To Kill a Mockingbird.To Kill a Mockingbird mockingbird: see mimic thrush.
Any of several New World birds of a family (Mimidae) known for their mimicry of birdsong. The common, or northern, mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) can imitate the songs of 20 or more species within 10 is a powerful novel of childhood. It is the tale of the Finch family of Maycomb, Alabama in the mid-1930s. Jean Louise, known as Scout, who is seven when the story commences, narrates the novel. Much of the novel is given over to the events of the lives and her 11-year-old brother Jem. The events in Maycomb take place over a year or so. Scout is looking back at this crucial time in her life from an adult perspective.
Maycomb is described as a tired old town. In rainy weather the streets turned to red slop, green grass grew on the sidewalks and the courthouse sagged in the square. The summers were horrendously hot with men's stiff collars wilting wilting
dehydration of plants to the point where the leaves lose their turgor and hang limply. Can happen in living plants which later return to normal, or to cut plants before they are fed out. Thought to be a factor in increasing toxicity. by nine in the morning. Ladies by nightfall were like soft teacakes with frostings of sweat and sweet talcum tal·cum
talc, talcum powder. . Townspeople took things slowly because there was little going on in their lives. It was the middle of the depression and there was little spare cash to spend on the items they gazed at in shop windows. People were generally too poor to travel so Maycomb bound their horizons.
Scout tells us about life in her home with Jem, their father Atticus and their housemaid Calpurnia. Their mother died when Scout was two. Scout describes her father as satisfactory in the best meaning of that word: he energetically played with her and Jem, read to them, and treated them with courteous detachment.
Calpurnia is "something else again." She is a proud black woman who is devoted to the Finch family. She is said to have a hand as wide as a bed slat and twice as hard. She is always ordering Scout out of the kitchen, asking her why she couldn't behave as well as Jem when she knew he was older, and calling her home when she wasn't ready to come. Their battles are epic, but Calpurnia always wins, having the support of Atticus. Atticus treats her with dignity and respect.
Lee describes Atticus' early legal career in deft deft
adj. deft·er, deft·est
Quick and skillful; adroit. See Synonyms at dexterous.
[Middle English, gentle, humble, variant of dafte, foolish; see daft. strokes. He went out to Montgomery to read law and then returned to Maycomb where he began his practice. For many years he had an office in the courthouse. It contained little more than a hat rack, a spittoon, a checkerboard checkerboard
the pattern of a chess or draft board; used in many circumstances to display the results of mixing a specific number of variables. The variables are listed in columns designated along the horizontal border and the same or different variables in lines along the vertical and an unsullied Code of Alabama.
Atticus' first two clients were the last two persons hanged in the Maycomb County jail. They had murdered a blacksmith in the presence of three witnesses. Atticus had advised them to enter into a plea bargain plea bargain n. in criminal procedure, a negotiation between the defendant and his attorney on one side and the prosecutor on the other, in which the defendant agrees to plead "guilty" or "no contest" to some crimes, in return for reduction of the severity of the but they had stubbornly refused to accept his recommendation. The accused insisted that the-son-of-a-bitch-had-it-coming-to-him was a good enough defence for anybody and were duly convicted. Atticus was present at their execution and that event is described as the beginning of his profound distaste for the practice of criminal law.
Despite his inauspicious in·aus·pi·cious
Not favorable; not auspicious.
inaus·pi start, Atticus is clearly a talented lawyer who excels in his legal career. He has the complete trust of the citizens of Maycomb and develops a successful practice. As a pillar of the community, he is elected to the state legislature A state legislature may refer to a legislative branch or body of a political subdivision in a federal system.
The following legislatures exist in the following political subdivisions:
The first half of the novel is given over to the daily activities of Scout and Jem and to their growing awareness of the wisdom that their father possesses. These chapters are a form of Blake's "Songs of Innocence." The children live in a state of innocence unaware of the full extent of the racial discrimination practiced by the majority of the townspeople. They must be introduced to the "Songs of Experience."
Scout and Jem's innocence is infiltrated by the news that Atticus has been appointed by the court to defend Tom Robinson This article is about the musician. For the fictional character, see To Kill a Mockingbird.
The trial of Tom Robinson is the pivotal event in the novel and is handled well by the author. Harper Lee's father and sister were both lawyers and she herself studied law for three years. The courtroom atmosphere and the trial participants are described in convincing fashion.
In 78 Kill A Mockingbird, Lee provides us with a quintessential quin·tes·sen·tial
Of, relating to, or having the nature of a quintessence; being the most typical: "Liszt was the quintessential romantic" Musical Heritage Review. Southern small-town trial. The judge looks like a sleepy old shark. He is deeply learned in the law but fires out commands and advice to witnesses in a plain, no-nonsense manner. He appears to doze off at times but is understood to be attentive to everything that is said during the trial.
Judge Taylor possesses an easy familiarity with the lawyers and calls Atticus by his first name throughout the trial. He reassures a witness that Atticus is not intending to frighten fright·en
v. fright·ened, fright·en·ing, fright·ens
1. To fill with fear; alarm.
2. her. He clearly perceives Atticus to be a lawyer of great integrity.
Scout and Jem attend the trial and learn much in the process. Scout encounters a group of townspeople known as the Idlers Club, being people with enough spare time to attend trials on a regular basis. Several express concern that Atticus will mount a real defence on behalf of Robinson rather than simply going through the motions. They are resentful re·sent·ful
Full of, characterized by, or inclined to feel indignant ill will.
re·sentful·ly adv. of the fact that Atticus would offer the same level of representation to a black man as he would to a white.
The rigid colour bar of Maycomb is maintained in the courtroom. Seats behind the court are reserved for whites. Black spectators must sit up in the balcony. Scout and Jem join the black spectators because all of the seats in the "white only" area have been taken up. On a symbolic level Atticus' children reveal their solidarity with Afro-Americans. They emulate their father in their enlightened views.
Atticus defends his client with considerable skill and draws out the weaknesses of the prosecution. He seizes on the glaring fact that despite the claims of rape no one has thought to call a doctor to examine Mayella. Failing to take such a basic step would seem to be a fatal error A condition that halts processing due to faulty hardware, program bugs, read errors or other anomalies. If you get a fatal error, you generally cannot recover from it, because the operating system has encountered a condition it cannot resolve. . Atticus also destroys the credibility of the victim's father, who claims to be an eyewitness An individual who was present during an event and is called by a party in a lawsuit to testify as to what he or she observed.
The state and Federal Rules of Evidence, which govern the admissibility of evidence in civil actions and criminal proceedings, impose requirements . Bob Ewell is shown to possess an implacable im·plac·a·ble
Impossible to placate or appease: implacable foes; implacable suspicion.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin hatred for the black race and to be prepared to lie in order to bolster the rape claim.
Despite his valiant VALIANT Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial Cardiology A series of multinational M&M trials to determine the effects of valsartan–Diovan® efforts in the trial, Atticus is unable to prevent Mayella from uttering a challenge to the jurors. She cries out, "That nigger nig·ger
n. Offensive Slang
a. Used as a disparaging term for a Black person: "You can only be destroyed by believing that you really are what the white world calls a nigger" yonder yon·der
In or at that indicated place: the house over yonder.
Being at an indicated distance, usually within sight: "Yonder hills," he said, pointing. took advantage of me an' if you fine fancy gentlemen don't wanta' do nothin' about it then you're all yellow stinkin' cowards ... Your fancy airs don't come to nothin'."
Mayella appeals to the Southern code that requires white men to come to the assistance of a white woman who accuses a black man of rape. Robinson is found guilty by the jury and sentenced to a stiff prison term.
Atticus has taught his children that it is necessary to do all one can for their fellow citizens, especially those who are discriminated against because of their race. Scout and Jem are justifiably proud of their father and share his commitment to racial equality. When Atticus is spat upon and threatened with murder by Bob Ewell shortly after the trial, Scout comes to learn that a commitment to equality for Afro-Americans in the South requires great courage and determination.
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