Training programs for working with older American Indians who are visually impaired.The importance of the cultural/environmental context upon the behavior of people with disabilities is evident when working with people living on reservations. Lewin (1942) advanced the theoretical framework that in order to understand or to predict behavior, the person and the environment have to be considered as one constellation of interdependent in·ter·de·pen·dent
Mutually dependent: "Today, the mission of one institution can be accomplished only by recognizing that it lives in an interdependent world with conflicts and overlapping interests" factors. He called this constellation life space.
Marshall, Martin, Thomason, and Johnson (1991) reflect a psychology of ecology point of view when they state, "People with disabilities may have more difficulty in ameliorating a·mel·io·rate
tr. & intr.v. a·me·lio·rat·ed, a·me·lio·rat·ing, a·me·lio·rates
To make or become better; improve. See Synonyms at improve.
[Alteration of meliorate. their physical limitations in such environments" (p. 231). These difficulties include unemployment rates 5.47 times higher than that of the total civilian labor force (Martin & Frank, 1987), a 1.5 times higher rate of work disability than for the general population (O'Connell, 1987), and more health-related problems at younger ages than the general population (Maddux, 1987). In keeping with social affordance Social affordance is a specialization of the term affordance, and refers to the properties of an object or environment that permit social actions. Social affordance is most often used in the context of a social technology such as wiki and chat applications. theory (Loveland, 1991), environments offer opportunities for perception and action to people in the context of their capacities, both physical and psychological. These perceptions and actions are in neither the environment nor person but are derived from an ecological relationship between both.
It is evident that American Indians American Indians: see Americas, antiquity and prehistory of the; Natives, Middle American; Natives, North American; Natives, South American. with disabilities living on reservations have substantial unmet needs and limited resources and services. Action research methods become highly relevant under these conditions. Lewin developed a theme of social change in his notion of action research, which was an outgrowth of field theory. In explaining this concept, Lewin stated, "It is a type of action research, a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action" (Lewin, 1948, p. 203). Lewin also stressed that residents from the area being studied should actively take part in the research process. Current community-based research approaches including participatory action research Action Research or Participatory action research has emerged in recent years as a significant methodology for intervention, development and change within communities and groups. It is now promoted and implemented by many international development agencies and university programs CCAR, as (Whyte, 1991), social impact assessment (Tester & Mykes, 1981), and qualitative research Qualitative research
Traditional analysis of firm-specific prospects for future earnings. It may be based on data collected by the analysts, there is no formal quantitative framework used to generate projections. (Strauss & Corbin, 1990), incorporate Lewin's thematic underpinnings. Several community-based action research projects have been conducted with tribal members to understand and improve services to Indian people with disabilities. Martin and O'Connell (1986) found that the life space factors of many individuals living on the 19 Pueblos of New Mexico New Mexico, state in the SW United States. At its northwestern corner are the so-called Four Corners, where Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah meet at right angles; New Mexico is also bordered by Oklahoma (NE), Texas (E, S), and Mexico (S). consistently interfered with the interchange of effective services. An alternative service delivery approach was undertaken by the investigators to test the feasibility of a state vocational rehabilitation Noun 1. vocational rehabilitation - providing training in a specific trade with the aim of gaining employment
rehabilitation - the restoration of someone to a useful place in society (VR) agency working interdependently with American Indians living on reservations to benefit from rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy. services. Local, indigenous persons living within the Pueblos were trained as rehabilitation technicians to identify individuals with disabilities in need of services and then refer them to state VR counselors. The state division of vocational rehabilitation implemented a new system of services resulting from the recommendations of the study.
Lonetree (1990) identified the service resource needs associated with delivering services within American Indian American Indian
or Native American or Amerindian or indigenous American
Any member of the various aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere, with the exception of the Eskimos (Inuit) and the Aleuts. Vocational Rehabilitation Projects administered by 14 tribes throughout the nation. As a result of the study, specific training and technical assistance activities were initiated to improve service delivery. Saravanabhavan (1991) investigated the needs of the elderly American Indians who were visually impaired or blind and living on the Hualapai reservation in Arizona. He employed a triangulation triangulation: see geodesy.
The use of two known coordinates to determine the location of a third. Used by ship captains for centuries to navigate on the high seas, triangulation is employed in GPS receivers to pinpoint their current location on earth. method of data sources and data collection. The data sources included samples of elderly American Indians, service providers, and client records. The data collection methods included administration of the OARS OARS
See Opening Automated Reporting Service (OARS). Multidimensional mul·ti·di·men·sion·al
Of, relating to, or having several dimensions.
multi·di·men Functional Assessment Questionnaire, an assistive device assistive device Public health Any device designed or adapted to help people with physical or emotional disorders to perform actions, tasks, and activities. See Americans with Disabilities Act, Architectural barriers, Assistive technology. survey, and a service provider survey. A protocol also was developed to extract data from client records. From this multimethod approach, the researcher was able to make systemic recommendations to improve services. Community-based research methods used in these studies were applied to a training program to improve services to older American Indians with visual impairments Visual Impairment Definition
Total blindness is the inability to tell light from dark, or the total inability to see. Visual impairment or low vision is a severe reduction in vision that cannot be corrected with standard glasses or contact lenses and .
While there have been minimal research data generated about older Americans Indians with visual impairments, there is some information available about the health needs of American Indian elders. Saravanabhavan and Marshall (1991) reported that American Indians "age faster" as evidenced by research that showed that American Indians experienced a lower life expectancy Life Expectancy
1. The age until which a person is expected to live.
2. The remaining number of years an individual is expected to live, based on IRS issued life expectancy tables. and quality of life when compared to non-Indian populations. Because of this phenomenon, American Indians acquire limitations in activities of daily living at earlier ages than the non-Indian population. The researchers pointed out that "unless providers of health care and human services are reservation-based, they may not see this population" (p. 17). Edwards, Edwards Edwards, Edward, 1812–86, English library pioneer. As assistant from 1839 in the British Museum, he helped Sir Anthony Panizzi draw up the rules for the catalog. , and Daines (1980) surveyed personnel from Bureau of Indian Affairs The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55.7 million acres (87,000 sq. offices, tribal headquarters, and state departments of aging serving American Indian/Alaska Native elderly. They found that paraprofessional paraprofessional
1. a person who is specially trained in a particular field or occupation to assist a veterinarian.
2. allied animal health professional.
3. pertaining to a paraprofessional. staff were most often employed to provide services to older American Indian people. They concluded that "more American Indian people could benefit from receiving services provided by staff who are professionally trained in identifying and meeting the needs of older American Indian people" (p. 221). The purpose of this project was to provide education and specialized training to reservation-based community representatives who work with people who are elderly and visually impaired and who reside on Arizona reservations.
The method used in developing the training program will be described in this section. The processes described are development of the training manual and protfolio of resource information, development of the training curriculum, and selection of trainees.
Development of the Training Manual
A manual (White & Carlise, 1991) was developed to help the reservation-based community representatives understand and review material presented during the workshop and copies were distributed to trainees at workshops in Tucson and Flagstaff Flagstaff, city (1990 pop. 45,857), seat of Coconino co., N Ariz., near the San Francisco Peaks; inc. 1894. Lumbering, ranching, and a lively tourist trade thrive in the region, where many ruined pueblos, numerous state parks, several lakes, and large pine forests . Rehabilitation counselors, rehabilitation specialists, mobility specialists, tribal members, and people with visual impairments were consulted throughout the manual's development. In addition, other training manuals on mobility and daily living skills were reviewed for ideas. Portions of the manual dealing with assistive and technical devices were written to be relevant to rural areas, where running water or electricity is often scarce. Drawings were used to help clarify and simplify the text. The manual underwent eight revisions before a first draft was completed. Professionals from Arizona tribes, Arizona State Services for the Blind and Visually Impaired (SBVI), and the Institute for Human Development reviewed and made recommendations for improving the manual. The resulting manual contains drawings and text appropriate for consumers, family members, paraprofessionals, and others to use effectively. It includes information and instructions on definitions of parts of the eye, basic sighted guide instruction, signaling for narrow passageways, going
through doorways, traversing stairs with a guide, walking over uneven and dirt roads dirt road n (US) → camino sin firme
dirt road n → chemin non macadamisé or non revêtu
dirt road dirt n , trailing, squaring off, seating techniques, forearm forearm /fore·arm/ (for´ahrm) antebrachium; the part of the arm between elbow and wrist.
The part of the arm between the wrist and the elbow. and lower body protection techniques, advice and suggestions on staying oriented in rural areas, finding dropped objects, paper money organization, coin identification, making a telephone directory, dialing a telephone, using a pushbutton push·but·ton
n. also push button
A small button that activates an electric circuit when pushed.
adj. also push-but·ton
Equipped with or operated by a pushbutton. phone, exploring tabletops, food identification, identifying food on a plate, pouring liquids, using flatware, labeling containers, labeling dials, telling time, using writing and signature guides, matching clothing, washing dishes, sweeping a floor, and enhancing useable vision.
The appendix contains information to assist reservation-based community representatives when working with elderly visually impaired people. Included is an orientation/mobility evaluation procedure, an independent living skills assessment process, information on how to make a large print telephone directory, an application for exemption from directory assistance, a braille alphabet form, and a resources form. The resources form was compiled to assist the representatives on where additional information, catalogs, or questions may be obtained when serving elders with visual impairments on reservations.
Of 200 manuals produced, 105 were given to workshop participants. Reservation-based community representatives each received two copies of the manual, one to keep and one to distribute at their discretion. Forty-eight copies of the manual were handed out during the followup phase of the project to consumers, family members of people who were visually impaired, professionals in other reservation organizations, and other interested persons.
Development of a Portfolio of Resource Information
Portfolios were developed containing information about visual impairments and listing organizations that serve the elderly and/or visually impaired. Each packet contained a senior services directory, The Vision Shared for the Visually Impaired (A Transition Resources Directory), a talking books Talking Books is a Canadian radio program, which airs Saturday afternoons at 4:30 on CBC Radio One. Hosted by Ian Brown, the program is a panel discussion on books and literature. External links
The senior services directory was distributed to inform trainees of organizations and services available for elders in their region and was used as a guide to discuss the organizations serving people who are elderly and/or visually impaired specific to each representative's reservation. The Vision Shared Directory identifies specific state and federal organizations and the services they provide to people who are visually impaired.
Because diabetes is so prevalent on reservations and is a leading cause of blindness, a manual developed by the Detroit Society for the Blind was included in the portfolio. This manual describes how to use staples to make a template for drawing insulin, how to insert a needle into the insulin vial vial
a small bottle. , and how to draw and inject insulin. A black felt pen was provided to emphasize the importance of contrast when working with people who have low vision. Black ink on white or yellow paper helps people with low vision to distinguish letters, numbers, pictures, etc.
Development of the Training Workshop Curriculum
In August 1990, a meeting was conducted at the Arizona SBVI office in Phoenix to discuss the curriculum to be used for the training program and to identify trainers for the workshops scheduled in Tucson and Flagstaff. Because the project was a statewide, cooperative endeavor, those involved included administrators and rehabilition counselors from SBVI, an administrator, rehabilitation teacher, and orientation and mobility instructor from the Institute for Human Development at Northern Arizona University Northern Arizona University (NAU) is a public university in Flagstaff, Arizona in the United States.
As of Fall 2007, the university has 21,352 students, 13,989 of these are situated in the main Flagstaff campus<ref name="Enrollment" />. , a professor from the Special Education and Rehabilitation Department at the University of Arizona (body, education) University of Arizona - The University was founded in 1885 as a Land Grant institution with a three-fold mission of teaching, research and public service. , and a trainer from the American Indian Rehabilitation Research and Training Center (AIRRTC AIRRTC American Indian Rehabilitation Research and Training Center ) at Northern Arizona University.
The following eight content areas were identified to be included in the curriculum:
* Physiology of the Eye
* Techniques of Mobility (sighted guide)
* Techniques of Daily Living
* Implications of Blindness
* Technical Aids and Devices
* Social Service Agencies and Information
* Cultural and Rural Issues
* Concerns of the Elderly.
An agenda was established with these main topic areas as guides. Trainers who had expertise related to the identified topics were identified during the meeting and were later contacted and asked to participate in the workshop. Because two workshops were to be conducted, two sets of trainers were identified. Each trainer who agreed to participate was sent a list of the objectives and expected training outcomes to ensure consistency across the two workshops. Emphasis was placed on providing a format and climate for the representatives to be active participants and not passive receptors of information.
Selection of Key Personnel to Participate in the Training
Because trained professionals indigenous to each reservation and trained in the field of visual impairments are virtually nonexistent non·ex·is·tence
1. The condition of not existing.
2. Something that does not exist.
non , tribal community health directors and directors of programs for elders and social services social services
welfare services provided by local authorities or a state agency for people with particular social needs
social services npl → servicios mpl sociales were contacted to identify interested reservation-based community representatives who already work in the systems that provide services to American Indian elders.
Fifty trainee recruitment packets were sent to representatives of the 21 recognized tribes in Arizona. The list of names and addresses was created from various sources, including tribal leaders, the AIRRTC at Northern Arizona University, and the SBVI.
Two hundred people were identified as potential trainees. These individuals were sent an application letter as well as a brochure explaining the project. Fifty-one people returned the self-addressed stamped envelope A self-addressed stamped envelope (SASE), or just stamped addressed envelope (SAE) in the UK, is often just that: an envelope with the sender's name and address on it, with affixed paid postage and mailed to a company or private individual. indicating an interest in the program. Those individuals represented 14 of the 21 tribes in Arizona. The majority (31) of the returned applications came from tribal health programs and Indian Health Services The Indian Health Service (IHS) is an Operating Division (OPDIV) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services responsible for providing federal health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. . Sixteen application forms were returned by people who worked for senior citizens centers or other special services. Four persons employed by SBVI and who work for the Rural Elderly Blind program returned applications. Applications were not received from six tribes.
First, results are presented concerning the training program for community representatives to provide independent living skills to those who are elderly and visually impaired. Next, the followup inservice training for the reservation-based community representatives, consumers, family members, and tribal officials is discussed, including a description of the numbers of people with visual impairments served by the trained representatives. Finally, plans for continuation of project activities are discussed.
Training Program for Reservation-Based Community Representatives
A total of 38 people attended the first phase training workshops in Tucson and Flagstaff. The trainees represented 12 Arizona tribes. Twenty-five individuals worked in tribal health departments, eight were from tribal senior citizen programs, four represented the Rural Elderly Blind Program of the SBVI, and one person worked in a tribal group home for people with developmental disabilities developmental disabilities (DD),
n.pl the pathologic conditions that have their origin in the embryology and growth and development of an individual. DDs usually appear clinically before 18 years of age. .
An ophthalmologist ophthalmologist /oph·thal·mol·o·gist/ (of?thal-mol´ah-jist) a physician who specializes in ophthalmology.
A physician who specializes in ophthalmology. provided information concerning physiology of the eye and issues related to eye disease and eye care. A psychologist discussed problems relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc family systems involving an individual who is visually impaired. A gerontologist ger·on·tol·o·gy
The scientific study of the biological, psychological, and sociological phenomena associated with old age and aging.
ge·ron provided information on elderly needs and concerns. The latest array of technical and low vision equipment were demonstrated by a representative from a local company, and trainees were encouraged to try out this equipment. Cultural issues were presented by an American Indian researcher from the AIRRTC. Various social agencies, such as Native Americans This is a list of Native Americans (first nations and descendents) Cherokee
The rehabilitation specialists also displayed various aids available for people with visual impairments. Many of the devices were provided for trainees to use with people on their reservations. Each representative also received bold line writing paper, an envelope writing guide, a signature guide, a check writing guide, a letter writing guide, Hi-Marks, a magni-guide, a medicine bottle opener, a safety food turner, a hot pan grip, an inner lip plate Lip plates, also known as lip plugs or lip discs, are a form of body modification where gradually larger discs (usually circular, and made from clay or wood) are inserted into a pierced hole in the lower lip, thereby stretching it. , oven mitts, a magnifier, low vision playing cards playing cards, parts of a set or deck, used in playing various games of chance or skill. The origin of playing cards is unknown, and almost as many theories exist as there are historians of the subject. , a pill organizer, a large print telephone dial, and one 33-inch and one 36-inch orthopedic folding cane. The trainees were given adequate time to practice using these devices with people who are visually impaired. They were also able to practice their newly acquired skills on each other before using these skills to benefit their clients.
There were two workshops, each lasting 5 days. Reservation-based community representatives from the southern and central tribes were invited to the Tucson Workshop at the Arizona State School for the Deaf and Blind from February 25 to March 1, 1991, and representatives from the northern tribes Northern Tribe is a Finnish merchandising company that produces rock/metal-related clothing series. The part Tampa/part Oulu based company was founded on December 1st 2006 and is lead by Miku Mertanen, Petri Mertanen and Sami Lopakka, who is also known from metal bands Sentenced were invited to the Flagstaff Workshop at Northern Arizona University on March 18-22, 1991.
Fifteen trainees representing six tribes participated in the Tucson workshop where they practiced their skills with nine visually impaired elders who had volunteered from the Tucson Association for the Blind. Their Practicum practicum (prak´tikm),
n See internship. was held at the Tucson Center for the Blind.
Twenty-three representatives from six northern Arizona Northern Arizona is dominated by the Colorado Plateau, the southern border of which in Arizona is called the Mogollon Rim. In the West lies the Grand Canyon, which was cut by the flow of the Colorado River while the land slowly rose around it. tribes participated in the Flagstaff Workshop and practiced their skills with six residents of Flagstaff with visual impairments.
The practicum at both workshops provided a valuable learning experience for the representatives. Many of the trainees identified the practicum as one of the most valuable experiences of the workshop.
The knowledge and skills acquired during the 1-week training sessions were competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. based. The learning outcomes specified in the pretest/post-test questions were matched to the learning outcomes described in the objectives. The pretest/post-test consisted of 40 multiple choice questions. The pretest pre·test
a. A preliminary test administered to determine a student's baseline knowledge or preparedness for an educational experience or course of study.
b. A test taken for practice.
2. group mean for the trainees was 17 and the post-test group mean was 31. The difference between the pretest and post-test means was significantly different, t(37) = - 15.44, p< .0001.
Followup Inservice Training
Followup inservice training was provided for those completing the Tucson and Flagstaff workshops and consisted of two telephone consultations and one meeting on the reservation that included inservice training for tribal members. The followup training focused on needs specific to the reservation and helped to enhance training areas that needed more attention and improvement, correct misunderstandings, and reinforce the use of techniques learned at the workshop. The inservice training focused on the same curricumlum as the workshop. Overall, community inservice training was provided to 17 tribes through 23 onsite visits. Sixty-two percent of those who attended were people with visual impairments or relatives of people with visual impairments, 25 percent were Indian Health Services representatives, 10 percent were senior citizen center representatives, and the remaining 3 percent were from various agencies.
Overall, 282 people attended at least one of the 23 inservice training sessions on the reservations. Seventy-one of the participants were Indian Health employees, of which 3 were nurses and 51 were Certified Health Representatives. One hundred seventy-six were elderly visually impaired or relatives of people who were visually impaired. Twenty-eight people who attended one of the inservice sessions worked for senior citizen programs or centers. One person attending the Tobacco O'Odham session was a children's home children's home n → centro de acogida para niños
children's home n → foyer m d'accueil (pour enfants)
children's home n supervisor; another was a supervisor of developmental disability developmental disability
A cognitive, emotional, or physical impairment, especially one related to abnormal sensory or motor development, that appears in infancy or childhood and involves a failure or delay in progressing through the normal services. A deligate from the tribal chairman's office of the Hopi Tribe attended one of the training sessions at Moencopi. Four other persons worked for the SBVI Rural Elderly Blind Program.
Some of the representatives who attended the workshop and inservice followup conducted their own inservice training for tribal members. Two representatives from the Navajo Trive presented three sessions, while one representative from the Hopi Tribe conducted two additional sessions.
People with Visual Impairments Served by the Trained Community Representatives
A total of 211 people with visual impairments--or an average of 5.76 persons per trainee--were served by the trained reservation-based community representatives. The numbers served by tribe were: Fort Apache Apache (əpăch`ē), Native North Americans of the Southwest composed of six culturally related groups. They speak a language that has various dialects and belongs to the Athabascan branch of the Nadene linguistic stock (see Native American , 6; Fort McDowell, 2; Fort Mohave, 8; Gila River Gila River
River, New Mexico and Arizona, U.S. Rising in southwestern New Mexico in the Elk Mountains, near the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, it flows 630 mi (1,015 km) west over desert land to the Colorado River at Yuma, Ariz. , 9; Hopi, 20; Kaibab, 6; Navajo, 121; Pasqua Yaqui, 3; Hualapai, 10; Salt River, 16; San Carlos San Carlos (săn kär`lōs), residential city (1990 pop. 26,167), San Mateo co., W Calif.; inc. 1925. The chief manufactures are plastic products, hardware, and machine parts. , 8; and Tohono O'Odham Tohono O'Odham (tōhō`nō ō-ō`dəm) or Papago (păp`əgō', pä`–) , 2.
Continuation of Project Activities
Because this training project was funded for only 1 year, efforts were made to identify ways to maintain the momentum of services to American Indian elders with visual impairments. Administrators from the SBVI planned followup activities to ensure that the reservation-based community representatives would continue to develop skills to work more effectively with their clients. These followup activities are part of a grant titled, Independent Living Services for Older Blind Individuals Program, which was funded under Title VII, Part C, of the Rehabilitation Act, as amended. Activities under this grant included additional training for the representatives in 1992, 1993, and possibly 1994. In addition to these activities, the participating tribes were allocated approximately $300 per year to purchase assistive materials and equipment.
A training model was developed and implemented to train indigenous personnel in skills needed to aid American Indian elders with visual impairments. The model emphasized training tribal members who were already working for health and social systems within the tribe and followed methodology used in action research (Lewin, 1948; Whyte, 1991). From a psychological ecology perspective, training members of the tribes ensured ready access to tribal elders who were visually impaired and circumvented distance difficulties and language and cultural differences that might have inhibited rehabilitation interventions. Additionally, training people already within the services system was valuable in promoting culturally relevant programs that encourage networking within tribal agencies. When formal services are provided through state agencies or other non-tribal entities, the services tend to be sporadic, poorly utilized by the tribe, and use little or no networking. McNeely and Colen (1979) noted that because formal professional services (job) professional services - A department of a supplier providing consultancy and programming manpower for the supplier's products. are hindered by the lack of indigenous staff, informal networks are important in identifying persons at risk, determining needed services, and providing services. Litwak (1985) noted that members of the informal process are typically indigenouus workers and these workers are invaluable because they are regularly members of both formal and informal groups and are in touch with community members. Training tribal members ensured that persons within the community had the knowledge and skills to assist individuals who are elderly and visually impaired. These persons also are used as contacts for state agency personnel who also serve people who are visually impaired. Collaborative efforts with the Arizona State Services for the Blind and Visually Impaired will help ensure the continuation of benefits gained from this project.
[1.] Edwards, E.D., Edwards, M.E., & Danines, G.M. (1980). American Indian/Alaska Native elderly: A current vital concern. Journal of Gerontological ger·on·tol·o·gy
The scientific study of the biological, psychological, and sociological phenomena associated with old age and aging.
ge·ron Social Work, 2 (3), 213-225.
[2.] Lewin, K. (1942). Field theory and learning. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Field theory in social sciences: Selected theoretical papers (pp.60-86). New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Harper & Row.
[3.] Lewin, K. (1948). Resolving social conflict. New York: Harper.
[4.] Litwak, E. (1985). Helping the elderly: The complementary roles of the informal networks and formal systems. New York: Gulford.
[5.] Lonetree, G.L. (1990). Service, resource and training needs of American Indian vocational rehabilitation projects. American Rehabilitation, 16 (1), 11-29.
[6.] Loveland, K.A. (1991). Social affordances and interaction II: Austism and the affordances of the human environment. Ecological Psychology Ecological psychology is a term claimed by a number of schools of psychology. However, the two main ones are one on the writings of J. J. Gibson, and another on the work of Roger G. Barker, Herb Wright and associates at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. , 3 (20, 99-119.
[7.] Maddux, C. (1987). Analysis of the prevalence of disability among American Indians: School-based data. In J.C. O'Connell (Ed.), A study of the special problems and needs of American Indians with handicaps both on and off the reservation (Vol. 2, pp. 98-144). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University, Institute for Human Development, Native American Research and Training Center.
[8.] Marshall, C.A., Martin, W.E., Jr., Thomason, T.C. & Johnson, M.J. (1991). Multiculturalism and rehabilitation counselor training: Recommendations for providing culturally appropriate counseling services to American Indians with disabilities. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70 (1), 225-234.
[9.] Martin, W.E., Jr., & Frank, L.W. (1987). An analysis of the labor market labor market A place where labor is exchanged for wages; an LM is defined by geography, education and technical expertise, occupation, licensure or certification requirements, and job experience participation of American Indians with implications for rehabilitation. In J.C. O'Connell (Ed.), A study of the special problems and needs of American Indians with handicaps both on and off the reservation, 2, pp. 98-144. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University, Institute for Human Development, Native American Research and Training Center.
[10.] Martin, W.E., Jr., & O'Connell, J.C. (1986). Pueblo Indian Pueblo Indian
Any of the historic descendants of the prehistoric Anasazi peoples who have for centuries lived in settled pueblos in what is now northeastern Arizona and northwestern New Mexico, U.S. The contemporary pueblos are divided into eastern and western. vocational rehabilitation services study. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University, Institute for Human Development, Native American Research and Training Center.
[11.] McNeely, R.L., & Colen, J.L. (Eds.) (1983). Aging in minority groups. Beverly Hills Beverly Hills, city (1990 pop. 31,971), Los Angeles co., S Calif., completely surrounded by the city of Los Angeles; inc. 1914. The largely residential city is home to many motion-picture and television personalities. , CA: Sage.
[12.] O'Connell, J.C. (Ed.). (1987). A study of the special problems and needs of American Indians with handicaps both on and off the reservation, Vol. 1. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University, Institute for Human Development, Native American Research and Training Center.
[13.] Saravanabhavan, R.C., & Marshall, C.A. (19910. The aging American Indian: Implications for providers of health care and human services. Paper presented at the eight national forum on research in aging, Lincoln, NE.
[14.] Saravanabhavan, R.C. (1991). Rehabilitation needs of the elderly American Indians who are visually impaired or blind and living on the Hualapai reservation in Arizona. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northern Arizona University.
[15.] Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative reserch: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
[16.] Tester, F.J., & Mykes, W. (Eds.) (1981). Social impact assessment: Theory, method and practice. Calgary: Detselig.
[17.] White, K., & Carlise, K. (1991). Training programs for individuals working with older American Indians who are blind and visually impaired. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University, Institute for Human Development, Native American Research and Training Center.
[18.] Whyte, W.F. (1991). Particpatory action research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.