicus (kadam), Biota orientalis, Citrus aurantifolium (lime), C japonica, C limon (lemon), Cymphomandra betacea, Gardenia lucida, G. latifolia, G resinifera (dekamali), Galphimia gracilis, Grewia asiatica, Luculia gratissima, Magnolia grandiflora (bara champa), Michelia champaca (champa or champak), Mimusops elengi (maulsari), Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (harsinghar), Plumeria tuberculata, Rhododendron formosum and Sambucus nigra (Randhawa, 1961). In home gardens these can be planted opposite windows and doors of bedrooms, so that one can enjoy their fragrance in the evening, particularly in summer months (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983; Trivedi, 1990).

Some examples of fragrant ornamental trees for large compounds are Dillenia indica, Mimusops elengi and Pterospermum acerifolium (Randhawa, 1965-1983).

Trees with snow-white, fragrant flowers against the background of dark green foliage are very delightful for moonlit gardens. Some common examples in this category are Bauhinia alba, Citharexylum subserratum, Crutaeva religiosa, Delonix regia, Dillenia indica, Erythrina variegata, Gardenia resinifera, Gliricidia alba, Holarrhena antidysentrica, Lagerstromia indica (white), Millingtonia hortensis, Mimusops elengi, M. hexandra, Plumeria acutifolia, P. alba, Prunus domestica and Wrightia tinctoria (Randhawa, 1961).

5. Ornamental Fruiting Plants

Trees commonly grown for their beautiful, attractive and colorful fruits are Citrus microcarpea, Hazara orange and other Citrus spp., papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas cornosus), tree tomato (Cymphomandra betacea), banana (Musa paradisiaca), strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo), quince (Cydonia oblonga), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica), common spindle tree (Euonymus europeaus), gean (Prunus avium), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and jujube (Zizyphus jujuba) (Lunardi, 1987; Trivedi, 1983, 1987, 1996). Planting of trees in and around children's park can provide vitamins and nutrients to children when they eat the fruit as they play.

6. Ornamental Hedges

Hedges provide a natural background for a garden, as a frame does for a painting. The hedge may be external or internal. An external hedge--live fence--is usually tall, measuring about 1.5-2.5 m (5-9 ft) high, and it may replace the compound wall; thus it demarcates the garden from the public road. It also serves as a protective screen against wind and noise pollution. Species selected for external hedges should be tall, fast-growing and evergreen, with thick and dense foliage from the base to the top. The blooms should not clash with the general color scheme. An internal hedge that separates parts within a garden is not as tall. It is usually 30-90 cm (1-3 ft) tall. Species that are capable of growing under adverse conditions and require minimal maintenance are selected for both types of hedges.

Species of Biota, Cupressus, Ilex, Juniperus, Thuja, etc. are used for evergreen hedges. The following flowering trees may be used for making colorful hedges: Bauhinia acuminata, Bougainvillaea spp., Erythrina indica, Hibiscus spp., Meyenia erecta, Plumbago capensis, Sesbania aegyptica, Strobilanthes spp. and Tecoma stans (Randhawa, 1961).

7. Live Screens and Fences

In cities and towns trees can be utilized for screening the premises of adjacent houses and thus maintaining privacy. Servants' quarters and other unsightly views like manure pits, potting areas, etc. in large gardens can also be screened by growing closely spaced, small trees. Species with prickles or spines or having stiff branches or both with nonedible leaves should be preferred, according to the requirements. Ideally, the species selected for this purpose should be fast growing, of medium height, long-lived, capable of growing under adverse conditions and with minimal maintenance requirements (Singhal & Khanna, 1991).

8. Sculpture and Topiary

Topiary is an art of shaping hedges--shrubs--and trees into an ornamental form like a ball, spiral, table, cube, etc., into a figure like a bird, beast or human or into a theme such as a farmer with a pair of bullocks. A formal garden is most suitable for topiary work because it creates an Old World appearance. The most common examples used for such purposes are Buxus sempervirens, Cupressus macropoda, Murraya exotica and Taxus baccata (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983).

9. Education

Ornamental trees are not only a source of recreation and pleasure but also educate people, when visitors in gardens and travelers along roadsides wish to know the names and uses of such trees. If roads and gardens are named after some dominant shrub and tree species, the work of making them familiar to the public becomes easier (Chakraverty & Jain, 1984).

10. Landscaping and Bioaesthetic Planning

Shrubs and trees improve the landscape. For example, trees along roadsides are a source of beauty not only to the road but also to the length and breadth of the area through which the road runs. Along roads, fuelwood, fodder and thorny species should not be chosen. Shrubs and trees constitute two of the most important components of landscaping and bioaesthetie planning of urban cities and towns. Many species bloom at a particular season and appear more effective when planted in groups (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983).

As far as possible, native species should be selected, because, apart from their aesthetic value, scenic beauty and immediate utility, these trees involve reduced maintenance costs, preserve biological diversity and prevent species extinction. They are also a valuable national asset and a reserve of timber and fuel in case of emergency. It is estimated that India has the largest number of flowering trees in the world, indigenous as well as exotic, that can be utilized for beautifying cities and towns.

It may he mentioned here that bioaesthetic planning of ornamental trees has a close relationship with plant ecology. Plants must be planted only in those localities or habitats that are similar to their natural habitats or surroundings, because the texture of the soil, the availability of water resources, the amount of rainfall, the presence of rivers, canals and tanks and the temperature play an important role in the growth and survival of the trees (Randhawa, 1965-1983).

Trees must be planted in habitats that are similar to their natural surrounding--i.e., that have approximately the same edaphic and climatic conditions--otherwise either dwarfing may occur or the species will not be able to survive. Some examples of ornamental flowering trees suited to moist localities are Amherstia nobilis, Bauhinia purpurea, Brownea ariza, B. coccinea, Cassia javanica, C. marginata, C. nodosa, Colvillea racemosa, Guaicum officinale, Lagerstroemia flos-regine, L. thorelli, Milletia auriculata, Poinciana regia, Peltophorum ferrugineum, Pithecolobium saman, Saraca indica and Solanum wrightii (Randhawa, 1965-1983).

Examples of ornamental flowering trees suited to dry localities are Acacia auriculiformis, Butea frondosa, Cassia fistula, Cochlospermum gossypium, Cordia subestena, Erythrina blakei, E. indica, Jacaranda mimosaefolia, Melia azadirachta, Plumeria alba, Pongamia glabra, Spathodea campanulata, S. nilotica, Sterculia colorata, Tecomella undulata and Thespesia populnea (Randhawa, 1965-1983).

Drought-resistant trees suitable for arid regions are Albizia lebbek (siris), Butea frondosa (dhak), Cassia fistula (amaltas), Casuarina equisetifolia (beefwood tree), Eucalyptus citriodora (safeda), Melia azedarach (Persian lilac, bakain), Morus indica (mulberry), Phoenix daetylifera (khajoor), Prosopis juliflora (mesquite bean), Salvadora persica (pilu), etc. (Randhawa, 1965-1983).

Some examples of salt-resistant trees are Azadirachta indica (neem), Butea frondosa (dhak), Bassia latifolia (mahua), Eucalyptus citriodora (safeda), Phoenix dactylifera (khajoor), Phyllanthus emblica (amla), Psidium guava (amrood), Tamarix articulata (farash) and Thespesia populnea (bhendi) (Randhawa, 1965-1983).

Trees for swamps and marshy areas are Eucalyptus rostrata, Salix tetrasperma (willow), S. babylonica, Sapium sebiferum (makhan), Tamarix articulata (farash), plantain, etc. (Randhawa, 1965-1983). Sapium sebiferum, known as Chinese tallow tree, is a medium-sized, deciduous tree whose leaves display lovely autumn tints. It is used for stream training in the Kangra district of Himachal Pradesb.

11. Veneration

From one end of the world to the other we can trace the extreme power of trees over the minds of humans. Christmas trees, May trees, pomegranates, Ginkgo biloba, bo trees, etc. can be cited as occupying a place in the religious and ceremonial activities in diveve cultures throughout the world. In India alone 99 trees are venerated (Bennet et al., 1992). In ancient times rishis worshiped several trees as Vrikshadevta and Vanadevta. Groves of trees and flower gardens were tended with loving care and were called "vrikshavatika" and "pushpavatika," respectively. Several such protected forest groves or gardens, including Ashoka Vatika, Chitrakoot and Panchvatti, were known in ancient India.

12. Art and Culture

A tree laden with flowers and/or fruits is a great joy to the beholder. Native trees have a special place in Indian folk songs. Immortal poets and writers like Valmiki and Kalidasa have sung songs in praise of trees. Even folktales have celebrated the importance and beauty of trees in India (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983).

Indian trees have a personality of their own. The beauty of Indian trees has been sketched or painted by many artists (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983), like Bireshwar Sen and his wife, Lakshmi, Sarbjeet Singh, Ganga Singh, Anil Roy Chowdhry, Gopal Ghosh, Manishi Day, Madhava Menon, Devyani Kanwal Krishna, Sudhir Khastgir, Francis Brunell, Madame Sass Brunner and her daughter Elizabeth, A. K. Gohel, R. A. Eklund, E. Blatter, P. N. Sharma, A. K. Sharma, H. Smith, Margaret Thacker, G. Millard (Lady Kinnear), Sister Marychionia, Lady Douie, S. H. Prater, H. Robinson and H. N. Wandrekar. Many of their works have been included in books on Indian botany (Seth et al., 2002).

Kalidasa observed that the women of Alkapuri rubbed the dust of lodhra flowers on their cheeks, maghya flowers decorated their temples, kuruvaka flowers hung from the knots of their hair and sirisha flowers decorated their ears. Elsewhere, in the monsoon kadamba flowers glorified women's heads. The women carried pink lotuses in their hands, decorated their tress knots with white champaka, wore bracelets of jasmine around their wrists and wore garlands of jasmine and bela (Randhawa, 1961, 1965-1983).

India's vast, rich Sanskrit literature contains the names of several trees, including the ornamental trees arjuna (Terminalia arjuna), asoka (Saraca indica), champaka (Michelia champaca), chuta (Mangifera indica), devadaru (Cedrus deodara), gandharaja (Gardenia florida), kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba), kamikara (Pterospermum acerifolium), ketaki (Pandanus odoratissimus), kimsuka (Butea frondosa), kovidara (Bauhinia purpurea), kunda (Jasminum pubescens), kuravaka (Lawsonia alba), lodhra (Symplocos racemosa), mandara (Erythrina indica), naga kesara (Mesua ferrea), narikela (Cocos nucifera), parijataka (Nyctanthes arbortristis), punnaga (Calophyllum inophyllum), sala (Shorea robusta), krishna sirish (Albizia amara), pitsirish (Albizia lebbek), tala (Borassus flabelliformis) and vakula (Mimusops elengi) (Randhawa, 1961; Anonymous, 1986; Dwivedi, 2000).

E. TREES AS A SOURCE OF SUSTENANCE

Trees are one of the major sources of sustenance: food; sugars; starches; spices and condiments; beverages; fumitories, masticatories and narcotics; medicines; essential oils; fatty oils and vegetable fats; waxes; soap substitutes; vegetable ivory; fodder; fuel, bioenergy or biofuel; fertilizers; fiber; pulp and paper; tannins; dyes; rubber and other latex products; gums; resins; and cork. These are described separately under the following headings:

1. Food

Trees as a source of food include edible fruits, vegetables and tree legumes. Botanically, a fruit is a matured or ripened ovary, along with its contents and adhering accessory structures, if any. The seeds inside the fruits are the fertilized ovules. Sometimes seeds are formed without fertilization. This phenomenon is called "agamospermy," a kind of parthenogenesis. A fruit that matures without seed formation is called "parthenocarplc fruit." Fruits are eaten raw. Vegetables are edible plants that store reserve food mainly carbohydrates--in roots, stems, leaves or fruits and that are eaten either cooked or raw. Legumes--or pods--are the proteinaceous fruits of family Leguminosae. Some of these are edible. The important food-yielding trees are depicted in Table I.

2. Sugars

Sugar is a plant product surpassed in importance only by cereals and potatoes. It is one of the most important reserve food supplies, not only for the plant in which it is found but also also because it serves as the most necessary food source of energy--for humans. Sugar in plants may occur in the form of sucrose (a disaccharide of glucose and fructose that, to humans, tastes sweeter than either of its constituent monosaccharides) or cane sugar, glucose or grape sugar and fructose or fruit sugar. It occurs in roots (beets, carrots, parsnips, etc.), stems (sugarcane, maize, sorghum, sugar maple), flowers (palms), bulbs (onion) and many fruits. The important trees yielding sugars of commercial interest are shown in Table II.

3. Starches

Starch, a complex carbohydrate, is a polymer of glucose units linked by alpha bonds. It exists in two forms in plants: unbranched or linear polymers called "amyloses," in which hundreds of glucose molecules form coiled molecules of starch; and branched polymers called "amylopectins," in which only 40-60 glucose molecules that form branched chains do not coil.

Soluble starch (starch grains soaked in hot water until they burst and form a thin, clear solution or paste) is used in the textile industry for strengthening fibers and cementing loose ends together, making the thread smoother and easier to weave and thus giving a finish to the goods. It is used as a mordant in calico printing and a thickener or vehicle for colors. It is also used in laundry work, in toilet powders, in medicine, as a sizing agent in the paper industry, as binding material for china clay and many derivatives or products like dextrin, glucose, industrial alcohol and nitrostarch.

Starch is one of the main reserve foods for green plants, which store it in thin-walled cells in the form of grains of different sizes, shapes and microscopic and physical characteristics. The chief sources of commercial starch are maize, potato, wheat, rice, sago, cassava and arrowroot, of which the last two are obtained from shrubs and sago is obtained from trees.

Arrowroot starch is obtained from the tubers of many tropical plants, including: Maranta arundinacea (Marantaceae), yielding Indian arrowroot; Canna edulis (Cannaceae), yielding Queensland arrowroot; Curcuma angustifolia (Zingiberaceae), yielding East Indian arrowroot; and Zamia floridanda (Cycadaceae), yielding Florida arrowroot. Only the last is a small, shrublike plant.

Sago starch is obtained from the starchy pith of the stems of Metroxylon sagu, of the family Arecaceae. Other important species that yield sago starch are: Arenga saccharifera, Borassus flabellifer, Caryota urens, Metroxylon koenigii, M. leave and M. rumphii, all Arecaceae; Manihot esculenta, of the family Euphorbiaceae; and Cycas species, of the family Cycadaceae, a gymnosperm. Starchy pith is removed after the trees are cut, and, after washing, the starch is freed by sedimentation. Dried, it is known as "sago flour"; it is made into a flour and then dried in the sun or in ovens to obtain shiny, granular starch, called "pearl sago." Both are used almost entirely for food purposes, like khir, kanji, payasam, kesari, uppuma, vaangibath, sago curd bhath, vadam (pappad), macaroni and spaghetti.

4. Spices and Condiments

Spices and condiments are flavoring agents obtained from plants. They are difficult to distinguish, so the terms are used interchangeably. Because they have little nutritive value, they are not classified as foods. They contain essential oils, which impart flavor and aroma to food and add greatly to the pleasure of eating. They stimulate the appetite and increase the flow of gastric juices. For these reasons they are often referred to as "food accessories" or "adjuncts." The important spice- and condiment-yielding trees are shown in Table III.

5. Nonalcoholic Beverages

Beverage plants are those plants which yield beverages or drinks--nonalcoholic or alcoholic--that are palatable and refreshing. Nonalcoholic beverages usually contain caffeine, an alkaloid, which has stimulating and refreshing qualities. Alcoholic beverages are those that contain one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups; e.g., ethanol (C[H.sub.3]-C[H.sub.2]-OH). They may be fermented or distilled. Fruit juices and other beverages that contain neither caffeine nor alcohol are called "soft drinks." They have a high sugar content and thus are a good source of energy. The important nonalcoholic-beverage woody plants are shown in Table IV.

6. Fumitories, Masticatories and Narcotics

Some narcotic substances are smoked or chewed by humans for pleasure or to seek a "world full of new sensation or some flight from reality." Narcotic substances that are used for smoking purposes are called "fumitories," and those that are used for chewing purposes are called "masticatories." They have a distinct stimulating or even narcotic effect due to the presence of various alkaloids. They are also used in religious ceremonies. The important woody plants of these categories are shown in Table V.

7. Medicines

Several trees are a source of important drugs. These are obtained from the bark of Bauhinia variegata (kachnar), Barringtonia acutangula (hijjal), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (dalchini), C. calisaya, C. ledgerina, C. officinalis, C. robusta, C. succirubra (all yielding quinine), Mimusops elengi (maulsari), Myrica nagi (kaiphal), Symplocos racemosa (lodh), Saraca indica (ashok), Terminalia arjuna (arjun) and Toddalia asiatica (kanj). The stems and wood of Acacia catechu (katha), Pinus roxburghii (chir) and Santalum album (safed chandan) yield drugs. Drugs are also obtained from the fruit of Aegle marmelos (bael), Cassia fistula (amaltas), Emblica officinalis (amla), Terminalia bellerica (bahera) and T. chebula (harar). The seeds of Croton tiglium (jamalgota), Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Ricinus communis (arand) and Strychnos nux-vomica (kuchla) are also used for obtaining drugs.

8. Essential Oils

Like all other necessities of humans, oils are one of the main necessities of daily life. India holds a prominent position in the world oil industry. Oils are of two types: essential, volatile or distilled oils; and fatty, nonvolatile, expressed or fixed oils. These two types of oils can be distinguished in Table VI.

Essential oils are by-products of carbohydrate and fat metabolism and occur in some 60 families. The important ones are Apiaceae (= Umbellifereae), Asteraceae (= Compositae), Fabaceae (= Leguminosae), Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae (= Labiatae), Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae (= Graminae) and Rutaceae. They occur in small concentrations, from minute traces to as much as 1-2%, or even more, in specialized cells, glands or ducts, either in one particular organ of the plant or distributed over many parts. They may be present in flowers (e.g., roses), fruits (e.g., oranges), leaves (e.g., eucalyptus), bark (e.g., cinnamomum), roots (e.g., ginger), woods (e.g., cedar) or seeds (e.g., cardamon) and many resinous exudations.

The utility of essential oils to the plant itself is obscure. The characteristic aroma and flavor they impart to flowers, fruits and seeds probably attract insects and other animals, which play an important role in pollination and/or in the dispersal of fruits and seeds. When essential oils are present in high concentrations, the unpleasant odor may serve to repel enemies like parasites, animals and insects. The essential oils may have antiseptic and bactericidal properties and may thus act as a wound fluid. They affect transpiration and other physiological processes by minimizing the effect of heat on transpiration. They play a vital role as hydrogen donors in oxido-reduction reactions as potential sources of energy.

Because of their odor and high volatility, essential oils are also put to a variety of uses by humans. They are extensively used in the manufacture of perfumes, sachets, soaps and other toilet preparations. The perfumes are stored in closed, compactly filled containers since they deteriorate due to oxidation and polymerization when they come into contact with air. In confectionary and aerated waters they are used as flavoring materials or essences for ice creams, candies, cordials, liqueurs, nonalcoholic beverages, tobacco, etc. They are very valuable in medicine, dentistry and pharmaceuticals because of their therapeutic, antiseptic and bactericidal properties. They are used as insecticides and deodorants, as solvents in paint and varnish industries and in the manufacture of several synthetic odors and flavors, such as attars and scents. Some of the essential oils (e.g., clove oil) are used as clearing or cleaning agents in histological work. They are also used in such diversified products as chewing gum, toothpaste, dhoop, agar batis, incense, shoe polish, library paste and fish glue. The important essential oil-yielding trees are listed in Table VII.

9. Fatty Oils and Vegetable Fats

Vegetable fatty oils are called "fixed oils" or "nonvolatile oils" because they do not evaporate or become volatile like the essential oils. They are also called "nondistilled oils" because they cannot be distilled without being decomposed.

Chemically, fatty oils consist of glycerin in combination with a fatty acid. The so-called fats or tallows are solids at ordinary temperatures and contain stearic or palmitic acid. Their iodine number (the number of grams of iodine absorbed by 100 g of the fats in a medium in which it is soluble) is below 70. On the other hand, oils are liquids at ordinary temperatures and contain oleic acid.

Oils are of three types: drying, semidrying and nondrying. The drying oils are able to absorb oxygen and, on exposure, dry into thin elastic film. They are used mainly in the paint and varnish industry. Their iodine number is higher than 150. The semidrying oils absorb oxygen slowly and only in limited amounts. They form a soft film only after long exposure. Their iodine number is between 100 and 150. The nondrying oils remain liquid at ordinary temperatures and do not form a film. Their iodine number is between 70 and 100.

The fatty oils are insoluble in water but soluble in various organic solvents. When a fat is boiled with an alkali, it decomposes, and the fatty acid unites with the alkali to form soap. If soda is used, a hard soap is obtained; and if potash or lye is used, a soft soap is obtained.

When fats break down, they yield fatty acids and glycerin, of which they are composed, and usually develop a rancid odor and taste. The fatty oils are bland (balmy) and lack the strong taste, odor and antiseptic qualities of essential oils. Thus they are available as indispensable articles in human food. Important species that yield fatty oils and vegetable fats are listed in Table VIII.

10. Waxes

Waxes are quite similar to fats but are esters of monohydric alcohols rather than glycerides. They are harder than fats and have a high melting point. They are less easily hydrolyzed and do not become rancid. Waxes are usually found on the epidermis of leaves and fruits. They serve to prevent excessive loss of water through transpiration, because of their impervious character. The commercially important waxes obtained from trees are shown in Table IX. Wax is also obtained from the leaves of the raffia and licuri palms, sugarcane and esparto.

11. Soap Substitutes

Saponins are a group of water-soluble glucosides that yield soap froth in water, form emulsions with oils and fats, and are capable of absorbing large amounts of gases such as carbon dioxide. Because of these properties they are used for cleansing and other purposes, both at home and in industry. The important saponin-containing trees are listed in Table X.

It may be added here that leaves of a familiar garden plant, bouncing bet or soapwort (Saponaria officinalis, family Caryophyllaceae), when placed in water, produce a lather that is utilized for washing and imparting luster to silk and woolen fabrics. Similarly, bulbs of the Californian soaproot (Chlorogalum pomeridianum, family Liliaceae) yield a good lather, which is utilized for washing fabrics.

12. Vegetable Ivory

The seeds of Phytelephas macrocarpa, in the family Arecaceae, commonly called "ivory nut" or "tagua palm tree," is the chief source of vegetable ivory. It is extensively used as a substitute for true ivory. It can be carved and used in the manufacture of buttons, chess pieces, poker chips, dice, knobs, inlays, billiard balls, toys, etc. Metroxylon amicarum, in the Arecaceae family, can likewise be used for these purposes.

13. Fodder

The leaves of trees and shrubs are rich in calcium and phosphorus. Although considered inferior to grasses, trees in different parts of India are lopped for fodder, especially when grasses are scarce. The important fodder-yielding trees are Acacia nilotica (= A. arabica), A. catechu, Acer spp., Aegle marmelos, Bauhinia variegata, Celtis australis, Dendrocalamus strictus, Ficus glomerata, F. religiosa, Grewia spp., Helicteres isora, Kydia calycina, Leucaena leucocephala, Melia azedarach, Millettia auriculata, Morus australis, M. serrata, Ougeinia oojeinsis, Populus ciliata, Quercus glauca, Q. incana, Zizyphus mauritiana and Z nummularia (Singh, 1982; Anonymous, 1983).

14. Fuel, Bioenergy or Biofuel

Bioenergy is the energy available from biological sources, both living and immediate remains. Fuel is any material that burns readily in air. Biofuels are materials of biological origin that are used for producing heat and other forms of energy. Fuel is a great necessity of modern life. Wood, peat and coal, which represent three stages in the carbonization of the original woody plant tissue, are important fuel substances.

Because their moisture content is lower than that of green wood, seasoned or oven-dried wood makes excellent fuel: 99% of it is combustible, so it leaves only a small amount of ash. Hardwoods, such as ash, beech, hickory, maple and oak, which burn for a longer time and provide more uniform heat than does gymnospermic wood, are excellent fuelwoods. The mean calorific value of oven-dried Indian hardwoods is about 9000 btu. The different forms of energy that can be obtained from wood are shown in Table XI.

The qualities needed for fuelwood are physical properties of the wood as well as environmental and silvicultural properties of the species. Small-diameter, thornless shrubs and trees, which are easy to cut with primitive tools and easy to transport, are generally preferred. Likewise, fuelwood that is easy to split and either has a low moisture content or dries rapidly is preferred over other wood, because considerable heat is lost in burning moist wood. Such wood is also nontoxic and produces less smoke. For health reasons, too, these are important fuelwoods: ventilation is poor in village houses. While burning, wood should neither split nor spark. Wood density is positively correlated with the calorific value of fuelwood. A negative correlation also exists between wood density and growth rate, so fast-growing species generally have inferior burning properties. The best fuelwood species burn slowly and produce good heat from glowing charcoals. Acacia and Casuarina spp. are regarded as the best fuelwood species (Singhal & Khanna, 1991).

Some common fuelwood species of India are Acacia catechu, A. leucocephala, A. nilotica var. cupressiformis, A. nilotica var. indica, Albizia amara, A. lebbek, Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Borassus flabellifer, Carrissa spinarum, Dalbergia sissoo, Delonix elata, Eucalyptus spp., Euphorbia spp., Leucaena leucocephala, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, Moringa tinctoria, Morus serrata, Pithecellobium dulce, Prosopis juliflora, P. spicigera, Psidium guajava, Sesbania sesban, Syzygium cuminii, Tamarix indica, Thespesia populnea, Zizyphus mauritiana, etc. (Singhal & Khanna, 1991).

15. Fertilizers

Several species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of Rhizobium, including R. leguminosarum, R. lupini, R. meliloti and R. phaseoli, live inside the root nodules of leguminous trees. Similarly, Frankia, a nitrogen-fixing mycelial bacterium, is associated symbiotically with the root nodules of several nonlegume plants, including Alnus, Casuarina, Coriaria, Myrica and Rubus. Both Rhizobium and Frankia are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. When the roots of these plants decay, they enrich the soil with nitrogen salts.

16. Fibers

Botanically, a fiber is a special type of cell (sclerenchymatous) that has thick walls, a narrow lumen and tapering ends. Chemically, it is made up of cellulose and lignin. Commercially, a plant fiber is a strand consisting of one or hundreds of cells that varies in length from a fraction of a millimeter to 2 meters or more. Depending on how fibers are used, they can be classed as textile fibers (for fabrics, netting, cordage), brush fibers, plaiting and rough weaving fibers (for hats, sandals, baskets, chairs, etc.), filling fibers, natural fabrics and papermaking fibers.

The important fiber-yielding woody plants, including trees and shrubs, are Abroma angusta, Abutilon spp., Acacia leucocephala, Ananas comosus, Antiaris toxicaria, Boehmeria nivea, Borassus flabellifer, Butea monosperma, Caryota urens (leaves), Cordia dichotoma, C. rothii, Ficus bengalensis, F. cunia, F. religiosa, Grewia glabra, G. elastica, G. optiva, G. tiliaefolia, G. vestita, Hardwickia binata, Hibiscus spp., Malachra capitata, Marsdenia volubilis, Pandanus spp. (leaves), Sterculia foetida, S. urens, S. villosa, Trema orientalis and Urena lobata. Most fibers are obtained from the bark of these plants. Silky flosses produced in the fruits of Bombax ceiba, Ceiba pentandra and Cochlospermum religiosum are also used as fibers for filling purposes. The well-known coir fiber is obtained from the fibrous mesocarp of the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera. It is coarse, stiff, buoyant and elastic and is therefore used for ship ropes, mats, brushes, ropes, etc. (Watt, 1889-1893; Anonymous, 1983; Maithani et al., 1991).

17. Pulp and Paper

An important use of fibers is in the manufacture of paper, which is playing an increasingly important role in modern civilized society. It can be divided into two categories: cultural paper (printing and writing paper) and industrial paper (packing and wrapping papers and boards).

The word "paper" comes from the Latin papyrus (the name of Cyperus papyrus of the family Cyperaceae), a sedge plant, the pith of which was used for paper in Egypt as early as 2400 B.C. The Chinese, however, were the first to actually make the paper. In 1799 Louis Robert of France invented the papermaking machine, which was improved by Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier of London in 1803.

The important and major raw materials of the pulp and paper industry are wood fibers (furnishing more than 90% of all the paper produced in the world), cotton and linen rags (yielding fine grades of paper, because of their high cellulose content), agricultural residues (bamboo, bagasse, straw, etc.) and waste paper (for recycled paper). Raw materials of minor importance are esparto grass (Stipa tebnacissima, family Poaccae), textile fibers (jute, hemp, coir, ramie, sisal hemp, sunn hemp, etc.), bast fibers of paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera, family Moraceae) and fibers of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus), baobab (Adansonia digitata) and Daphne cannabina. Chinese and Japanese rice paper is made from Tetrapanax papyriferum, Edgeworthia tomentosa and Wickstroemia canescens.

Generally, softwood tracheids are preferred over hardwood fibers for papermaking because the tracheids of conifers are longer (about 2-4 mm) than are hardwood fibers (0.5-1.5 mm). Spruce wood is the most important raw material for pulp. Its fibers are long and strong, with a maximum content of cellulose. Almost free of resins, gums and tannins, it is light colored, sound and usually free of defects. The important species used are Picea rubens (red spruce), P. glauca (white spruce), P. sitchensis (sitka spruce), etc.

The other important raw materials for pulp are pines, other conifers and hardwoods, like Pinus australis (yellow pine), P. banksiana (jack pine), Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock), T heterophylla (western hemlock), Abies balsamea (balsam fir), A. concolor (white fir), Larix laricina (tamarack), Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata (aspens), Fagus grandifolia (beech), Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Betula lutea (birch).

Although ancient Indian written records are on the leaves of the tree called "bhojpatra" (Betula alnoides, family Betulaceae), the art of papermaking in India started with the installation of first papermaking machine at Serampore in West Bengal in 1830. The main fibrous raw materials for papermaking are Bambusa arundinacea, Boswellia serrata, Dendrocalamus strictus, Eulaliopsis binata (Sabai grass) and Pinus roxburghii. These are followed by Abies pindrow, Adansonia digitata, Agave americana, Arundo donax, Bambusa polymorpha, B. tulda, Broussonetia papyrifera, Daphne papyracea, Dendrocalamus giganteus, D. hamiltonii, Eucalyptus citriodora, E. globulus, Ochlandra truvancorica and Populus ciliata. The following Indian hardwood species are used for making bleachable pulp: Albizia lebbeck, Anogeissus latifolia, Chloroxylon swietenia, Gmelina arborea, Lannea coromandelica, Prosopis chilensis, Pterocarpus marsupium, Sesbania grandiflora, Sterculia urens, Tectona grandis and Terminalia bellerica.

18. Tannins

Tannins are soluble, astringent, bitter and complex phenolic substances of plant origin. These are glycosidal in nature and acidic in reactions. They may be hydrolizable or condensed in nature. Whereas hydrolyzable tannins are easily split into alcohols and acids by water, condensed tannins are not, for they are made up of polymers of cyclic compounds. Tannins may be present in individual cells or in special containers known as "tannin sacs." In individual cells, tannins are found in the cell sap or are impregnated in the cell's walls, often accumulating in large quantities in dead tissues such as cork or present in bark, wood, leaves, roots, fruits and galls.

The biological functions of tannins are not very clear. It is thought that tannins protect the protoplast against desiccation, decay and injury by animals. It may be concerned with the formation of cork or with protection of the plant. Economically, tannins are important in various ways. They have the ability to unite with certain types of proteins, such as those in animal skins (hides), to form a strong, flexible, resistant and insoluble substance known as "leather." The process and art of converting raw hides and skins of animals into leather, usually through the use of certain chemicals, is called "tanning." Tannins react with salts of iron to form dark blue, blue-black or greenish black compounds, which are the basis of tannin or writing inks. Tannins are also useful in medicine, because of their astringent nature. Tanning materials are often utilized in oil drilling to reduce the viscosity of the drill without reducing the specific gravity. Tannins may be obtained from the different parts of the trees, as shown in Table XII.

19. Dyes

Dyes are colored compounds (pigments) that are capable of being fixed to fabrics permanently; i.e., they neither fade on exposure to light nor wash out with soap. Therefore, a colored organic substance is not necessarily a dye. For example, trinitrotoluene, which is yellow in color, cannot fix to a cloth and therefore is not a dye. On the other hand, picric acid, which is also yellow in color, can fix to a cloth and therefore is a dye. A large number of plants secrete or contain pigments, but only about 150 are commercially important. In addition, synthetic or aniline dyes are now obtained from coal-tar products. These are cheaper, brighter, more permanent and easier to use, and they offer a wider range of colors. Among the chief uses of dyes is in coloring fabrics in the textile industry, where they are used with weak salt solutions of various metals like iron, chromium, aluminum or tin. A fine layer of metallic oxide, which forms an insoluble compound with the dye, is deposited on the cloth. Such salts of metals that increase the adherence of various dyes to the fabrics are called "mordants." These actually form a chemical bridge between the fiber molecules and the dye. Dyes are also used for coloring paints, varnishes, leather, ink, paper, wood, furs, food, cosmetics and medicines. A partial list of important dye-yielding trees in given in Table XIII.

20. Rubber and Other Latex Products

Rubber is obtained from the milky juice or latex of various tropical or subtropical woody plants. Latex is a gummy white liquid full of minute globules, a mixture of water, hydrocarbons, resins, oils, proteins, acids, salts, sugars and caoutchouc, a substance used as a source of rubber. Rubber is a polyterpene consisting of a long chain of thousands of isoprene (hydrocarbon) units. The tissue containing latex is called "laticiferous tissue." It consists of latex cells or latex coenocytes and latex vessels, the latter being formed by the fusion of many latex cells. Laticifers occur in bark, leaves and other softer parts of trees.

Laticifers are not known in gymnosperms. They are present in a large number of species and genera belonging to about 20 families, mostly dicotyledonous. Important rubber plants belong to Apocyanaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Moraceae.

Latex performs five functions in plants: healing of wounds; protection (warding off the attack of animals) because of the presence of bitter or poisonous alkaloids; storage of food reserve (for nutrition); formation and storage of excretory products; and transport of materials (conduction or translocation or as a fluid reservoir).

Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen, coined the term "rubber," owing to the fact that it could be used for removing pencil marks. In 1839 Charles Goodyear discovered the vulcanization process, in which sulphur is added to rubber to cross-link the molecules of isoprene chains. This process makes the latex impervious to weather conditions and improves its elasticity. Rubber is one of the best insulating and dielectric materials available. The important rubber-yielding woody plants are shown in Table XIV.

21. Gums

Gums contain large amounts of sugars and are closely allied to pectins. They are colloidal in nature and have the ability to dissolve in water and form a viscid solution (viscous liquids) or to absorb water and swell to form a gelatinous paste. On exposure to air these pastes dry to hard, clear, glassy masses by losing their water. Gums are insoluble in alcohol and ether.

Gums exude naturally or in response to wounding from the stems and are formed by disintegration of internal tissues, mostly from the decomposition of cellulose through a process known as "gummosis." They are mostly obtained from bark or secondary phloem.

Gums are used in a variety of ways. The finer grades are utilized in finishing silk, clarifying liqueurs and preparing high-quality watercolors. The intermediate grades are used in printing inks, in sizing, finishing and dyeing textile fabrics, in confectionery and in the pharmaceutical industry. The cheaper grades are used as adhesives, in calico printing, in sizing of paper and in the paint industry. In the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries gums act as emollients or demulcents or serve to bind or emulsify mixtures in lotions, ointments and creams. They may add body and bulk to foodstuffs like commercial ice creams.

Commercial gums are dried exudations of dry-region plants belonging to the Anaeardiaceae, Combretaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Rosaceae and Rutaceae. One hundred or more species of Acacia alone are known to yield gum. The important gum-yielding trees are shown in Table XV.

22. Resins

Although resins resemble gum in superficial appearance, they differ in origin and chemical composition. Some resins are sticky, viscous liquids; others are hard, brittle, amorphous solids, generally clear or transparent but sometimes opaque. Important resin-yielding families, differences among three main types of resins and resin-yielding trees are presented in Tables XVI, XVII and XVIII, respectively.

Resins represent oxidation products of various essential oils. They are complex and varied in their chemical composition. Chemically, they are polymerized terpenes that are usually mixed with volatile oils. Unlike gums, resins are insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol, ether, turpentine, spirit, carbon disulphide and other solvents. The latter property is utilized to form varnishes; when applied in thin films, the solvent evaporates, leaving behind a hard, waterproof layer of resin. Resins are fusible; that is, when heated they first soften and then melt to a more or less clear, sticky fluid. They are resistant to most reagents and to decay but, when ignited, burn with a smoky flame.

Resins are very important in industry. Two types are used in manufacturing varnishes and lacquers. The first type comprises resins that, after melting, can be combined with linseed oil or turpentine and utilized for forming amber, copal and other oil varnishes. Oil varnishes are superior but costly.

The word "copal" is of Mexican origin. In England many of the harder copals are known as "animes." The copals are resins of recent semifossil or fossil tropical and subtropical tree species. They contain almost no oil and yield a hard, elastic varnish, which is much used for outdoor work.

The second type of resins comprises those that dissolve in alcohol, turpentine or other volatile solvents. They are utilized for forming spirit varnishes, such as rosin, damar, sandarac, mastic and elemis. Spirit varnishes are less expensive and more easily prepared and applied. They produce brilliant, transparent finishes. All damars are used chiefly in spirit varnishes and in the manufacture of nitrocellulose lacquers. Damar varnishes are softer, less durable and adhere better. They are used mainly for varnishing paper because of their luster and light color. They are also used for indoor work and in histology. "Elemi" is a collective name for several oleoresins of different origin that exude as clear, pale liquids. Most tend to harden on exposure, but some may remain soft.

Resinous substances have been used for waterproof coatings and also for decorative coatings for ages. The ancient Egyptians varnished their mummy cases, and the Incas utilized resins in their embalming mixtures. Resins are also used in the preparation of soap--they dissolve in alkali to form soap--and in medicine, for sizing paper, as a stiffening material for mats, in the preparation of fixatives, incenses, perfumes, tobacco flavorings, sealing wax, plastics, linoleum, oilcloth, printers' ink, adhesives, etc. Their combustible properties are utilized for making torches; their waterproofing qualities, for making boats.

Resins tend to lessen the amount of water lost from the tissues of plants. Because of their antiseptic properties, resins prevent decay, and, when present in wood, add strength and durability.

Resin is secreted in plant tissues in specialized canals or cavities called "resin ducts," which are lined with a special layer of secretory cells, called the "epithelial layer," that secrete resin into the cavity through a thin cuticular layer. Resin ducts may be present in leaves, wood and bark of stems. They normally ooze out through the bark and harden on exposure to air. Commercial resins, however, are extracted from artificial wounds or fossil materials.

23. Cork

Commercial cork is obtained from the outer bark (phellem) of cork oak, Quercus suber, an evergreen tree of the family Fagaceae. It is native to the western Mediterranean region: about 70% of the world's commercial cork comes from Portugal alone. Cork is nothing more than thin-walled but strong cellulosic cell wails, which are heavily coated with suberin, a substance that is impervious to water. Cell lumens, which represent nearly 53% of the total cork volume, are filled with air, thus making cork very light--its specific gravity is 0.15-0.25.

Cork is buoyant, light and highly compressible, but it is resilient, chemically inert to moisture and common liquids, resistant to deterioration, an excellent insulator, a nonconductor of electricity, a low thermal conductor and impervious to water and other liquids. It imparts no flavor or odor to substances, is slow to catch fire, absorbs sound and vibrations and has a high coefficient of friction. All of these properties render commercial cork invaluable in the world market, and it is used either as natural cork or as composition cork, the latter as linoleum, linotiles, binder-coated cork and cork (insulation) boards. Cork is used in the preparation of stoppers, hats and helmets, tips for cigarettes, carburetor floats, fishing-net floats, golf-club handles, penholders, fishing rods, life preservers, floats and life jackets, surf balls, seals for jars, sealing liners, shoe insoles, sporting goods, picture frames, small cork balls in referees' whistles, etc.

24. Food for Silkworms

Mulberry silk accounts for 95% of the world's silk production. It is produced by Bombyx mori L., which feeds on the leaves of mulberry plants. Morus is the Latin word for "mulberry" (French: muries; Italian: gelso; Japanese: lewwa). It belongs to the family Moraceae, of the order Unisexuales or Urticales. The following species of Morus are known in the world: acidosa, arabica, atropurpurea, australis, bombycis, boninensis, cathayama, celtidifolia, cordatifelia, indica, glabrata, insignis, japonica, kagayamae, laevigata, latifolia, lhou, macroura, microphylla, miyabean, mizuho, mollis, mongolica, mosozygia, multicaulis, nigra, nigriformis, notabilis, pabularia, philippinensis, rotundifolia, rubra, serrata, sinensis, tiliaefolia and yoshimurai (Seth & Lal, 2002).

Tasar silk is the product of the secretion from the silk glands of Antheraea proylei and A. mylitta, the temperate and tropical tasar silkworms, respectively. Although Antheraea species are polyphagous in nature, the food plants of first choice are known as "primary" and others, as "secondary." The three main food plants of tropical tasar silkworms are: Terminalia alata, syn. T. tomentosa, vern. asan; Terminatia arjuna, vern. arjun; and Shorea robusta, vern. sal. In addition to the three main food plants, the tasar silkworm may feed on the following (Seth, 2000a):

* Anogeissus latifolia; axlewood, vern. dhawa, dhaura, dhaunta; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales

* Bauhinia variegata; vern. kachnar; family Caesalpiniaceae, order Rosales

* Bombax ceiba, syn. Salmalia malabarica, Bombax malabaricum, Gossampinus malabarica; silk cotton tree, vern. semul, shembal, raket-senbal, kaanti sembal, pagun; family Bombacaceae, order Malvales

* Canthium dicoccum, syn. C. didymum, Plectronia didyma; vern. rangruri; family Rubiaceae, order Rubiales

* Capadessa fruiticosa: vern. nalbali; family Meliaceae, order Geraniales

* Careya arborea; kumbi, vern. kumbi; family Lecythidaceae, order Myrtales

* Carissa carundus; karunda, vern. karumcha, karaunda; family Apocynaceae, order Gentianales

* Celastrus paniculatus; vern. malkangni; family Celastraceae, order Celastrales

* Chloroxylon swietenia; East Indian satinwood, vern. bhirra, girya; family Rutaceae, order Geraniales

* Dodonaea viscosa; vern. aliar, sinatha; family Sapindaceae, order Sapindales

* Ficus benjamina; family Moraceae, order Unisexuales or Urticales

* Ficus religiosa; peepal, vern. pipal, pipli; family Moraceae, order Unisexuales or Urticales

* Ficus retusa; vern. kamrup, chilkan; family Moraceae, order Unisexuales or Urticales

* Ficus tsiela; vern. jari; family Moraceae, order Unisexuales or Urticales

* Ficus tsjakela; family Moraceae, order Unisexuales or Urticales

* Hardwickia binata; anjan, vern. anjan; family Caesalpiniaceae, order Rosales

* Lagerstroemia indica; common crape myrtle, vern. saoni; family Lythraceae, order Myrtales

* Lagerstroemia parviflora; landau, vern. Sida, dhaura, Bali, Sidi; family Lythraceae, order Myrtales

* Madhuca indica, syn. M. latifolia, Bassia latifolia; mahua, mowra, illipe, butter tree, vern. mahua, mohwa, mauwa; family Sapotaceae, order Sapindales

* Melastoma malabathricum; vern. phutki; family Melastomataceae, order Myrtales

* Ricinus communis; castor, castor seed, vern. erandi, bharenda; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales

* Shorea roxburghii, syn. S. talura; lac tree of South India; family Dipterocarpaceae, order Parietales

* Syzygium cuminii, syn. Eugenia jambolana, E. cuminii; jaman, jambolan, blackplum, java plum, vern. jamun, jam; family Myrtaceae, order Myrtales

* Tectona grandis; teak, vern. sagun, sagwan; family Verbenaceae, order Lamiales

* Terminalia bellerica; belleric myrobalan, bahera, vern. bahera; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales

* Terminalia catappa; Indian almond tree, vern. deshibadam; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales

* Terminalia chebula; chebulic myrobalan, vern. haritaki, harar; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales

* Terminalia coriacea, syn. T. tomentosa var. coriacea; leathery murdah, vern. tani; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales

* Terminalia crenulata, syn. T. tomentosa var. crenulata; vern. karu maruthu, tehmbava; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales

* Terminalia paniculata; flowering murdah, kindal, vern. kinjal; family Combretaceae, order Myrtales

* Zizyphus jujuba, syn. Z. sativa, Z. vulgaris; vern. pitni ber, ban ber, beri; family Rhamnaceae, order Celastrales

* Zizyphus mauritiana, syn. Z. jujuba; Indian jujube, common jujube, vern. ber, hevi; family Rhamnaceae, order Celastrales

* Zizyphus rugosa, vern. bhand, churna; family Rhamnaceae, order Celastrales

* Zizyphus xylopyra, including Z. glaberrima santapau; katber, kathber, ghont; family Rhamnaceae, order Celastrales

The introduction of two oak tasar silkworms, Antheraea proylei and A. pernyi, has enabled India to produce oak tasar silk. The main food plants of oak tasar silkworms belong to Quercus species, the oaks of the family Fagaceae, order Fagales. The other food plants of temperate tasar belong to genera like Castanopsis and Lithocarpus, of the family Fagaceae, order Fagales, and Salix, of the family Salicaceae, order Salicales. The different species of these food plants are (Seth, 2000b):

* Castanopsis hystrix, syn. C. rufescens; vern. katus, hingori

* Castanopsis indica; Indian chestnut, vern. bank katus, serang

* Lithocarpus dealbatus, syn. Quercus dealbata

* Quercus aegilops; valonia oak

* Quercus acutissima, syn. Q. serrata

* Quercus borealis; American red oak

* Quercus castaneaefolia; chestnut-leaved oak

* Quercus cerris; turkey oak

* Quercus coccinea; scarlet oak

* Quercus crispula

* Quercus dentata

* Quercus dilatata; green oak, moru oak, vern. moru, tilonj

* Quercus floribunda

* Quercus frainetto; Hungarian oak

* Quercus glauca; blue Japanese oak, vern. bran, siri, inai

* Quercus griffithii; vern. dingim

* Quercus hispanica var. lucombeana; lucombe oak

* Quercus ilex; evergreen oak, holly or holm oak, vern. bechur, iri

* Quercus infectoria; gall oak, Dyer's oak, vern. majuphal, mazu, muphal

* Quercus lamellosa; vern. buk, shalshi

* Quercus lanata, syn. Q. lanuginosa; woolly oak, vern. ranj, kiani

* Quercus lanceaefolia, syn. Castanopsis lanceaefolia; vern. siri, shingra

* Quercus leucotrichophora, syn. Q. incana; ban oak, gray oak, vern. ban, rin, vari, iri

* Quercus libani; Lebanon oak

* Quercus lineata; vern. phalut

* Quercus lusitanica; Lusitanian oak

* Quercus mongolica

* Quercus myrsinaefolia

* Quercus palustris; pin oak

* Quercus petraea; sessile oak

* Quercus prinus

* Quercus reticulatum; net leaf oak

* Quercus robur; English oak

* Quercus rubra

* Quercus semecarpifolia; brown oak of Himalaya, kharsu oak, vern. karshu, kharshu

* Quercus semiserrata; vern. schop

* Quercus suber; cork oak

* Quercus undulata

* Salix viminalis; English willow, osier, basket willow, vern. bibsu, kumanta

Eri silk, also known as "errandi" or "endi," is produced by the eri silkworm Samia ricini, syn. Philosamia ricini, Attacus ricini. It belongs to the family Saturniidae, order Lepidoptera. Being polyphagous, it may feed on the leaves of a large number of plants (Seth, 2000c):

* Ricinus communis; castor, castor seed, vern. erandi; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales

* Ailanthus altissima, syn. A. glandulosa; ailanto, tree of Heaven, vern. barkessuru, barpat; family Simaroubaceae, order Geraniales

* Ailanthus excelsa; vern. maharuk, barkessuru; family Simaroubaceae, order Geraniales

* Ailanthus grandis; family Simaroubaceae, order Geraniales

* Ailanthus triphysa, syn. A. malabarica; vern. guggal dhup, family Simaroubaceae, order Geraniales

* Caricapapaya; papaya, papaw tree, vern. papeeta; family Caricaceae, order Geraniales

* Cinnamomum cecidodaphne; family Lauraceae, order Laurales

* Coriaria nepalensis; vern. masuri, makola; family Coriariaceae, order Sapindales

* Evodia fraxinifolia; vern. payam; family Rutaceae, order Geraniales

* Gmelina arborea; gumhar, vern. gambhar, gumbhar, kambhari; family Verbenaceae, order Lamiales

* Heteropanax fragrans; vern. kesseru, tarla; family Araliaceae, order Umbellales

* Hodgsonia heteroclita; vern. thebow; family Cucurbitaceae, order Passiflorales

* Jatropha curcas; physic nut, purging nut, vern. botera, bagbherenda, jangliarandi, safedarand; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales

* Jatropha multifida; coral plant, vern. bhotera; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales

* Manihot eseulenta, syn. M. utilissima, M. aipi, M. dulcis, M. palmata; cassava, manioc, tapioca, vern. simul-alu; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales

* Ricinus virdia; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales

* Sapium eugeniifolium; vern. korha, family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales

* Sapium sebiferum; Chinese tallow tree, vern. pippal-yang, vilayati-shisham, paharishisham; family Euphorbiaceae, order Euphorbiales

* Zanthoxylum armatum, syn. Z. alatum; vern. darmar, Nepali dhaniya, tejphal, tumru; family Rutaceae, order Geraniales

* Zanthoxylum limonella, syn. Z. budrunga, Z. rhetsa; vern. bazramani; family Rutaceae, order Geraniales

* Zizyphus mauritiana, syn. Z. jujuba; Indian jujube, common jujube, vern. baer, ber; family Rhamnaceae, order Rhamnales

Muga silk is produced by the muga silkworm Antheraea assama Westwood, syn. A. asamensis Helf., A. mejankari Moore. It belongs to the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, order Lepidoptera and family Satumiidae. The muga silkworm is polyphagous (Seth, 2000d). Its primary food plants are:

* Machilus bombycina; vern. som; family Lauraceae, order Laurales

* Litsaea monopetala, syn. L. polyantha; vern. soalu, meda, ketmarra, patoia, kakuri; family Lauraceae, order Laurales

Its secondary food plants are:

* Actinodaphne angustifolia, syn. A. hookeri; pisa, vern. petarichawa; family Lauraceae, order Laurales

* Cinnamomum glanduliferum; cinnamon, vem. dieng-puin-waith, dieng-sing, gonhorai, gonhorai-arong, gonsalu, gonsarai, malligiri, marisgiri; family Lauraceae, order Laurales

* Cinnamomum obtusifolium, syn. Actinodaphne obovata; vern. patichanda, patihanda; family Lauraceae, order Laurales

* Gmelina arboraea; gumhar, vern. bambari; family Verbenaceae, order Lamiales

* Litsaea cubeba, syn. L. citrata; vern. mezankari, sittimbar; family Lauraceae, order Laurales

* Litsaea nitida, vern. kothalua; family Lauraceae, order Laurales

* Litsaea salicifolia; vern. dighleti, digloti; family Lauraceae, order Laurales

* Magnolia pterocarpa, syn. M. sphenocarpa; vern. panchapa; family Magnoliaceae, order Magnoliales

* Michelia champaca; champak; family Magnoliaceae, order Magnoliales

* Michelia oblonga; family Magnoliaceae, order Magnoliales

* Machilus odoratissima; machilus, vern. kawala; family Lauraceae, order Laurales

* Symplocos grandiflora; family Symplocaceae, order Ebenales

* Symplocus paniculata, syn. S. crataegoides; sapphire berry, sweet leaf, vern. ludh; family Symplocaceae, order Ebenales

* Symplocos ramosissima; vern. lodh; family Symplocaceae, order Ebenales

* Zanthoxylum armatum, syn. Z. alatum and its var. planispinum, Z. planispinum; vern. darmar, Nepali dhaniya, tejphal, tumru; family Rutaceae, order Geraniales

* Zanthoxylum limonella, syn. Z. budrunga, Z. rhetsa; vern. bazramani; family Rutaceae, order Geraniales

* Zizyphus jujuba, syn. Z. sativa, Z. vulgaris; vern. ber, pitni ber; family Rhamnaceae, order Rhamnales

* Zizyphus mauritiana, syn. Z. jujuba, Indian jujube, common jujube, vern. bear, ber; family Rhamnaceae, order Rhamnales

A large number of wild silkworms are known in nature. They, too, produce silk by feeding on the leaves of a number of plants. However, the silk they produce is not of good quality. The food plants of these wild silkworms are: Acer campbellii, A. caudatum, Actinodaphne sikkimensis, Anacardium occidentale, Ardisia species, Artemisia vulgaris, Bischofia javanica, Careya arborea, Cedrella serrata, C. toona, Clerodendron infortunatum, Coriaria nepalensis, Cydonia oblonga syn. C. vulgaris, Dalbergia sissoo, Dillenia indica, D. pentagyna syn. D. pentagynia, Emblica officinalis syn. Phyllanthus emblica, Eugenia fruiticosa, Glochidion hohenackeri syn. G. lanceolarium, G. velutinum, Juglans rigia, Lagerstroemia speciosa syn. L. flos reginae, Lannea coromandelica syn. Odina wodier, Leucosceptrum canum, Litsaea glutinosa syn. L. sebifera, Lyonia ovalifolia syn. Pieris ovalifolia, Machilus odoratissima, Mangifera indica, Melastoma malabathricum, Meyna laxiflora syn. Vangueria spinosa, Microcos paniculata syn. Grewia microcos, Mimusops elengi, Mitragyna rotundifolia syn. Stephegyne diversifolia, Ocimum spp., Phyllanthus lanceolaria, Prunus cerasoides syn. P. puddum, Pterospermum semisagittatum, Pyrus communis, P. pashia, Salix babylonica, S. tetrasperma, Sapium insigne, Schleichera oleosa, syn. S. trijuga, Symplocos paniculata, syn. S. crataegoides, S. racemosa, Syzygium cuminii syn. Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia alata syn. T. tomentosa, Turpinia nepalensis, T. pomifera, Wendlandia thyrsoidea syn. W. notonia, Zanthoxylum acanthopodium and Z armatum syn. Z. alarum (Seth, 2000e).

IV. Conclusions

As discussed above, trees are of great importance to people, not only economically and ecologically but also ornamentally and bioaesthetically. Because trees meet the needs of humans, the primary objective of any afforestation, biodiversity, ecodevelopment, bioaesthetic or landscape plan must be both to protect native tree-growing areas from further destruction and to plant trees in large areas. For any society, planting and care of trees serve as important endeavors and symbolize hope for the future. Multipurpose trees and shrubs have the capacity to provide for a variety of end uses while reversing the process of land degradation.

Most of our environmental problems can be solved to a great extent if we grow more trees, especially in urbanized localities and cities. Because people in different parts of the world have become aware of the needs of trees and forests, many countries have started celebrating annual "Forest Festivals" or "Tree Festivals" or "Greening Weeks" or "Arbor Days." In India, too, tree planting has been adopted as a national policy. The first successful tree-planting week was celebrated in Delhi in July 1947, with the participation of national leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, Rajendra Prasad and Abdul Kalam Azad, among many others (Randhawa, 1961, 19651983). In 1950 the celebration was renamed "Vana Mahotsava" (Grand Festival of Forests [or Trees]) (Seth et al., 1962).

Table I
Trees as a source of food

Common name                      Genus and species

Tree legumes
  Algaroba                       Prosopis chinensis, P. juliflora
  Carob bean                     Ceratonia siliqua
  Honey locust                   Gleditsia triacanthus
  Tamarind or imli               Tamarindus indica
  Rain tree or vilaiti sirris    Samanea saman
  Nittas                         Parkia biglobosam P. filicoidea,
                                   P. roxburghii
  Manila tamarind or jangal      Pithecellobium dulce
    jalebi

Nuts with high fat content
  Brazil nut, "neggertoes,"      Bertholletia excelsa
    "cream nuts"
  Cashew nut or kaju             Anacardium occidentale
  Coconut or nariyal             Cocus nucifera
  Filbert                        Corylus avellana
  Hazelnut                       Corylus americana, C. cornuta,
                                   C. colurna
  Hickory                        Carya ovata
  Pecan nut                      Carya illinoensis
  Pilinut                        Canarium ovatum
  Pine nut                       Pinus edulis, P. gerardiana
                                   (Chilgoza), P. kesiya, etc.
  Walnut                         Juglans nigra, J. regia
  European beech                 Fagus sylvatica
  Jangli badam                   Terminalia catappa
  Queensland nut                 Macadamia turnifolia
  Macadamia nut                  Macadamia turnifolia, M. integrifolia

Nuts with high protein content
  Almond                         Prunus amygdalus
  Beechnut                       Fagus grandifolia, F. sylvatica
  Pistachio nut, green almond    Pistacia vera
  Acorn                          Quercus spp.
  Chestnut                       Castanea dentata

Fruit vegetables
  Avocado, alligator pear        Persea americana
  Breadfruit                     Artocarpus altilis
  Jackfruit, kat-hal             Artocarpus heterophyllus

Pome fruits
  Apple, vern. seb               Malus pumila, syn. M. domestica
  Pear, vern. nakh               Pyrus communis
  Quince                         Cydonia vulgaris
  Chinese pear or sand pear,     Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta
    vern. nashpati
  Medlar                         Mespilus germanica

Stone fruits
  Apricot, vern. khurmani        Prunus armeniaca
  Cherry, sweet                  Prunus avium
  Cherry, sour, vern. gilas      Prunus cerasus
  Cherry, Himalayan              Prunus cerasoides
  Cherry, Himalayan bird         Prunus cornuta
  Cherry, European bird,         Prunus padus
    vern. jaman
  Peach, vern. aru               Prunus persica
  Plum, vern. alucha,            Prunus domestica
    alu-bukhara

Citrus fruits
  Sweet orange, musambi          Citrus sinensis
  Sour orange, khatta            Citrus aurantium
  Mandarin orange, santara       Citrus reticulata
  Pomelo, grapefruit             Citrus paradisi
  Lemon, bara (pahari) nimbu     Citrus limon
  Lime, nimbu or kaghzi nimbu    Citrus aurantifolia
  Shaddock, chakotra             Citrus maxima

Other fruits
  Emlic, amla                    Emblica officinalis
  Pineapple, ananas              Ananas comosus
  Mulberry, tut, shahtoot        Morus alba, M. australis, M. nigra,
                                   M. rubra, etc.
  Money jack, lakoocha,          Atrocarpus lakoocha
    barhal, dahrua
  Chinese date, jujube, her,     Zizyphus mauritiana
    badara
  Limeberry, chini narangi       Triphasia trifolia
  Cherimoya, Hanuman phal,       Annona cherimolia
    Lakshman phal
  Jambolan, jamun, jambaba       Syzygium cumini
  Wild jujube, jharber           Zizyphus nummularia
  Carambola, karmal              Averrhoea carambola
  Bael, bilva                    Aegle marmelos
  Custard apple, sweet sop,      Annona squamosa
    sharifa
  Date, pind khajur              Phoenix dactylifera
  Fig                            Ficus carica
  Guava, amrood                  Psidium guajava
  Jujube, ber                    Zizyphus mauritiana
  Litchi                         Litchi chinensis
  Loquat                         Eriobotrya japonica
  Mango, aam                     Mangifera indica
  Olive                          Olea europaea
  Papaya, papeeta                Carica papaya
  Pomegranate, anar              Punica granatum
  Sapodila, sapota, chiku        Manikara achras
  Kumquat                        Fortunella japonica
  Wild date, khajur              Phoenix sylvestris
  Gorgan nut, makhana (seeds)    Euryale ferox
  Phalsa                         Grewia subinaequalis
  Durian                         Durio zibethinus
  Granadilla, passion fruit      Passiflora edulis, P. incarnata, P.
                                   lauri-olia, P. lingularis,
                                   P. mollissima, P. quadrangularis
  Rose apple, gulabjaman         Syzygium jambos
  Japanese persimon, kaki        Diospyros kaki

Common name                      Family

Tree legumes
  Algaroba                       Mimosaceae
  Carob bean                     Caesalpiniaceae
  Honey locust                   Caesalpiniaceae
  Tamarind or imli               Caesalpiniaceae
  Rain tree or vilaiti sirris    Mimosaceae
  Nittas                         Mimosaceae
  Manila tamarind or jangal      Mimosaceae
    jalebi

Nuts with high fat content
  Brazil nut, "neggertoes,"      Lecythidaceae
    "cream nuts"
  Cashew nut or kaju             Anacardiacae
  Coconut or nariyal             Arecaceae
  Filbert                        Corylaceae
  Hazelnut                       Corylaceae
  Hickory                        Juglandaceace
  Pecan nut                      Juglandaceae
  Pilinut                        Burseraceae
  Pine nut                       Pinaceae
  Walnut                         Juglandaceae
  European beech                 Fagaceae
  Jangli badam                   Combretaceae
  Queensland nut                 Proteaceae
  Macadamia nut                  Proteaceae

Nuts with high protein content
  Almond                         Rosaceae
  Beechnut                       Fagaceae
  Pistachio nut, green almond    Pistaciaceae
  Acorn                          Fagaceae
  Chestnut                       Fagaceae

Fruit vegetables
  Avocado, alligator pear        Lauraceae
  Breadfruit                     Moraceae
  Jackfruit, kat-hal             Moraceae

Pome fruits
  Apple, vern. seb               Rosaceae
  Pear, vern. nakh               Rosaceae
  Quince                         Rosaceae
  Chinese pear or sand pear,     Rosaceae
    vern. nashpati
  Medlar                         Rosaceae

Stone fruits
  Apricot, vern. khurmani        Rosaceae
  Cherry, sweet                  Rosaceae
  Cherry, sour, vern. gilas      Rosaceae
  Cherry, Himalayan              Rosaceae
  Cherry, Himalayan bird         Rosaceae
  Cherry, European bird,         Rosaceae
    vern. jaman
  Peach, vern. Aru               Rosaceae
  Plum, vern. alucha,            Rosaceae
    alu-bukhara

Citrus fruits
  Sweet orange, musambi          Rutaceae
  Sour orange, khatta            Rutaceae
  Mandarin orange, santara       Rutaceae
  Pomelo, grapefruit             Rutaceae
  Lemon, bara (pahari) nimbu     Rutaceae
  Lime, nimbu or kaghzi nimbu    Rutaceae
  Shaddock, chakotra             Rutaceae

Other fruits
  Emlic, amla                    Euphorbiaceae
  Pineapple, ananas              Bromeliaceae
  Mulberry, tut, shahtoot        Moraceae
  Money jack, lakoocha,          Moraceae
    barhal, dahrua
  Chinese date, jujube, her,     Rhamnaceae
    badara
  Limeberry, chini narangi       Rutaceae
  Cherimoya, Hanuman phal,       Annonaceae
    Lakshman phal
  Jambolan, jamun, jambaba       Myrtaceae
  Wild jujube, jharber           Rhamnaceae
  Carambola, karmal              Averrhoaceae
  Bael, bilva                    Rutaceae
  Custard apple, sweet sop,      Annonaceae
    sharifa
  Date, pind khajur              Arecaceae
  Fig                            Moraceae
  Guava, amrood                  Myrtaceae
  Jujube, ber                    Rhamnaceae
  Litchi                         Sapindaceae
  Loquat                         Rosaceae
  Mango, aam                     Anacardiaceae
  Olive                          Oleaceae
  Papaya, papeeta                Caricaceae
  Pomegranate, anar              Punicaceae
  Sapodila, sapota, chiku        Sapotaceae
  Kumquat                        Rutaceae
  Wild date, khajur              Arecaceae
  Gorgan nut, makhana (seeds)    Euryalaceae
  Phalsa                         Tiliaceae
  Durian                         Bombacaceae
  Granadilla, passion fruit      Passifloraceae
  Rose apple, gulabjaman         Myrtaceae
  Japanese persimon, kaki        Ebenaceae

Common name                      Remarks

Tree legumes
  Algaroba                       Flowers a source of honey; pods used
                                   as stock feed
  Carob bean                     Dried pod edible
  Honey locust                   Pods eaten by animals
  Tamarind or imli               Pods used for tart; fruits pulp used
                                   for chutney or sauce
  Rain tree or vilaiti sirris    Sweet pulp of black pods excellent
                                   food stock
  Nittas                         Pods and seeds edible
  Manila tamarind or jangal      Aril edible
    jalebi

Nuts with high fat content
  Brazil nut, "neggertoes,"      Contain 65-70% fats and 17% proteins
    "cream nuts"
  Cashew nut or kaju             Swollen peduncle, thalamus and
                                   cotyledons edible
  Coconut or nariyal             Endosperm edible
  Filbert                        Kernels edible
  Hazelnut                       Kernels edible
  Hickory                        Kernels edible
  Pecan nut                      Kernels edible
  Pilinut                        Seeds edible
  Pine nut                       Cotyledons edible
  Walnut                         Cotyledons edible
  European beech
  Jangli badam
  Queensland nut
  Macadamia nut

Nuts with high protein content
  Almond                         Seeds edible
  Beechnut                       Seeds edible
  Pistachio nut, green almond    Seeds edible
  Acorn                          Eaten by animals
  Chestnut                       Seeds edible

Fruit vegetables
  Avocado, alligator pear        Fruits edible
  Breadfruit                     Fruits edible
  Jackfruit, kat-hal             Fruits edible

Pome fruits
  Apple, vern. seb               Fleshy thalamus edible
  Pear, vern. nakh               Fleshy thalamus edible
  Quince                         Fleshy thalamus edible
  Chinese pear or sand pear,     Fleshy thalamus edible
    vern. nashpati
  Medlar                         Fleshy thalamus edible

Stone fruits
  Apricot, vern. khurmani        Seeds edible
  Cherry, sweet                  Seeds edible
  Cherry, sour, vern. gilas      Seeds edible
  Cherry, Himalayan              Seeds edible
  Cherry, Himalayan bird         Seeds edible
  Cherry, European bird,         Seeds edible
    vern. jaman
  Peach, vern. Aru               Seeds edible
  Plum, vern. alucha,            Seeds edible
    alu-bukhara

Citrus fruits
  Sweet orange, musambi          Glandular hairs arising from endocarp
                                   edible; fruit is hesperidium
  Sour orange, khatta            Glandular hairs arising from endocarp
                                   edible; fruit is hesperidium
  Mandarin orange, santara       Glandular hairs arising from endocarp
                                   edible; fruit is hesperidium
  Pomelo, grapefruit             Glandular hairs arising from endocarp
                                   edible; fruit is hesperidium
  Lemon, bara (pahari) nimbu     Glandular hairs arising from endocarp
                                   edible; fruit is hesperidium
  Lime, nimbu or kaghzi nimbu    Glandular hairs arising from endocarp
                                   edible; fruit is hesperidium
  Shaddock, chakotra             Glandular hairs arising from endocarp
                                   edible; fruit is hesperidium

Other fruits
  Emlic, amla                    Fruit rich in tannin and vitamin C;
                                   commonly pickled and used as
                                   medicine; epicarp and mesocarp of
                                   drupe edible
  Pineapple, ananas
  Mulberry, tut, shahtoot        Succulent perianth and fleshy axis
                                   edible
  Money jack, lakoocha,
    barhal, dahrua
  Chinese date, jujube, her,     Epicarp and mesocarp of drupe edible
    badara
  Limeberry, chini narangi
  Cherimoya, Hanuman phal,       Juicy mesocarps of individual berries
    Lakshman phal                  edible
  Jambolan, jamun, jambaba       Epicarp and mesocarp of drupe edible
  Wild jujube, jharber           Epicarp and mesocarp of drupe edible
  Carambola, karmal
  Bael, bilva                    Inner fleshy layer of pericarp and
                                   placentae edible
  Custard apple, sweet sop,      Inner fleshy layer of pericarp and
    sharifa                        placentae edible
  Date, pind khajur              Pericarp edible
  Fig                            Fleshy receptacle or thalamus edible
  Guava, amrood                  Inferior (or false) berries (i.e..
                                   pericarp is fused with thalamus);
                                   epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp
                                   edible
  Jujube, ber                    Epicarp and mesocarp edible
  Litchi                         Aril edible
  Loquat                         Fruit is a pome where thalamus is
                                   enlarged to form fleshy, edible
                                   part; pericarp is cartilaginous and
                                   encloses seed-bearing loculi
  Mango, aam                     Fleshy mesocarp edible
  Olive                          Epicarp and mesocarp edible;
                                   commercial olive oil is obtained
                                   from fruit pulp and seeds
  Papaya, papeeta
  Pomegranate, anar              Seeds with juicy testa edible
  Sapodila, sapota, chiku
  Kumquat
  Wild date, khajur              Only one carpel develops into a
                                   one-seeded edible berry
  Gorgan nut, makhana (seeds)    Seeds edible
  Phalsa
  Durian
  Granadilla, passion fruit
  Rose apple, gulabjaman         Epicarp and mesocarp of drupe edible
  Japanese persimon, kaki

Table II
Sugar-yielding trees

Common name             Genus and species         Family

Sugar and sap from sweet sap of maples

  Sugar maple           Acer saccharum            Aceraceae
  Black maple           Acer nigrum               Aceraceae

Sugar from unopened inflorescences of palms

  Date palm             Phoenix dactylifera       Aceraceae
  Wild date palm        Phoenix sylvestris        Aceraceae
  Palmyra palm          Borassus flabellifer      Aceraceae
  Coconut palm          Cocos nucifera            Aceraceae
  Toddy palm            Caryota urens             Aceraceae
  Gomuti palm           Arenga pinnata            Aceraceae
  Honey palm            Jubaca chinensis          Aceraceae
  Nipa palm             Niga fruticans            Aceraceae

Glucose, dextrose or
grape sugar

Fructose, levulose or
fruit sugar

Manna or mannose

  Manna ash tree        Fraxinus ornus            Oleaceae

Nectar

  Gulabi kachnar        Bauhinia purpurea         Caesalpinae
  Bottle brush          Callistemon lanceolatum   Myrtaceae
  Horse chestnut        Aesculus indica           Hippocastanaceae
  Jamun                 Eugenia jambolana         Myrtaceae
  Neem                  Azadirachta indica        Meliaceae
  Shisham               Dalbergia sissoo          Fabaceae
  Soapnut               Sapindus spp.             Sapindaceae
  Tun                   Cedrela toona             Meliaceae
  Barna                 Crataeva religiosa        Capparidaceae
  Chinese tallow        Sapium sebiferum          Euphorbiaceae

Common name             Remarks

Sugar and sap from sweet sap of maples

  Sugar maple           Incisions are made through the bark into the
  Black maple           sapwood or large roots and sap is collected,
                        usually in March and April, when temperatures
                        reach 25[degrees]F at night and 55[degrees]F
                        during the day; sugar is sucrose

Sugar from unopened inflorescences of palms

  Date palm             In wild date palm sugar is obtained from
  Wild date palm        tender upper portions of the stem; the tips of
  Palmyra palm          inflorescences or stems are cut and sweet sap
  Coconut palm          that oozes out and collected is called "toddy";
  Toddy palm            its sugar content is about 14%; it is boiled
  Gomuti palm           and cooled to obtain hard crude sugar called
  Honey palm            "jaggary," and it can be fermented to make the
  Nipa palm             beverage called "arrack"; sugar is sucrose

Glucose, dextrose or    Present in edible fruits of many trees and
grape sugar             shrubs

Fructose, levulose or   Present in edible fruits of many trees and
fruit sugar             shrubs

Manna or mannose

  Manna ash tree        The juice oozes out from slits made in the
                        bark and dries into flake-like a sweet
                        substance called "manna," used mainly in
                        medicine

Nectar

  Gulabi kachnar        Secreted by attractive flowers of many species
  Bottle brush          in various families; mainly sucrose, with some
  Horse chestnut        glucose and fructose; main food of bees, which
  Jamun                 partially digest it; it is thus converted into
  Neem                  honey; containing 70-75% invert sugar,
  Shisham               proteins, mineral salts and water, honey is an
  Soapnut               excellent food for humans and is used in
  Tun                   medicine, in the tobacco industry and in the
  Barna                 preparation of mead, a fermented beverage
  Chinese tallow

Source: Information on nectar-yielding trees is from Randhawa,
1965-1983.

Table III
Spice- and condiment-yielding trees

Common name               Genus and species         Family

Cassia, vern. tejpat      Cinnamomum cassia, syn.   Lauraceae
                            C. tamala
Dalchini or Ceylon        Cinnamomum zeylanicum     Lauraceae
  cinnamon
Sassafras                 Sassafras albidum         Lauraceae
Cloves                    Syzygium aromaticum       Myrtaceae
Allspice                  Pimenta dioica            Myrtaceae
Juniper berries           Juniperus communis and    Cupressaceae
                            other species
Star anise or anasphal    Illicium verum            Apiaceae
Nutmeg (seed or kernel)   Myristica fragrans        Myristicaceae
  and mace (aril)
Sweet bay or laurel       Laurus nobilis            Lauraceae

Common name               Part used

Cassia, vern. tejpat      Bark
Dalchini or Ceylon        Bark
  cinnamon
Sassafras                 Root bark
Cloves                    Unopened flower buds
Allspice                  Fruits
Juniper berries           Mature cones
Star anise or anasphal    Fruit
Nutmeg (seed or kernel)   Seeds
  and mace (aril)
Sweet bay or laurel       Leaves

Table IV
Important beverage-yielding woody plants

Common name            Genus and species               Family

Coffee                 Coffea arabica, C. canephora,   Rubiaceae
                         C. liberica, C. robusta,
                         C. stenophylla
Cocoa or chocolate     Theobroma cacao                 Sterculiaceae
Mate or Paraguay tea   Ilex paraguariensis             Aquifoliaceae
Guarana                Paullinia cupana                Sapindaceae
Cola                   Cola nitida                     Sterculiaceae
Cassine                Ilex vomitoria                  Aquifoliaceae
Yoco                   Paullinia yoco                  Sapindaceae
Coca and cocaine       Erythroxylon coca               Erythroxylaceae

                                                           Caffeine
Common name            Part used                          content (%)

Coffee                 Coffee seeds called "beans"           1-1.5
Cocoa or chocolate     Seeds
Mate or Paraguay tea   Leaves
Guarana                Seeds                                 3-4.5
Cola                   Seeds                                   2
Cassine                Fresh or dried leaves and shoots
Yoco                   Bark                                   3-4
Coca and cocaine       Dried leaves

Table V
Trees used as fumitories and mascatories

Common name                  Genus and species       Family

Bidi or tendu                Diospyros melanoxylon   Ebenaceae
Areca, betal nut or supari   Areca catechu           Arecaceae
Catechu, katha, khair or     Acacia catechu          Mimosaceae
  khadira
Cola or kola nuts            Cola nitida             Sterculiaceae

Common name                  Remarks

Bidi or tendu                Dried leaves used for wrapping the
                               tobacco and as a fumitory
Areca, betal nut or supari   Betal nuts (drupes) chewed along with
                               pan (leaves of Piper betle)
Catechu, katha, khair or     Katha obtained from heartwood applied to
  khadira                      pan (leaves of Piper betle)
Cola or kola nuts            Seeds of cola tree used as a masticator
                               in tropical Africa; it contains 2%
                               caffeine, essential oil and a
                               glucoside, chelonian, which is a
                               heart stimulant

Table VI
Differences between essential and fatty (fixed) oils

Essential oils                      Fatty (fixed) oils

They evaporate or volatilize in     They do not evaporate or become
contact with air and hence are      volatile when they come into
called "volatile oils"              contact with air and hence are
                                    called "nonvolatile oils"

They can be readily removed from    They cannot be distilled without
the plant tissues without any       being decomposed and hence are
change in their composition         called "expressed oils"
and hence are called "distilled
oils"

They possess a pleasant taste,      They do not possess a strong taste
have a strong, aromatic odor        or odor and are colorless
and may be colored

They are typically liquids          At normal (room) or high
                                    temperatures they are either
                                    liquids or fluids and are called
                                    "oils"; at normal or cold
                                    temperatures they may be solids or
                                    semisolids and are called "fats."
                                    Quite obviously, what is an oil in
                                    a warm climate may be a fat in a
                                    cold climate.

They are very complex in their      Chemically these vegetable fatty
chemical composition. The two       oils are close to animal fats.
principal groups are terpenes,      They consist of glycerine and
which are hydrocarbons, and         fatty acid, which is an oleic acid
oxygenated and sulphuretted oils.   if it is an oil but stearic or
                                    palmatic acid if it is a fat.

They have antiseptic qualities      They generally do not possess
                                    antiseptic properties

They are used for diverse           Most of them are edible and are
purposes, but not as food           available as food for humans

Soap is not formed when they are    When a fat is boiled with an
treated with an alkali              alkali, it decomposes and the
                                    fatty acid unites with an alkali
                                    to form soap. If potash or lye is
                                    used, a soft soap is obtained; if
                                    soda is used, a hard soap is
                                    obtained.

They can be obtained by             They can be obtained by a
distillation, expression or         combination of expression and
extraction                          extraction, but not by
                                    distillation

Table VII
Essential-oil-yielding trees

Common name              Genus and species         Family

Ylang-ylang              Cananga odorata           Annonaceae

Neroli: true oil of      Citrus aurantium          Rutaceae
neroli or neroli
bigarade

Neroli Portugal          Citrus sinensis           Rutaceae

Mandarin oil             Citrus reticulata         Rutaceae

Petitgrain oil           Citrus spp.; in India,    Rutaceae
                         C. aurantium,
                         C. limettoides

Orange oil               Citrus spp.; in India,    Rutaceae
                         C. aurantifoli,
                         C. reticulata

Bergamot                 Citrus aurantium subsp.   Rutaceae
                         bergamia

Mexican linaloe          Bursera penicillata,      Burseraceae
                         B. glabrifolia

Mysore linaloe           Bursera penicillata       Burseraceae

Cayenne linaloe          Aniba panurensis          Lauraceae

Brazilian bois de rose   Ariba rosaeodora var.     Lauraceae
                         amazonia

Sandalwood oil, vern.    Santalum album and        Santalaceae
safed chandan            related spp.

Champaca oil             Michelia champaca         Magnoliaceae

Camphor, camphor gum,    Cinnamomum camphora       Lauraceae
mushkapur, camphor oil

Cedarwood oil            Juniperus virginiana      Cupressaceae

Deodar oil               Cedrus deodara, Junipe-   Pinaceae, Cupres-
                         rus macropoda             saceae

Clove oil, vern.         Syzygium aromaticum       Myrtaceae
loungka-tel

Oil of turpentine,       Pinus spp.                Pinaceae
pine oil

Cinnamon oil             Cinnamomum zeylanicum     Lauraceae

Eucalyptus oil           Eucalyptus citriodora,    Myrtaceae
                         E. diver, E. globulus,
                         etc.

Nutmeg oil               Myristica fragrans        Myristicaceae

Macassar oil             Schleichera trijuga       Sapindaceae

Agar oil, agar attar     Aquillaria agallocha      Thymelaeaceae

Keora oil, attar of      Pandanus tectorius        Pandanaceae
kewda, attar keora,      (= P. odoratissimus)
keora water, sandali
attar, kewda or oil
kewda

Cajeput oil              Melaleuca leucadendron    Myrtaceae

Elengi oil               Mimusops elengi           Sapotaceae

Common name              Remarks

Ylang-ylang              Oil is extracted from flower petals. Cananga
                         oil is used in some of the finest perfumery
                         creations in France; cheaper grades are used
                         in soap making.

Neroli: true oil of      Oil is extracted from flowers of the sour
neroli or neroli         orange
bigarade

Neroli Portugal          Oil is extracted from flowers of the sweet
                         orange

Mandarin oil             Oil from peels is used in confectionery,
                         toilet products and pharmaceutical
                         preparations

Petitgrain oil           Oil extracted from leaves and twigs is used
                         to add a pleasant bouquet to scents,
                         cosmetics, skin creams and soaps

Orange oil               Oil extracted from ripe peels is used to add
                         a pleasant bouquet to scents, cosmetics, skin
                         creams and soaps

Bergamot                 Greenish oil extracted from ripe peels has a
                         soft, sweet odor and is used for scenting
                         toilet soaps, in mixed perfumes and as a
                         clearing agent

Mexican linaloe          Very aromatic oil extracted from the wood is
                         widely used in perfumes, soaps, cosmetics,
                         etc. and for flavoring food and beverages

Mysore linaloe           Very aromatic oil extracted from husks of
                         berries is widely used in perfumes, soaps,
                         cosmetics, etc. and for flavoring food and
                         beverages

Cayenne linaloe          Very aromatic oil is widely used in perfumes,
                         soaps, cosmetics, etc. and for flavoring food
                         and beverages

Brazilian bois de rose   Very aromatic oil extracted from the wood is
                         widely used in perfumes, soaps, cosmetics,
                         etc. and for flavoring food and beverages

Sandalwood oil, vern.    Oil extracted from the wood is largely used
safed chandan            as a perfume and in soaps, face creams and
                         toilet powders. In medicine it has cooling,
                         diaphoretic, diuretic and expectorant
                         properties. An excellent fixative, it is much
                         used in blends. The sweet-scented wood is
                         utilized for boxes and chests.

Champaca oil             One of the most famous perfumes of India, it
                         is used for various purposes

Camphor, camphor gum,    Camphor is solid with tough, white,
mushkapur, camphor oil   translucent granule-like masses at ordinary
                         temperatures. Extracted from the wood, twigs
                         and leaves, it is used in the manufacture of
                         celluloid, nitrocellulose compounds and
                         expensive perfumes and in medicine for
                         inflammations, rheumatic pains and sprains,
                         as a cardiac stimulant and to relieve
                         diarrhoea. The by-product is called
                         "safrole."

Cedarwood oil            Oil extracted from the heartwood is valuable
                         as a clearing agent in the preparation of
                         permanent microscopic mounts and for use with
                         oil-immersion lenses because of its high
                         refractory index. It is also used in soaps,
                         perfumes, liniments, deodorants and cleaning
                         and polishing preparations and as an
                         adulterant of geranium and sandlewood oils.
                         Because of its insecticidal properties it is
                         utilized as a moth repellent and in fly
                         sprays.

Deodar oil               The variants of cedarwood oil used in India
                         are obtained from chips, sawdust or wood of
                         Cedrus deodara and from the shavings and
                         sawdust of Juniperus macropoda

Clove oil, vern.         Oil extracted from flower buds is used in
loungka-tel              perfumes, soaps, confectionery and medicine,
                         as a stimulant, carminative and in flatulence
                         and as a clearing agent in histological work
                         for microscopy

Oil of turpentine,       Oil from resins is used in the manufacture of
pine oil                 varnishes, lacquers, disinfectants, paints,
                         linoleum, sealing wax, oilcloth, lubricating
                         compounds, inks, etc.

Cinnamon oil             Oil from chips and waste bark is used in the
                         preparation of cinnamon quills and as
                         denitifrices and perfumes

Eucalyptus oil           Oil from the leaves and terminal branchlets
                         is a source of citronellal, citronellol and
                         menthol. It is widely used in perfumery, as a
                         mosquito repellent, germicide and
                         disinfectant and in medicine in the treatment
                         of asthma and bronchitis.

Nutmeg oil               Oils from nutmeg (the aromatic kernels) and
                         mace (the arils) of the fruits of Myristica
                         fragrans (vern. jaiphal) are used externally
                         to treat rheumatism and in soaps and
                         perfumes. Oil obtained from the leaves is
                         used in the preparation of chewing gum,
                         flavoring essences and cosmetics.

Macassar oil             Extracted from seeds of the gum-lac tree
                         (vern. gausam), the oil has a valuable
                         stimulating and cleansing effect on the
                         scalp, promoting hair growth. It is also used
                         to cure skin diseases, itches, rheumatism and
                         headaches.

Agar oil, agar attar     Agar oil, from resinous portions of the wood,
                         is pale yellow to brownish yellow or dark
                         amber in color. It is used in perfumery and
                         as an incense. True agar is heavier than
                         water.

Keora oil, attar of      Screwpine flowers are unusually large: a
kewda, attar keora,      single flower weighs up to 150 g. The oil is
keora water, sandali     used in the preparation of fragrant hair
attar, kewda or oil      oils, perfumes, etc.
kewda

Cajeput oil              Oil extracted from fresh leaves and twigs is
                         used in pharmaceuticals as throat lozenges,
                         gargles, etc. and in medicine as a remedy for
                         colds, throat diseases, headaches, etc.

Elengi oil               The essential oil, from bulletwood flowers,
                         is a pale yellow, mobile liquid with a very
                         delicate, sweet and tenacious floral odor. It
                         is used in the manufacture of perfumes.

Table VIII
Fatty-oil- and vegetable-fat-yielding trees

Common name                  Genus and species        Family

Drying oils from seeds

Tung oil                     Aleurites fordii,        Euphorbiaceae
                             A. montana

Kekuna, candle nut,          Aleurites moluccana      Euphorbiaceae
lumbang oil

Walnut oil                   Juglans regia            Juglandaceae

Laurelwood oil               Calophyllum inophyllum   Guttiferae

Margosa oil                  Azadirachta indica       Meliaceae

Oiticia oil                  Licania rigida           Rosaceae

Nondrying oils from seeds

Castor oil                   Ricinus communis         Euphorbiaceae

Olive oil                    Olea europaea            Oleaceae

Vegetable fats

Coconut oil                  Cocos nucifera           Arecaceae

Palm oil, palm-kernel oil    Elaeis guineensis        Arecaceae

Mahua oil, mowra or bassia   Madhuca indica           Sapotaceae
fat; mahua or illipe
butter

Phulwara butter              Diplokneura butyracea    Sapotaceae
                             (= Madhuca butyracea)

Carapa oil                   Xylocarpus moluccensis   Meliaceae

Nutmeg butter                Myristica fragrans       Myristicaceae

Pongam oil                   Pongamia pinnata         Papilionaceae

Babassu oil                  Orbignya martiana,       Arecaceae
                             O. oleifera

Cohune oil                   Orbignya cohune          Arecaceae

Licuri oil                   Syagrus coronata         Arecaceae

Murumuru oil                 Astrocaryum murumuru,    Arecaceae
                             A. tucuma, A. vulgare

Cocoa butter                 Theobroma cacao          Sterculiaceae

Shea butter                  Butyrospermum parkii     Sapotaceae

Borneo tallow                Shorea aptera            Dipterocarpaceae

Chinese vegetable tallow     Sapium sebiferum         Euphorbiaceae

Macassar oil                 Schleichera oleosa       Sapindaceae

Ucuhuba butter, otoba        Virola spp.              Myristaceae
butter

Common name                  Remarks

Drying oils from seeds

Tung oil                     Used in the paint and varnish industry;
                             also used for waterproofing wood, paper
                             and fabrics, and therefore valuable for
                             outdoor paints

Kekuna, candle nut,          Used in making paint, varnish, lacquer,
lumbang oil                  linoleum and soft soap

Walnut oil                   Mature and old kernels yield a drying
                             oil. An edible oil, it is also used for
                             white paint, artists' oil paints,
                             printing ink and soap.

Laurelwood oil               Used as an illuminant, for soap making
                             and to treat rheumatism

Margosa oil                  Used as an antiseptic and for burning
                             purposes

Oiticia oil                  Used in the paint and varnish industry;
                             also used in making linoleum and printing
                             inks and for improving the elasticity of
                             rubber products

Nondrying oils from seeds

Castor oil                   Used as a purgative, a lubricant and an
                             illuminant; also used in soaps, the
                             textile industry, typewriter inks,
                             perfumes, varnishes and paints

Olive oil                    Used mainly as salad and cooking oil;
                             also used in soap making, as a lubricant
                             and in medicine

Vegetable fats

Coconut oil                  Dried coconut meat yields oil. Refined
                             coconut oil is edible. Used for cooking,
                             confectionery, making candy bars, soap,
                             cosmetics, shaving cream, shampoo and
                             other toilet preparations and also as an
                             illuminant.

Palm oil, palm-kernel oil    Extracted from the fibrous pulp of nuts
                             and from kernels. Used in making soap and
                             margarine and as a fuel for diesel
                             engines; also used for making glycerin,
                             shampoo, soap and candles.

Mahua oil, mowra or bassia   Oil obtained from seeds is used mainly in
fat; mahua or illipe         the manufacture of laundry soap and also
butter                       in making candy, in the jute industry,
                             and to treat skin diseases, rheumatism,
                             headache, constipation, piles, etc.

Phulwara butter              Oil obtained from seeds is used mainly in
                             the manufacture of laundry soap and also
                             in making candy, in the jute industry,
                             and to treat skin diseases, rheumatism,
                             headache, constipation, piles, etc.

Carapa oil                   Oil obtained from seeds is used for soap
                             and as an illuminant

Nutmeg butter                Seeds contain about 40% of a yellow fat,
                             used in soap, ointment, perfumes and
                             candles and also to treat rheumatism

Pongam oil                   Oil obtained from seeds is used for soap
                             making, as an illuminant, and in the
                             treatment of skin diseases and rheumatism

Babassu oil                  Oil obtained from nuts is used as a
                             substitute for coconut oil and for making
                             bullet-proof glass, explosives and
                             lubricants

Cohune oil                   Oil obtained from nuts is used as a
                             substitute for coconut oil and for making
                             bullet-proof glass, explosives and
                             lubricants

Licuri oil                   Oil obtained from nuts is used as a
                             substitute for coconut oil and for making
                             bullet-proof glass, explosives and
                             lubricants

Murumuru oil                 Oil obtained from nuts is used as a
                             substitute for coconut oil and for making
                             bullet-proof glass, explosives and
                             lubricants

Cocoa butter                 Fat obtained from beans is used for
                             cosmetics and perfumes, as a base for
                             ointments and as a lubricant for
                             massaging

Shea butter                  The fat is edible and is used as a
                             substitute for cocoa butter and in making
                             soap and candles

Borneo tallow                Fat from kernels is used for soap making
                             and as a substitute for cocoa butter

Chinese vegetable tallow     Obtained from a thick layer of hard,
                             white fat on seeds, it is used in soap,
                             cosmetics and candles. Seeds yield drying
                             oil, used for paints, varnishes and
                             plastics and as an illuminant.

Macassar oil                 Oil from seeds is used in cooking, as a
                             hair oil and for illumination

Ucuhuba butter, otoba        Used for various purposes
butter

Table IX
Wax-yielding trees

Common name    Genus and species      Family

Carnauba wax   Copernicia cerifera    Arecaceae

Wax tree       Ceroxylon andicola     Arecaceae

Myrtle wax     Myrica pensylvanica,   Myricaceae
               M. cerifera

Japanese wax   Rhus succedanea        Anacardiaceae

Common name    Remarks

Carnauba wax   The most important vegetable wax from the wax palm tree
               (the "tree of life" in Brazil), it occurs as an
               exudation on leaves and is used in the manufacture of
               candles, soap, high-luster varnish, paint, car wax,
               shoe polish, carbon paper, batteries, insulation,
               phonograph records, salve, sound film, ointment, etc.

Wax tree       Used as a substitute for carnauba wax

Myrtle wax     Berries are covered with thick layer of wax, used for
               the manufacture of soap and candles with a pleasant
               fragrance

Japanese wax   Berries yield wax, used in the manufacture of candles,
               wax matches, pencils, leather, furniture polish, soap
               and lipstick and in the vulcanization of rubber

Table X
Saponin-yielding trees

Common name        Genus and species       Family

Soap nut or soap   Sapindus emarginatus,   Sapindaceae
berries, vern.     S. mukorossi,
ritha              S. saponaria

Soapbark           Quillaja saponaria      Rosaceae

Common name        Remarks

Soap nut or soap   Used as a soap substitute for washing hair and
berries, vern.     woolen, silken and other delicate fabrics; also
ritha              used in the preparation of hair tonic

Soapbark           Dried inner bark contains 9% saponin, used for
                   washing delicate fabrics, cleaning lenses and
                   precision instruments, as an expectorant and
                   emulsifying agent in medicine and in the
                   manufacture of shampoo, cosmetics and hair tonic

Table XI
Forms of energy obtained from wood

Process                            Form of energy

Direct burning                     Heat, fire
Gasification                       Producer gas
Carbonization (the process of      Charcoal (has twice as much
  heating wood and converting it     heating power as wood and burns
  into carbon)                       without flame or smoke)
Pyrolysis                          Charcoal, gas, oil
Hydrolysis, fermentation           Ethanol
Gasification, synthesis            Methanol

Table XII
Tannin-yielding trees

Common name                    Genus and species

Tannins obtained from bark
  Mangrove                     Aegiceras corniculatum, Bruguiera con-
                                 jugata, B. cylindrica, B. parviflora,
                                 Rhizophora candelaria
  Wattle                       Acacia dealbata, A. decurrens, A.
                                 leucocephala, A. mearnsii, A. mollis,
                                 A. nilotica, A. polyacantha
  Avaram                       Cassia auriculata
  Konnai bark                  Cassia fistula
  Sumac                        Rhus mysurensis
  Arjun                        Terminalia arjuna
  Indian almond                Terminalio catappa
  Jujube                       Zizyphus mauritiana, Z. nummularia,
                                 Z. oenophlia
  Ceriops                      Ceriops roxhurghiana
  Cuddaph almond               Buchanania lanzan
  Casuarina                    Casuarina eguisetifolia, C. suberosa
  Sal                          Shorea robusta
  Pomegranate                  Punica granatum
  Hog plum                     Spondias pinnata
  Oak                          Lithocarpus densifora, Quercus alba,
                                 Q. borealis, Q. infectorea, Q. leuco-
                                 trichophora, Q. montana, Q. velutina
  Mallet                       Eucalyptus occidentalis
  Hemlock                      Tsuga canadensis, T. heterophylla
  European larch               Larix decidua
  Norway spruce                Picea abies
  Tanekaha bark                Phyllocladus trichomanoides

Tannins obtained from wood
  Chestnut                     Castanea dentata, C. sativa
  Quebracho                    Schinopsis balansae, S. lorentzii

Tannins obtained from leaves
  Sumac                        Rhus copallina, R. glabra, R.
                                 mysurensis, R. punjabensis, R.
                                 succedanea, R. typhina
  Smoke tree, Indian sumac     Cotinus coggyria
  Gumghatti, dhawa sumac       Anogeissus latifolia
  Sicilian sumac               Rhus coriaria

Tannins obtained from fruits
  Myrobalan                    Terminalia bellerica, T. catappa, T.
                                 chebula, T. citrina, T. tomentosa
  Emblic myrobalan             Emblica officinalis
  Divi divi                    Caesalpinia coriaria, C. digyna
  Wild jujube                  Zizyphus xylocarpa
  Pomegranate                  Punica granatum
  Tora                         Caesalpinia spinosa
  Algarobilla                  Caesalpinia brevifolia
  Valonia                      Quercus macrolepsis

Tannins obtained from roots
  Palmetto                     Sabal palmetto

Common name                    Family

Tannins obtained from bark
  Mangrove                     Rhizophoraceae
  Wattle                       Mimosaceae
  Avaram                       Caesalpiniaceae
  Konnai bark                  Caesalpiniaceae
  Sumac                        Anacardiaceae
  Arjun                        Combretaceae
  Indian almond                Combretaceae
  Jujube                       Rhamnaceae
  Ceriops                      Rhizophoraceae
  Cuddaph almond               Anacardiaceae
  Casuarina                    Casuarinaceae
  Sal                          Dipterocarpaceae
  Pomegranate                  Punicaceae
  Hog plum                     Anacardiaceae
  Oak                          Fagaceae
  Mallet                       Myrtaceae
  Hemlock                      Pinaceae
  European larch               Pinaceae
  Norway spruce                Pinaceae
  Tanekaha bark                Podocarpaceae

Tannins obtained from wood
  Chestnut                     Fagaceae
  Quebracho                    Anacardiaceae

Tannins obtained from leaves
  Sumac                        Anacardiaceae
  Smoke tree, Indian sumac     Anacardiaceae
  Gumghatti, dhawa sumac       Combretaceae
  Sicilian sumac               Anacardiaceae

Tannins obtained from fruits
  Myrobalan                    Combretaceae
  Emblic myrobalan             Euphorbiaceae
  Divi divi                    Caesalpiniaceae
  Wild jujube                  Rhamnaceae
  Pomegranate                  Punicaceae
  Tora                         Caesalpiniaceae
  Algarobilla                  Caesalpiniaceae
  Valonia                      Fagaceae

Tannins obtained from roots
  Palmetto                     Arecaceae

Common name                    Remarks

Tannins obtained from bark
  Mangrove                     Bark is very hard and heavy and contains
                                 22-33% tannin; extract is the cheapest
                                 source of tanning material
  Wattle                       Wattles contain 40-50% tannin. Bark,
                                 removed when trees are 5-15 years old,
                                 is ground to a powder. Pods also
                                 contain tannin. Wattles yield a very
                                 firm, pink leather, used for soles.
  Avaram                       Contains 18-23% tannin; used for tanning
  Konnai bark                  Contains 10-12% tannin; used for tanning
  Sumac                        Used for tanning
  Arjun                        Contains 20-24% tannin; used for tanning
  Indian almond                Used for tanning
  Jujube                       Used for tanning
  Ceriops                      Bark contains 20-37% tannin; leaves,
                                 9-15%
  Cuddaph almond               Used for tanning
  Casuarina                    Used for tanning
  Sal                          Bark contains 3-9% tannin; used for
                                 tanning
  Pomegranate                  Bark and fruit used for tanning
  Hog plum                     Used for tanning
  Oak                          Bark contains 6-30% tannin; used for
                                 tanning
  Mallet                       Bark contains 35-50% tannin
  Hemlock                      Bark contain 8-30% tannin; used for
                                 tanning
  European larch
  Norway spruce
  Tanekaha bark
Tannins obtained from wood
  Chestnut                     Wood contains 30-40% tannin
  Quebracho                    Wood, known as "axe breaker," is one of
                                 the hardest known woods; its specific
                                 gravity is 1.30-1.40. Wood contains
                                 40-60% tannin; used for tanning.
Tannins obtained from leaves
  Sumac                        10-25% tannin in leaves/leaf galls; used
                                 for tanning
  Smoke tree, Indian sumac     Used for tanning
  Gumghatti, dhawa sumac       Leaves contain 32-39% tannin; used for
                                 tanning
  Sicilian sumac               Leaves contain 20-35% tannin
Tannins obtained from fruits
  Myrobalan                    Nuts contain 30-40% tannin; used for
                                 tanning
  Emblic myrobalan             Tannin content 28% in fruit, 21% in
                                 twigs, 8-9% in stems, 22% in leaves
  Divi divi                    Pods contain 40-50% tannin; used for
                                 tanning
  Wild jujube                  Used for tanning
  Pomegranate                  Fruit shells and bark used for tanning
  Tora                         Fruits contain 43-51% tannin; used for
                                 tanning and making ink and as a black
                                 dye
  Algarobilla                  Used for tanning
  Valonia                      Sun-dried acorn cups contain 45% tannin;
                                 used for tanning
Tannins obtained from roots
  Palmetto                     Tannin content in roots is low (10%)

Table XIII
Dye-yielding trees

Common name                     Genus and species

Dyes obtained from wood
  Logwood                       Haematoxylon campechianum
  Cutch                         Acacia catechu, A. catechuoides,
                                  A. sundra
  Sappan wood, Brazil wood,     Caesalpinia echinata, C. sappan
    Braziline
  Red sandalwood, red           Pterocarpus santalinus
    sanderswood, santaline
  Fustic                        Chlorophora tinctoria
  Osage orange                  Maclura pomifera
  Camwood                       Baphia nitida
  Barwood                       Pterocarpus erinaceous, P. soyauxii
  Artocarpus                    Artocarpus heterophyllus,
                                  A.lakoocha

Dyes obtained from leaves
  Lodh                          Symplocos crataegoides
  Chlorophyll a ([C.sub.55]
      [H.sub.72][O.sub.5]
      [N.sub.4]Mg),
    Chlorophyll b ([C.sub.55]
      [H.sub.70][O.sub.6]
      [N.sub.4]Mg);
      all green plants

Dyes obtained from roots and
    tubers
  Indian mulberry               Morinda angustifolia, M. bracteata,
                                  M. citrifolia, M. tinctoria

Dyes obtained from bark
  Bishopwood                    Bischofia javanica
  Teak                          Tectona grandis
  Quercitron                    Quercus velutina
  Lokao, buckthorn              Rhamnus globosa, R. utilis

Dyes obtained from flowers
  Flame of the forest, dhak     Butea monosperma
  Tree of sorrow                Nyctanthes arbor-tristis
  Sweet indrajao                Wrightia tinctoria
  Red cedar                     Toona ciliata

Dyes obtained from fruits
  Kamla, kamela                 Mallotus philippinensis

Dyes obtained from seeds
  Annatto                       Bixa orellana
  Dharauli                      Wrightia tomentosa

Dyes obtained from different
    parts
  Gum resin, gamboge            Garcinia cambogia, G. cowa,
                                  G. hanburyi, G. morella,
                                  G. xanthochymus

Common name                     Family

Dyes obtained from wood
  Logwood                       Caesalpiniaceae
  Cutch                         Mimosaceae
  Sappan wood, Brazil wood,     Caesalpiniaceae
    Braziline
  Red sandalwood, red           Papilionaceae
    sanderswood, santaline
  Fustic                        Moraceae
  Osage orange                  Moraceae
  Camwood                       Fabaceae
  Barwood                       Papilionaceae
  Artocarpus                    Moraceae

Dyes obtained from leaves
  Lodh                          Symplocaceae
  Chlorophyll a ([C.sub.55]
      [H.sub.72][O.sub.5]
      [N.sub.4]Mg),
    Chlorophyll b ([C.sub.55]
      [H.sub.70][O.sub.6]
      [N.sub.4]Mg);
      all green plants

Dyes obtained from roots and
    tubers
  Indian mulberry               Rubiaceae

Dyes obtained from bark
  Bishopwood                    Euphorbiaceae
  Teak                          Verbenaceae
  Quercitron                    Fagaceae
  Lokao, buckthorn              Rhamnaceae

Dyes obtained from flowers
  Flame of the forest, dhak     Papilionaceae
  Tree of sorrow                Oleaceae
  Sweet indrajao                Apocyanaceae
  Red cedar                     Meliaceae

Dyes obtained from fruits
  Kamla, kamela                 Euphorbiaceae

Dyes obtained from seeds
  Annatto                       Bixaceae
  Dharauli                      Apocyanaceae

Dyes obtained from different
    parts
  Gum resin, gamboge            Guttiferae

Common name                     Remarks

Dyes obtained from wood
  Logwood                       Heartwood contains purplish red dye;
                                  with iron salts it becomes black;
                                  used for making inks and in
                                  histological work as a stain; also
                                  used for dyeing
  Cutch                         Heartwood contains 44-69% catechin;
                                  used as a dyeing stuff, as a
                                  masticatory and in medicine;
                                  cutch is the by-product
  Sappan wood, Brazil wood,     Heartwood yields a red dye; used for
    Braziline                     dyeing cotton and wool and for
                                  preparing red ink
  Red sandalwood, red           Heartwood yields a red dye; used for
    sanderswood, santaline        dyeing cotton and wool and for
                                  preparing red ink
  Fustic                        Natural yellow, brown and olive dyes
                                  obtained from heartwood are used
                                  for dyeing
  Osage orange                  Bright orange wood yields orange-
                                  yellow, gold and green dyes
  Camwood                       Redwood dye is obtained
  Barwood                       Yields shades of brown, red and
                                  violet dyes
  Artocarpus                    Yields bright yellow dye; used by
                                  Buddhist monks

Dyes obtained from leaves
  Lodh                          Yellow dye is obtained
  Chlorophyll a ([C.sub.55]     Used for coloring food, soap and
      [H.sub.72][O.sub.5]         similar products
      [N.sub.4]Mg),
    Chlorophyll b ([C.sub.55]
      [H.sub.70][O.sub.6]
      [N.sub.4]Mg);
      all green plants

Dyes obtained from roots and
    tubers
  Indian mulberry               Roots yield red and yellow dyes

Dyes obtained from bark
  Bishopwood                    Red and tan dyes are obtained
  Teak                          Yields yellow dye for coloring baskets
  Quercitron                    Yields bright yellow dye used for
                                  dyeing
  Lokao, buckthorn              Yields green dye used for dyeing silks
                                  and cottons

Dyes obtained from flowers
  Flame of the forest, dhak     Yields yellow dye used in Holi
                                  festivals
  Tree of sorrow                Yields orange dye used for coloring
                                  silk and cotton
  Sweet indrajao                Yields blue dye
  Red cedar                     Yields yellowish red dye used for
                                  dyeing cotton

Dyes obtained from fruits
  Kamla, kamela                 Yields red dye used for dyeing silk

Dyes obtained from seeds
  Annatto                       Used for coloring foodstuffs as well
                                  as wools, paints, varnishes and
                                  soaps
  Dharauli                      Yields yellow dye

Dyes obtained from different
    parts
  Gum resin, gamboge            Pith, flowers, leaves and fruits yield
                                  a yellow emulsion used for making
                                  watercolors and gold-colored spirit
                                  varnishes for metals

Table XIV
Rubber-yielding trees

Common name                      Genus and species       Family

Elastic rubber
  Hevea or Para rubber           Hevea brasiliensis      Euphorbiaceae
  Castilla or Panama rubber      Castilla elastica       Moraceae
  Caucho rubber                  Castilla ulei           Moraceae
  Ceara or Manicoba rubber       Manihot glaziovii       Euphorbiaceae
  Assam or India rubber          Ficus elastica          Moraceae
  Mangabeira                     Hancornia speciosa      Apocyanaceae
  Chilte rubber                  Cnidosceolus spp.       Euphorbiaceae

Nonelastic rubber
  Gutta-percha                   Pelaguium ellipticum,   Sapotaceae
                                   P. gutta, P.
                                   polyanthum
  Balata                         Manilkara bidentata     Sapotaceae
  Jelutong                       Dyera costulata         Apocyanaceae
  Chicle, sapodilla, naseberry   Manilkara achras        Sapotaceae
  Sorva, leche caspe             Couma macrocarpa        Apocyanaeae

Common name                      Remarks

Elastic rubber
  Hevea or Para rubber           98% of the world's rubber comes from
                                   this tree, which is native to
                                   Amazonia; in India it is a
                                   plantation crop in Kerala, Tamil
                                   Nadu and Karnataka
  Castilla or Panama rubber      Native to Mexico and Central America
  Caucho rubber                  Native to Amazonia
  Ceara or Manicoba rubber       Native to Brazil; also grown in India
  Assam or India rubber          Native to northern India and
                                   Malaysia; of low grade and little
                                   commercial value
  Mangabeira                     Native to Bolivia, Brazil and
                                   Paraguay
  Chilte rubber

Nonelastic rubber
  Gutta-percha                   Obtained from grayish white latex of
                                   this Malaysian tree; latex, present
                                   in sacs that occur in the cortex,
                                   phloem, pith and leaves, is used
                                   for insulation, submarine cables,
                                   golf balls, waterproofing and
                                   adhesives and as a substitute for
                                   chicle
  Balata                         Native to Trinidad and South America;
                                   used for insulation, submarine
                                   cables, golf balls, waterproofing
                                   and adhesives and as a substitute
                                   for chicle
  Jelutong                       A Malayasian tree; used as a
                                   substitute for chicle
  Chicle, sapodilla, naseberry   Native to the Yucatan Peninsula,
                                   cultivated in India; latex contains
                                   20-25% gutta-percha-like gum called
                                   "chicle," which is the basis of the
                                   chewing gum industry; also used in
                                   making surgical tape and dental
                                   supplies
  Sorva, leche caspe             A large Amazonian tree; used as a
                                   substitute for chicle

Table XV
Gum-yielding trees

Common name                  Genus and species

Gum arabic, kumta            Acacia senegal
Khair                        Acacia catechu
Babul, acacia, kikar         Acacia nilotica
Acacia                       Acacia modesta
Son khair, kaiger            Acacia ferruginea
Karaya, kandya, katira,      Sterculia urens, S. villosa
  kuteera, katillo, kullo,
  India or sterculia gum
Gum ghatti                   Anogeissus latifolia
Gum locust, carob            Ceratonia siliqua
Cellulose gum, caboxy-
  methyl cellulose gum;
  green plants
--                           Limonia acidissima
Hog gum                      Cochlospermum religiosum
Cycas gum                    Cycas circinalis
Larch gum                    Larix occidenialis
Mesquite gum, kabuli kikar   Prosopis chilensis, P glandu-
                               losa, P. juliora
Cherry gum                   Prunus cerasoides, P. cerasus
East Indian copal            Canarium bengalense
Gum benzoin, benjamin        Styrax benzoin
Jhingan gum                  Lannea coromandelica
Malabar kino gum             Pterocarpus marsupium
Bengal kino                  Butea monosperma
--                           Astragalus prolixus
Garmezu                      Astragalus strobiliferus
Gum neem                     Azadirachta indica
Wood apple, kut bel          Feronia limonia
Bialam                       Anisoptera scaphula
Cowa                         Garcinia cowa
Semla gond                   Bauhinia retusa
Albizia gums                 Albizia chinensis, A. lebbek,
                               A. odoratissima, A. procera
Bauhinia gums                Bauhinia purpurea, B. race-
                               mosa, B. variegata
--                           Chloroxylon swietenia
Mango                        Mangifera indica
--                           Terminalia bellerica
--                           Terminalia tomentosa

Common name                  Family

Gum arabic, kumta            Mimosaceae
Khair                        Mimosaceae
Babul, acacia, kikar         Mimosaceae
Acacia                       Mimosaceae
Son khair, kaiger            Mimosaceae
Karaya, kandya, katira,      Sterculiaceae
  kuteera, katillo, kullo,
  India or sterculia gum
Gum ghatti                   Combretaceae
Gum locust, carob            Caesalpiniaceae
Cellulose gum, caboxy-
  methyl cellulose gum;
  green plants
--                           Rutaceae
Hog gum                      Cohlospermaceae
Cycas gum                    Cycadaceae
Larch gum                    Pinaceae
Mesquite gum, kabuli kikar   Mimosaceae
Cherry gum                   Rosaceae
East Indian copal            Burscraceae
Gum benzoin, benjamin        Styracaceae
Jhingan gum                  Anacardiaceae
Malabar kino gum             Papilionaceae
Bengal kino                  Papilionaceae
--                           Papilionaceae
Garmezu                      Papilionaceae
Gum neem                     Meliaceae
Wood apple, kut bel          Rutaceae
Bialam                       Dipterocarpaceae
Cowa                         Guttiferae
Semla gond                   Mimosaceae
Albizia gums                 Mimosaceae
Bauhinia gums                Mimosaceae
--                           Rutaceae
Mango                        Anacardiaceae
--                           Combretaceae
--                           Combretaceae

Common name                  Remarks

Gum arabic, kumta            Gum obtained from bark; used for all
                               purposes mentioned in the text
Khair                        Gum obtained from bark; used for all
                               purposes mentioned in the text
Babul, acacia, kikar         Gum obtained from bark; used in
                               confectionery
Acacia                       Used in medicine and in printing calico
Son khair, kaiger            Gum obtained from bark; used for all
                               purposes mentioned in the text
Karaya, kandya, katira,      Gum obtained from heartwood; used as a
  kuteera, katillo, kullo,     substitute for gum tragacanth, also
  India or sterculia gum       in the cosmetic and cigar industries
                               in several emulsions, lotions, pastes
                               and as a laxative; forms a strong
                               adhesive gel with a little water
Gum ghatti                   Used as a substitute for gum arabic;
                               also used in ceramics, foods and the
                               petroleum industry, as a drilling mud
                               conditioner, and in the explosives
                               industry
Gum locust, carob            Not a true gum because it is obtained
                               not from wounded woody tissues but
                               from the endosperm of seeds; was used
                               by Egyptians as an adhesive for
                               binding mummies, now used in the food
                               industry and for other purposes
                               mentioned in the text
Cellulose gum, caboxy-       Prepared by mixing purified cellulose
  methyl cellulose gum;        with sodium monochloroacetate in an
  green plants                 alkaline medium; extra whitening and
                               brightening of detergents is due to
                               this gum; also used in the paper,
                               textile, food and paint industries
--                           Substitute for gum arabic
Hog gum                      Substitute for gum arabic; is edible
Cycas gum
Larch gum                    Gum obtained from wood chips; used as a
                               substitute for gum arabic
Mesquite gum, kabuli kikar   Gum obtained from stems; used for
                               printing calico
Cherry gum                   Used as a substitute for gum arabic
East Indian copal            Gum obtained from stems; used as a
                               hard-drying varnish
Gum benzoin, benjamin        Source of benzoic acid
Jhingan gum                  Used in printing calico and as sizing in
                               the paper and textile industries
Malabar kino gum             Valuable medicine in diarrhea and
                               dysentery
Bengal kino                  Valuable medicine in diarrhea and
                               dysentery
--                           Gum obtained from stems; used in
                               cosmetics, printing calico and
                               confectionery
Garmezu                      Gum obtained from stems; used in
                               confectionery
Gum neem
Wood apple, kut bel          Gum obtained from trunk and branches;
                               used as a substitute for gum arabic
Bialam
Cowa                         Gum obtained from trunk and branches;
                               used for preparing yellow varnish
Semla gond                   Substitute for gum arabic; used for
                               sizing cloth and paper and for
                               water-proofing terraced roofs
Albizia gums                 Used for various purposes
Bauhinia gums
--                           Yields amber or reddish brown gum
Mango                        Substitute for gum arabic
--                           Contains crystals of calcium carbonate
--                           Used as incense

Table XVI
Resin-yielding families

Family                   Resin

Gymnosperms

Pinaceae                 Calophony, balsam, Canada balsam,
                           kauri-resin, manil copal,
                           oleo-resin, sandarac
Fossil conifers          Amber (from Pinus succinifera)

Angiosperms

Anacardiaceae            Mastic
Apiaceae                 Ammoniacum, asafoetida, galbanum
Berberidaceae            Podophyllum
Burseraceae              Elemi, frankincense, myrrh
Caesalpiniaceae          Copal
Convolvulaceae           Jalap, seamony
Dipterocarpaceae         Dammars
Guttiferae               Gamboge
Hamamelidaceae           Storax
Liliaceae                Acaroid resin, aloes, dragons blood
Leguminosae (Fabaceae)   Balsam of perum, Congo copal, copaiba
                           balsam, Peru balsam, tolu balsam
Styracaceae              Benzoin
Zygophyllaceae           Guiacum

Table XVII
Differences among three main types of resins

Hard resins                     Oleo resins

Little, if any, essential oil   Considerable essential oils as
                                well as resinous materials

Usually solid, more or less     More or less liquid in nature
transparent, brittle
substances

No particular odor or taste     Distinct aroma and flavor

Nonvolatile and very poor       Volatile essential oil component
conductors of electricity but
become negatively electrified
when friction is applied;
readily fusible and burn in
air with a smoky flame

Common examples: copals,        Common examples: balsams,
damars                          elemis, turpentines

Hard resins                     Gum resins

Little, if any, essential oil   Mixture of both true gums and
                                resins, thus contain small
                                amounts of essential oils
                                and traces of coloring matter

Usually solid, more or less     Occur naturally as milky exudations,
transparent, brittle            collected as tears or irregular
substances                      masses

No particular odor or taste     May have an aroma and flavor

Nonvolatile and very poor
conductors of electricity but
become negatively electrified
when friction is applied;
readily fusible and burn in
air with a smoky flame

Common examples: copals,        Common examples: anmoniacum,
damars                          asafoetida, galbanum

Table XVIII
Resin-yielding trees

Common name               Genus and species          Family

Hard resins
  Zanzibar copal,         Trachylobium verrucosum    Fabaceae
    Madagascar copal,
    Mozambique copal
  Inhambane copal         Copaifera conjugata        Fabaceae
  Congo copal, Angola     Copaifera aemeusii,        Fabaceae
    copal                   C. mopane
  Sierra Leone copal      Copaifera copallifera,     Fabaceae
                            C. salikounda
  Accra copal, Benin      Daniella ogea              Fabaceae
    copal
  South American copal,   Hymenaea courbaril         Fabaceae
    Demerara copal,
    Para copal
  Manila copal            Agathis alba               Araucariaceae
  Kauri copal, kauri      Agathis australis          Araucariaceae
    gum
  Damar mata kuching      Hopea micrantha            Dipterocarpaceae
  Damar penak             Balanocarpus heimii        Dipterocarpaceae
  Damar temak             Shorea hypochra            Dipterocarpaceae
  Sal damar, guggal       Shorea robusta             Dipterocarpaceae
    dhuma, ral dhuma,
    lal dhuma
  Kala damar              Shorea tumbuggaia          Dipterocarpaceae
  White damar, piney      Vateria indica             Dipterocarpaceae
    resin, Indian
    copal, dhupa
  Black damar             Canarium strictum          Burseraceae
  Batavian damar          Shorea wiesneri            Dipterocarpaceae
  Rock damar              Hopea odorata              Dipterocarpaceae
  Amber                   Pinus (= Pinites)          Pinaceae
                            succinifera (principal
                            source)
  Amber                   Hymenaea spp., Copaifera   Fabaceae
                            spp. (other sources)
  Lacquer                 Rhus verniciflua, R.       Anacardiaceae
                            succedanea
  Burmese lacquer,        Melanorrhoea usitata       Anacardiaceae
    thitsi
  Shellac                 Butea monosperma,          Papilionaceae
                            Cajanus cajan
  Shellac                 Schleichera oleosa         Sapindaceae
  Shellac                 Zizyphus xylopyrus         Rhamnaceae
  Shellac                 Ficus religiosa            Moraceae
  Shellac                 Acacia nilotica            Mimosaceae
  Acaroid or grass-tree   Xanthorrhoea hastilis,     Liliaceae
    resins                  X. tateana,
                            X. australis
  Sandarac                Tetraclinis articulata,    Cupressaceae
                            Callitris quadrivalvis
  Chios mastic            Pistacia lentiscus         Pistaciaceae
 Bombay mastic            Pistacia cabulica          Pistaciaceae
  Malbar, gum or Indian   Pterocarpus marsupium      Fabaceae
    kino
  West African kino       Pterocarpus erinaceus      Fabaceae
  Bengal kino             Butea monosperma           Fabaceae
  Gum kino                Eucalyptus camaldulensis   Myrtaceae
  Gum kino                Dipteryx odorata, Coc-     Polygonaceae
                            coloba uvifera
  Lesch                   Antiaris toxicaria         Moraceae
Oleoresins
  Turpentine, birja,      Pinus australis, P.        Pinaceae
    biroja, lisha,          caribaea, P. ponderosa
    lassa                   (in America); P roxbur
                            ghii, P. wallichiana,
                            P. merkusii, P. insu-
                            laris, P. kesiya (in
                            India); P. pinaster,
                            P. maritima (in
                            France); P. pinaster,
                            P. halepensis,
                            P. nigra, P. pinea
                            (in Spain); P.
                            pinaster, P. pinea (in
                            Portugal); P.
                            halepensis (in
                            Greece); P. sylvestris
                            (in Russia, Poland and
                            Germany)
  Venetian turpentine     Larix decidua              Pinaceae
  Bordeaux turpentine     Pinus pinaster             Pinaceae
  Strasbourg turpentine   Abies alba                 Pinaceae
  Jura turpentine         Picea abies                Pinaceae
  Canada balsam           Abies balsamea             Pinaceae
  Oregon balsam           Pseudotsuga taxifolia      Pinaceae
  Spruce gum              Picea rubens               Pinaceae
  Balsam of Peru          Myroxylon pereirae         Fabaceae
  Balsam of Tolu          Myroxylon balsamum         Papilionaceae
  Levant styrax or        Liquidamber orientalis     Hamamelidaceae
    storax
  American styrax         Liquidamber styraciflua    Hamamelidaceae
  Siam benzoin,           Styrax benzoides,          Styraceae
    balsamic resin          S. tankinense
  Sumatra benzoin         Styrax benzoin             Styraceae
  Copaiba, Copaiba        Copaifera spp., espe-      Fabaceae
    balsam, capaiva         cially C. officinalis,
                            C. reticulata
  Gurjan balsam           Dipterocarpus alatus,      Dipterocarpaceae
                            D. indicus,
                            D.turbintus
  Illurin balsam,         Daniella oliveri,          Fabaceae
    African copaiba,        D. thurifera
    Sierra Leone
    frankincense
  Manila elemi            Canarium luzonicum         Burseraceae
  African elemi           Boswellia frereana         Burseraceae
  Mexican elemi           Amyris balsamifera,        Rutaceae
                            A. elemifera
  Brazilian elemi         Bursera gummifera,         Burseraceae
                            Protium heptaphyllum
  Mecca balsam            Commiphora opabalsomum     Burseraceae
  Mexican linaloe         Bursera penicillata        Burseraceae
  Salai gum, Indian       Boswellia serrata:         Burseraceae
    olibanum
Gum resins
  Ammoniacum              Dorema ammoniacum          Apiaceae
  Herabol myrrh           Commiphora myrrha          Burseraceae
  Bisabol, sweet myrrh    Commiphora erythraea       Burseraceae
  Gum resin               Commiphora caudata         Burseraceae
  Frankincense of         Boswellia carteri          Burseraceae
    olibanum
  Indian frankincense,    Boswellia serrata          Burseraceae
    luban
  Opopanax                Commiphora kataf           Burseraceae
  Opopanax                Opopanax chironium         Apiaceae
  Ceylon gambose,         Garcinia hanburyi,         Guttiferae
    Indian gamboge          G. morella
  Madar                   Calotropis gigantea,       Asclepiadaceae
                            C. hamiltonii

Common name               Remarks

Hard resins
  Zanzibar copal,         Hardest of all copals except amber; living,
    Madagascar copal,       semifossil or fossil in nature; yellowish
    Mozambique copal        to brownish red
  Inhambane copal
  Congo copal, Angola     Living as well as fossil in nature; light
    copal                   yellow
  Sierra Leone copal      Light yellow

  Accra copal, Benin      Locally called "ogea gum" in Liberia, Ghana
    copal                   and Nigeria
  South American copal,   Softest of all copals
    Demerara copal,
    Para copal
  Manila copal            Living, semifossil or fossil in nature;
                            yellow
  Kauri copal, kauri      Living, semifossil or fossil in nature;
    gum                     yellow
  Damar mata kuching
  Damar penak
  Damar temak
  Sal damar, guggal       Used as an ingredient of "samagri," which is
    dhuma, ral dhuma,       burned in religious ceremonies
    lal dhuma
  Kala damar              Used as an incense and in marine yards as a
                            substitute for pitch
  White damar, piney      Used in medicine to treat chronic
    resin, Indian           bronchitis, diarrhea and rheumatism
    copal, dhupa
  Black damar             Used as a substitute for burgundy pitch in
                            medical plasters
  Batavian damar
  Rock damar              Used in varnishes
  Amber                   Fossilized terpenoid resin occurring on the
                            shores of the Baltic Sea, it is the only
                            jewel of plant origin. It is exceedingly
                            hard, brittle, yellow to brown or even
                            black, transparent or opaque with a
                            characteristic aromatic odor; when rubbed,
                            it takes a high polish and becomes
                            negatively charged. Used for beads,
                            ornaments, mouthpieces of pipes and
                            holders for cigars and cigarettes, etc.
                            Sometimes organisms of the past are
                            embedded in it.
  Amber                   Fossilized terpenoid resin occurring on the
                            shores of the Baltic Sea, it is the only
                            jewel of plant origin. It is exceedingly
                            hard, brittle, yellow to brown or even
                            black, transparent or opaque with a
                            characteristic aromatic odor; when rubbed,
                            it takes a high polish and becomes
                            negatively charged. Used for beads,
                            ornaments, mouthpieces of pipes and
                            holders for cigars and cigarettes, etc.
                            Sometimes organisms of the past are
                            embedded in it.
  Lacquer                 Natural varnish exuded from Asiatic trees,
                            it affords protection because it remains
                            unchanged by acids, alkalis, alcohol or
                            heat up to 160[degrees]F
                          Rhus succedanea yields liquid resin from the
                            mesocarp of fruits, which is used in
                            ointments, wax varnishes, etc.
  Burmese lacquer,        Affords protection because it remains
    thitsi                  unchanged by acids, alkalis, alcohol or
                            heat up to 160[degrees]F
  Shellac                 Not strictly a plant product but a resinous
                            substance secreted on the twigs of many
                            trees by the sap-feeding stick lac insect
                            Tachardia lacca ("lacca" is derived from
                            the Sanskrit word laksha, meaning "lakh").
                            Used in the manufacture of phonograph
                            records, high-grade insulators, spirit
                            varnish, sealing wax, drawing ink,
                            watercolors, nitrocellulose lacquers
                            and as sizing in paper and stiffening
                            in felt hats.
  Shellac                 Not strictly a plant product but a resinous
                            substance secreted on the twigs of many
                            trees by the sap-feeding stick lac insect
                            Tachardia lacca ("lacca" is derived from
                            the Sanskrit word laksha, meaning "lakh").
                            Used in the manufacture of phonograph
                            records, high-grade insulators, spirit
                            varnish, sealing wax, drawing ink,
                            watercolors, nitrocellulose lacquers
                            and as sizing in paper and stiffening
                            in felt hats.
  Shellac                 Not strictly a plant product but a resinous
                            substance secreted on the twigs of many
                            trees by the sap-feeding stick lac insect
                            Tachardia lacca ("lacca" is derived from
                            the Sanskrit word laksha, meaning "lakh").
                            Used in the manufacture of phonograph
                            records, high-grade insulators, spirit
                            varnish, sealing wax, drawing ink,
                            watercolors, nitrocellulose lacquers
                            and as sizing in paper and stiffening
                            in felt hats.
  Shellac                 Not strictly a plant product but a resinous
                            substance secreted on the twigs of many
                            trees by the sap-feeding stick lac insect
                            Tachardia lacca ("lacca" is derived from
                            the Sanskrit word laksha, meaning "lakh")
                            Used in the manufacture of phonograph
                            records, high-grade insulators, spirit
                            varnish, sealing wax, drawing ink,
                            watercolors, nitrocellulose lacquers
                            and as sizing in paper and stiffening
                            in felt hats.
  Shellac                 Not strictly a plant product but a resinous
                            substance secreted on the twigs of many
                            trees by the sap-feeding stick lac insect
                            Tachardia lacca ("lacca" is derived from
                            the Sanskrit word laksha, meaning "lakh").
                            Used in the manufacture of phonograph
                            records, high-grade insulators, spirit
                            varnish, sealing wax, drawing ink,
                            watercolors, nitrocellulose lacquers
                            and as sizing in paper and stiffening
                            in felt hats.
  Acaroid or grass-tree   Resin collected around the bases of old
    resins                  leaves is yellow from the first species
                            and red from the other species. Used in
                            making sealing wax and spirit varnishes
                            and as a substitute for rosin in paper
                            sizing and ink; also as a source of
                            picric acid and in medicine.
  Sandarac                Secreted in the form of small tears on the
                            bark, it is hard, white and rather
                            brittle. Used for coating labels,
                            negatives, cardboard leather and metal
                            and in dental cement, incense and
                            fumigating powder.
  Chios mastic            Excreted from the bark in the form of long,
                            ovoid, pale yellow, brittle tears. Used
                            for coating metals and both oil and
                            watercolor pictures; in the preparation
                            of transparent varnishes and in chewing
                            gum; also used in perfumery, medicine,
                            lithographic work and as a cement for
                            dental work.
 Bombay mastic            Dull, milk-colored resin. Used for coating
                            metals and both oil and watercolor
                            pictures; in the preparation of
                            transparent varnishes and in chewing
                            gum; also used in perfumery, medicine,
                            lithographic work and as a cement for
                            dental work.
  Malbar, gum or Indian   Used in medicine for throat troubles and in
    kino                    tanning
  West African kino       Red resin, used in medicine for throat
                            troubles and in tanning
  Bengal kino             Used in medicine for throat troubles and in
                            tanning
  Gum kino                Secreted between the wood and the bark
  Gum kino                Secreted between the wood and the bark

  Lesch                   White resin, used for poisoning arrows and
                            in medicine
Oleoresins
  Turpentine, birja,      Exuded from coniferous trees as a viscous,
    biroja, lisha,          honey-like liquid or a soft, sticky
    lassa                   substance called "pitch." On distillation
                            it yields essential oil (called "oil" or
                            "spirit of turpentine") and rosin (the
                            residue). The oil is used in the paint
                            and varnish industry, in printing cotton
                            and wool, as a solvent for rubber and
                            guttapercha, in medicine and in the
                            manufacture of pine oil, terpineol,
                            camphor, pine tar, vormeol, voneol acetate
                            and other chemicals. The rosin, or
                            colophony, is a brittle, friable, faintly
                            aromatic, solid used in the manufacture of
                            soap, varnish, paint, oilcloth, linoleum,
                            sealing wax, adhesives, printers' ink,
                            floor and roof coverings, rubbers, drugs,
                            plastics, etc. and as a sizing material
                            for paper. Rosin oil is used as grease,
                            a lubricant and a solvent.
  Venetian turpentine     Used in histology, lithographic work,
                            varnishes and veterinary medicine;
                            yellowish or greenish liquid with a
                            characteristic taste and odor
  Bordeaux turpentine     The residue, called "Burgundy pitch," is a
                            stimulant and counterirritant and is used
                            in plastics, ointments and pharmaceuticals
  Strasbourg turpentine   The residue, called "Burgundy pitch," is a
                            stimulant and counterirritant and is used
                            in plastics, ointments and pharmaceuticals
  Jura turpentine
  Canada balsam           True turpentine (oleoresin) from the balsam
                            fir, it is a viscid, yellowish or greenish
                            substance used as a mounting medium for
                            microscopic work and a cement for optical
                            lenses; also used as an irritant,
                            stimulant and antiseptic, as a component
                            in collodion and many plasters and as a
                            fixative for soap and perfumes.
                            Technically, balsams are aromatic
                            oleoresins that contain benzoic or
                            cinnamic acid and are less viscous and
                            contain less oil than turpentines. On
                            distillation balsams yield essential oils
                            that are used in medicine and as fixatives
                            in the perfume industry.
  Oregon balsam           A viscid, yellowish or greenish substance
                            used as a mounting medium for microscopic
                            work and a cement for optical lenses; also
                            used as an irritant, stimulant and
                            antiseptic, as a component in collodion
                            and many plasters and as a fixative for
                            soap and perfumes
  Spruce gum              Obtained from wood and bark, the oleoresin
                            is thin, clean, bitter and sticky, hardens
                            on exposure to air and has a pleasing,
                            resinous taste. Used as a masticatory
                            because it softens in the mouth and
                            becomes reddish.
  Balsam of Peru          A dark, reddish brown, thick, viscous,
                            syrupy liquid obtained by wounding the
                            tree. Used in medicine for treating
                            slow-healing wounds and skin diseases
                            (especially during World War II) and,
                            because of its stimulating and antiseptic
                            effect on mucous membranes, for treating
                            coughs, bronchitis, etc.; also used as a
                            substitute for vanilla, as a fixative in
                            perfumes and in the soap industry. The
                            common name is a misnomer because the tree
                            grows in Central America, not in Peru.
  Balsam of Tolu          A brown or yellowish brown, plastic
                            substance with a pleasant aromatic taste
                            and odor; used for almost the same
                            purposes as balsam of Peru
  Levant styrax or        A semiliquid, sticky, grayish brown, opaque,
    storax                  aromatic substance obtained from inner
                            bark by wounding the tree; used in
                            cosmetics, soap, adhesives, lacquers and
                            incense as a fixative, in perfumes and in
                            medicine for the treatment of coughs and
                            scabies
  American styrax         A clear, thick, brownish yellow semisolid or
                            solid substance obtained from inner bark
                            by wounding the tree; used in cosmetics,
                            soap, adhesives, lacquers and incense; as
                            a fixative in perfumes; and in medicine
                            for the treatment of coughs and scabies.
                            India imports it from France.
  Siam benzoin,           Yellowish or brownish, pebble-like hard and
    balsamic resin          brittle tears with a milky white center
                            and a strong, vanilla-like aroma; used as
                            incense and in medicine as a stimulant,
                            diuretic, carminative and expectorant; in
                            the manufacture of perfume, soap, toilet
                            water, lotion, tooth powder and fumigating
                            materials; a source of benzoic acid
  Sumatra benzoin         Reddish or grayish brown tears that
                            aggregate to form blocks or lumps; used as
                            incense and in medicine as a stimulant,
                            diuretic, carminative and expectorant; in
                            the manufacture of perfume, soap, toilet
                            water, lotion, tooth powder and fumigating
                            materials; a source of benzoic acid
  Copaiba, Copaiba        Obtained by boring holes into heartwood, it
    balsam, capaiva         is a thin, clear, colorless liquid that
                            turns yellow and viscid with age, is
                            aromatic and has a bitter taste; used in
                            making lacquer, varnish and tracing paper,
                            as a fixative in perfume and soap; in
                            photography for half-tones and shadows
                            and in medicine as a laxative, disinfec-
                            tant, diuretic and mild stimulant
  Gurjan balsam           Thick, opaque and grayish, it is used in
                            medicine and for caulking and varnishing
                            boats
  Illurin balsam,         Thick, very fragrant, pungent, pepper-like
    African copaiba,        oleoresin
    Sierra Leone
    frankincense
  Manila elemi            Oozes from trunk bark in fragrant, white
                            masses on tree trunks; used locally for
                            torches, for caulking boats, in
                            lithographic work, in the manufacture
                            of cements, adhesives and ink, in perfume,
                            in medicine, in plastics and ointments,
                            and in the varnish industry to make
                            products tough and elastic
  African elemi
  Mexican elemi
  Brazilian elemi
  Mecca balsam            A greenish, turbid oleoresin with an odor of
                            rosemary; used in incense, perfumes and
                            medicine
  Mexican linaloe         Obtained from the aromatic fruits; used in
                            perfume
  Salai gum, Indian       Used as an incense, in medicine for
    olibanum                rheumatism, nervous diseases and ointments
                            and as a fire lighter
Gum resins
  Ammoniacum              Exudes from stems and flowering branches as
                            a milky juice that hardens on exposure to
                            form brittle, brownish yellow tears, which
                            occur singly or in masses; used in
                            perfumery and in medicine as a circulatory
                            stimulant
  Herabol myrrh           Oozes from stems as a pale yellow liquid
                            that hardens to form brown or black tears;
                            used in perfumery, as a constituent of
                            mouthwash and dentifrices and in medicine
                            as a tonic, stimulant and antiseptic
  Bisabol, sweet myrrh    Used in incense, perfumes and embalming and
                            as a constituent of Chinese joss sticks
  Gum resin               A pale yellow liquid that gradually
                            solidifies and turns brown or black; used
                            in medicine, as incense and for embalming
  Frankincense of         Exudes from bark as a clear, yellow resin
    olibanum                that hardens into small yellow grains;
                            used in incense and perfumes and as a
                            fixative for face powders, pastilles and
                            fumigating powders
  Indian frankincense,    Obtained from bark, the oleo-gum-resin
    luban                   contains: oily, turpentinic liquid, used
                            as a substitute for turpentine oil; a
                            rosin-like resin, used in the soap
                            industry; and gum, used in printing calico
  Opopanax                Used in perfumery and in medicine
  Opopanax                An herb used in perfumery and in medicine
  Ceylon gambose,         Yellow emulsion obtained from the pith,
    Indian gamboge          leaves, flowers and fruits; used in
                            preparing watercolors and gold-colored
                            spirit varnishes and in medicine as a
                            violent cathartic
  Madar                   Used as a substitute for gutta-percha

V. Literature Cited

Anonymous. 1970-1972, 1983. Indian forest utilization. Comp. & ed. Forest Research Institute and Colleges, Dehra Dun. 2 vols. Manager of Publications, Delhi.

--. 1983. Forests of Himachal Pradesh. Department of Forests, Farming and Conservation, Himachal Pradesh, Kunihar, India.

--. 1986. The useful plants of India. CSIR, New Delhi.

Bennet, S. S. R., P. C. Gupta & R. V. Rao. 1992. Venerated plants. Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, New Forest, Dehra Dun, India.

Chakraverty, R. K. & S. K. Jain. 1984. Beautiful trees and shrubs of Calcutta. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah, India.

Cowen, D. V. 1950. Flowering trees and shrubs in India. Thacker & Co., Bombay.

Dwivedi, B. 2000. Environmental vaastu. Diamond Pocket Books, New Delhi.

Hawkins, R. 1986. Encyclopedia of Indian natural history: Centenary publication of the Bombay Natural History Society, 1883-1983. Oxford University Press, Delhi.

Kohli, R. K. 1996. Needs and planning for avenue trees in cities: A Chandigarh experience. Pp. 39-50 in P. K. Khosla, D. K. Uppal, R. K. Sharma, R. K. Kohli & Y. C. Jain (eds.), Ecofriendly trees for urban beautification. Indian Society of Tree Scientists, Solan and National Horticultural Board, Gurgaon, India.

Lunardi, C. 1987. Simon & Schuster's guide to shrubs and vines and other small ornamentals. Simon & Schuster, New York, London.

Maithani, G. P., V. K. Bahuguna, J. D. S. Negi & S Nautiyal. 1991. Handbook of some important Himalayan shrubs. ICFRE-1, FRI, Dehra Dun, India.

Panshin, A. J. & C. de Zeeuw. 1980. Textbook of wood technology: Structure, identification, properties, and uses of the commercial woods of the United States and Canada. Ed. 4. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Randhawa, M. S. 1961. Beautiful trees and gardens. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.

--. 1965-1983. Flowering trees. National Book Trust, New Delhi.

Schubert, T. H. 1979. Trees for urban use in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, [New Orleans, LA].

Seth, M. K. 2000a. Food plants of tasar silkworms. Pp. 761-777 in H. O. Agrawal & M. K. Seth (eds.), Sericulture in India, vol. 4. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India.

--. 2000b. Food plants of oak tasar silkworms. Pp. 835-842 in H. O. Agrawal & M. K. Seth (eds.), Sericulture in India, vol. 4. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India.

--. 2000c. Primary and secondary food plants of eri silkworms. Pp. 879-885 in H. O. Agrawal & M. K. Seth (eds.), Sericulture in India, vol. 4. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India.

--. 2000d. Food plants of muga silkworms. Pp. 887-893 in H. O. Agrawal & M. K. Seth (eds.), Sericulture in India, vol. 4. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dan, India.

--. 2000e. Food plants of wild silkworms. Pp. 913-414 in H. O. Agrawal & M. K. Seth (eds.), Sericulture in India, vol. 4. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India.

--. 2002. The logical meaning of shrubs and trees. The Botanica. Communicated.

-- & C. Lal. 2000. Food plants of mulberry silkworms with particular reference to the morphology and wood anatomy of Morus serrata Roxb. Pp. 349-371 in H. O. Agrawal & M. K. Seth (eds.), Sericulture in India, vol. 4. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India.

--, M. B. Raizada & M. A. Waheed Khan. 1962. Trees for Van Mahotsava. Forest Research Institute and Colleges, Dehra Dun, India.

--, S. Sharma & R. Thakur. 2002. Pictorial guide to some common shrubs of Himachal Pradesh, vol. 1. Communicated.

Singh, R. V. 1982. Fodder trees of India. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi.

Singhal, R. M. & P. Khanna. 1991. Multipurpose trees and shrubs. ICFRE-16, FRI, Dehra Dun, India.

Trivedi, P. P. 1983, 1987, 1996. Home gardening. ICAR, New Delhi.

--. 1990. Beautiful shrubs. ICAR, New Delhi.

Trotter, H. 1940. Manual of Indian forest utilization. Oxford University Press, London.

--. 1940, 1944 (reprinted 1958-1960). The common commercial timbers of India and their uses. Manager of Publications, Delhi.

Venkatesh, C. S. 1976. Our tree neighbours. National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi.

Watt, G. 1889-1893. A dictionary of economic products of India, vols. 1-4. Cosmo Publications, Delhi.

M. K. SETH

Department of Bio-Sciences

Himachal Pradesh University

Shimla 171 005, H.P., India

COPYRIGHT 2003 New York Botanical Garden
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2003 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion

Title:

Comment:



 

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Seth, M.K.
Publication:The Botanical Review
Date:Oct 1, 2003
Words:22799
Previous Article:Allelopathic evidence in the Poaceae.
Next Article:Systematics and biology of silica bodies in monocotyledons.
Topics:



Related Articles
The sky above, the trees below: a neighborhood land-use scuffle turns into a satellite-aided fight for forward thinking in urban/suburban planning.
For the millenium: a new role for trees.
WASHINGTON OUTLOOK.
CITYGREEN AT SCHOOL.
The fingerprints of our ancestors. (Shaped Trees Are Reshaping The Fight To Save The Ancient Forest).
Special trees: it's not the size or species, but the attributes and emotions we give them that make our arboreal neighbors so valued. (Editorial).
More trees for Colorado. (Clippings).
Twenty-five years of forest succession in Happy Valley, Jefferson County, Indiana.
Home & Gardens: Why tree's a crowd; Trees not only look nice in our suburban streets, they make a positive contribution to the environment - and to...

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters