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Toll road business reviving.

Before the crisis hit Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago.  in 1997, toll road business in the country was brisk Brisk as a proper name may refer to:
  • Brest, Belarus (Brest-Litovsk) Brisk (בריסק) is the city's name in Yiddish
  • The Brisk yeshivas and methods, a school of Jewish thought originated by the Soloveitchik family of Brest.
 with many new toll roads The following is a list of toll roads. Toll roads are roads on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. This list also contains toll bridges and toll tunnels. Lists of these subsets of toll roads can be found in List of toll bridges and List of toll tunnels.  built and to be built. However, the crisis brought about deep slump Slump

A temporary fall in performance, often describing consistently falling security prices for several weeks or months.
 in the business sector. A number of projects were even left half finished and many were shelved or scrapped because of financial problem. The government issued a presidential decree decree, in law, decision of a suit in a court of equity. It is the counterpart in equity of the judgment in a court of law, although in those jurisdictions where law and equity have merged, judgment is sometimes used to include both.  No. Keppres N0.39/1997 rescheduling or shelving shelv·ing  
1. Shelves considered as a group.

2. Material for shelves.

3. An incline; a slope.


1. material for shelves

 a number of large infrastructure projects including toll road projects. Development or resumption RESUMPTION. To reassume; to promise again; as, the resumption of payment of specie by the banks is general. It also signifies to take things back; as the government has resumed the possession of all the lands which have not been paid for according to the requisitions of the law, and the  of projects began only in 2002 based on a presidential decree No. 15/002 reviewing the feasibility of some toll road projects.

In 2001, the government transferred the operating authority over a number of toll roads from investors to state-owned road building company Jasa Marga Marga can refer to:
  • Marga (Indian Philosophy)
  • Marga, a commune in Caraş-Severin County, Romania
  • Magga, one of the Four Noble Truths, in Buddhism
  • Marga (Batak), a family name in Batak society
  • Efraín Abdiel Alveo a.k.a.
. The revocation The recall of some power or authority that has been granted.

Revocation by the act of a party is intentional and voluntary, such as when a person cancels a Power of Attorney that he has given or a will that he has written.
 of the authority from investors followed the crisis that also hit the investors that could not meet their commitment to their financers such as in the case of the Jakarta Jakarta or Djakarta (both: jəkär`tə, jäkär`tä), city and special district (1990 pop. 8,227,746), capital and largest city of Indonesia, NW Java, at the mouth of the canalized Ciliwung River, on Jakarta  Outer Ring Road (JORR JORR Jakarta Outer Ring Road (Indonesia) ) the contractor of which was trapped in heavy debt and was eventually put under the control of the Indonesian Bank Restructuring restructuring - The transformation from one representation form to another at the same relative abstraction level, while preserving the subject system's external behaviour (functionality and semantics).  Agency (IBRA IBRA Indonesian Bank Restructuring Agency
IBRA International Bee Research Association (United Kingdom)
IBRA Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia
IBRA International Barrel Racing Association
). Malaysian Consortium had indicated interest in taking over the job to resume the construction of the toll road, but failed in a tender.

Investment opportunity in told road projects is still wide open for foreign investors. The government has offered the a toll road project between Semarang Semarang (səmä`räng), city (1990 pop. 1,249,230), capital of Central Java prov., N Java, Indonesia, on the Java Sea and at the mouth of the Semarang River. An important port, it is one of the major commercial centers of Java.  and Solo in Central Java Central Java (Indonesian: Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. The administrative capital is Semarang. It is one of the six provinces of the island of Java. Central Java is both a political entity and a cultural concept.  to an Australian contractor. The 22 km toll road project is one of nine toll road projects proposed by regional administrations being studied by the central government to see their feasibility. Other toll road projects proposed by regional administration which have been offered to foreign contractor are the first phase, 117.5 km long, of the Surabaya-Mojokerto toll road project and a 13.6 kin toll road projects between Gempol and Pandaan in East Java East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and also includes neighboring Madura and Bawean islands.  to be built soon expected by investor from Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia (sä`dē ərā`bēə, sou`–, sô–), officially Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kingdom (2005 est. pop. .

In June 2003, the government raised the tariff tariff, tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic  of some of the toll road especially ones operated by the private sector. The increase in tariff came following the decision of the government to resume the construction of 21 sections of toll road totaling 597 km and valued at Rp 31.6 trillion One thousand times one billion, which is 1, followed by 12 zeros, or 10 to the 12th power. See space/time.

(mathematics) trillion - In Britain, France, and Germany, 10^18 or a million cubed.

In the USA and Canada, 10^12.
. Six of the projects valued at Rp 6.7 trillion will be built soon or being built some by PT Jasa Marga.

Toll road projects hampered by crisis.

The revival of some of the economic sectors has come with greater mobility of people and faster flows of goods in the regions. The change was marked with the growing traffic congestion The condition of a network when there is not enough bandwidth to support the current traffic load.

congestion - When the offered load of a data communication path exceeds the capacity.
 and density of urban and high way traffic. Toll roads, therefore, are growing vital to cope worse traffic jams.

PT Jasa Marga was established in 1978 with a mission to build and operate toll roads. The crisis that began in 1997 has badly hit the economy forcing the government to shelve shelve  
v. shelved, shelv·ing, shelves
1. To place or arrange on a shelf.

 many large infrastructure projects including toll road projects. Some of the toll road projects were later resumed after Jasa Marga took over the jobs from private investors that could not continue to build the projects because of the crisis that was marked by the rupiah ru·pi·ah  
n. pl. rupiah
See Table at currency.

[Hindi rupay, rupiy
 fall. The rupaih fall sent the price and costs of building project soaring soaring: see flight; glider.
 or gliding

Sport of flying a glider or sailplane. The craft is towed behind a powered airplane to an altitude of about 2,000 ft (600 m) and then released.
 in term of the national currency.

Privately built toll roads decline in number

PT Jasa Marga began commercial operation in 1978. The state company has so far built and operated 12 tot road and bridge projects carried out by 9 branches. The 12 toll roads are (1) Jakarta--Bogor--Ciawi (Jagorawi), (2) Semarang arteri A--B--C, (3) Jakarta--Tanggerang, (4) Surabaya--Gempol, (5) Jematan Tol v. t. 1. (Law) To take away. See Toll.  Mojokerto Mojokerto is one of the districts in East Java Province, Indonesia. It is located 40 km southwest of Surabaya, and constitutes one of the regional units of Gerbangkertosusila Development (a linkage of towns and city connecting Gresik, Bangkalan, Mojokerto, Surabaya, Sidoarjo, and , (6) Belawan--Medan, (7) Jakarta--Cikampek, (8) Cawang--Tomang--Pluit, (9) Prof Dr. k. Sedyatmo (jalan tol Ice bandara Soekamo-Hatta), (10 Padalarang--Cileunyi, (11) Jembatan Tol Citarum and (12) Palimanan--Kanci (Palikanci).

Until 2002, the length of toll roads in the country already operational was 520 km including 383 km owned and operated by PT Jasa Marga or up from 354 km in the previous year. The addition included the sections E2 and S of the Jakarta Outer Ring Road (JORR) by PT Jalantol Lingkarluar Jakarta, one of its subsidiaries, which took over the project from a previous contractor now under control of IBRA for default on the payment of its credit.

On the other hand Jasa Marga had also transferred the operation of the Citarum toll bridge and Mojokerto toll bridge on June, 2003 after the status of the two bridges For the neighborhood in New York City, see .
Two Bridges is an isolated location in the heart of Dartmoor National Park, in Devon, United Kingdom. It is situated around 2.
 were changed with public bridged. However, in August, 2003, Jasa Marga started the operation of the 59 km Cikampek-Padalarang toll road. Earlier Jasa Marga completed and revoked the Operation Authority Agreement (PKP PKP Public Knowledge Project (Canada)
PKP Public Key Partners (vendor)
PKP Penetrating Keratoplasty (cornea graft)
PKP Polskie Koleje Panstwowe
) over half finished toll road project from its former investor PT Citra Ganesha Ganesha: see Hinduism.
 or Ganesa

Elephant-headed Hindu god, the son of Shiva and Parvati. He is also revered in Jainism, and he is important in the art and mythology of Buddhist Asia.

Before the crisis PT Drassindo was ambitious to become a major toll road operator in the country to follow Citra Lamtoro lamtoro

[Indonesian] the name given to the disease caused by the ingestion of Leucaena leucocephala.
 Gung Persada of Mrs Siti Hardiyanti Rukmana. Djoko Ramiadji, the owner of the Drassindo (Djoko Ramiadji Associate Indonesia) Group, was formerly a director of the Citra Group. The first toll road built by the Drassindo Group was the Pondok pondok or pondokkie

(in southern Africa) a crudely made house or shack [Malay pondók leaf house]
 Pinang--Kampung Rambutan/Jagiomwi-Cikunir toll road. This project the Drassindo Group through PT Investa Kusuma Kusuma is a village in Reodar Tahsil of Sirohi District of Indian state of Rajasthan.It is 45 km from Abu Road.Its ancient name was Kutsasrama meaning a hermitage of Kutsa.  Arta formed a joint venture company PT Marga Nurindo Bhakti bhakti (bŭk`tē) [Skt.,=devotion], theistic devotion in Hinduism. Bhakti cults seem to have existed from the earliest times, but they gained strength in the first millennium A.D.  with a consortium of PT Bhaskara Bhaskara (bŭs`kərə), called Acarya (əchär`yə) [Skt.,=learned], b. 1114, Indian mathematician and astronomer.  Dunia Jaya Jaya (born Maria Luisa Ramsey on March 21, 1970, in Manila, Philippines) is a Filipino pop singer with African American ancestry. Biography
She is known in the Philippines as the Queen of Soul.
, Hanurata, PT Marga Strukturindo Raya, Citra Lamtoro Gung Persada and Jasa Marga.

Management system of privately operated toll roads

The government through state company PT Jasa Marga is the operator of toll road in the country. The private sector is involved as an investor with certain repayment system such as Build Transfer and Operate (BTO BTO British Trust for Ornithology
BTO Business Technology Optimization
BTO Bachman Turner Overdrive (band)
BTO Business Transformation Outsourcing
BTO Build-Transfer-Operate
BTO Brutto (German: Gross [quantity]) 
) and Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) Repayment of the fund invested by private investors through profit sharing profit sharing, arrangement by which employees receive, in addition to their wages, a share of the net profits of a business. The purpose is to give them an incentive to increase their output through enhanced morale, less wasteful use of materials, better care of .

Under that system, Jasa Marga is the operator such as in the case of the Jakarta-Cikampek toll road in which the investor is PT Bangun Tjipta Sarana. The BTO system is also used for the Kebon Jeruk--Tangerang toll road in which the investor is PT Adhika Prakasatama and the interchanges of Karawaci Karawaci may refer to:
  • Karawaci, Tangerang, a subdistrict of Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia
  • Lippo Karawaci, a planned community in the subdistrict
 (PT Lippo Village), Cibitung (PT Megapofis Manunggal), Sentul Sentul may refer to:

In Indonesia:
  • Sentul, Indonesia
  • Sentul International Circuit - International motor racing circuit in Indonesia
In Malaysia:
  • Sentul, Malaysia
  • Sentul Raya - a town near Sentul, Malaysia
 Selatan Selatan is the Indonesian word for south and can be found in topography. E.g.
  • Sulawesi Selatan -> South Sulawesi
  • Sumatera Selatan -> South Sumatra
  • South Cape (Indonesia)
 (PT Royal Sentul Highland).

Under the second system, the investor, which builds toll road will operate the toll road for 20-40 years. The investor will fully take the toll road fee and other related income including the fee for bill boards along the road. The operator, however, must be a consortium in which Jasa Marga is involved as a shareholder in a joint venture. The first private company operating toll road is PT Citra Marga Nusaphala Persada for the Cawang-Tanjung Priok, which started operation in 1990.

The cooperation is a form of management contract in which investors will build toll roads but Jasa Marga will be the operator.

In several toll road projects, PKP has been used, but not yet fully implemented.


The crisis has forced the government to resehedule a number of toll road projects. However, with the improvement of the economy, the government issued a presidential decree No.64/2000 on May 8, 2000, under which some of the projects are to be implemented. On March 22, 2002, the government issued another presidential decree revoking a previous decree No. 39/1997. The government decided to continue plan for six toll road projects including:

* JORR--W2 South, E1 South and E1 East sections

* Cikampek--Padalarang phase 1

* JORR--W2 North, E2, E3 and N sections

* JORR--W1 section

* Waru Interchange--Tanjung Perak interchange--phase 1

* Gempol--Pandaan

JORR project taken over by Jasa Marga

The impact of the monetary crisis that peaked in 1998, caused a delay in the completion of the 69.3 km Jakarta Outer Ring Road (JORR) project. The project was originally given to a consortium of Citra Mataram Mataram

Historic kingdom, Java. Originally a vassal state of Pajang, it became powerful under Senapati, who became its first king in the late 16th century. Its territory expanded in the early 17th century, but the kingdom later began to decline.
 Satriamarga Persada. Citra Bhakti Margatama Persada dan Marga Nurindo Bhakti.

The government and the House of Representatives agreed to continue the project as it is considered vital to support economic development. The project is labor intensive Labor Intensive

A process or industry that requires large amounts of human effort to produce goods.

A good example is the hospitality industry (hotels, restaurants, etc), they are considered to be very people-oriented.
See also: Capital Intensive, Trading Dollars
, providing jobs for many workers and contractors and sub contractors.

The problem, however, surfaced over who was to be the contractors to carry out the project as the original contractor has been declared in default by the Indonesian Bank Restructuring agency (IBRA) over failure to settle a debt of Rp 2.6 trillion maturing in June-August 2000. PT Jasa Marga as the agency granting the project to the debt ridden consortium authorizing canceled the contract and took over the job for itself. Jasa Marga, therefore, is responsible for repaying Rp 1.07 trillion of the debt already spent for the project by the consortium to IBRA.

In line with a decision of the Financial Sector Policy Commitee (KKSK KKSK Karena Ku Sayang Kamu (song title) ), resumption of the JORR project was to be carried out under the BOT system for 35 years by PT Jalan Tol Lingkar Luar Jakarta, established by Jasa Marga and IBRA. The Rp 1.07 trillion debt, therefore, is to be converted into equity in PT Jalantol Lingkarluar Jakarta (JLJ JLJ Junior League of Jackson (Jackson, MS) ). IBRA, therefore, controls 90% of the company and Jasa Marge is a 10% shareholder.

The old contractor already finished part of the project and are already operational. The Pondok Pinang-Taman Mini section 14 km long is among the sections already operational. The section turned out an income of Rp 7.6 billion in January January: see month.  2002. The Kali Pasanggerahan-Veteran section 3 km long, was 65% finished by PT Citra Mataram Satriamarga Persada in 1996. The 1 km Meruya section was 25% completed by PT Jakarta Lingkar Baratsatu. The 1 km Taman Ta·man  

A peninsula of southwest Russia projecting westward between the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. It is rich in petroleum deposits.
 Mini junction was partly completed by PT Marga Nurindo Bhakti.

Now PT JLJ will carry out the work and a tender was opened to determine investor as the strategic partner. The investors, however, are not allowed to form a new consortium as partner and may not sell the project or their shares to other contractors. The tender for the JORR project was under the Right To Match (RTM (1) (RealTime Model) Refers to a system or architecture that performs operations in real time. See real time.

(2) (Release/Released To M
) system. Earlier, in pre qualification phase five contractors were short listed including Torno Torno can be:
  • Torno (Lousada), parish of Lousada, Portugal.
  • Vilar do Torno e Alentém, parish of Lousada, Portugal.
  • Torno (Italy), an italian comune in the Province of Como
 Internazionale Spa (Itali), MTD MTD Mounted
MTD Maximum Tolerated Dose
MTD Memory Technology Device
MTD Month To-Date
MTD Methadone (drug screening)
MTD motion to dismiss (legal)
MtD Mountain Dew
MTD Memory Technology Driver
 Capital Bhd., Ganuda Bhd. And Malaysian Consortium (Malaysia Malaysia (məlā`zhə), independent federation (2005 est. pop. 23,953,000), 128,430 sq mi (332,633 sq km), Southeast Asia. The official capital and by far the largest city is Kuala Lumpur; Putrajaya is the adminstrative capital. ) and Jakarta Infrastructure Consortium (JIC JIC Just In Case
JIC Joint Intelligence Committee
JIC Joint Information Center (US government)
JIC Jewelry Information Center
JIC Joint Intelligence Center
JIC Joint Industrial Council
JIC Justice Information Center
), the only local contractors through to the next phase. The government's decision to delay the the next process of tender caused MTD Capital Bhd. (Malaysia) to quit in August, 2001.

After the final phase of the tender in January 2002, PT JLJ announced that all bidder failed as none of them met the conditions including in fund availability. Under the tender regulation, a bidder was require to have at least Rp 2 trillion in cash. With a dally earning of Rp 3 billion and long experience in building toll road, Jasa Marge is considered capable of carrying out the JORR project Jasa Marge said it could build and operate a toll road with lower tariff compared with the tariff proposed by foreign investors.

Jasa Marga, said with a toll road tariff of Rp 300 per km in the first year, JORR investors would earn a profit of Rp 5 trillion over a 35 year contract with income estimated at Rp 14.9 trillion and production and operating cost of Rp 9.9 trillion.

The most suitable system is for JORR is an open system such as in Jakarta city toll of Rp 5,000 for every car using the toll road regardless of the distance. If the open system is sued the income would rise to Rp 20.6 trillion on assumption that the tariff will increase 25% every three years. The net profit, therefore will be around Rp 10.7 trillion.

After Jasa Marga was named the operator of JORR, the company may not build the project entirely. The system used in the contract for JORR is modified turnkey See turnkey system.  under which the contractor will build the project first with own fund. The payment for the fund is made from the income from the toll road operation. As a JORR investor, Jasa Marga has at least to issue bond, to raise Rp 2 trillion and for which approval was be needed from its shareholders. Jasa Marga proposed that payment for assets held by IBRA valued at Rp 1.07 trillion for 5 years as from the date work starts on the project.

The management of Jasa Marga could find strategic partner either private or state companies. Jasa Marga, for example, could team up with state-owned steel maker Krakatau Steel.

The unfinished project is estimated to need an additional investment of Rp 3.47 billion. Jasa Marga might find only problem in meeting the deadline. The government wants the project finished in 4 years, but the company said it could finish the project in 7 years.

Jasa Marga, therefore, is the best choice to carry out the project as the company has the capacity to secure a loan capital of up to Rp 6 trillion. Delay in the implementation of the project would face an increase in construction cost because of an increase in land price and inflation In addition the project could serve as milestone in the revival of the real; sector especially in the construction sector.

Government to go ahead with the construction of 21 toll road projects

Recently the government announced plant o continue development of previous plan of 21 toll road projects including JORR. The 21 projects totaling 597 km will cost around Rp 31.6 trillion. Six of the projects will soon be built totaling 98.6 km with a total investment of Rp 6.7 trillion.

A number of other projects are in the final phased of investment process. They include 6 sections totaling 223.4 km valued at Pep (1) (Packet Exchange Protocol) A Xerox protocol used internally by NetWare to transport internal Netware NCP commands (NetWare Core Protocols). It uses PEP and IPX for this purpose. Application programs use SPX and IPX.  13.8 trillion.

Nine other projects are toll roads proposed by regional administrations totaling 275.94 km valued at Rp 11.1 trillion now being studied.

The government has to be selective in building new toll road projects. In 2002-2004, the government plans to resume the construction of 12 toll road projects totaling 322 km valued at Rp 20.5 trillion. The 12 projects not including 9 toll roads proposed by regional administrations are JORR (W 2 South, E1 South, E1 North sections), Cipularang phase I, JORR (W2 North, E2, E3 and N sections) and JORR (W I section), SS Waru--Tanjung Perak Phase I and Gempol--Pandaan to he followed with Bekasi--Cawang--Kampung Melayu (22.4 kin), Waru--Wonokromo--Tanjung Perak (18.4 kin), Ciawi--Sukabumi Phase I (17 kin), Ciranjang--Padalarang Phase I (12 km), Cipularang Phase II (40 kin) and Cikampek--Cirebon (114 kin).

Bond funds

After issuing bond called Jasa Marga IX Seri N in April, 2002, the state company issued another bond called Jasa Marga X Seri O 2002 for 8 years to fall due in 2010. On August 15, 2003, the company listed the another bond called Jasa Marga XI Seri P 2003 with a fixed coupon rate Coupon rate

In bonds, notes, or other fixed income securities, the stated percentage rate of interest, usually paid twice a year.
 and a nominal value Nominal Value

The stated value of an issued security that remains fixed, as opposed to its market value, which fluctuates.

When referring to fixed-income securities, the nominal value is also the face value.
 of Rp 900 billion on the Surabaya Surabaya, Surabaja, or Soerabaja (srəbī`ə, Du. s  Stock Exchange. The coupon is to be paid every three months until 2013.

Around 50% of the fund from Jasa Marga X Seri O bond will be used to finance development of the Pondok Pinang--Ulu Jami Jami (jä`mē), 1414–92, Persian poet, b. Jam, near Herat. His full name was Nur ad-Din Abd ar-Rahman Jami. His poetic influence was widespread. Nearly 100 works are attributed to him, of which some 40 are considered authentic.  and the TMII-Cikunir sections of the 51.9 km JORR and 5 km Cilincing access road. The fund from the Jasa Marga XI Seri P bond will be used entirely for JORR sections already or to be controlled by Jasa Marga including W2, S, E1, E2, E3 sections.

Fund from Jasa Marga IX Seri N bond of 2002 has all been spent as scheduled. And has been reported to the Capital Market Supervisory Board Supervisory board

The board of directors that represents stakeholders in the governance of the corporation.

Fund from the Jasa Marga X Seri O bond of 2002 has all been used as scheduled and has been reported to Bapepam.

Foreign investors interested

Construction of all toll road projects is offered by the government to private contractors either local or foreign companies. JORR of W 2 South, E1 and E1 North sections were offered to Malaysian Consortium, but it failed for too high bid. Finally the government named Jasa Marga to carry out the project.

The 22 km Phase I of Semarang--Solo toll road project was offered to an Australian investor. The toll road project is one of 9 toll road proposed by regional administrations being studied by the government. Other projects offered to foreign investors include the 117.5 km phase I of Surabaya--Mojokerto toll road, and the 13.6 km Gempol--Pandaan tol road in East Java, which has been offered to a Saudi investors. However, the old contractor of the project PT Margabumi Adhika Raya said it could continue the construction of the project. Finally the government decided to give the 13.6 km toll road project to the company.

The 5.44 km Surabaya--Madura toll bridge has yet to wait for confirmation from the Kuwait government, which has pledge to provide a loan of Rp 1.5 trillion. President Megawati has inaugurated the start of the construction of the bridge, the longest in the country spanning the Madura strait Madura Strait is a narrow stretch of water that separates the Indonesian islands of Java and Madura. There are small islands lying here: Kambing, Giliraja, Genteng, and Ketapang.

The Suramadu Bridge is currently under construction between Surabaya on Java and Bangkalan on Madura.

Security problem with frequent bombings in the country such as the Bali bombing and the JE Marriott hotel bomb blast, however, has remained the biggest hurdle HURDLE, Eng. law. A species of sledge, used to draw traitors to execution.  to be removed to smoothen the inflows of foreign investment to the country.

Users of toll roads increase in number

The number of users of toll roads is growing from year to year to follow the increase in the number of toll roads and cars. The opening of new toll road has also boosted development of new economic growth centers such as industrial estates and settlements. The area development will in turn contribute to increasing traffic in toll roads.

In 2002, toll road in operation totaled 520 km, including 383 km owned by Jasa Marga Based on data at Jasa Marga, in 2002, nine of it toll roads recorded 673.7 million users or an increase of 43.9% from 468.2 million in 1998.

Jasa Marga earns profit only from 5 toll roads

Toll road operators recorded losses before the tariff was raised on June, 10, 2003. The tariff was not raised from 1992. Jasa Marga did not report losses. Losses in some of its toll roads could be covered by profit it had from other toll roads. The toll roads of Tanggerang-Merak and Surabaya-Gresik, which are operated by private companies suffered big losses. If the government postponed raising the tariff any longer, it was not impossible the operators would go bankrupt BANKRUPT. A person who has done, or suffered some act to be done, which is by law declared an act of bankruptcy; in such case he may be declared a bankrupt.
     2. It is proper to notice that there is much difference between a bankrupt and an insolvent.

Out of 13 toll roads operated by Jasa Marga, only five are profitable. The rest are money losing toll roads especially the Pondok Aren-Bintaro toll road which recorded only 5,000 cars a day, Plumbon Kanci toll road with 8,000 users and the Semarang toll road with 34,000 cars a day. The ones that turn out profit include the Jakarta-Cikampek toll road recording 273,000 cars using ti every day and the Jagorawi toll road Jagorawi Toll Road was the first toll road in Indonesia. Completed in 1978, it links the capital city of Jakarta to Bogor and Ciawi. It has a length of more than 60 km going north and southbound and is operated by PT Jasa Marga, a state-owned enterprise.  using it by 228,000 cars a day.

Among joint ventures involving Jasa Marga only PT Citra Marga Nushapala Persada has distributed dividend for the state company. Before the crisis dividend distributed by the operator of the Jakarta inner ring roads to Jasa Marga averaged Rp 25 billion a year. After the crisis the dividend shrank shrank  
A past tense of shrink.


a past tense of shrink

shrank shrink
 to Rp 1 billion in 2000 not to mention the lost value of the rupiah. Dividend from toll roads built as a joint venture with other company is zero. Jasa Marga, therefore, as joint ventures caused more losses than profit.

Jasa Marga hopes to be able to forgo its position as toll road regulator regulator,
n the mechanical part of a gas delivery system that controls gas pressure that allows a manageable flow of drug vapor to escape.


see reducing valve.
 and to function only as operator. Jasa Marga loses more gaining profit from being toll road regulator. AS a regulator Jasa Marga is responsible for the debt of investors in the event of failure of payment.

Toll road tariffs This is a list of tariffs and trade legislation:
  • List of tariffs in Canada
  • List of tariffs in United States
  • List of tariffs in India
  • List of tariffs in China
  • List of tariffs in Russia

The government sets the toll road tariffs. The tariff for toll roads built by private investors is based also on the amount of investment used for the construction and the period of concession. The tariff was not raised from the year 1992 until June, 2003.

The amount of investment is one of the factors used to set toll tariff such as in the case of PT Jasa Marga for its Cawang--Tanjung Priok--Jembatan Tiga/Pluit. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 regulations, the tariff must not exceed profit.

Income of Jasa Marga Rp 632.4 billion

According to its financial report, Jasa Marga in 2002 earned an income of Rp 1.07 trillion including income from advertisements--or an increase of 15.3% from Rp 928.49 billion in the previous year. However, increase in operating cost caused a decline of 5.9% in net profit to Rp 148.4 billion in 2002. See the following table.

Prospects and conclusion

In general the condition of Indonesian toll roads is worse than those of other countries in the region such as Malaysia and Thailand. In Asia, China is ahead in toll road development. According to Jasa Marga Indonesia has 520 km of toll road in operation not proportional proportional

values expressed as a proportion of the total number of values in a series.

proportional dwarf
the patient is a miniature without disproportionate reductions or enlargements of body parts.
 with the number of cars.

Private companies operate only 137 km of toll roads. The rest are operated by Jasa Marga. There are 8 toll road projects being built totaling 187.6 km. Malaysia already has 1,000 km of toll road in operation and a number of toll roads are being built. Before the crisis the government provided land for toll road projects, but now the investors have to pay for the land.
Length of toll roads in Indonesia, 1998-2003


Year   Jasa Marga   Investors   Total

1998      354          161       515
1999      354          161       515
2000      354          161       515
2001      354          161       515
2002      383          137       520
2003      386          142       528

Source: Jasa Marga/Data Consult

Toll road operated in 2002

Sections                         Length    Investor/     Starting
                                  (Km)      operator     Operation

1. Jagorawi                      46.00    Jasa Marga,      1978
(Jakarta-Boor-Ciawi)                           PT

2. Jakarta - Cengkaren           27.00    Jasa Marga,      1985
(Jl Prof Sediyatmo)                            PT

3. Jakarta - Cikampek            74.00    Jasa Marga,      1988

4. Cawang - Tomang-Grogol-Pluit  39.00    Jasa Marga,      1989

5. Padalarang - Cileunyi         46.00    Jasa Marga,      1991

6. Semarang arteri               18.80    Jasa Marga,      1983
(A, B & C)                                     PT

7. Surabaya - Gempol             42.00    Jasa Marga,      1986

8. Belmera (Medan)               34.40    Jasa Marga,      1986

9. Jakarta - Tagerang            34.60    Jasa Marga,      ....
(Tomang-Tagerang Barat &)                      PT
Tangerang-Tangerang Barat

10. Cikunir - Cakung              8.80     JLJ, PT *       1990
(JORR E2 + E3 + N)

11. Pd Pinan - Kp Rambutan       14.83     JLJ, PT *      1995/96
JORRS Subtotal
(Jasa Marga/BUMN)                386.27

13. Cawan - Tj Priok             30.94    Citra Marga      1990
Jembatan Tiga                              Nusaphala
(JI Wiyoto Wiyono)

14. Tangerang - Merak            72.45       Marga         1993

15. Surabaya - Gresik            20.05     Margabumi       1993

16. Tallo Lama toll bride         1.00    Bosowa Marga     1981

17. Pelabuhan Laut Soekarno      30.94
Hatta - St. Abdullah Teuku
Umar - Uri Sumohardjo

18. Pondok Aren-Bintaro           7.20     PT Bintaro      2000
Sub-total (private/consortium)   142.00     Serpong
Total length of toll road        528.27      Damai

* Operated by subsidiary of Jasa Marga
(PT Jalantol Lingkarluar Jakarta)

Source: Jasa Marga/Data Consult

Joint operation without operating authority

Investors               Cooperation      Investor's      Cooperation
                          project         share of          term
                                         toll income

Joint operation toll roads:

PT Bangun Tjipi      Cikampek-Cibitung       69%       26 y since 1989

                     Cawang-Cibitung        41%       25 y since 1994

PT Adhika            Jakarta-Tangerang       41%       18 y since 1994


PT Royal Sentul       Sentul Selatan       41%-20%     9 y since 1995

PT Lembah Golf       Ram G. Putri III        41%       8 y since 1997

Profit sharing joint operation toll road with minimum interchange:

PT Suryacipta         Karawang Timur       4%-14%      16.3 since 1996

PT Karabha Digdaya       Cimanggis         37.50%        As from the
                                                        completion of
                                                       project to full

PT Indocement         Gunung Putri II        35%        As from 1992
Tunggal Perkasa                                          until fully

PT Lippo Karawaci       Karawang &          17.5%       10 y as from
                        Gerbang Tol                         1997

PT Jakartabaru        Ext RampSTA 18        26.5%        3 y as from
Cosmopolitan         Jakarta-Tangerang                      1999

Joint operation of interchanges :

PT Megapolis             Cibitung             -         10 y as from
Manuggal                                                    1995

PT Besland               Kalihurip            -         10 y as from
Pertiwi               (Jkt-Cikampek)                        1997

PT Wijaya Karya           Cibubur             -         As from 1998
                                                         until fully

Other joint operation systems :
Grant (development t of interchange to be compensated with free display
of ad billboard

PT Maligi Permata     Interchange of          -          2001 - 2005
Industrial Estate     Karawang Barat

PT Pembangunan        Cikarang Timur          -            3 years
Deltamas                  Bekasi

Source: Jasa Marga/Data Consult

Joint ventures under PKP

Investors                    Toll road         Length of
                             sections          toll road

Toll roads already operational:

PT Citra Mar Nus.            Cawan-Tg.           28.50

PT Marga               Tangrg-Merak-Tahap I      34.20
Mandalasakti           Tangrg-Merak-Phase II     38.25

PT Margabumi             Surabaya - Gresik       20.70

PT Bosowa mar Nus.        Pelabuhan Laut         10.36
                       Soekar- no Hatta-ST.
                          Abdullah Teuku
                            Umar-Uri S.

Toll road project under construction:

PT Kresna              Bekasi Timur-Cawang-      21.50
Kusuma DM.                Kampung Melayu

PT Margabumi              Gempol-Pandaan         13.64
Adhika R.

Projects under preparations:

PT Citra                 SS Waru - Tanjung       36.50
Margatama Surabya              Perak

PT Bukaka                Ciawi - Sukabumi        53.50
Mar Utama

Jakarta Outer Ring Road (JORR):

PT Jalan Tol Lingkar    Kb.Jeruk-Pdk.Pinang      57.00
Luar Jakarta JLJ         Pdk.Pian-Jagorawi

Projects shelved and reviewed:

PT Marga Jawa Tol       Waru - Wonokromo -       18.40
                           Tanjung Perak

Projects taken over by Jasa Marga
as PKP no loner effective:

PT Citra Bhakti MP.        JORR sections         19.20

PT Citra Mataram          JORR section W2        11.17

PT Citra Ganesha        Cikampek-Padalarang      59.00

PT Marga                  Semaran - Demak        25.00
Mawatindo E.

PT Marga Nul            Suraba a-Mojokerto       37.87
asumo A.

PT Marga Nerindo B.       Sections Sand         26.74
                            El of JORR

Investors              Participation    Concession
                             %            period

Toll roads already operational:

PT Citra Mar Nus.          17.79        1994 - 2023

PT Marga                   5.36         1990 - 2020
Mandalasakti                            1993 - 2023

PT Margabumi               6.47         1991 - 2016

PT Bosowa mar Nus.         10.00        1994 - 2024

Toll road project under construction:

PT Kresna                  10.00       32 since NTP
Kusuma DM.

PT Margabumi               15.00       22 since NTP
Adhika R.

Projects under preparations:

PT Citra                   15.00        33 y since
Margatama Surabya                        operation

PT Bukaka                  20.00       27 y 8 month
Mar Utama                              since operate

Jakarta Outer Ring Road (JORR):

PT Jalan Tol Lingkar       99.0            35 y
Luar Jakarta JLJ                        since 2001

Projects shelved and reviewed:

PT Mar a Jawa Tol                      33 since NTP

Projects taken over by Jasa Marga
as PKP no loner effective:

PT Citra Bhakti MP.        34.83        PKP cancel

PT Citra Mataram           15.00        PKP cancel

PT Citra Ganesha           30.00        PKP cancel

PT Mar a                   8.33         PKP cancel
Mawatindo E.

PT Mar a Nul               16.00        PKP cancel
asumo A.

PT Marga Nurmdo B.         10.00        PKP cancel

Source: Jasa Marga/Data Consult

Management contract cooperation

Investor        Toll roads       Form of      Length of    Concession
                               Cooperation       road         Term

PT Bintaro        Pondok        Management       7.25       1997-2024
Serpong        Aren-Serpong      contract

Sumber: Jasa Marga/Data Consult

Toll road projects under PKP not yet implemented

Investor                      Projects         Length   Concession
                                                (Km)      perion

Tol road project under construction:

PT Jakarta Lingkar       Kebon Jeruk - Rawn     9.76     1997-2027
Barat Satu               Buaya - Penjaringan

Toll road projects yet to be built:

PT Marga Setiapuritama    Semarang - Batang    75.00    28 th after
Source: Jasa Marga/Data Consult

Sections of JORR to be built

Sections                      Areas             Length

Wl                   Penjaringan - Kebon Jeruk       -
W2 - first section   Pondok Pinang - Veteran    2.7 km
W2 - second section  Veteran - Ulujami          1.3 km
E1 - first section   TMII junction - Ceger      1.0 km
E1 - second section  Ceger - Jalan Raya Hankam  3.0 km
E2 *                 Cikunir - Cakun            9.2 km
E3                   Cakung - Cilincing         4.7 km

* Already finished and operational in 2003
Source: Data Consult

First year's tariff per km
proposed for JORR

Bidders                             Tarriff

Malaysia Consortium                 Rp 500
Gamuda Sdn. Bhd.                    Rp 500
Torno Internazionale spa            Rp 340
Jakarta Infrastructure Consortium   --
Jasa Marga                          Rp 315

Source: Data Consult

Table--9 Toll road projects to be resumed

    Projects to be built soon               Description          Length

1. JORR (Jakarta Outer Ring Road)   - W2 South                        4
                                    - E1 South                        4
                                    - E1 North                     8.40
2. Cikampek - Padalarang phase I    - Cikampek-North Purwakarta      13
                                    - Padalaran-Bypass                6
3. JORR                             - W2 North section             7.17
                                    - E2, E3 & N sections         19.20
4. JORR                             - W1 section                   9.76
5. SS Waru - Tanjung Perak Phase I  - Waru-Tambak Oso-Juanda      13.50
6.                                  - Gempol - Pandaan            13.60

Total                                                             98.63

Source: Jasa Marga/Data Consult

Table--10 Toll road projects in the final phase
of investment process

              Description                 Length

1. Bekasi - Cawang - Kampung Melayu        22.40
2. Waru - Wonokromo - Tanjung Perak        18.40
3. Ciawi-Sukabumi Phase I of Ciawi-Lido    17.00
4. Ciranjang - Padalarang Phase I          12.00
   - Citatah - Padalarang
5. Cikampek - Padalarang Phase II          40.00
   - North Purwakarta - Padalarang
6. Cikampek - Cirebon                     114.00

Total                                     322.43

Source: Jasa Marga/Data Consult

Table--11 Toll road projects proposed
by regional administration

              Description                 Length

1. Surabaya - Madura bridge                 5.44
2. Surabaya - Mojokerto Phase I of         17,50
   Waru - Krian
3. Semarang - Solo Phase 1                 22,00
   Semarang - Bawen
4. Bogor Ring Road                         10,50
5. Cikarang - Tanjung Priok                55,50
6. Palembang - Indralaya                   24,50
7. Medan - Binjai                          20,50
8. Pekanbaru - Dumai                       95,00
9. Cileunyi - Subang - Dawuan Phase I      25,00

Total                                     275.44

Source: Jasa Marga

Report about spending of fund from Jasa Marga IX
Seri N bond of 2002 By June 30, 2003

No. Toll road project       Use of fund    The rest of fund
                           (Rp' million)     (Rp million)

1. Cikampek - Purwakarta         156,325           (31,725)
2. Padalarang - Bypass           121,754            (5,274)
3. Pondok Aren - Ulujami         102,419             37,261
4. Palimanan - Plumbon            19,240                  -

Source: Jasa Marga/data Consult

Table--13 Report about the spending of Jasa Marga X
Seri O bond of 2002 per tanggal 30 Juni 2003

No. Toll road project          Use of fund      The rest of fund
                               (Rp'million)       (Rp million)

1. Pondok Pinang - Ulujami             98,869             93,140
2. TMII Junction - Cikunir            221,338            222,015
Total                                 318,207            315,155

Source: Jasa Marga/data Consult

Table--14 Volume of traffic in 9 toll roads of Jasa Marga, 1998-2003

('000 cars)

Branch                        1998       1999       2000

Jagorawi                    74,278     79,585     87,527
Semarang                    15,262     18,930     20,781
Jakarta - Tanggerang        58,917     64,877     72,443

Surabayan - Gempol -
- Surabaya - Gempol         40,754     45,476     51,001
- Mojokerto toll bridge      7,516      7,731      8,358
Belmera (Medan)              8,928     10,316     11,918
Jakarta - Cikampek          86,599     92,043    102,078

Cawang - Tomang -
- Lingkar dalam Jakarta    107,759    121,790    139,874
- Pof. Dr. Ir. Sedyatmo     28,658     32,513     40,429

Padalarang - Cileunyi -
- Padalarang - Cileunyi     29,488     32,321     36,385
- Jembatan tol Citarum       7,363      7,302      7,866
Palimanan - Kanci            2,330      2,885      3,585
JORR - E2 section *              -          -          -
JORR - S section **              -          -          -
Total                      468,216    515,769    582,247

Branch                        2001       2002   2003  *

Jagorawi                    94,099    100,192     25,565
Semarang                    22,179     21,901      5,231
Jakarta - Tanggerang        75,842     84,337     21,903

Surabayan - Gempol -
- Surabaya - Gempol         55,154     58,030     14,401
- Mojokerto toll bridge      8,700      9,055      2,205
Belmera (Medan)             12,837     13,884      3,520
Jakarta - Cikampek         105,701    107,867     25,109

Cawang - Tomang -
- Lingkar dalam Jakarta    152,435    166,290     42,936
- Pof. Dr. Ir. Sedyatmo     46,933     54,798     15,281

Padalarang - Cileunyi -
- Padalarang - Cileunyi     39,096     41,148     10,164
- Jembatan tol Citarum       8,125      8,593      2,061
Palimanan - Kanci            5,590      7,608      2,158
JORR - E2 section  *             -          -      2,150
JORR - S section **              -          -     10,201
Total                      626,691    673,704    182,888

* in 3 months

** Operated by Jasa Marga subsidiary PT JLJ

Source: Jasa Marga/Data Consult

Table--15 Number of cars using toll roads in 2000

Toll roads                Length  Starting   Number   Description
                                   year of
                           (Km)   operation  of Cars

Jagorawi                    48.0       1978  228,000  Profitable
Semarang A & B sections     15.0       1983   54,000  Losing
Jakarta-Tanggerang Barat    27.0       1984  198,000  Profitable
Prof Dr Ir Sedyatmo         14.0       1985  100,000  Profitable
Surabaya-Gempol             14.0       1986  120,000  Profitable
Belmera                     34.0       1986   31,000  Losing
Jakarta-Cikampek            72.0       1988  273,000  Profitable
Cawang-Tomang               16.0       1989  241,000  25 : 75
Tomang-Grogol-Pluit          8.0       1996        -     -
Padalarang-Cileunyi         36.0       1991  115,000  Losing
Semarang C section          10.0       1998   34,000  Losing
Plumbon-Kanci               20.0       1998    8,000  Losing
Pondok Aren-Bintaro          2.5       2000    5,800  Losing

Source: Jasa Marga/Data Consult

Table--16 Number of cars using toll roads under old operators

      Toll road               Length   Operation

- Cawang-Tanjung Priok         39.94       1989
  Harbour Road

- Tanggerang-Merak             72.45       1992

- Surabaya-Gresik              18.59       1993

- Ujung Pandang                12.95       1998

- JORR, S section              14.83       1990

- JORR , E2 section             8.80       1995

- Pondok Aren-Bintaro           7.20       2000

      Toll road             Investor        Cars     Description

- Cawang-Tanjung Priok  PT Citra Marga     127,000   Profitable
  Harbour Road             Nusaphala

- Tanggerang-Merak      PT Marga           40,784    Losing

- Surabaya-Gresik       PT Margabumi       44,516    Losing

- Ujung Pandang         PT Bosowa Marga    20,952    Losing

- JORR, S section       Diteruskan         50,000    Losing not
                        PT JLJ                       connected

- JORR , E2 section     Diteruskan         75,000    Losing not
                        PT JLJ                       connected

- Pondok Aren-Bintaro   PT Bintaro            -      Losing
                           Serpong Damai

Source: Jasa Marga/Data Consult

Table--17 Tariff of several toll roads, 2003

                                                  Tariff (Rp/vehicle)
Toll roads                             (Km)      Class I     Class IIA

Close system :
Jakarta - Cikampek :
- Farest tariff                       74.00       6,500        11,000
  Tariff Per Km                                   87.84        146.65
Padaleunyi :
- Farest tariff                       35.00       4,000         6,500
  Tariff Per Km                                  114.29        185.71
Surabaya - Gempol
(Waru - Gempol) :
- Farest tariff                       26.00       2,500         4,000
  Tariff Per Km                                   96.15        153.85
Belmera :
- Farest tariff                       36.00       3,000         5,000
  Tariff Per Km                                   83.33        138.89
Tangerang - Merak :
- Farest Tarifs                       72.45      12,500        16,500
  Tariff Per Km                                  172.53        241.55
Surabaya - Gresik
- Farest Tariff                       19.40       5,000         7,000
  Tariff Per Km                                  257.73        360.82

Open System :
Jakarta - Tangerang :
- Tomang-Tangrng Barat                26.80       2,500         3,000
  Tariff Per Km                                  117.10        140.52
- Tangrng-Tangrng Barat                7.80       1,000         1,000
  Farest Tariff                                  175.44        175.44
Palikanci :
- Palimanan-Plumbon                    6.57       1,000         1,500
  Tariff Per Km                                  152.21        228.31
- Plumbon - Ciperna                    8.70       1,500         2,000
  Tariff Per Km                                  172.41        229.89
- Ciperna - Kanci                     13,57       2,500         3.000
  Tariff Per Km                                  184.23        221.08
City toll roads in Jakarta :
  Farest Tariff                       55.90       4,000         5,000
  Tariff Per Km                                  314.96        393.70
Surabaya - Gempol
(Dupak - Waru) :                      17.00       1,500         2,000
Ujung Pandang :
  Farest Tariff                        5.95       1,500         2,000
  Tariff Per Km                                  252.10        336.13
Serpong - Pondok Aren :
  Farest Tariff                        7,20       2.500         4.500
  Tariff Per Km                                  34,722        625,00
Semarang :
- A section of Krapyak-Jatingaleh      8,00       1.000         1.000
  Tariff Per Km                                  125,00        125,00
- B section of Srondol-Jatingaleh      6,30       1.000         1.000
  Tariff Per Km                                  158,73        158,73
- C section of Kaligawe-Gy Sari        4,50       1.000         1.500
                                                 222,22        333,33

Toll roads                            Class IIB      Decree Year

Close system :
Jakarta - Cikampek :
- Farest tariff                          13,000          1992
  Tariff Per Km                          175.68
Padaleunyi :
- Farest tariff                           7,500          2003
  Tariff Per Km                          214.29
Surabaya - Gempol
(Waru - Gempol) :
- Farest tariff                           5,000          2003
  Tariff Per Km                          192.31
Belmera :
- Farest tariff                           5,500          2003
  Tariff Per Km                          152.78
Tangerang - Merak :
- Farest Tarifs                          22,000          2003
  Tariff Per Km                          303.66
Surabaya - Gresik
- Farest Tariff                          10,000          2003
  Tariff Per Km                          515.46

Open System :
Jakarta - Tangerang :
- Tomang-Tangrng Barat                    4,000          2003
  Tariff Per Km                          187.35
- Tangrng-Tangrng Barat                   1,000
  Farest Tariff                          175.44          2003
Palikanci :
- Palimanan-Plumbon                       2,000          2003
  Tariff Per Km                          304.41
- Plumbon - Ciperna                       2,500
  Tariff Per Km                          287.36          2003
- Ciperna - Kanci                         4.500
  Tariff Per Km                          331.61          2003
City toll roads in Jakarta :
  Farest Tariff                           6,500          2003
  Tariff Per Km                          511.81
Surabaya - Gempol
(Dupak - Waru) :                          2,500          2003
Ujung Pandang :
  Farest Tariff                           2,500          2003
  Tariff Per Km                          420.17
Serpong - Pondok Aren :
  Farest Tariff                           5.500          2003
  Tariff Per Km                          763,89
Semarang :
- A section of Krapyak-Jatingaleh         1.500          2003
  Tariff Per Km                          187,50
- B section of Srondol-Jatingaleh         1.500          2003
  Tariff Per Km                          238,10
- C section of Kaligawe-Gy Sari           2.000          2003

Source: Jasa Marga/Data Consult

Table--18 Profit and loss report of PT Jasa Marga, 1998-2002

(Rp million)

Description                            1998         1999         2000

-Operating income                   681,221      744,313      853,216
-Operating cost                   (446,791)    (491,462)    (565,579)
-Pretax profit , depreciation,
 And amortization                   443,378      431,266      215,832
-Operating profit                   234,594      252,850      287,637
-Other income (burden)             (28,837)     (50,194)     (87,274)
-Pre tax profit and
 extraordinary post                 205,594      202,656      200,363
-Taxes                             (39,842)     (48,946)     (51,182)
-Profit before
 extraordinary post                 165,752      153,711      149,181
-Profit before minority right       165,752      153,711      149,181
-Minority right on loss
(profit) of subsidiaries                  -            -          400

Description                            2001         2002

-Operating income                   928,492    1,070,653
-Operating cost                   (674,164)    (826,169)
-Pretax profit , depreciation,
 And amortization                   400,610      455,763
-Operating profit                   254,328      244,483
-Other income (burden)             (45,383)     (39,178)
-Pre tax profit and
 extraordinary post                 208,945      205,305
-Taxes                             (51,230)     (56,862)
-Profit before
 extraordinary post                 157,715      148,443
-Profit before minority right       157,715      148,443
-Minority right on loss
(profit) of subsidiaries           (28,876)     (17,273)

Source: Jasa Marga/Data Consult
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Title Annotation:Industry Profile
Publication:Indonesian Commercial Newsletter
Geographic Code:9INDO
Date:Sep 9, 2003
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