Training Needs of Rehabilitation Counselors and Rehabilitation Teachers in State Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies Serving Individuals with Visual Disabilities.
People with visual disabilities typically receive services from both rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy. counselors and rehabilitation teachers within the State-Federal vocational rehabilitation program Noun 1. vocational rehabilitation program - a program of rehabilitation through job training with an eye to gainful employment
rehabilitation program - a program for restoring someone to good health . Rehabilitation counselors focus on vocational and employment issues and rehabilitation teachers provide independent living training to individuals with visual impairments Visual Impairment Definition
Total blindness is the inability to tell light from dark, or the total inability to see. Visual impairment or low vision is a severe reduction in vision that cannot be corrected with standard glasses or contact lenses and . Because of the paucity pau·ci·ty
1. Smallness of number; fewness.
2. Scarcity; dearth: a paucity of natural resources. of literature comparing these two groups, state rehabilitation agencies serving individuals with visual disabilities were surveyed to identify the training needs of newly hired rehabilitation counselors and rehabilitation teachers working with individuals with visual disabilities. Identification of these training needs could have implications for both pre-service and continuing education continuing education: see adult education.
or adult education
Any form of learning provided for adults. In the U.S. the University of Wisconsin was the first academic institution to offer such programs (1904). designed for these professionals.
Pre-service education, defined by Scalia Sca·li·a , Antonin Born 1936.
American jurist who was appointed an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1986. and Wolfe (1984) as emphasizing "basic theory and general principles of practice" and "directed toward preparation for a profession, not a specific job," is provided by university-affiliated degree programs (p. 36). The knowledge and skills that are to be obtained through pre-service educational programs are usually established by accrediting bodies or professional associations.
For example, the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE), a national accrediting body, accredits rehabilitation counseling rehabilitation counseling,
n counseling started in the United States in 1920 to assist individuals disabled by industrial accidents; originally included physical, psychologic, and occupational training; expanded over the next 70 years and laid the programs and sets forth the educational outcomes and courses or study units that must be contained in accredited accredited
recognition by an appropriate authority that the performance of a particular institution has satisfied a prestated set of criteria.
cattle herds which have achieved a low level of reactors to, e.g. graduate rehabilitation counseling programs. Rehabilitation teaching programs are approved by the Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired (AER). Not all rehabilitation counseling programs and rehabilitation teaching programs are accredited, nor do all rehabilitation agencies limit their hiring to individuals who have graduated from these programs.
Continuing education, defined as that "set of activities which is geared to increasing skill in one's present job" (Scalia & Wolfe, 1984), is provided via Regional Rehabilitation Continuing Education Programs (RRCEPs) and agency in-service in-service In-service training adjective Referring to any form of on-the-job training noun In-service training of an employee training programs (p.37). In contrast to the more formalized for·mal·ize
tr.v. for·mal·ized, for·mal·iz·ing, for·mal·iz·es
1. To give a definite form or shape to.
a. To make formal.
b. curricula in pre-service education programs, continuing education programs are varied and can respond quickly to a single agency unit's needs or regional-specific needs. The variables related to continuing education are reflected in the research of Szymanski, Linkowski, Leahy
Leahy is the name of a Canadian folk music group. The eight band members, all from the Leahy family of eleven siblings, are from Lakefield, Ontario and have been , Diamond, and Thoreson (1993), who found that "education, gender, job level, job setting, job title, and years of experience" were related to perceived training needs (p. 179). Because of these variables, Szymanski et al., (1993) recommended settingspecific training needs analyses, which usually represent an important first step in determining the content of continuing education programs.
Training needs, which may be self-identified or identified by program administrators or by professional organizations, are typically of two types: perceived and actual. Actual training needs are based on objective data that identify performance deficiencies or suggest the need for additional competencies in particular areas that can be met through an educational program. Identifying performance deficiencies objectively is difficult, and more individuals tend to participate in training when they view the training as meeting their unique needs. Consequently, individuals' perceived training needs are more frequently used in identifying the content for continuing education programs (Renwick Ren·wick , James 1818-1895.
American architect who designed the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. (1848), and Saint Patrick's Cathedral in New York City (1853). & Mirkopoulos, 1991).
Various approaches have been used to identify perceived training needs of rehabilitation professionals. For example, the training needs of rehabilitation administrators were identified by consolidating the results of several individual studies on the training needs of rehabilitation administrators in state vocational rehabilitation Noun 1. vocational rehabilitation - providing training in a specific trade with the aim of gaining employment
rehabilitation - the restoration of someone to a useful place in society agencies and community rehabilitation programs Noun 1. rehabilitation program - a program for restoring someone to good health
program, programme - a system of projects or services intended to meet a public need; "he proposed an elaborate program of public works"; "working mothers rely on the day care (Bordieri, Riggar, Crimando, & Matkin, 1988). Modified Delphi techniques (programming, tool) Delphi Technique - A group forecasting technique, generally used for future events such as technological developments, that uses estimates from experts and feedback summaries of these estimates for additional estimates by these experts until reasonable consensus were used to develop lists of training needs of independent living center personnel (Marini Noun 1. Marini - Italian poet (1569-1625)
Giambattista Marini, Giambattista Marino, Marino , 1994; Smith, Richards Rich·ards , Dickinson Woodruff 1895-1973.
American physician. He shared a 1956 Nobel Prize for developing cardiac catheterization. , Nosek, & Gerken, 1991) and occupational therapists occupational therapist A person trained to help people manage daily activities of living–dressing, cooking, etc, and other activities that promote recovery and regaining vocational skills Salary $51K + 4% bonus. See ADL. (Renwick & Mirkopoulos, 1991). Examples of approaches used to identify training needs of rehabilitation counselors range from a forced choice, rank-ordering of training needs (e.g., McFarlane McFarlane may refer to:
2. Discrepancies are material and immaterial. scores (Szymanski et al., 1993). The discrepancy scores were the differences between ratings of perceived importance and perceived preparedness pre·par·ed·ness
The state of being prepared, especially military readiness for combat.
Noun 1. preparedness - the state of having been made ready or prepared for use or action (especially military action); "putting them by Certified See certification. Rehabilitation Counselors.
The present investigation of training needs of rehabilitation counselors and rehabilitation teachers employed by state vocational rehabilitation agencies who work with individuals with visual disabilities was part of a larger study (Lewis & Patterson Patterson, family of American journalists.
Robert Wilson Patterson, 1850–1910, b. Chicago, grad. Williams, 1871, became (1871) a reporter on the Chicago Times and after 1873 was attached to the Chicago Tribune. , In Press) of the roles and responsibilities of these professional groups. In requesting information on perceived training needs, it was hypothesized that professionals working with a population of individuals whose needs were defined by the specific disability of legal blindness le·gal blindness
Visual acuity of less than 6/60 or 20/200 using Snellen test types, or visual field restriction to 20 degrees or less. would perceive similar needs for training. It was also hypothesized that these perceived training needs would be delineated de·lin·e·ate
tr.v. de·lin·e·at·ed, de·lin·e·at·ing, de·lin·e·ates
1. To draw or trace the outline of; sketch out.
2. To represent pictorially; depict.
3. by the professional's role in the rehabilitation process: counseling or teaching. Finally, the investigators were interested to what degree, if any, the training needs for these two professional groups would be influenced by the type of employing agency (specialized spe·cial·ize
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es
1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.
2. or general). Specifically, would the training needs for rehabilitation counselors and teachers working at specialized state agencies, whose only clients were legally blind, be different from the training needs identified for rehabilitation counselors and rehabilitation teachers working for state agencies that serve individuals with diverse disabilities, including visual disabilities?
The Council of State Administrators of Vocational Rehabilitation (CSAVR CSAVR Council of State Administrators of Vocational Rehabilitation ) Research Committee and the National Council of State Administrators of the Blind (NCSAB NCSAB National Council of State Agencies for the Blind (Bethesda, Maryland) ) reviewed and approved, with no substantive changes, the proposed survey. The survey was then mailed to the directors of all 57 vocational rehabilitation agencies. These agencies, which included rehabilitation programs in territories (e.g., Republic of Palau Palau (pälou`), officially Republic of Palau, independent nation (2005 est. pop. 20,300), c.192 sq mi (497 sq km), W Pacific, in the W Caroline Islands. Belau, the native form of Palau, is sometimes used. , Commonwealth of Mariana Mariana is a poem written by Lord Alfred Tennyson in 1830.
"Mariana of the Moated Grange" first appears in William Shakespeare's dark comedy Measure for Measure and is the inspiration for the poem. , Guam Guam (gwäm), Chamorro Guåhan, the largest, most populous, and southernmost of the Mariana Islands (see also Northern Mariana Islands, an unincorporated territory of the United States (2005 est. pop. , Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (pwār`tō rē`kō), island (2005 est. pop. 3,917,000), 3,508 sq mi (9,086 sq km), West Indies, c.1,000 mi (1,610 km) SE of Miami, Fla. ) were of two types: specialized agencies (n = 24) that serve only those individuals whose primary disability is related to vision and general agencies (n = 33) that serve individuals with visual disabilities as well as individuals with other types of disabilities. The 14-item survey included questions related to hiring practices, educational requirements, caseload case·load
The number of cases handled in a given period, as by an attorney or by a clinic or social services agency.
Noun characteristics, and projected vacancies that were listed in parallel format for rehabilitation teachers and rehabilitation counselors. One question asked for "the top three training needs of newly hired rehabilitation counselors whose caseload consists of individuals with a primary or secondary disability related to vision." The parallel question asked for "the top three training needs of newly hired rehabilitation teachers."
The survey was sent to the state directors, but the individuals who actually completed the surveys were not identified. Of the 35 agencies (61.4%) that returned the survey, 15 were specialized agencies and 20 were general agencies. These respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. represented approximately 61% and 63% of their respective agency type (specialized or general). The respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. agencies, which were located in states representing all 10 Rehabilitation Services Administration Regions, employed or contracted with 421 rehabilitation teachers and employed 831 rehabilitation counselors to work with clients whose primary or secondary disability was vision.
In response to a question about how caseloads are determined, most of the general agencies (70%) assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. caseloads to rehabilitation counselors on the basis of both geography and disability. Clearly, all rehabilitation counselors working in specialized agencies and all rehabilitation teachers for either type of agency work exclusively with individuals with visual disabilities. Twenty percent (n = 7) of all agencies (combined and specialized) employed individuals who perform the functions of both a rehabilitation counselor and a rehabilitation teacher. A total of 61 individuals were reported as serving in this dual capacity, although the numbers employed by any one state ranged from 2 to 24 persons.
A total of 99 training needs were provided for newly hired rehabilitation counselors working with individuals whose primary or secondary disability related to vision. For newly hired rehabilitation teachers, 92 training needs were identified. The variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality in the number of training needs resulted from respondents who provided fewer than the requested three training needs. Also, three respondents (i.e., Washington, D.C., Louisiana Louisiana (ləwē'zēăn`ə, lē'–), state in the S central United States. It is bounded by Mississippi, with the Mississippi R. , and Guam) omitted the training needs of rehabilitation teachers, because these agencies did not employ or contract with individuals in this category. Evaluation of the qualitative data resulted in the identification of eight categories into which the training needs could be grouped: Agency Policies and Process, Blindness Teaching Skills, Job Development and Placement, Psychology of Blindness, Assistive Technology Hardware and software that help people who are physically impaired. Often called "accessibility options" when referring to enhancements for using the computer, the entire field of assistive technology is quite vast and even includes ramp and doorway construction in buildings to support , Medical Aspects of Blindness, Community Resources and Team Issues, and Multiple Disabilities and Special Populations. The researchers independently assigned each of the responses to one of these categories. There was a 96% agreement between the two researchers' assignments.
Table 1 contains a summary of the number and type of training needs by professional specialization A career option pursued by some attorneys that entails the acquisition of detailed knowledge of, and proficiency in, a particular area of law.
As the law in the United States becomes increasingly complex and covers a greater number of subjects, more and more attorneys are and agency type. Based on the number of times an item was listed, the top three training needs reported for all rehabilitation teachers were: (a) blindness teaching skills; (b) agency policies and process, and (c) assistive technology. Two of these same areas were identified by respondents as among the top three training needs for newly hired rehabilitation counselors working with individuals with visual disabilities. In order, the perceived needs of rehabilitation counselors were: (a) job development and placement; (b) agency policies and process; and (c) assistive technology.
TABLE 1 TRAINING NEEDS BY DISCIPLINE AND AGENCY TYPE
Rehabilitation Counselors General Specialized Agencies Agencies Job Placement 17 12 Agency/Process 8 8 Assistive 12 3 Technology Medical Aspects 11 1 Blindness 4 Teaching Skills Psychology of 8 4 Blindness Multiple 1 2 Disabilities and Special Populations Community 3 5 Resources and Team Issues Total 64 35 Rehabilitation Teachers General Specialized Total Agencies Agencies Job Placement 4 1 34 Agency/Process 7 9 32 Assistive 11 3 29 Technology Medical Aspects 10 2 24 Blindness 9 10 23 Teaching Skills Psychology of 6 3 21 Blindness Multiple 5 8 16 Disabilities and Special Populations Community 2 2 12 Resources and Team Issues Total 54 38 191
The results of a Chi Square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. Test showed significant differences between the overall training needs of rehabilitation teachers and rehabilitation counselors, [chi square] (7, N = 191) = 17.02, p [is less than] .05. Job placement issues were noted significantly more frequently (p [is less than] .05) as a training need by rehabilitation counselors, [chi square] (1, N = 34) = 48.97, p [is less than] .05). For rehabilitation teachers, the areas of blindness teaching skills and working with special populations were reported significantly more frequently, [chi square] (1, N = 34) = 20.85, p [is less than] .05). No significant differences were found between the training needs of rehabilitation counselors and rehabilitation teachers in the other six areas (e.g., agency process, assistive technology).
When the training needs reported for newly hired rehabilitation teachers at specialized and general agencies were compared, a Chi Square analysis did not reveal any significant differences, [chi square] (7, N = 92) = 11.7, p [is greater than] .05. When the perceived training needs of rehabilitation counselors employed by general agencies and working with individuals with visual disabilities were compared to the training needs of rehabilitation counselors at specialized agencies, the observed Chi Square values differed from expected values Expected value
The weighted average of a probability distribution. Also known as the mean value. only with regard to the perceived need for training on the medical aspects of visual disability, [chi square] (1, N = 12) = 18.42, p [is greater than] .05. Training in this area was reported as a need for rehabilitation counselors employed by general, not specialized, agencies.
Interestingly, a Chi Square analysis revealed significant differences between the training needs reported for the two groups of rehabilitation professionals working with legally blind clients at specialized and general agencies [chi square] (7, N = 191) = 20.46, p [is less than] .05. In particular, the observed values exceeded the expected values with regard to training needs related to medical aspects of visual disability and special populations. Fewer professionals employed by specialized agencies reportedly require training in medical aspects of visual disability, while more of the rehabilitation personnel at specialized agencies are perceived to require training in meeting the needs of special populations (e.g., individuals with dual disabilities, older individuals, individuals with traumatic brain injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. TBI can result from a closed head injury or a penetrating head injury and is one of two subsets of acquired brain , and people with learning disabilities) than the same personnel at general agencies.
Rehabilitation counselors and rehabilitation teachers are members of the multidisciplinary mul·ti·dis·ci·pli·nar·y
Of, relating to, or making use of several disciplines at once: a multidisciplinary approach to teaching. team that often provides necessary services to individuals who are experiencing vocational rehabilitation needs related to blindness. It could be predicted that these two professionals would have many common training needs due to their work with people with a specific disability, but that some training needs would remain distinct, unique to the primary job (i.e., counseling or teaching) performed by each professional. These data support this concept. Agency administrators report that newly hired rehabilitation counselors and rehabilitation teachers who work with individuals with visual disabilities need training in one or more of eight identified areas.
When the training needs of rehabilitation professionals (both counselors and teachers) are examined with regard to the type of agency by which they are employed, some interesting differences were revealed. Rehabilitation professionals employed by general agencies are reported by their administrators to need more training in the area of medical aspects of visual disability than are their counterparts employed by specialized agencies. Rehabilitation professionals working at specialized agencies, on the other hand, are reported more frequently to require training in providing services to special populations of individuals who are blind than do the rehabilitation professionals employed at general agencies.
These discrepancies raise several questions regarding the differing practices in the vocational rehabilitation services offered by these two types of agencies. Is it possible that specialized agencies serve a more diverse population, as suggested by The National Accreditation Council Accreditation Council may refer to:
Overall, the state directors indicated that newly hired rehabilitation counselors working with people with visual disabilities needed additional training in job placement, whereas newly hired rehabilitation teachers need training in blindness teaching skills and working with special populations. Both professionals reportedly have high needs for training in agency processes and assistive technology. It seems reasonable to expect that new employees would need training in the processes specific to their employing agency. Although case management is an important part of the pre-service training of both rehabilitation counselors and rehabilitation teachers, orientation to and familiarization fa·mil·iar·ize
tr.v. fa·mil·iar·ized, fa·mil·iar·iz·ing, fa·mil·iar·iz·es
1. To make known, recognized, or familiar.
2. To make acquainted with. with an agency's unique procedures, policies, and forms is always necessary for the smooth integration of the new hire into an agency's culture.
The need for information about assistive technology used by people who are blind also is understandable. Both rehabilitation counselors and rehabilitation teachers must have knowledge of the variety of devices that are available, their characteristics, limitations, and potential for enhancing the personal and vocational functioning of clients with visual disabilities. Rehabilitation teachers often are responsible for training clients to use these devices and, therefore, must possess a thorough understanding of each device's operation. Similarly, rehabilitation counselors must utilize their knowledge of each device's capabilities in their job development and placement efforts. Regardless of the level of pre-service training related to the assistive technologies used by people who are blind and visually impaired, further training will always be critical to enhancing employment options, since the nature and scope of these technologies (e.g., refreshable braille Braille (brāl), in astronomy, a small asteroid notable because it has the same atypical geologic composition as the larger asteroid Vesta. systems, braille-to-speech notetaking devices, speech access programs compatible with the Windows operating system operating system (OS)
Software that controls the operation of a computer, directs the input and output of data, keeps track of files, and controls the processing of computer programs. ) change so rapidly.
It is more difficult to explain the reported need for training of new hires in the areas of job development (for rehabilitation counselors) and blindness teaching skills (for rehabilitation teachers) without considering the quality of pre-service educational programs or the hiring practices of state vocational rehabilitation agencies. Graduates of CORE-accredited rehabilitation counseling programs are evaluated in terms of 12 educational outcomes associated with job development and placement. Although it might be argued that skills necessary to identify appropriate employment opportunities for clients who are blind are different than the job development and placement strategies stressed in most rehabilitation counseling programs, the authors reject this explanation. Appropriately educated rehabilitation counselors should have acquired these skills as part of their pre-service training, since placement is a process that is client-specific, but not disability-specific (Salamone, 1996).
Likewise, appropriately educated rehabilitation teachers should not need extensive in-service training in blindness teaching skills. Grouped in this category of responses were training needs identified as "mobility," "braille," "how to teach the blind," and "assistive skills training." Newly hired rehabilitation teachers from AER-recognized rehabilitation teaching programs should already possess these skills. If they do not, employers need to provide this feedback to the programs or accrediting body. However, these training needs may reflect the hiring practices of state vocational rehabilitation agencies, which may not be hiring qualified personnel and are choosing instead to train "in house." This conclusion can only be considered within the context of the following limitations associated with this study.
First, the agency administrators who responded to the survey were asked to generalize generalize /gen·er·al·ize/ (-iz)
1. to spread throughout the body, as when local disease becomes systemic.
2. to form a general principle; to reason inductively. about the training needs of new hires (rehabilitation counselors and rehabilitation teachers) who work with individuals with visual disabilities. Because the term "newly hired" was not defined and, thus, not standardized standardized
pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.
standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.
standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate. , it is possible that state directors varied in their interpretation of the tenn. State directors were not asked whether training needs differed by educational level or type of pre-service educational program. Nor were they asked the percentage of new hires with degrees in rehabilitation counseling or rehabilitation teaching. Although the data was collected in 1996, state rehabilitation agencies and the Rehabilitation Services Administration are still addressing the 1992 Amendments to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which require hiring "qualified" personnel and implementation of personnel development plans for each state agency. It is possible that agency administrators responded on the basis of "what has been," more than on changes occurring as a result of changes in hiring practices in response to the 1992 Amendments to the 1973 Rehabilitation Act. Another reasonable explanation for these findings may be that administrators believe that rehabilitation teachers and rehabilitation counselors can never have enough training in the basic purpose of their position - job development and job placement for rehabilitation counselors or blindness teaching (independent living) skills for rehabilitation teachers.
The needs identified by rehabilitation administrators in this study are consistent with those of other recent studies concerning the training needs of rehabilitation counselors and rehabilitation teachers. For example, Szymanski et al. (1993), in her investigation of the training needs of rehabilitation counselors, found that vocational services, which includes job development and job placement, had "comparatively high mean discrepancy" ratings between importance and preparedness (p. 173). When Beliveau-Tobey and De l'Aune (1991) evaluated the survey responses of 435 rehabilitation teachers, who were asked to rate the importance of 100 tasks performed by rehabilitation teachers and to indicate (yes/no) whether additional training was needed, they found that additional training was desired in the following areas: (a) maintaining current knowledge relevant to working with clients who have additional impairments, (b) developing and teaching strategies for improving visual efficiency, and (c) investigating and evaluating new technology relevant to rehabilitation. Referencing the work of Beattie (1990), Justesen and Menlove (1994) stated that "in-service assistive technology training for individuals who are already in the field providing services to people with disabilities is the most critical need identified by The Coalition on Technology and Disability" (p. 258).
This investigation has implications for pre-service, in-service, and continuing education. RRCEPs and human resource development personnel of state agencies may wish to consider combining training activities for rehabilitation counselors working with individuals with visual disabilities and rehabilitation teachers in the areas of agency policies/process and assistive technology. These areas are job-specific training needs identified as important for both professional groups. However, job development, job placement, and assistive technology must remain central to the mission of pre-service rehabilitation counseling programs. Similarly, blindness teaching skills and assistive technology must remain central to the mission of rehabilitation teaching pre-service programs, since these areas represent training for a profession. If both pre-service and continuing education programs focus on these areas, services to individuals with visual disabilities who are served by the State-Federal Vocational Program Noun 1. vocational program - a program of vocational education
educational program - a program for providing education will be enhanced.
This study investigated the training needs of newly hired rehabilitation counselors who work with individuals with visual disabilities, and newly hired rehabilitation teachers. The similarity Similarity is some degree of symmetry in either analogy and resemblance between two or more concepts or objects. The notion of similarity rests either on exact or approximate repetitions of patterns in the compared items. in training needs for these two groups has implications for state agency in-service training and continuing education programs. The fact that the top training need for each group is part of the required pre-service curricula suggests that these areas are not adequately covered in the pre-service programs or that appropriately educated individuals are not hired. Thus, the findings of this study provide direction for further research related to the hiring practices of rehabilitation agencies and the extent to which the pre-service curricula are adequate to the needs of the state agencies. The current emphasis on measurement of client outcomes as an indicator of agency effectiveness will require an evaluation of the quality of the intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant. (Crews & Long, 1997), one component of which is the competence of the involved rehabilitation personnel. In this event, it will be important to know the level of knowledge, skills, and abilities of service providers and how those knowledge, skills, and abilities were acquired.
Beattie, P. (1990, September). The coalition on technology and disability working group on training. Statement prepared for the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) is a United States governmental institution that provides leadership and support for a comprehensive program of research related to the rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities. Public Forum on Part C of Public Law 100-407, Washington, D.C.
Beliveau-Tobey, M., & De l'Aune, W. (1991). Identification of roles and functions of rehabilitation teachers. Mississippi Mississippi, state, United States
Mississippi (mĭs'əsĭp`ē), one of the Deep South states of the United States. It is bordered by Alabama (E), the Gulf of Mexico (S), Arkansas and Louisiana, with most of the border formed by State, MS: Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Blindness and Low Vision.
Bordieri, J.E., Riggar, T.F., Crimando, W., & Matkin, R.E. (1988). Education and training needs for rehabilitation administrators. Rehabilitation Education, 2, 9-15.
Crews, J.E., & Long, R.G. (1997). Conceptual and methodological issues in rehabilitation outcomes for adults who are visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 91, 117-130.
Justesen, T.R., & Menlove, M. (1994). Assistive technology education in rehabilitation counselor programs. Rehabilitation Education, 7, 253-260.
Lewis, S., & Patterson, J. (in press). Rehabilitation counselors and rehabilitation teachers in state vocational rehabilitation agencies. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness.
Marini, I. (1994). Identified service and training needs of centers for independent living in the Southeastern United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . Journal of Rehabilitation, 60(1), 47-51.
McFarlane, F.R., & Sullivan, M. (1979). Educational and training needs of rehabilitation counselors: Implications for training. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 100, 41-43.
National Accreditation Council. (1997). Outcomes achieved by consumers with vision loss served by specialized and general state Vocational Rehabilitation agencies, FY 1994: Review of selected variables. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Author.
Renwick, R., & Mirkopoulos, C. (1991). Continuing professional education needs assessment: A systematic regional study. Rehabilitation Education, 5, 185-197.
Roberts, R., Roberts, R., & Greet, B. (1989). A survey of training needs in Tennessee Tennessee, state, United States
Tennessee (tĕn`əsē', tĕn'əsē`), state in the south-central United States. vocational training centers. Rehabilitation Education, 3, 43-53.
Salamone, P. (1996). Career counseling Noun 1. career counseling - counseling on career opportunities
counseling, counselling, guidance, counsel, direction - something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action and job placement: Theory and practice. In E.M. Szymanski & R.M. Parker (Eds.), Work and disability: Issues and strategies in career development and job placement (pp. 365-420). Austin: Pro-Ed.
Scalia, V.A., & Wolfe, R.R. (1984). Rehabilitation counselor education. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 15(3), 34-37.
Smith, Q.W., Richards, L.K., Nosek, M.A., & Gerken, L. (1991). Education and training needs of independent living center managers. Rehabilitation Education, 5, 101-111.
Szymanski, E.M., Linkowski, D.C., Leahy, M.J., Diamond, E.E., & Thoreson, R.W. (1993). Human resource development: An examination of perceived training needs of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 37, 163-181.
Sandra sandra (sänˑ·dr),
adj Lewis Florida State University Florida State University, at Tallahassee; coeducational; chartered 1851, opened 1857. Present name was adopted in 1947. Special research facilities include those in nuclear science and oceanography.
Jeanne Boland Patterson Council on Rehabilitation Education
Dr. Sandra Lewis, 205 Stone Building, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-44593