Toward an integrative "educare" system: an investigation of teachers' understanding and uses of developmentally appropriate practices for young children in Korea.Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate how early childhood teachers in Korea Korea (kôrē`ə, kə–), Korean Hanguk or Choson, region and historic country (85,049 sq mi/220,277 sq km), E Asia. understand developmentally appropriate practices Developmentally appropriate practice (or DAP) is a perspective within early childhood education whereby a teacher or child caregiver nurtures a child's social/emotional, physical, and cognitive development by basing all practices and decisions on (1) theories of child development, (2) (DAP) and follow DAP's instructional guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. . In order to obtain insights for developing "educare," an integrated system for the education and care of young children in Korea, a comparison of early childhood teachers' beliefs and instructional activities by center type (i.e., kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be vs. child care) was conducted. Findings indicated that early childhood teachers in Korea showed positive beliefs in DAP and utilization of its practices. However, a large percentage of teachers reported inconsistent profiles of DAP beliefs and activities. In particular, it is unclear whether teachers differentiate appropriate and inappropriate uses of DAP. Only 45 (21.3 percent) of 211 kindergarten teachers and 26 (12.5 percent) of 208 child care teachers reported consistent DAP beliefs and activities. In terms of group differences, kindergarten teachers showed more positive profiles than child care teachers. Based upon the results of MANOVA MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of the Variance and discriminant dis·crim·i·nant
An expression used to distinguish or separate other expressions in a quantity or equation. analyses, the main group differences were related to teachers' inappropriate beliefs and practices. Suggestions for future research studies also were discussed.
Developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) in early childhood education aim to provide individually appropriate service for young children (Bredekamp, 1987, 1997; Bredekamp & Copple Cop´ple
n. 1. Something rising in a conical shape; specifically, a hill rising to a point.
A low cape, and upon it a copple not very high.
- Hakluyt. , 1997). Many research studies have documented the value of DAP for children. Bredekamp and Shepard Shep·ard , Alan Bartlett, Jr. 1923-1998.
American astronaut who on a 15-minute flight on May 5, 1961, became the first American in space. He also commanded the Apollo 14 mission to the moon (1971).
Noun 1. (1989), Burts, Hart, Charlesworth Charlesworth is a family name, may refer to the following people:
Korean Korean, language of uncertain ancestry. It is thought by some scholars to be akin to Japanese, by others to be a member of the Altaic subfamily of the Ural-Altaic family of languages (see Uralic and Altaic languages), and by still others to be unrelated to any known researchers utilize DAP as both a theoretical foundation and guide for practice in the development of "educare," an integrated early childhood service system for both early childhood care and formal primary schooling. Since DAP was introduced to Korean early childhood educators This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject.
Please help recruit one or [ improve this article] yourself. See the talk page for details. as an alternative concept to traditional practice in the early 1990s, the number of research studies on DAP has been increasing. General studies (Hong n. 1. A mercantile establishment or factory for foreign trade in China, as formerly at Canton; a succession of offices connected by a common passage and used for business or storage. , 1996; Kang KANG Kansas Air National Guard , 1993; Park, 1994; Seo, 1996) on the basic philosophy of and concepts behind DAP, as well as specific application studies focusing on math (Kim Kim
orphan wanders streets of India with lama. [Br. Lit.: Kim]
See : Adventurousness , 1995) and science (Kim, 1994; Park, 1995), have been conducted. In addition, its usage extended beyond the pedagogical ped·a·gog·ic also ped·a·gog·i·cal
1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of pedagogy.
2. Characterized by pedantic formality: a haughty, pedagogic manner. tool kit for Korean teachers and practitioners. DAP became the theoretical base of the 5th (1995-1999) and 6th (2000-present) national curriculum on kindergarten. Through applying DAP concepts to the national curriculum development plan, it was hoped that overall quality of early childhood services in Korea could be enhanced.
Although DAP was accepted as a legitimate model by academics and policymakers, and thus integrated into the new kindergarten curriculum, its understanding by those who use it, as well as its practical application in the classroom, is best understood within the context of the Korean educational system. On the one hand, early childhood education for children older than 3 years of age is managed by the Ministry of Education. This division stresses academic development for children under its charge. On the other hand, child care for young children under the age of 3 is overseen by the Ministry of Welfare. This division supports a care-oriented approach to child care. Historically, these two groups have struggled to reach consensus on policy decisions for the children under their charge. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , this dual system for young children has made it difficult to provide effective, efficient, and continual services that meet the needs of children and their parents.
Given the fact that Korea's early childhood system is shared by two governmental agencies, the country sought to offer an integrated structure for education and child care for young children. Na, Cheon, and Chang Chang (chăng) or Yangtze (yăng`sē`, yäng`dzŭ`), Mandarin Chang Jiang, longest river of China and of Asia, c.3,880 mi (6,245 km) long, rising in the Tibetan highlands, SW Qinghai prov. (1996) proposed to develop a new school system for young children that would include different types of service centers. They proposed that service centers for young children (e.g., child care centers, home-care centers, private institutes for academic/athletic training) be integrated into a new kindergarten school system. Moreover, they suggested that the new school system should be the first stage in the public education system. Lee (1999) also proposed a similar idea with a series of stages under the public education system. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. her suggestions, the integration process would begin gradually, with education and child care centers first sharing their resources and ideas, then eventually offering child care centers for infants and a new school for preschoolers. Finally, the process ends with the development of an integrated school system for young children, which would be part of the public education system in Korea.
Although many researchers discussed possibilities for developing an integrated system, the suggested ideas were oriented o·ri·ent
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.
b. A pearl having exceptional luster.
3. toward a resolution of administrative conflicts that the governmental agencies, and their respective programs, experienced. In other words, the focus of the discussion was on how to combine two different centers (i.e., kindergarten vs. child care) into one type of center. However, investigation into the manner in which a consensus should be obtained between the two centers, focusing on high-quality service for young children, was not thoroughly conducted.
According to the results of a survey study (Shim A small piece of software that is added to an existing system program or protocol in order to provide some enhancement.
(jargon, memory management) shim - A small piece of data inserted in order to achieve a desired memory alignment or other addressing property. & Lee, 1996), preschool and kindergarten directors agreed that DAP serves as a fundamental basis for meeting the objectives of both child care centers and kindergarten classes. However, despite such positive perspectives on DAP in terms of a theoretical foundation for the national curriculum in early childhood education and kindergarten programs in Korea, we do not have a complete understanding of DAP. For example, although DAP was introduced as an alternative theoretical foundation for high-quality service in early childhood, we do not know the extent to which early childhood teachers in Korea understand DAP's philosophy and use its practices in the classroom. A small number of studies report early childhood teachers' moderate beliefs of DAP (Kang, 1993; Oh, 1991), yet these studies are compromised because of their small and convenience samples. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how Korean early childhood teachers in kindergarten and child care centers understand DAP and follow its instructional guidelines. In order to obtain insights for developing an integrated system for Korea's educare system that is based on the understanding and utilization of DAP in the classroom, a comparison of early childhood teachers' beliefs and instructional activities by center type (i.e., kindergarten vs. child care) was conducted.
Subjects and Procedures
Two hundred eleven kindergarten teachers and 208 child care center teachers in Seoul Seoul (sā`l, sā`l, sōl), city (1995 pop. 10,229,262), capital of South Korea, NW South Korea, on the Han River. participated in this study. After seven centers were randomly selected from each of 25 local counties in Seoul, teachers were identified using a cluster sampling Cluster sampling is a sampling technique used when "natural" groupings are evident in a statistical population. It is often used in marketing research. In this technique, the total population is divided into these groups (or clusters) and a sample of the groups is selected. design. The survey was distributed to 500 teachers at the selected centers. Four hundred thirty of 500 surveys were returned. Responses deemed inappropriate for this study included those from a Montessori program and those from 10 uncertified un·cer·ti·fied
Not officially verified, guaranteed, or registered; not certified: an uncertified teacher.
Adj. 1. teachers. As a result, responses from 419 teachers were utilized for the final analysis. The subjects' average teaching experience was 44.5 (SD=38.3) and 29.6 (SD =27.6) months for kindergarten and child care center teachers, respectively. Kindergarten teachers had higher educational backgrounds than teachers at the child care centers. More than 95 percent of kindergarten teachers and 75 percent of child care center teachers who participated in this study earned a degree from a two-year college. Teachers who did not have a college degree were certified See certification. through child development training centers.
Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS TBS Tablespoon
TBS Tokyo Broadcasting System, Inc.
TBS Treasury Board Secretariat (Canada)
TBS Tris-Buffered Saline
TBS Tris Buffered Saline
TBS Turn Based Strategy (games) ) and Instructional Activities Scale (IAS See iPlanet Application Server.
1. (computer) IAS - The first modern computer. It had main registers, processing circuits, information paths within the central processing unit, and used Von Neumann's fetch-execute cycle. ), developed by Charlesworth, Hart, Butt, and Hernandez (1991), were used to measure the teachers' DAP beliefs and activities. These instruments were developed based on the guidelines for developmentally appropriate practices of the National Association for the Education of Young Children The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is the largest nonprofit association in the United States representing early childhood education teachers, experts, and advocates in center-based and family day care. (NAEYC NAEYC National Association for the Education of Young Children (Washington, DC) ). Based on the results of a validation See validate.
validation - The stage in the software life-cycle at the end of the development process where software is evaluated to ensure that it complies with the requirements. research study, these two scales were found to be good instruments measuring the beliefs and practices of DAP (Charlesworth et al., 1993). TBS and IAS consist of 36 and 34 items, respectively. Among the 36 and 34 items, 14 and 15 items include inappropriate beliefs (e.g., utilization of standardized tests A standardized test is a test administered and scored in a standard manner. The tests are designed in such a way that the "questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, and interpretations are consistent"  ) and inappropriate instructional activities (e.g., memorization mem·o·rize
tr.v. mem·o·rized, mem·o·riz·ing, mem·o·riz·es
1. To commit to memory; learn by heart.
2. Computer Science To store in memory: of numbers), respectively. The teachers' responses on the TBS were coded using a 5-point Likert scale Likert scale A subjective scoring system that allows a person being surveyed to quantify likes and preferences on a 5-point scale, with 1 being the least important, relevant, interesting, most ho-hum, or other, and 5 being most excellent, yeehah important, etc from 1 (not important at all) to 5 (extremely important). The teachers also rated the frequency of DAP activities in their classrooms using a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (almost never: less than monthly) to 5 (very often: daily). Before distributing the scales to the teachers, the translated items were examined by a group of university faculty in the area of early childhood education.
Table 1 provides descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. of DAP beliefs and activities. Korean early childhood teachers reported positive DAP beliefs (M=3.84), and utilized DAP activities (M=3.64). The teachers showed high agreement with appropriate beliefs (M=4.07, SD=.48), and their responses on inappropriate beliefs showed negative agreement (M=2.53, SD=.43). The frequency of utilizing appropriate activities was reported between "sometimes" and "regularly" (M=3.64, SD=.49). Their responses on inappropriate activities were close to "sometimes" (M=2.36, SD=.57). In terms of group differences, kindergarten teachers showed stronger agreement with developmentally appropriate beliefs (M=4.14 vs. M=.40) as well as weaker agreement with inappropriate beliefs (M=2.43 vs. M=2.63) compared to the child care teachers. The kindergarten teachers also reported more frequent use of developmentally appropriate activities (M=.70 vs. M=3.58) and less frequent use of inappropriate activities (M=2.19 vs. M=2.53) than child care teachers.
In order to compare the differences of early childhood teachers' DAP beliefs and activities by center type (kindergarten vs. child care center), two separate Multivariate The use of multiple variables in a forecasting model. Analyses of Variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality (MANOVA) were conducted (see Table 2). If a significant difference was found, a descriptive discriminant analysis was conducted as a post-hoc analysis Post-hoc analysis, in the context of design and analysis of experiments, refers to looking in the data—after the experiment has concluded—for patterns that were not specified a priori. of the MANOVA. Based upon statistically significant discriminant function discriminant function
A function of a set of variables used to classify an object or event. , the results were interpreted to determine the more significant contributor to the group difference.
In the first MANOVA, developmentally appropriate and inappropriate beliefs served as dependent variables. Results of the descriptive discriminant analysis, as shown in Table 2, revealed that the inappropriate beliefs category (standardized standardized
pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.
standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.
standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate. canonical The standard or authoritative method. The term comes from "canon," which is the law or rules of the church. See canonical name and canonical synthesis.
canonical - (Historically, "according to religious law")
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.
2. = .878) was a more important contributor to the group difference than appropriate beliefs (Wilks' criterion, F(2, 366) = 11.25, p<.01). In the second MANOVA, developmentally appropriate and inappropriate activities served as the dependent variables. Results of this descriptive discriminant analysis indicated that the inappropriate activities (standardized canonical coefficient = .916) was a more important contributor to the group difference than appropriate beliefs (Wilks' criterion, F(2, 342) = 18.41, p<.01).
Two cluster analyses also were performed to classify clas·si·fy
tr.v. clas·si·fied, clas·si·fy·ing, clas·si·fies
1. To arrange or organize according to class or category.
2. To designate (a document, for example) as confidential, secret, or top secret. the sample participants into groups on the basis of their pattern of responses to four variables: developmentally appropriate beliefs, developmentally inappropriate beliefs, developmentally appropriate activities, and developmentally inappropriate activities. Our reason for cluster analysis Cluster analysis
A statistical technique that identifies clusters of stocks whose returns are highly correlated within each cluster and relatively uncorrelated across clusters. Cluster analysis has identified groupings such as growth, cyclical, stable, and energy stocks. was to identify participants' responses that could be grouped on the basis of their similarity Similarity is some degree of symmetry in either analogy and resemblance between two or more concepts or objects. The notion of similarity rests either on exact or approximate repetitions of patterns in the compared items. . For the cluster analysis, Euclidean distance In mathematics, the Euclidean distance or Euclidean metric is the "ordinary" distance between two points that one would measure with a ruler, which can be proven by repeated application of the Pythagorean theorem. between individuals for these four variables was used as the measure of similarity. The Ward method for hierarchical A structure made up of different levels like a company organization chart. The higher levels have control or precedence over the lower levels. Hierarchical structures are a one-to-many relationship; each item having one or more items below it. clustering was used to form the clusters. For the measure of similarity, inappropriate beliefs and inappropriate activities were recoded. Thus, in the results of cluster analyses (see Tables 3 and 4), higher scores of developmentally inappropriate beliefs and inappropriate activities mean stronger disagreement and less frequent utilization of DAP, respectively.
Results of the first cluster analysis, using the kindergarten teacher sample, revealed three distinct groups (see Table 3). The first group can be defined as teachers who have strong agreement with developmentally appropriate beliefs (M=4.18) only. They showed relatively lower scores in the other three areas (M=3.25, 3.50, 3.33). The second group describes teachers who do not utilize developmentally inappropriate activities (M=4.07), but whose scores in other areas are low (M=3.82, 3.67, 3.58). Although they reported not using inappropriate activities, their inappropriate beliefs mean score was not high (M=3.58). The third group appeared to have the most positive profile. Their mean scores in all four areas were higher than those of the first and second groups.
The second cluster analysis, using child care teachers, resulted in four distinct clusters (see Table 4). The first group describes child care teachers who showed strong agreement with developmentally appropriate beliefs (M=4.22) and weak agreement with developmentally inappropriate beliefs (M=3.90) compared to the other groups. They also showed more and less frequent utilization of developmentally appropriate (M=3.91) and inappropriate (M=4.06) activities, respectively. Among the four groups, the first group showed the most positive profile, and is comparable to the third group in the kindergarten teacher sample. However, the sample size (n=22) was smaller than that of the kindergarten sample (n=56). The second group also showed high mean scores in their developmentally appropriate beliefs (M=4.32) and activities (M=4.00), but their scores in developmentally inappropriate beliefs (M=3.12) and inappropriate activities (M=3.25) were not high. The second group reported a better profile only in appropriate beliefs and activities. The third group showed high scores only in developmentally appropriate beliefs (M=3.92), but mean scores in other areas showed very low. In particular, utilization of developmentally inappropriate activities showed a very low mean (M=3.18). Finally, the fourth group showed relatively stronger emphasis on less utilization of developmentally inappropriate activities (M=3.94).
The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean early childhood teachers' DAP beliefs and activities. For this purpose, 208 kindergarten and 211 child care center teachers participated in this study. According to the results of this survey, Korean early childhood teachers reported a positive level of DAP beliefs (M=3.84) and utilization of DAP activities (M=3.64). These findings support similar results of other Korean researchers' studies (Kang, 1993; Oh, 1991).
Although the early childhood teachers' overall agreement with DAP beliefs and activities was not strong, the results of analyses by subconstruct showed somewhat different patterns. For instance, their developmentally appropriate beliefs were found to be strong (M=4.07), but the average of developmentally inappropriate belief scores was between "not very important" and "fairly important" (M=2.53). In other words, early childhood teachers' appropriate beliefs and inappropriate beliefs cancel out Verb 1. cancel out - wipe out the effect of something; "The new tax effectively cancels out my raise"; "The `A' will cancel out the `C' on your record"
wipe out each other and result in a low total score (M=3.84). It seems that the early childhood teachers may not clearly distinguish the differences between appropriate and inappropriate beliefs.
The child care and kindergarten teachers' responses on DAP activities (i.e., total scores in Table 1) appeared to be between "sometimes" and "regularly" (M=3.64). Given the teachers' responses on the appropriate beliefs (M=4.07), their activities showed somewhat low frequencies. Although they accepted DAP, especially appropriate beliefs, they may not frequently utilize DAP activities. In other words, there is a gap between their beliefs and practices. Moreover, their responses on appropriate and inappropriate activities did not show a consistency. That is, the average of developmentally inappropriate activity scores was close to "sometimes" (M = 2.64). This result reflects that some teachers, especially in child care settings, utilize inappropriate activities in their classrooms while they also utilize appropriate activities.
In terms of group differences between the kindergarten and child care samples, teachers in the two groups showed different patterns in their DAP beliefs and activities. By and large, kindergarten teachers reported having stronger DAP beliefs and frequent utilization of DAP activities (see Table 1) than the child care center teachers. Specifically, the kindergarten teachers reported stronger appropriate beliefs (4.14 vs. 4.00) and more frequent utilization of appropriate activities (3.70 vs. 3.58). The kindergarten teachers also reported weaker inappropriate beliefs (2.43 vs. 2.63) and less frequent utilization of inappropriate activities (2.19 vs. 2.53). Interestingly, based upon the results of MANOVA and discriminant analyses, the main group differences were related to their inappropriate beliefs and inappropriate activities (see Table 2). In other words, strong inappropriate beliefs and frequent utilization of inappropriate activities were the main contributors to the differences between kindergarten and child care teachers.
Similar group differences between kindergarten and child care teacher samples were also found in the results of cluster analyses. According to the results of cluster analyses (see Tables 3 and 4), kindergarten teachers showed better group profiles. For instance, compared to the kindergarten teacher sample, only the first group in the child care sample showed an appropriate profile. Many of the teachers showed inappropriate profiles, such as "strong emphasis on appropriate beliefs only" (first group in kindergarten and third group in child care teacher sample) or "less utilization of inappropriate activities only" (second group in kindergarten and fourth group in child care teacher sample). Only 45 (third group) and 26 (first group) teachers in the kindergarten and child care samples respectively showed balanced DAP beliefs and activities. These results of cluster analyses indicate that a large percentage of teachers have inconsistent profiles of DAP beliefs and activities. In addition, child care center teachers are shown to have a more complex structure in their understanding and utilization of DAP compared to the kindergarten teachers.
How can we situate sit·u·ate
tr.v. sit·u·at·ed, sit·u·at·ing, sit·u·ates
1. To place in a certain spot or position; locate.
2. To place under particular circumstances or in a given condition.
adj. these findings in terms of early childhood teachers in Korea? First, the results may be indicative of a condition inherent in the Korean educational system. Many early childhood teachers lack autonomy to develop curriculum and select instructional strategies to use in their classrooms. Their decision-making decision-making,
n the process of coming to a conclusion or making a judgment.
n a type of informal decision-making that combines clinical expertise, patient concerns, and evidence gathered from process is influenced by national curriculum, their center's philosophy, parents' needs, and the policies of local school districts.
Second, the child care teachers' responses of DAP beliefs and practices were not as positive as the kindergarten teachers' responses. This may be because child care teachers in Korea usually have less teaching experience, lower education levels, and higher turnover ratios (Na, 2001), as well as fewer hours logged at inservice training sessions (Kim et al., 2000) than kindergarten teachers. Given that DAP philosophy and techniques are often learned in the work setting and in courses, child care teachers are less likely to understand and utilize DAP.
Third, these findings provide several insights for developing an integrated "educare" system in Korea. The study shows that both child care and kindergarten teachers, in general, agree with the DAP beliefs and activities. Given the teachers' positive responses on DAP beliefs and activities, DAP can be used as an ideological and practical structure for education in Korea Currently, Korea is divided into two separate countries.
Finally, we would be remiss re·miss
1. Lax in attending to duty; negligent.
2. Exhibiting carelessness or slackness. See Synonyms at negligent. if we neglected to discuss the limitations to our study. The primary limitation of this study is its sample. Although we utilized a cluster sampling technique, the participants were only recruited from a metropolitan area in Korea. Thus, it is difficult to generalize generalize /gen·er·al·ize/ (-iz)
1. to spread throughout the body, as when local disease becomes systemic.
2. to form a general principle; to reason inductively. the results of this study to all early childhood teachers in Korea. Given the variability of "educare" environments in each local community, it is necessary to conduct more studies investigating the meaning of DAP across multiple areas.
Another limitation is related to validity of the DAP beliefs and activities scales. Although they have been utilized since early 1990s, validation evidences using Korean samples are not strong enough. In particular, the cultural appropriateness of DAP in Korean society requires more thoughtful consideration. For instance, DAP items measure multicultural mul·ti·cul·tur·al
1. Of, relating to, or including several cultures.
2. Of or relating to a social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only a mainstream culture. awareness. However, Korean society is largely homogeneous The same. Contrast with heterogeneous.
homogeneous - (Or "homogenous") Of uniform nature, similar in kind.
1. In the context of distributed systems, middleware makes heterogeneous systems appear as a homogeneous entity. For example see: interoperable network. . A deliberate study that investigates the culturally appropriate ideology of DAP in the Korean setting should be conducted.
In sum, this research contributes to a growing body of literature on the understanding and uses of DAP for education in Korea. This work adds to the scholarly literature by critically examining the complex facets of DAP for professionals in the field of early childhood education.
Authors' Note. Juhu Juhu is a suburb of Mumbai. It is famous for its sprawling beach, the Juhu Beach. It is surrounded by Arabian Sea in the west, Santacruz and Vile Parle in the east. Juhu is one of the more affluent areas of Mumbai. Kim, Division of Educational Evaluation Educational evaluation is the evaluation process of characterizing and appraising some aspect/s of an educational process.
There are two common purposes in educational evaluation which are, at times, in conflict with one another. , Korean Educational Development Institute The Korean Educational Development Institute (KEDI) works for the South Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development. It conducts research in the field of educational goals and methods, creating policy solutions. , Korea; Sun-Young Kim, Department of Child Development and Education, Myongji University Myongji University is a private university located in South Korea. It provides education in different fields, like engineering, sciences, humanities etc. It has two campuses, one in Seoul and the other one in Yongin (35km south of Seoul). , Korea; Mary Ann ANN, Scotch law. Half a year's stipend over and above what is owing for the incumbency due to a minister's relict, or child, or next of kin, after his decease. Wishaw. Also, an abbreviation of annus, year; also of annates. In the old law French writers, ann or rather an, signifies a year. Maslak, Department of Early Childhood, Childhood and Adolescent ad·o·les·cent
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager. Education, School of Education, St. John's University, U.S.A. Correspondence concerning the article can be directed to Sun-Young Kim Department of Child Development and Education, College of Humanities Myongji University 50-3 Namgajwadong, Seodaemungu Seoul, Korea 120-728 E-mail: sunyoung@ mju.ac.kr Tel: 82-2-300-1792, Fax: 82-2-300-1472
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A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
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Korean Educational Development Institute, Korea
Myongji University, Korea
Mary Ann Maslak
St. John's University, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
Table 1 Means and Standard Deviations on DAP Beliefs and Practices Scores Variables Kindergarten Child Care Center Total Appropriate Beliefs 4.14 (.49) 4.00 (.47) 4.07 (.48) Inappropriate Beliefs 2.43 (.41) 2.63 (.43) 2.53 (.43) Appropriate Activities 3.70 (.53) 3.58 (.43) 3.63 (.43) Inappropriate Activities 2.19 (.53) 2.53 (.57) 2.37 (.57) Beliefs--total 3.91 (.33) 3.76 (.31) 3.84 (.33) Activities--total 3.75 (.42) 3.53 (.34) 3.63 (.37) Note: For the calculation of total scores, inappropriate beliefs and activities were recorded. Table 2 Discriminant Analysis and Univariate ANOVA Using DAP Belief and Practice Scores by Center Type (Kindergarten vs. Child Care Center). MANOVA Variables Standardized Univariate F Model Canonical Coefficients 1 Appropriate Beliefs .538 5.26 * Inappropriate Beliefs .878 16.01 ** 2 Appropriate Activities .316 6.28 * Inappropriate Activities .916 33.27 ** * p < .05, ** p < .01 Table 3 Comparison of Cluster Means on the DAP Beliefs and Activities (Kindergarten Teacher) Dimension Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 F (N= 59) (N =45) (N = 45) Appropriate Beliefs 4.18a 3.82b 4.50c 32.9 *** Inappropriate Beliefs 3.25a 3.67b 3.88c 59.9 *** Appropriate Activities 3.50a 3.58a 4.04b 32.5 *** Inappropriate Activities 3.33a 4.07b 4.21c 108.7 *** *** p<.001 Note: Means with different subscripts differ at .05 Table 4 Comparison of Cluster Means on the DAP Beliefs and Activities (Child Care Teacher) Dimension Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 (N= 26) (N =31) (N=70) Appropriate Beliefs 4.22a 4.32a 3.92b Inappropriate Beliefs 3.90a 3.12b 3.29c Appropriate Activities 3.91a 4.00a 3.42b Inappropriate Activities 4.06a 3.25b 3.18c Dimension Group 4 F (N = 22) Appropriate Beliefs 3.38c 37.15 *** Inappropriate Beliefs 3.40d 33.18 *** Appropriate Activities 3.06c 65.45 *** Inappropriate Activities 3.94c 38.65 *** *** p<.001 Note: Means with different subscripts differ at .05.