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Transitivity as a tool for ideological analysis.

INTRODUCTION

This article examines the application of transitivity, from the Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), as a theoretical tool in the analysis of ideology in the print media. The data under study comprises extracts from the reportage of the run-up to the 1997 general elections in the Kenyan print media. (1)

The analysis aims to identify and explain how ideology is constructed and presented through language use in three Kenyan newspapers, viz., the Daily Nation, the East African Standard and the Kenya Times. Emphasis is placed on the construction of ideological discourse using representational process of transitivity thus revealing the close relation between language and ideology. The findings indicate that linguistic choices in transitivity play a fundamental role in propagation and perpetuation of implicit and dominant ideologies, and that there are certain ideological differences that are perpetuated either tacitly or overtly in newspaper headlines.

The article is divided into four sections. The first section situates the study within Kenya by providing a political background of the country and a brief history of the three newspapers under investigation. The next two sections outline the basic tenets of transitivity from Systemic Functional Grammar and an analysis of the data. The last section offers concluding remarks about the association between language and ideology.

POLITICAL BACKGROUND

Kenya attained its independence on 12 December 1963 with Jomo Kenyatta as the first president of the country. In the years preceding independence there were two main political parties, namely, the Kenya African National Union (KANU) and the Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU).

The two parties merged into one, viz., KANU, immediately after independence (2) Oginga Odinga, Kenya's first vice president, dissatisfied by KANU's policies, formed an opposition party, the Kenya's Peoples Union (KPU) in 1966. The KPU was banned by the Kenyatta government in 1969 and its leaders were sentenced to jail. In effect, Kenya became a de facto one party state (3).

President Kenyatta died in August 1978 and was succeeded by the vice president Daniel Arap Moi. During Moi's presidency Kenya remained a de facto one party state until 1982. In 1982 Parliament amended the constitution, inserting a section (2a) that recognized KANU as the only political party, thus making Kenya a de jure one party state (4). Despite the constitutional amendment, opposition to Moi's rule never withered. Political pluralism had wide support in Kenya, contrary to what KANU was saying. More Kenyans began to speak openly and defiantly against the state. Oginga Odinga launched another political movement in August 1991. He teamed up with five other veteran politicians to form the Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FORD), a pressure group whose main objective was to fight for the restoration of democracy and human rights in Kenya (5). KANU succumbed to the citizens' demands and in 1991 Parliament amended the constitution repealing section 2a, making Kenya a de jure multi-party state (6).

On 29 December 1992 the civic, parliamentary and presidential elections were held in a multi-party system. KANU emerged the winner. Exactly five years after the 1992 elections, the next elections were held in 1997. There were various registered political parties that participated in the 1997 elections, namely, KANU, FORD-Kenya, FORD-Asili, FORD-People, Democratic Party, the National Development Party, the Social Democratic Party, the Kenya Social Congress and the Kenya National Democratic Alliance, Safina among others.

By the 1997 elections there were three daily newspapers in circulation in Kenya, the Daily Nation, the East African Standard and the Kenya Times. All three newspapers were written in English. The Daily Nation is partly owned by His Highness, Aga Khan who holds 45% of the shares while the Kenyan public owns 55% of the shares. The Daily Nation is considered by the majority of Kenyans to be objective in its reporting. It is also the largest circulating daily in the country. The East African Standard is the second largest circulating newspaper in the country. It was formerly owned by the London-Rhodesia (LONRHO) company but it was later sold to an international investor who happened to be a member of the ruling party, KANU. In its reporting, this paper is inclined towards the ruling party. The Kenya Times was founded by KANU as party paper in 1983. The paper articulates the government's position on all issues. It is also considered to be the "mouth-piece" of the ruling party (by 1997).

FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS

The study is guided by Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG). This framework present certain theoretical constructs that help to unravel the ideologies presented in discourse patterns used by the three newspapers. In the next two sections the transitivity approach of SFG will be briefly outlined, followed by the analysis of data. The data was obtained from selected headlines on the run-up (November and December) to the 1997 general elections. Headlines, just like editorials have a prominent function in the expression and construction of public opinion and to a large extent they display the newspapers' ideological positions. Twenty eight headlines constitute the data for this study, that is, nine from the Daily Nation (November 12, 13, 19, 23, 27, 30, December 15, 27, 29), eleven from the East African Standard (November 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 22, 23, 27, December 15, 18, 20), and eight from the Kenya Times (November 12, 13, 14, 24, December 15, 17, 18, 23).

SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR AND TRANSITIVITY

The main theoretical construct used in the data analysis is transitivity. This construct finds its roots in Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (7). Transitivity generally refers to how meaning is represented in the clause. It plays a role in showing how speakers encode in language their mental picture of reality and how they account for their experience of the world around them. Since transitivity is concerned with the transmission of ideas it is considered to fall within the realm of the ideational function of language (8).

Linguistically, transitivity is concerned with propositional meanings and functions of syntactic elements. The representations that can be attested within a transitivity model are said to signal bias, manipulation and ideology in discourse. Coincidentally, a large amount of social impact of media has to do with how the media selectively represents the states of being, actions, events and situations concerning a given society.

Transitivity is part of the ideational function of language and is a fundamental and powerful semantic concept in Halliday, an essential tool in the analysis of representation (9). Kress states that transitivity is the representation in language of processes, the participants therein, and the circumstantial features associated with them (10), whereas Simpson asserts that transitivity refers generally to how meaning is represented in the clause (11). Transitivity shows how speakers encode in language their mental picture of reality and how they account for their experience of the world around them.

The meaning of Halliday's transitivity differs from the sense of the term in traditional grammar. Traditionally there is a syntactic distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs, depending on whether they take an object or not. But this syntactic distinction oversimplifies or neglects some important differences of meaning between various types of verbs, and, therefore various types of clauses. The differences concern what kind of process the verb designates: kick designates a kind of action, which has an effect on another entity, the ball; ran refers to an action, which affects only the actor(s). In Jane is tall, we find a quite different state of affairs encoded, namely, no action but a description of a physical state. Peter meditates refers to a mental process, not a physical action.

There are many more distinctions of meaning behind transitivity than the simple distinction expressed by transitive versus intransitive. A central insight of Halliday's is that transitivity is the foundation of representation; it is the way the clause is used to analyse events and situations as being of certain types. Transitivity also has the facility to analyse the same event in different ways, a facility which, as Fowler shows, is of great interest in newspaper analysis (12). Since transitivity makes options available, some possibilities are always suppressed, so the choice a speaker makes or the choice made by the discourse indicates that the speaker's point of view is ideologically significant. Newspapers provide abundant examples of the ideological significance of transitivity.

In transitivity different processes are distinguished according to whether they represent actions, speech, states of mind or states of being, inter alia, material processes (processes of doing), relational processes (process of being), verbalization processes (process of saying), and mental processes (process of sensing).

Material processes of transitivity are processes of doing. Kress calls them action clauses (13), whereas Reah refers to them as actional verbs (14). These processes express the notion that some entity "does" something--which may be done "to" some other entity (15). Material processes have two inherent participant roles associated with them. The first is the actor, an obligatory element that represents the "doer" of the process expressed by the clause. The second is an optional goal which represents the person or entity affected by the process (16). Halliday states that the term goal implies "directed" at (17). Verbalization processes are processes of saying. The participant roles associated with verbalization processes are that of the SAYER (the individual who is speaking) and the TARGET (the addressee to whom the process is directed). To this may be added VERBIAGE (not derogatory but "that which is said").

Relational process of transitivity expresses the process of being. According to Kress relational processes are clauses in which the "process" takes the form of a relation between two participating entities, or between one participating entity and an attribute (18). Both of these two types may have the verb be, which tends to obscure the difference between them. Simpson suggests that quite often these processes signal that a relationship exists between two participants, but without suggesting that one participant affects the other in any way (19).

The main relational processes of transitivity may be (a) intensive, expressing an "X is a" relationship, b) Possessive, expressing "X has a" relationship; or c) Circumstantial, expressing "X is at/of a" relationship.

Reah observes that, by selecting from the range of models (processes), the producer of a text can present the world to the reader with an ideological slant imposed upon it. People or regimes can be presented as actors or recipients of action, and they can be presented in terms of their behaviour or qualities (20).

After examining the grammar of transitivity and its related processes, viz. relational, material, verbal and mental which form Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar, we now proceed to analyse the data.

TRANSITIVITY IN THE DATA

While we have discussed the theoretical orientation of transitivity in the previous section, this particular section will dwell on its applicability to the data. In this study transitivity analysis is applied to newspaper headlines since they function as opinion manipulators and are thus good candidates for the study of the newspapers' ideological position (21). Headlines like editorials have a prominent function in the expression and construction of public opinion. For this study, only three of the transitivity processes were found in the data and they include material (process of doing), verbal (process of saying) and relational (process of being).

MATERIAL PROCESSES

The headlines of the three newspapers (Daily Nation, East African Standard and the Kenya Times) utilize the strategy of material process of transitivity in their reporting. These are instances where we have the actor (agent), the process and the goal and/or circumstances as exemplified below:

Daily Nation

1. Seven ex-MPs desert Ford-K. (12 November 1997)

2. Ford-K loses leading officials. (13 November 1997)

3. Matiba men fail in party search. (23 November 1997)

4. Government registers Safina party. (27 November 1997)

5. Campaign hots up as date nears. (15 December 1997)

6. Poll violence claims 2 more. (27 December 1997)

East African Standard

7. Kanyingi, Sifuna defect. (10 November 1997)

8. (a) Seven MPs defect. (12 November 1997)

(b) Five more ex-MPs desert Ford-Kenya. (13 November 1997)

9. Matiba pals try move on Ford-A. (15 November 1997)

10. Muite set to quit politics? (23 November 1997)

11. Safina is now okayed. (27 November 1997)

12. Ngilu storms police station. (20 December 1997)

13. Gema meeting is "planned". (15 December 1997)

Kenya Times

14. 8 Luo MPs join Raila. (12 November 1997)

15. Orengo, 4 others quit Ford-K. (13 November 1997)

16. Kanyingi returns to Kanu. (14 November 1997)

17. Gema plot backfires. (17 December 1997)

18. Luos show overwhelming support for Moi. (18 December 1997)

From the examples cited above it can be deduced that the ACTOR roles in the East African Standard and the Kenya Times are occupied mostly by proper nouns (examples 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18) and all except one of these proper nouns refer to Opposition members of parliament or to Opposition groupings. On the other hand the Daily Nation also makes use of proper nouns in actor roles, but it goes a step further and uses common nouns that do not refer to specific individuals or particular political groupings (examples 1, 4, 5, 6).

The seven ex-MPs (example 1) who occupy the actor role in the Daily Nation are referred to as seven MPs in the East African Standard (8a). Surprisingly, in the Kenya Times they become 8 Luo MPs (example 14). While in the Daily Nation it stated that they desert (process) Ford-K (goal), in the East African Standard there is no goal element. However, in the Kenya Times the goal element is occupied by a proper noun (Raila). The use of the ethnic tag (Luo) in agent position by the Kenya Times seems to prop up the theme of tribalism within Opposition parties. In example 14, the agent role has the ethnic tag Luo to refer to a specific ethnic group in Kenya joining (process) another person (goal) from their ethnic group. During the 1997 elections Raila was head of a political party, specifically, the National Development Party (NDP). The purpose of the headline writer in using 8 Luo MPs in actor role instead of, for instance, 8 MPs shows his ideological inclination of viewing NDP as a tribal party. In fact, the presence of Raila in goal position instead of his party (NDP) foregrounds the theme of tribalism, i.e. Luos are joining another Luo.

The three newspapers through the strategy of the material process highlight the desertions and defections affecting the opposition parties. Thus the actor role Ford-K (example 2) in the Daily Nation is assigned a goal position (example 8b, 15) in the East African Standard and the Kenya Times respectively. Likewise the goal element referred to as leading officials (example 2) in the Daily Nation are assigned actor roles in the other newspapers but assigned different labels. Thus in the East African Standard they are referred to as Five more ex-MPs (example 8b) whereas, in the Kenya Times they are referred to as Orengo, 4 others (example 15).

The contrasts in reporting cited above echo certain ideological leanings. It is hypothesized that the Daily Nation is reporting events more as they occurred. The newspaper identifies the party (Ford-K) and assigns it an actor role and then through a process (loses) it just informs us that the party has lost leading officials without identifying who they are. In the East African Standard and the Kenya Times there is a difference in that the calibre and influence of the people defecting is highlighted and that is why they are assigned actor roles. Their being referred to as Five ex-MPs and Orengo, 4 others is significant indeed. A party that loses five ex-MPs must indeed be in trouble. Orengo is named because he was a senior member of Ford-K, that is, the Vice-Chairman. It is as if the newspapers are telling us that if such senior people can quit a party then the chances of the party's survival are minimal. Furthermore, considering that a general election was in the offing it would be very difficult for such a party to garner votes from the electorate.

The general concept of transitivity through the material process is also used to discredit events surrounding opposition groups or their leaders. The discrediting is observed in examples 12 and 17 in the East African Standard and Kenya Times respectively. In example 12 Ngilu, the leader of the Social Democratic Party, is assigned the agent role and presented as actively responsible for the process (storm) affecting a goal element (police station), whereas in 17 Gema, an ethnic grouping, is assigned actor role in a process (backfires). There is no goal element in this example.

As Simpson observes, in material processes lexical choices are just as strong an indicator of the respective political stances adopted by newspapers (22). A number of words are used which have affective connotations and most of these carry conventionally negative evaluations of the activity to which they refer. Therefore, the negative evaluation is attested in examples 12 and 17 where Ngilu (one of the presidential candidates) is said to have stormed a police station, i.e. carrying a process, whereas in 17 the actor's event is said to have backfired. The two processes (storm, backfire) are normally interpreted unfavourably in most contexts. Thus the actors in the examples are evaluated negatively in the processes that they perform. The preference of an abstract happening such as backfires has a very powerful evaluative function. The choice of verbs such as storm and backfire in the East African Standard and Kenya Times respectively do not necessarily tell us about concrete events, but about the writers' interpretation and evaluation of events, as portrayed in the respective headlines.

Thetela has synthesized the role of syntactic transformations in material processes. She observes that while transitivity roles are semantic in nature, they can also be impacted upon by syntactic transformations. While syntactic transformations do not necessarily affect the type of process, they can bring other dimensions of meaning to the discourse (23). The impact of syntactic transformations in our data is observed in examples 11 and 13 found exclusively in the East African Standard. The two headlines are passive constructions in which the patient (Safina and Gema meeting) are in subject or thematic position. The verb structures is now okayed and is planned of the two headlines have a feature of agency, thus we could ask "who by", thus "who okayed Safina" and "who planned the Gema meeting". The identities of the agents are not revealed. Rather they are concealed in the headlines, thus placing the prominence of the message on the patient and the action suffered.

If we contrast example 11 of the East African Standard and example 4 of the Daily Nation we can actually determine as to why the identity is concealed in 11. In the Daily Nation the identity of the actor is revealed, that is, it is the government that registered (process) Safina party (goal or patient). The role of the government in the registration of Safina party is downplayed by the editor of the East African Standard. The government only registered the party after a lot of pressure from local and international democrats. Therefore, in concealing the identity of the agent the editor does not portray the government as responding to pressure or being under siege. He is thus protecting the government and by extension the ruling party.

From the foregoing discussion, we can say that the Daily Nation assigns actor roles to individuals in the opposition, highlighting their moves. In the process the paper does not evaluate the actors negatively. Furthermore, the theme of tribalism is not trumped up as in the other dailies. The East African Standard and Kenya Times apply material processes to discredit the opposition as tribalists, as parties that are losing senior members and as violent (storm). The East African Standard protects the government by concealing it as an actor in a situation where the actor role would be viewed negatively or unfavourably.

VERBALIZATION PROCESSES

Verbal processes can be attested in the following examples:

Daily Nation

19. Raila speaks of opposition plan. (19 November 1997)

20. Election losers cry foul. (30 November 1997)

East African Standard

21. Kanyingi tells Moi I'm sorry. (14 November 1997)

Kenya Times

22. Pull out, Ngilu told by mother. (24 November 1997)

The SAYER role in all the newspapers is occupied by proper nouns referring either to opposition parties members or to the ruling party (Kanu) members, except in example 19 in the Daily Nation where the Sayer role is occupied by a common noun, election losers. All in all, the question that arises is how verbal processes are realized and what ideology they want to portray.

The Daily Nation in example 19 assigns Raila (an opposition leader) the Sayer role and is said to speak (process) of opposition plan (target). However in example 20 the Sayers are not identified but they are generally referred to as "election losers" who are crying (process) foul (verbiage).

In the East African Standard (example 21) Kanyingi occupies the Sayer role in the sense that he is pleading (tells-process) for forgiveness from Moi (target). In example 21 the choice of naming Moi (Target) as opposed to the institution of the presidency appears to give a human face to institutional discourse. The naming of Moi also exhibits power relations in the sense that Moi's might is portrayed and that is why he has the power to forgive Kanyingi.

A conflict is created between Ngilu and her mother in example 22, of the Kenya Times where Ngilu's mother (Sayer) is telling her to pull out of the presidential race. The editor, in invoking the authority of Ngilu's mother, uses emotionalization strategies to sway the reader to believe that Ngilu should actually withdraw from the presidential race. In fact this strategy (of emotionalization) is tied up with an imperative form (pull out) of a mother giving an order to a daughter.

From the application of verbal processes in the headlines of the three newspapers it is clear that the East African Standard shows Kanu's might as represented by the power of the president to forgive. The Kenya Times utilizes the voice of Ngilu's mother to convince her to withdraw from the presidential race. The paper is thus campaigning for Moi. However, no such cases are attested in the Daily Nation.

RELATIONAL PROCESSES

The following are examples of relational processes extracted from the data:

Daily Nation

23. Once again, it's time to decide. (29 December 1997)

East African Standard

24. You're lost. (22 November 1997)

25. Raila at Moi's rally. (18 December 1997)

Kenya Times

26. President: Kanu [is] formidable. (15 December 1997)

27. Safina's anti-Moi crusade. (23 December 1997)

From the examples cited above it can be deduced that all three newspapers make use of relational processes. The Daily Nation (example 23) uses its relational process to explain a major happening in the Kenyan political scene, i.e. to refer to casting of votes the day elections are being held. The East African Standard and the Kenya Times utilize the same process to assign either positive attributes to the ruling party or negative attributes to the opposition.

The editor of the East African Standard uses a relational process in example 24 to express an opinion about opposition MPs. Thus, you (CARRIER) refers to opposition MPs and through a contracted form of the verb are (process) they are assigned an attribute (lost) to imply that they have no sense of direction. Though this headline can be credited to statements made by other MPs to refer to Orengo and others, the fact that the editor uses bold upper case letters tends to portray the statement as the newspaper's standpoint. On its part Kenya Times uses a relational process to assign Kanu positive attributes. Positive identification of Kanu is seen in example 25 where Kanu (CARRIER) is placed as a major participant in the clause and assigned a positive attribute (formidable). Note that due to the contracted syntax of headlines, the verb "is" in square brackets was absent in the original. The formidability of Kanu is emphasized intentionally by means of a relational process, by the editor, to enhance the view that opposition parties are engaged in futile attempts to acquire power. The editor suggests that there is no party that can beat Kanu in the elections.

Circumstantial relational processes are observed in example 25 of the East African Standard and in example 26 of the Kenya Times. In example 25 Raila, an opposition leader, is placed as a major participant (CARRIER) in a circumstantial relational process to show that he attended the ruling party's rally referred to as Moi's rally in the text. The headline is meant to confuse the readers and make them believe that Raila has joined the ruling party. In fact, reading the rest of the article makes one realize that the headline is misleading because at no time whatsoever is it reported that Raila was at the rally.

Kenya Times, in example 27, uses a circumstantial relational process to portray Safina (an opposition party) as having negative identifying qualities. It is a party that is against Moi and by extension against the ruling party.

We can conclude that the Daily Nation utilizes a relational process to report about an important event (general elections) happening in the country's history. The East African Standard and the Kenya Times utilize the same process to portray the ruling party positively while portraying the opposition negatively.

CONCLUSION

On the basis of the data presented here, it may be concluded that the Kenya Times and the East African Standard are ideologically inclined towards KANU. This conclusion is drawn on the basis that these two newspapers use transitivity processes to bring to the fore the positive values of KANU while at the same time placing more emphasis on the negative attributes of the Opposition. The Daily Nation on the other hand presents itself as more balanced in its reporting. It does not favour either the ruling party or the Opposition but, instead, it reports events as they happened.

In the Kenya Times and the East African Standard the material processes of transitivity are used to evaluate the Opposition negatively through the processes that they (actor/actions) carry out or perform. The same newspapers portray an ideology that favours the ruling party. The Daily Nation contrasts the ruling party and a combined Opposition through material processes. It faults both sides of the political divide by pointing out their weaknesses. Verbalization processes in the Kenya Times help to sustain an ideology of KANU and the President as powerful entities. Likewise, in the Kenya Times and the East African Standard, relational processes create an ideology of positivity for KANU while creating a negative one for the Opposition. The Daily Nation steers away from evaluation and applies the process to explain about a major event in the Kenyan political scene, i.e. the day the elections are held.

Representational practices and processes such as transitivity have ideological effects and can assist in the realization of contrasting discourses. Representation, in this paper, realized through the process of transitivity shows how newspaper headlines help to sustain bias, manipulation and ideology. Material, verbal and relational processes of transitivity, which are a form of representation, indicate the newspapers' political stances or ideologies.

This paper has highlighted the relevance and applicability of SFG and its theoretical construct, namely, transitivity, in unearthing ideologies in general and in this paper, ideological differences among the three newspapers in particular. Such an approach may lend itself favourably in understanding political and other discourses in various contexts.

NOTES

(1.) For a comprehensive set of data of the reportage of the run-up to the 1997 general elections in the Kenyan print media see P. M. Matu, "A Critical Discourse Analysis of Newspaper Reporting of the run-up to the 1997 Kenyan General Election", Ph.D Thesis, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, 2003.

(2.) D. Foeken and T. Dietz, "Of Ethnicity, Manipulation and Observation: The 1992 and 1997 Elections in Kenya", in J. Abbink and G. Hesseling(eds), Election Observation and Democratization in Africa, (London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 2000) pp.122-149; B.A Ogot, "Transition from Single-Party to Multi-party Political System", in B.A. Ogot and W.R. Ochieng(eds), Decolonization and Independence in Kenya, (London:James Currey Ltd. 1995) pp 239-261.

(3.) B.A. Ogot, " Transition from Single-Party to Multi-party Political System," pp. 239-261; P. Wanyande, "Mass Media-State Relations in Post Colonial Kenya", Africa Media Review, 9(3), 54-75; R. Ajulu, Kenya's 1992 Elections and its Implication for Democratization in Sub-Saharan Africa. (Braamfontein: The Ford Foundation for Global Dialogue, 1997); D. Foeken and T. Dietz, "Of Ethnicity, Manipulation and Observation: The 1992 and 1997 Elections in Kenya", in J. Abbink and G. Hesseling(eds.),Elections Observation and Democratization in Africa, (London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 2000) pp. 122-149.

(4.) B.A. Ogot, " Transition form Single -Party to Multi-party Political System," pp. 239-261; B.A Ogot, " The Politics of Populism", in B.A. Ogot and W.R. Ochieng(eds.) Decolonization and Independence in Kenya (London: James Currey Ltd, 1995) pp. 187-213.

(5.) B.A. Ogot, " Transition form Single-Party to Multi-party Political System," pp. 239-261; R.Ajulu, Kenya's 1992 Elections and its implication for Democratization in Sub-Saharan Africa( Braamfontein: The Ford Foundation for Global Dialogue, 1997)

(6.) B.A. Ogot, "Transition form Single-party to Multi-Party Political System", pp. 239-261; R. Ajulu, Kenya's 1992 Elections and its implication for Democratization in Sub-Saharan Africa; M. Rutten, "The Kenyan General Election of 1997: implementing a new model for Internal Election Observation in Africa", in J. Abbink and G. Hesseling(eds), Election Observation and Democratization in Africa, (London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 2000). pp 295-320.

(7.) G. Kress(ed), Halliday: System and Function in Language (London: Oxford University Press, 1976); M.A.K. Halliday, An Introduction to Function Grammar. (London: Edward Arnold, 1985); G. Kress, Critical Discourse Analysis, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, Vol.II 1990, pp. 84-99; B. Hodge and G. Kress, Language as Ideology. (London: Routedge, 1993); P. Simpson, Language, Ideology and Point of View. (London: Routedge, 1993).

(8.) R. Fowler, Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press. (London: Routledge, 1991); P. Simpson, Language, Ideology and Point of View. (London: Routledge, 1993).

(9.) R. Fowler, Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press p.70.

(10.) G. Kress(ed), Halliday: System and Function in Language. p. 169

(11.) P. Simpson, Language, Ideology and Point of View. p.88

(12.) R. Fowler, Language in the News: Discourse and Indeology in the Press. pp. 70-71.

(13.) G. Kress(ed.), Halliday: System and Function in Language.

(14.) D. Reah, The Language of Newspapers. (London: Routledge, 1998).

(15.) M.A.K. Halliday, An Introduction to Functional Grammar p. 103.

(16.) P. Simpson, Language, Ideology and Point of View (

(17.) M.A.K. Halliday, An Introduction to Functional Grammar.

(18.) G. Kress(ed), Halliday: System and Function in Language. p. 167.

(19.) P. Simpson, Language, Ideology and Point of View.

(20.) D. Reah, The Language of Newspapers. p. 79.

(21.) P. Thetela, "Critique Discourse and Ideology in Newspaper reports: A Discourse Analysis of the South African Press Reports on the 1998 SADC's Military Intervention in Lesotho", Discourse and Society, 12 (3) 2001, pp. 347 -370.

(22.) P. Simpson, Language, Ideology and Point of View. P. 109.

(23.) P. Thetela, "Critique Discourses and Ideology in Newspaper Reports: A Discourse Analysis of the South African Press Reports on the 1998 SADC's Military Intervention in Lesotho," 12(3) 2002, pp. 347-370.

Peter M. Matu, received his B.A. and M.A. in Linguistics from the University of Nairobi, Kenya and has a Ph.D. in English Discourse Analysis from the University of the Free State, South Africa. He is currently a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Linguistics, Languages & Literature, Maseno University, Kenya. His research interests are in Syntax, Critical Discourse Analysis, Communication and Ideology in Media Studies.
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