Translating Research into Effective Practice: The Effects of a Universal Staff and Student Intervention on Indicators of Discipline and School Safety.
This paper describes a universal intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant. package aimed at improving the safety and social behavior In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. Behavior such as predation which involves members of different species is not social. of students in elementary and middle schools. Its goals were to assist schools to provide effective educational services, behavioral behavioral
pertaining to behavior.
see psychomotor seizure. supports and social-behavioral skills teaching to all students in the school. Nine treatment and six comparison (no-intervention) elementary and middle schools in three communities participated. Descriptive data were used to evaluate the one-year effects of the intervention. The treatment schools implemented a school-wide discipline plan based on the Effective Behavioral Support (Sugai & Horner, 1994) model in addition to the Second Step violence prevention curriculum (Grossman et al., 1997) for one year. Comparison schools were not restricted in their use of interventions but received neither systematic technical assistance and training nor data based feedback on their performance. Regarding changes in office discipline referrals, treatment schools generally showed greater re ductions. Treatment school students showed improved social skill knowledge. Perceptions of school safety were not different across the schools after one year. In focus group interviews across some treatment and comparison schools, treatment school personnel generally reported improved operation of their schools and motivation to continue with the intervention. Comparison schools cited the need for improved school-wide intervention and technical assistance as a top need. Results are discussed relative to the need for examination of sustained use of the intervention over multiple years and more frequent and detailed outcome measures.
Educating the diverse populations of students enrolled in today's schools is an ever-increasing challenge. More students are culturally diverse, have English as a second language, less prepared to enter school, and have a greater range of learning and behavioral challenges (Knitzer, 1993; Knitzer, Steinberg, & Fleish et al., 1990). Our schools are challenged Overall rates of serious violent crime in the school appear to be decreasing or at least stable in the past decade (U.S. Department of Justice, 1999). However, these and the rates of less serious behaviors (e.g., theft, bullying Bullying
Chowne, Parson Stoyle
terrorizes parish; kidnaps children. [Br. Lit.: The Maid of Sker, Walsh Modern, 94–95]
bully; becomes thief in Fagin’s gang. [Br. Lit. , harassment Ask a Lawyer
Country: United States of America
I recently moved to nev.from abut have been going back to ca. every 2 to 3 weeks for med. , threats) remain the highest in the industrialized in·dus·tri·al·ize
v. in·dus·tri·al·ized, in·dus·tri·al·iz·ing, in·dus·tri·al·iz·es
1. To develop industry in (a country or society, for example).
2. world (Osofsky, 1997). The dramatic increase in the sensationalized mass school shootings
The term myriad is a progression in the commonly used system of describing numbers using tens and hundreds. adjustment problems our children present in the face of family, neighborhood and school stressors. Children are more at risk now than ever before (Walker & Eaton-Walker, 2000) to be pushed o nto a pathway pathway /path·way/ (path´wa)
1. a course usually followed.
2. the nerve structures through which an impulse passes between groups of nerve cells or between the central nervous system and an organ or muscle. leading to delinquency delinquency
Criminal behaviour carried out by a juvenile. Young males make up the bulk of the delinquent population (about 80% in the U.S.) in all countries in which the behaviour is reported. , violence, school failure and a host of other negative outcomes (Hawkins, et al., 1999; Sprague & Walker, 2000).
Our challenge is to understand how to prevent and decrease the prevalence and incidence of children and youth that display behaviors Display behavior is the tendency of living things to express actions or formations, it is thought, for competitive advantage. Among animals
Animals may use display behavior for different purposes including threat, courtship and direct competition for example. that foster antisocial antisocial /an·ti·so·cial/ (-so´sh'l)
1. denoting behavior that violates the rights of others, societal mores, or the law.
2. denoting the specific personality traits seen in antisocial personality disorder. lifestyles. By presenting behaviors that are dangerous to themselves, other students, teachers, families, and community members, these children and youth disrupt teaching and learning in schools, create inhospitable in·hos·pi·ta·ble
1. Displaying no hospitality; unfriendly.
2. Unfavorable to life or growth; hostile: the barren, inhospitable desert. neighborhoods, upset family structures and functioning, and ultimately become involved in the criminal justice and/or mental health system. Fortunately, we have research evidence that helps us to understand the nature of this challenge and to identify and characterize the features of an effective and efficient response.
Many school climate factors contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in children and youth. These include, (a) ineffective instruction that results in academic failure; (b) inconsistent and punitive pu·ni·tive
Inflicting or aiming to inflict punishment; punishing.
[Medieval Latin pn management practices; (c) lack of opportunity to learn and practice prosocial interpersonal in·ter·per·son·al
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.
2. and self-management skills; (d) unclear rules and expectations regarding appropriate behavior; (e) failure to enforce rules; and (f) failure to individualize in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. instruction to adapt to individual differences (Colvin, Kameenui, & Sugai, 1993; Mayer, 1995; Walker et al., 1996).
In combination, these school, family, and community risk factors pose a formidable challenge to those whose objective is to mount a comprehensive, effective, and efficient response to preventing and responding to antisocial behavior. Schools have been identified as an ideal place to organize an effort against the increasing problem of children and youth who display antisocial behavior (Mayer, 1995; Sugai & Horner, 1994; Walker et al., 1996).
School personnel have a long history of applying simple and general solutions to complex student behavior problems and expressing understandable disappointment when these attempts do not work as expected. Usually the approach used, or other factors (e.g., the child's home life, poor motivation for change, lack of parent support), is blamed for unsatisfactory outcomes. Commonly, the failure to achieve meaningful outcomes is due to a poor match between presenting problems and the intensity, fidelity, or focus interventions. Rarely do we come close to investing the resources, time and expertise necessary to solve the problem effectively. Often this practice is sustained by unrealistic expectations about what is actually required to produce enduring changes in student behavior, or by a natural tendency to eliminate the immediate presenting problem quickly (i.e. remove the student) rather than to focus on the larger source of the problem.
In other cases, indirect intervention approaches (e.g., counseling, insight-based therapies, improving self-esteem self-esteem
Sense of personal worth and ability that is fundamental to an individual's identity. Family relationships during childhood are believed to play a crucial role in its development. ) are used in isolation to solve intractable intractable /in·trac·ta·ble/ (in-trak´tah-b'l) resistant to cure, relief, or control.
1. Difficult to manage or govern; stubborn.
2. behavior problems that require more powerful, direct forms of intervention (Mayer, 1995). Such indirect approaches are rarely adequate or sufficient because (a) these students tend to be unmotivated to engage in these therapies and (b) because ownership of the problem is often shared by the student and other social agents (e.g., peers, adults) (Dryfoos, 1990).
Unfortunately, when these indirect intervention approaches fail, punishments and exclusion from the school setting often become the interventions of choice. Exclusion, suspension, expulsion EXPULSION. The act of depriving a member of a body politic, corporate, or of a society, of his right of membership therein, by the vote of such body or society, for some violation of hi's. , verbal reprimands, detention The act of keeping back, restraining, or withholding, either accidentally or by design, a person or thing.
Detention occurs whenever a police officer accosts an individual and restrains his or her freedom to walk away, or approaches and questions an individual, or stops an and the like are common reactive reactive /re·ac·tive/ (re-ak´tiv) characterized by reaction; readily responsive to a stimulus.
1. Tending to be responsive or to react to a stimulus.
2. responses. Although punishment consequences provide an immediate, short-term reprieve reprieve (rĭprēv`): in law, see pardon. from the problem, positive long-term change in behavior is not achieved. In fact, research has shown that punishment-based interventions for students with serious antisocial and violent behavior usually result in an increase in the problem behavior (Mayer & Sulzer-Azaroff, 1990). Thus, we see an increase in truancy, vandalism The intentional and malicious destruction of or damage to the property of another.
The intentional destruction of property is popularly referred to as vandalism. It includes behavior such as breaking windows, slashing tires, spray painting a wall with graffiti, and , intimidation, harassment, and other forms of problem behavior. Ironically i·ron·ic also i·ron·i·cal
1. Characterized by or constituting irony.
2. Given to the use of irony. See Synonyms at sarcastic.
3. , these are among the same behaviors we are attempting to eliminate.
Solutions must start with a comprehensive look at the contexts in which violence and antisocial behavior occur (Biglan, 1995). The school, for example, represents a complex organization of people, environments, policies, routines, and procedures that must function as a coordinated whole. In any school, we would expect to find three relatively distinct populations of students. These include typically developing students; those at-risk for behavioral and academic problems, and high-risk students who already manifest manifest 1) adj., adv. completely obvious or evident. 2) n. a written list of goods in a shipment.
MANIFEST, com. law. A written instrument containing a true account of the cargo of a ship or commercial vessel.
2. serious behavioral and academic difficulties (Sprague & Walker, 2000).
Preferred and Best Practices
Given these circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or and challenges, effective interventions must be developed that, (a) apply a multiple systems approach to discipline aimed at all students in the school, (b) support educators in classrooms and schools, and (c) adopt and sustain effective and efficient practices (Gottfredson, 1997). Fortunately, the same body of literature that identifies ineffective strategies also acknowledges effective approaches to positive school-wide discipline and management. These include (a) social skills instruction, (b) academic/curricular restructuring restructuring - The transformation from one representation form to another at the same relative abstraction level, while preserving the subject system's external behaviour (functionality and semantics). and adaptation, (c) behaviorally based interventions, (d) early screening and identification of children with antisocial behavior patterns, and (e) positive school-wide discipline systems (Biglan, 1995; Lipsey, 1991; Mayer, 1995; Sprague, Sugai, & Walker, 1998; Sugai & Homer Homer, principal figure of ancient Greek literature; the first European poet. Works, Life, and Legends
Two epic poems are attributed to Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey. , 1994; Tolan & Guerra, 1994; Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995; Walker, Sprague, Close & Schneider, in press). Two interventions that exemplify ex·em·pli·fy
tr.v. ex·em·pli·fied, ex·em·pli·fy·ing, ex·em·pli·fies
a. To illustrate by example: exemplify an argument.
b. this approach include Effective Behavioral S upport (EBS See Swiss Electronic Bourse.
See electronic blue sheet (EBS). ) and the Second Step violence prevention curriculum (Committee for Children, 1997).
Effective behavioral support. A promising approach to this problem is the Effective Behavioral Support (EBS) Model, which is a system of training, technical assistance, and evaluation of school discipline and climate. The EBS model has been developed and field-tested extensively by researchers at the University of Oregon The University of Oregon is a public university located in Eugene, Oregon. The university was founded in 1876, graduating its first class two years later. The University of Oregon is one of 60 members of the Association of American Universities. (see Sprague, Sugai, & Walker, 1998; Sugai & Horner, 1994; Taylor-Greene et al., 1995). EBS is a multiple system, whole school approach to addressing the problems posed by antisocial students and coping with challenging forms of student behavior.
EBS has these essential features:
1. Problem behaviors are defined clearly for students and staff members;
2. Appropriate, positive behaviors are defined for students and staff;
3. Students are taught these alternative behaviors directly and given assistance to acquire the necessary skills to enable the desired behavior change Behavior change refers to any transformation or modification of human behavior. Such changes can occur intentionally, through behavior modification, without intention, or change rapidly in situations of mental illness. ;
4. Effective incentives and motivational systems are developed and carried out to encourage students to behave differently;
5. Staff commits to staying with the intervention over the long term and to monitoring, supporting, coaching, debriefing de·brief·ing
1. The act or process of debriefing or of being debriefed.
2. The information imparted during the process of being debriefed.
Noun 1. , and providing booster shots Booster Shot
The name given to the first formal recommendation report issued by an underwriter for an IPO. It is presented in the process of the public offering.
The booster shot acts as a way to reinforce attractiveness of the new issue. as necessary to maintain the achieved gains;
6. Staff receives training and regular feedback about effective implementation of the interventions; and,
7. Systems for measuring and monitoring the intervention's effectiveness are established and carried out.
Teaching higher order social skills using the Second Step violence prevention curriculum. Evidence of the efficacy of whole school approaches such as EBS is building (see Gottfredson, 1997 for a review). We also have evidence that higher order social skills training programs reduce the prevalence of antisocial behavior when applied universally in a school (Grossman et al., 1997; Hawkins et al., 1999). The Second Step violence prevention curriculum has been shown to increase higher order social skills in elementary age children and decrease aggressive behavior on the playground Playground - A visual language for children, developed for Apple's Vivarium Project. OOPSLA 89 or 90? (Grossman et al., 1997). The curriculum provides structured, well-sequenced lessons for grades K-8 and is designed to be delivered over the course of a school year. The curriculum includes lessons on anger management, problem solving problem solving
Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. (e.g., dealing with bullies, rumors For other uses, see Rumor (disambiguation).
Rumors is a farcical play by Neil Simon.
At its start, several affluent couples gather in the posh suburban residence of a couple for a dinner party celebrating their tenth anniversary. ) and empathy empathy
Ability to imagine oneself in another's place and understand the other's feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. The empathic actor or singer is one who genuinely feels the part he or she is performing. and emphasizes regular use of role-play and integration into the regular curriculum. Lesson concepts and behaviors are presented with increasing complexity from Kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be through grade 8. Combining the intervention components of the EBS model with systematic and frequent teaching of higher order social skills (i.e., anger management, problem solving, empathy) could produce powerful behavioral changes at the whole-school level, compared to singular SINGULAR, construction. In grammar the singular is used to express only one, not plural. Johnson.
2. In law, the singular frequently includes the plural. , poorly integrated intervention approaches (e.g., providing anger management training for at risk youth).
Purpose of the Investigation
Our investigation was designed to document the effects of a universal intervention package aimed at improving the safety and social behavior of students in elementary and middle schools. Its major goals were to assist schools to provide more effective educational services, behavioral supports and social-behavioral skills teaching to all students in the school. Due to the complexity of the measures and lack of true experimental control, the results are presented as an evaluative review rather than a formal experimental comparison.
Participants and Settings
We assisted nine treatment schools in two suburban, and one urban community in the Pacific Northwest and compared their performance on selected measures to six similar schools in those same communities. Treatment and comparison schools were not randomly selected but rather chosen by local school administrators. All schools had volunteered to participate as treatment schools. Table 1 provides information regarding the characteristics of each school. Based on simple demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. , there were no substantial differences in characteristics between the schools. We did not use indicators of staff capacity or baseline rates of discipline problems or other measures to indicate equivalence of the treatment versus comparison schools. The reader should consider the quality of the school matches with caution due to lack of randomized ran·dom·ize
tr.v. ran·dom·ized, ran·dom·iz·ing, ran·dom·iz·es
To make random in arrangement, especially in order to control the variables in an experiment. assignment on a range of more robust measures.
We developed a profile of each school that included information about school demographics, the type and number of at-risk and high-risk students in the school, discipline referral patterns, school crime and safety, etc. The profile was used as the primary evaluation tool for the project and was used to assist schools to plan for future interventions and evaluate current work.
Several measures including staff and student demographics (see Table 1), intervention implementation (e.g., school rules are developed and taught, teachers use a system of positive reinforcement positive reinforcement,
n a technique used to encourage a desirable behavior. Also called
positive feedback, in which the patient or subject receives encouraging and favorable communication from another person. ) and safety surveys, office discipline referrals, and student declarative de·clar·a·tive
1. Serving to declare or state.
2. Of, relating to, or being an element or construction used to make a statement: a declarative sentence.
n. knowledge on Second Step lesson content (intervention schools only) were collected. Copies of the data collection instruments are available from the first author. Finally, we conducted a qualitative, focus group interview with four treatment, and four comparison schools at the end of the study to assess differences between the perceptions of school team members.
Due to limitations in resources, we were unable to collect extensive, direct observation measures. Finally, the nature of the measures used prevented detailed assessment of inter-rater reliability Inter-rater reliability, Inter-rater agreement, or Concordance is the degree of agreement among raters. It gives a score of how much , or consensus, there is in the ratings given by judges. . Table 2 lists the measures collected across treatment and comparison schools.
The design used was a treatment-comparison analysis between the nine treatment and six comparison schools. All treatment schools received the intervention concurrently and data were collected from the comparison schools on the same schedule. For purposes of comparison, elementary and middle school data were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
The project included four major intervention strategies aimed at building personnel and students. Technical assistance personnel met with a representative group of teachers and related service staff from each school (general and special education) and the building administrator (required) 1-2 times per month to provide training and consultation regarding implementation of the independent variable. Approximately 20 hours of formal training were provided on intervention components, which are described below. Technical assistance was provided as needed as needed prn. See prn order. to solve problems, conduct planning, etc. for 25-40 hours across the implementation year. In addition, the entire staff of each treatment school received an eight-hour inservice on implementing the Second Step curriculum and an additional four hour session on components of the EBS model.
We provided technical assistance and training to establish school-wide behavior rule teaching related to student-teacher compliance, peer-peer interaction, academic achievement, and academic study skills. Schools adopted rules around the general framework of "safety," "respect," and "responsibility" and directly taught lessons throughout the year to teach and maintain those patterns of behavior. In addition, schools posted the rules publicly in posters, school newsletters etc. Schools also used such strategies as school-wide assemblies and videotape videotape
Magnetic tape used to record visual images and sound, or the recording itself. There are two types of videotape recorders, the transverse (or quad) and the helical. presentations of the behavior lessons. This intervention has been described and tested extensively (see Taylor-Green et al., 1996 & Todd, Homer, Sugai, & Sprague, 1999 for additional explanation of this component).
Second, each school established a consistent system of enforcement, monitoring and positive reinforcement to enhance the effect of rule teaching and maintain patterns of desired student behavior. Reinforcement reinforcement /re·in·force·ment/ (-in-fors´ment) in behavioral science, the presentation of a stimulus following a response that increases the frequency of subsequent responses, whether positive to desirable events, or systems included school wide token economies Noun 1. token economy - a form of behavior therapy that has been used in some mental institutions; patients are rewarded with tokens for appropriate behavior and the tokens may be cashed in for valued rewards in the form of "tickets" stating each school rule that were delivered by all adults in the building. These tokens were backed up with weekly drawings and rewards for the teachers as well. Each school implemented the procedures to fit their school improvement plan and specific discipline needs.
To enhance the effect of these strategies, we also gave data-based feedback to schools regarding their responses to the "Assessing Behavior Support in Schools" survey (Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, Todd & Homer, 1999) and discipline referral patterns as available (Sprague, Sugai, Homer & Walker, 1999.). Simple bar graphs of each school's performance were developed and the entire school staff reviewed the data at monthly staff meetings (contact the primary author for examples of these displays). Staffs were encouraged to give comment on the data and participate in problem solving discussions and developing action plans during regular school meetings.
Finally, we installed the Second Step Violence Prevention Curriculum (Committee for Children, 1997) in each treatment school. The curriculum was taught by most teachers in the school to maximize the effect of the intervention (our goal was 100% participation). Research shows the Second Step curriculum to be one of the best available for use in schools (Grossman et al., 1997) as it has been shown to be effective in increasing positive social skills and reducing aggressive playground behavior.
Results are presented regarding changes in disciplinary referrals at treatment and comparison schools, perceptions of school safety by adults in the schools, perceptions of the status of school discipline, changes in student social-skills knowledge related to the Second Step curriculum, and findings from the focus group interviews.
Office Discipline Referrals
We asked schools to report the frequency of office discipline referrals for the year preceding intervention (1997-1998) and the intervention year (1998-1999). While office discipline referrals are not a true indicator of behavioral change, they have been shown to be a useful metric for guiding decision making regarding interventions and making inferences about intervention effects (Sprague et al., 1999; Sugai, Sprague, Homer, & Walker, 2000). All treatment middle and elementary schools elementary school: see school. reported reductions in office discipline referrals in the intervention year when compared to the baseline year and showed greater improvement relative to comparison schools.
Discipline referrals in the baseline year ranged from 550-3167 for treatment middle schools and 260-2608 in the intervention year. Average percent change across the middle schools was -36% (range = -18 to -53%) compared to 82 percent increase in the comparison schools (range = -39- +203%). Comparison middle schools ranged from 601-1240 office referrals in the baseline year and 755 to 1222 in the intervention year.
Four of the six treatment elementary schools reported office discipline referrals for the baseline year. The remaining two had purged these data at the end of the baseline year (a common practice in schools we have found). Of the four schools with two years data, baseline frequencies ranged from 128-866 and 46-273 in the treatment year. Average percent change across the four treatment elementary schools was -51% (range = -18 to 68.5%). Comparison elementary schools reported a range of 159-699 in the baseline year and 146-658 in the treatment year. Average percent change for these schools was -7.5% (range = -6-9%).
Figure 1 presents composite percent change statistics for treatment and comparison schools.
Perceptions of School Safety
We administered the Oregon School Safety Survey (Sprague, Colvin, & Irvin, 1995) to school site-based management councils at both treatment and comparison schools (n= a total of 100 administrators, teachers and parents). The survey asks respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. to rate the extent of 16 risk and 17 protective factors shown to increase or buffer against school violence and discipline problems. A scale of i (not at all) to 4 (extensive) was used. Treatment middle school site councils indicated an average of 2.53 for risk factors and 2.57 for protective factors (minimal to moderate risk and protect). Comparison middle school site councils indicated an average of 2.3 for risk factors and 2.65 for protective factors (minimal to moderate risk and protect). No meaningful differences were detected in these ratings.
Assessing behavioral support in schools
In the treatment schools, the school discipline team was asked at midyear mid·year
1. The middle of the calendar or academic year.
a. An examination given in the middle of a school year.
b. midyears A series of such examinations. to rate the status of several features of Effective Behavioral Support (Sugai & Homer, 1994) using the "Assessing Behavioral Support in Schools" checklist (Sugai et al., 1999). This checklist asks raters to indicate whether an item is "in place," "in progress," or 'not started" across the areas of school-wide, common area, classroom, and individual student systems. Sample items included questions regarding the structure and function of the building based team, whether school rules and reinforcement systems are in place, etc. and reflected directly the content of the training provided by this project. A copy of the tool is available from the first author. We used the tool to indicate the quality of implementation of intervention components from the perspective of staff participating in the intervention. Treatment middle schools reported 50% of school wide, 32% common area; 48% classroom, and 30% individual student items as "in place." E lementary treatment schools reported 57% of school wide, 33% common area, 63% classroom, and 42% individual student items as "in place." We did not use this assessment in the comparison schools. Figures 2 and 3 present a graphic summary of survey results. We obtained highest ratings in the school-wide and classroom systems, areas of focus for training and assistance in this study.
Second Step Knowledge Change
Students in grades 3-8 in the treatment schools were given a 15-item test prior to receiving instruction in the curriculum and then at the end of the year. The test was created to assess student's ability to define essential skills (e.g., empathy) and to respond to vignettes of school related problems. All grade levels in all schools improved on this measure after instruction. Average percent correct in baseline was 46% and average scores increased to 55% across all grades. Figure 4 provides a graphic summary of pre and posttest post·test
A test given after a lesson or a period of instruction to determine what the students have learned. scores by grade.
Focus Group Interviews
As an additional indicator of the qualitative effects of the intervention, interviews were conducted with focus groups comprised of teachers, administrators and parents at four treatment (2 each elementary and middle) and four comparison (2 each elementary and middle) schools. The focus groups were interviewed for approximately one hour and asked to answer two basic questions:
1. What are the perceptions of school personnel regarding the process and content of school discipline, social skills teaching, reinforcement systems, and obstacles to improvement?
2. Do intervention schools report differences in consistency of intervention and satisfaction with the operation of their school, compared to the non-intervention schools?
School-wide discipline. Regarding school-wide discipline, the four comparison school groups reported a lack of comprehensive approaches for school-wide discipline. In these schools, discipline procedures were reported as more reactive than preventive preventive /pre·ven·tive/ (pre-vent´iv) prophylactic.
pre·ven·tive or pre·ven·ta·tive
Preventing or slowing the course of an illness or disease; prophylactic.
n. and generally applied most often to at-risk students The term at-risk students is used to describe students who are "at risk" of failing academically, for one or more of any several reasons. The term can be used to describe a wide variety of students, including,
Positive reinforcement. When asked to discuss the use of positive reinforcement and recognition in the schools, all treatment schools discussed mentation mentation
mental activity, state of mind. of school-wide discipline and social skill teaching strategies. Maintaining newly established systems took a great deal of effort and resources. "It's a lot of work," said one middle school teacher. Nevertheless, the teacher said, if there are fewer students getting into trouble, then it's worth the effort. Comparison schools generally reported the need for a consistent, school-wide approach to behavior management behavior management Psychology Any nonpharmacologic maneuver–eg contingency reinforcement–that is intended to correct behavioral problems in a child with a mental disorder–eg, ADHD. See Attention-deficit-hyperactivity syndrome. but noted a lack of technical support and training in this area.
This paper provided a limited description of the effects of a one-year intervention to improve school-wide discipline and safety in elementary and middle schools. Some effects were compared to similar elementary and middle schools in the same communities. Treatment schools fared better regarding changes in office discipline referrals and these changes appeared related to perceptions of intervention fidelity (as measured by the Assessing Behavioral Support in Schools survey) and improvements in student social skills (as measured by the knowledge tests). Adults in the school did not report measurable differences in their perceptions of school safety (as measured by the Oregon School Safety survey).
This study shows that school personnel can make meaningful changes in school practices in a one-year period with a relatively inexpensive investment in time and expense. We provided technical assistance and training to each treatment school across the year and required that a representative team of individuals (building administrator, representative teachers, related service staff) meet at least monthly to review progress and solve problems related to the implementation of EBS and Second Step. School teams were allotted al·lot
tr.v. al·lot·ted, al·lot·ting, al·lots
1. To parcel out; distribute or apportion: allotting land to homesteaders; allot blame.
2. 1500 dollars each to support substitutes for teachers and/or stipends for meeting after school hours. Cost of purchasing the Second Step curriculum (one kit for every two teachers) was approximately 2500 dollars per school.
This study is limited due to a relatively small sample size (n=9 treatment, 6 control) using the whole school as a unit of analysis. Future studies should use larger, randomly selected samples of schools to assess the impact of the intervention in more detail. This type of design will be challenging due to the need to find a large number of relatively equally matched schools for intervention or comparison. We did not compare individual students in the treatment and comparison schools on any measures as the focus of the study was on larger, whole school effects. Other studies (see Hawkins et al., 1999) which have used expanded, although similar, intervention procedures have shown significant effects for individual treatment students over a multi-year period.
The measurement procedures used in this project were limited, lack a complete set of outcome measures, and should be interpreted with caution. First, office referral data might be seen as a weak index of behavioral change. No collateral measures (e.g., direct observation, and student rating scales) were collected and no assessment of interobserver agreement was conducted. In addition, discipline referral data were shared with treatment school staff. This may have influenced staff behavior by encouraging teachers to use this strategy less. We believe however that teachers were encouraged to be more consistent in their use of office referrals due to receiving databased feedback on their performance. More study of this type of feedback is needed.
True baseline measures were not available for discipline referrals, school safety perceptions, or "Assessing Behavioral Support in Schools." As such, it is not possible to ascertain with certainty whether some EBS features were in place prior to intervention. it is likely that some features were in place. Changes in the Second Step knowledge test were minimal and lacked a comparison group. Future studies need to gather all of the above data in accordance Accordance is Bible Study Software for Macintosh developed by OakTree Software, Inc.
As well as a standalone program, it is the base software packaged by Zondervan in their Bible Study suites for Macintosh. with accepted conventions for ensuring the reliability and validity.
The short duration of the study was an artifact A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound of the grant that funded the training and technical assistance. While differential effects were observed in office discipline referrals and attitudes expressed by treatment versus comparison school staff, we would expect even greater differences in a multi-year comparison. In our work with multiple schools, we have consistently seen continued improvement over 2-4 years of implementation. In addition, we would expect continued changes in perceptions of school safety, student social skills etc. with sustained intervention (see Hawkins et al., 1999 for a demonstration of this cumulative effect). Future studies need to follow schools (and the students they serve) over multiple years to assess the cumulative effect of these procedures. Reviews of treatments for reducing school violence (Gottfredson, 1997; Hawkins et al., 1999) and children's mental health symptoms (Greenberg, Domitrovich, & Bumbarger, 1999) recommend sustaining interventions over multiple years in or der to cross important developmental periods (e.g., the transition from elementary to middle school). As noted by the focus group participants, sustaining these interventions remain a significant challenge and future work needs to focus on ways to assist school personnel to integrate increased demands for academic and behavioral excellence (Colvin, Kameenui, & Sugai, 1993).
The U.S. Public Health Service has developed a classification system of prevention approaches that provides for the integration of differing intervention types necessary to address the divergent di·ver·gent
1. Drawing apart from a common point; diverging.
2. Departing from convention.
3. Differing from another: a divergent opinion.
4. needs of these three student types. The three prevention approaches contained in the U.S. PHS (Personal Handyphone System) A TDMA-based cellular phone system introduced in Japan in mid-1995. Operating in the 1880-1930 MHz band, PHS uses microcells that cover an area only 100 to 500 meters in diameter, resulting in lower equipment costs but requiring more base classification system are primary (prevent onset), secondary (reduce emerging problems) and tertiary tertiary (tûr`shēârē), in the Roman Catholic Church, member of a third order. The third orders are chiefly supplements of the friars—Franciscans (the most numerous), Dominicans, and Carmelites. (reduce or reverse ongoing damage). Walker and his colleagues have conceptualized an integrated prevention model, based upon this classification system, for addressing the problem of school-based antisocial behavior patterns (Walker, et al., 1996). Universal interventions, applied to everyone in the same manner and degree, are used to achieve primary prevention goals; that is, to keep problems from emerging. This study attempted to assess the effects of this level of intervention. Individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. interventions, applied to one case at a time or to small groups of at risk individuals (e.g. alternative classrooms) are used to achi eve secondary and tertiary prevention tertiary prevention Medtalk Treatment that alters the course of clinical disease--eg, with CABG or PCTA. See Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty Psychiatry Measures to reduce impairment or disability following a disorder–eg, through rehabilitation. goals. These interventions are labor intensive Labor Intensive
A process or industry that requires large amounts of human effort to produce goods.
A good example is the hospitality industry (hotels, restaurants, etc), they are considered to be very people-oriented.
See also: Capital Intensive, Trading Dollars , complex, often intrusive in·tru·sive
1. Intruding or tending to intrude.
2. Geology Of or relating to igneous rock that is forced while molten into cracks or between other layers of rock.
3. Linguistics Epenthetic. , costly, and powerful.
This integrated model, though it has rarely been implemented fully in the context of schooling, provides an ideal means for school settings to develop, implement and monitor a comprehensive management system that addresses the needs of all students in the school. It is also a fair system in that typically developing students are not penalized pe·nal·ize
tr.v. pe·nal·ized, pe·nal·iz·ing, pe·nal·iz·es
1. To subject to a penalty, especially for infringement of a law or official regulation. See Synonyms at punish.
2. by being denied access to potentially beneficial interventions. In addition, it has the potential to positively impact the operations, administration and overall climate of the school. This model, through its emphasis on the use of primary prevention goals, achieved through universal interventions, maximizes the cost-efficient use of school resources and provides a supportive context for the application of necessary secondary and tertiary interventions for the more severely involved students. Finally, it provides a built in screening and assessment process; that is, through careful monitoring of students responses to the primary prevention interventions, it is possible t o detect those who are at greater risk and in need of more intensive services and supports.
Emerging public concerns regarding the safety of students in the school setting coupled with recent school shootings and media coverage of youth violence in general are generating enormous pressures on educators to take ownership of the problems presented by antisocial, delinquent delinquent 1) adj. not paid in full amount or on time. 2) n. short for an underage violator of the law as in juvenile delinquent.
DELINQUENT, civil law. He who has been guilty of some crime, offence or failure of duty. and violent youth. Over the next several years, an enormous amount of federal and state resources will be invested in school safety and prevention of antisocial behavior. It is extremely important that these precious resources be used to promote the adoption of best professional practices and that proven, research based screening systems and early interventions ear·ly intervention
n. Abbr. EI
A process of assessment and therapy provided to children, especially those younger than age 6, to facilitate normal cognitive and emotional development and to prevent developmental disability or delay. be implemented in addressing them. These developments also create significant opportunities for school professionals (related services personnel, general educators, special educators) to collaborate more effectively and to forge forge
Open furnace for heating metal ore and metal for working and forming, or a workshop containing forge hearths and related equipment. From earliest times, smiths (see smithing) heated iron in forges and formed it by hammering on an anvil. new working relationships with families and community agencies. If we can implement with integrity what we currently know regarding these problems, a major positive impact can be achieved. The stakes are high for our society and school systems. Yet the potential gains are well worth the investment and effort.
Biglan, A. (1995). Translating what we know about the context of antisocial behavior into a lower prevalence of such behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) was established in 1968 as a The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is a peer-reviewed, psychology journal, that publishes research about applications of the experimental analysis of behavior to problems of social importance. , 28, 479-492.
Colvin, G., Kameenui, E. J., & Sugai, G. (1993). School-wide and classroom management: Reconceptualizing the integration and management of students with behavior problems in general education. Education and Treatment of Children, 16, 361-381.
Committee for Children, (1997). Second Step: Violence prevention curriculum. Seattle, WA: Author.
Dryfoos, J. G. (1990). Adolescents at risk. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Oxford University Press.
Gottfredson, D.C. (1997). School-Based crime prevention, In L. W. Sherman, D. Gottfredson, D. MacKenzie, J. Eck, P. Reuter, & S. Bushway, Preventing crime: What works, what doesn't, what's promising (pp. 1-49). Washington, D.C.: US. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.
Greenberg, M.T., Domitrovich, C., & Bumbarger, B. (1999). Preventing mental disorders mental disorders: see bipolar disorder; paranoia; psychiatry; psychosis; schizophrenia. in school-age children: A review of the effectiveness of prevention programs (Executive Summary). Prevention Research Center for the Promotion of Human Development College of Health and Human Development, Pennsylvania State University Pennsylvania State University, main campus at University Park, State College; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1855, opened 1859 as Farmers' High School. .
Grossman, D. C., Neckerman, H. J., Koepsell, T. D., Liu, P., Asher, K. N., Beland, K., Frey, K., & Rivara, F. P. (1997). Effectiveness of a violence prevention curriculum among children in elementary school: A randomized controlled trial A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a scientific procedure most commonly used in testing medicines or medical procedures. RCTs are considered the most reliable form of scientific evidence because it eliminates all forms of spurious causality. . The Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal, published 48 times per year by the American Medical Association. JAMA is the most widely circulated medical journal in the world. , 277(20), 1603-1612.
Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., & Hill, K. G. (1999). Preventing adolescent ad·o·les·cent
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager. health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Archives of Pediatrics pediatrics (pēdēă`trĭks), branch of medicine dedicated to the attainment of the best physical, emotional, and social health for infants, children, and young people generally. & Adolescent Medicine adolescent medicine
The branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of youth between 13 and 21 years of age. Also called ephebiatrics, hebiatrics. , 153, 226-234.
Knitzer, J. (1993). Children's mental health policy: Challenging the future. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is a broad category which is used commonly in educational settings, to group a range of more specific perceived difficulties of children and adolescents. , 1(1), 8-16.
Lipsey, M. W. (1991). The effect of treatment on juvenile delinquents juvenile delinquent n. a person who is under age (usually below 18), who is found to have committed a crime in states which have declared by law that a minor lacks responsibility and thus may not be sentenced as an adult. : Results from meta-analysis. In F. Losel lo·sel
One that is worthless.
[Middle English, from lsen, past participle of l , D. Bender, & T. Bliesener (Eds.), Psychology and law. New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Mayer, G. (1995). Preventing antisocial behavior in the schools. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 467-478.
Mayer, G. R. & B. Sulzer-Azeroff (1990). Interventions for vandalism. Interventions for achievement and behavior problems. G. Stoner ston·er
1. One that stones.
a. One who is habitually intoxicated by alcohol or drugs.
b. One who is a delinquent or failure. , M. K. Shinn and H. M. Walker. Washington, DC, National Association of School Psychologists The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) is the first and largest national professional organization created for the purpose of serving school psychologists. Monograph: 559-580.
Osofsky, 1. D. (1997). Children in a violent society. New York, NY: Guilford Press
Sprague, J., Calvin, G., & Irvin, L. (1995). The Oregon School Safety Survey. Eugene: University of Oregon.
Sprague, J. R., Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., & Walker, H. M. (1999). Using office discipline referral data to evaluate school-wide discipline and violence prevention interventions. Oregon School Study Council Bulletin, 42(2). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, College of Education.
Sprague, J. R., Sugai, G., & Walker, H. (1998). Antisocial behavior in the schools. In S. Watson & F. Gresham (Eds.), Child behavior therapy behavior therapy or behavior modification, in psychology, treatment of human behavioral disorders through the reinforcement of acceptable behavior and suppression of undesirable behavior. : Ecological ecological
emanating from or pertaining to ecology.
the state of balance in an ecosystem when its inhabitants have established their permanent relationships with each considerations in assessment, treatment, and evaluation (pp. 451-474).
Sprague, J., & Walker, H. (2000). Early identification and intervention for youth with antisocial and violent behavior. Exceptional Children, 65(3), 367-379.
Sugai, G. and R. Horner (1994). Including students with severe behavior problems in general education settings: Assumptions, challenges, and solutions. Oregon Conference Monograph, 6, 102-120.
Sugai, G., Horner, R. H. & Sprague, J. (in press). Functional assessment-based behavior support planning: Research-to-practice-to-research. Education and Treatment of Children.
Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., Todd, A.W., & Horner, R. H. (1999) School-wide evaluation tool. Positive Behavioral Interventions behavioral intervention Behavior modification, behavior 'mod', behavioral therapy, behaviorism Psychiatry The use of operant conditioning models, ie positive and negative reinforcement, to modify undesired behaviors–eg, anxiety. and Supports Technical Assistance Center, University of Oregon: Eugene, Oregon The city of Eugene is the county seat of Lane County, Oregon, United States. It is located at the south end of the Willamette Valley, at the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette rivers, about 60 miles (100 km) east of the Oregon Coast. .
Taylor-Greene, S., Brown, D., Nelson, L., Longton, J., Gassman, T., Cohen cohen
(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male. , J., Swartz, J., Horner, R, Sugai, G., & Hall, S. (1995). School-wide behavioral support: Starting the year off right. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7(1), 99-112.
Todd, A. W., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Sprague, J. R (1999). Effective behavior support: Strengthening school-wide systems through a team-based approach. Effective School Practices, 17(4), 23-37. ADI.
Tolan, P. and N. Guerra (1994). What Works in Reducing Adolescent Violence: An Empirical Review of the Field. Chicago, Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence. U.S. Department of Justice, Department of Education. (1998). Annual Report on School Safety.
Walker, H. M., Colvin, G., & Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in school: Strategies and best practices. Pacific Grove Pacific Grove, residential and resort city (1990 pop. 16,117), Monterey co., W central Calif., on a point where Monterey Bay meets the Pacific Ocean; inc. 1889. , CA: Brooks/Cole.
Walker, H. M., Horner, R.H., Sugai, C., Bullis, M., Sprague, J. R, Bricker, D., & Kaufman, M. J. (1996). Integrated approaches to preventing anti-social behavior patterns among schoolage children and youth. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4(4), 194-209.
Walker, H. M., & Eaton-Walker, J. (2000). Key questions about school safety: Critical issues and recommended solutions. NASSP NASSP National Association of Secondary School Principals
NASSP North American Society of Social Philosophy Bulletin, March, 46-55.
Walker, H. M., Sprague, J. R, Close, D. W., & Schneider, T. (in press). School safety: Recommendations and generic strategies for educational leaders. University of Oregon: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management.
[Figure 1 omitted]
[Figure 2 omitted]
[Figure 3 omitted]
[Figure 4 omitted]
Table 1 Treatment and Companson School Characteristics - School demographics School Grade Level Treatment or Number of Propor- Propor- Comparison Students tion of tion of Enrolled Minority Free and students Reduced (percent) Lunch Students Middle 1 6-8 Treatment 742 9.2 50.13 Middle 2 6-8 Treatment 542 10.7 23.62 Middle 3 6-8 Treatment 502 1.0 45.85 Average 595.33 6.97 39.87 Middle 4 6-8 Comparison 482 6.4 28.84 Middle 5 6-8 Comparison 646 32.1 61.61 Middle 6 6-8 Comparison 957 6.2 21.36 Average 695 14.9 37.27 Elementary 1 K-5 Treatment 311 6.9 31.63 Elementary 2 K-5 Treatment 425 8.2 49.88 Elementary 3 K-5 Treatment 318 58.9 67.61 Elementary 4 K-5 Treatment 187 28.1 76.47 Elementary 5 K-2 Treatment 132 8.6 61.36 Elementary 6 K-5 Treatment 540 12.5 35.56 Average 318.83 20.53 53.79 Elementary 7 K-5 Comparison 390 5.5 25.90 Elementary 8 K-5 Comparison 455 70.4 81.54 Elementary 9 K-5 Comparison 502 1.6 57.37 Average 449 25.83 54.94 School Teacher- Student Ratio Middle 1 Not Available Middle 2 17.3 Middle 3 21.8 19.55 Middle 4 19.1 Middle 5 11.9 Middle 6 23.9 20.63 Elementary 1 21.1 Elementary 2 22.7 Elementary 3 21.2 Elementary 4 12.2 Elementary 5 20 Elementary 6 25.2 20.4 Elementary 7 22.8 Elementary 8 19.8 Elementary 9 24.2 22.27 Table 2 Process and Outcome Measure - Summary of measures Instrument Measure Assessing behavior support Percent of items rated checklist (Sugai et al., as in place or in 1999) progress Oregon School Safety Likert ratings of Survey (Sprague et al., selected risk and 1995) protective factors School Vandalism Costs Total cost summary Student Second Step Quantitative and Knowledge tests Qualitative summary of each instrument e.g. %correct) Teacher use reports Quantitative and (Second Step Curriculum), Qualitative summary (e.g. x rating) Discipline referrals, Quantitative summary attendance, SES ranking of of each key measure school Instrument Frequency Assessing behavior support Middle of the school year checklist (Sugai et al., 1999) Oregon School Safety End of the school year Survey (Sprague et al., 1995) School Vandalism Costs Quarterly Student Second Step Pre and Post Instruction Knowledge tests Teacher use reports Quarterly (Second Step Curriculum), Discipline referrals, Annual attendance, SES ranking of school Instrument Respondents Assessing behavior support EBS team members or checklist (Sugai et al., whole faculty 1999) Oregon School Safety School Site Council Survey (Sprague et al., 1995) School Vandalism Costs Building Principal Student Second Step Classroom teachers Knowledge tests Teacher use reports Classroom teachers (Second Step Curriculum), Discipline referrals, Building principal, State attendance, SES ranking of Department of Education school Database