Timing, amount of teenage alcohol or marijuana use may make future risky sex more likely. (Digests).Specific patterns of substance use during adolescence adolescence, time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. can predict risky sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. in young adulthood. Researchers in Seattle base this conclusion on their analysis of data from a longitudinal study longitudinal study
a chronological study in epidemiology which attempts to establish a relationship between an antecedent cause and a subsequent effect. See also cohort study. of urban youths. (1) For example, compared with study participants reporting no teenage use of marijuana marijuana or marihuana, drug obtained from the flowering tops, stems, and leaves of the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa (see hemp) or C. indica; the latter species can withstand colder climates. , persons reporting late-onset use of marijuana had significantly more sexual partners at age 21 and were less likely to use condoms consistently. However, unlike some previous studies, this study found no association between use of illicit Not permitted or allowed; prohibited; unlawful; as an illicit trade; illicit intercourse.
ILLICIT. What is unlawful what is forbidden by the law. Vide Unlawful.
2. hard drugs, such as cocaine or heroine, and risky sexual behavior.
The data come from a project that recruited fifth graders at 18 Seattle elementary schools elementary school: see school. located in high-crime areas in 1985; the youngsters were followed through 1996, when they were 21 years old. Of the 808 participants in this study, 52% lived in low-income households. The sample had a diverse racial and ethnic makeup makeup
In the performing arts, material used by actors for cosmetic purposes and to help create the characters they play. Not needed in Greek and Roman theatre because of the use of masks, makeup was used in the religious plays of medieval Europe, in which the angels' faces (46% white, 24% black, 21% Asian American A·sian A·mer·i·can also A·sian-A·mer·i·can
A U.S. citizen or resident of Asian descent. See Usage Note at Amerasian.
A and 9% other) and roughly equal numbers of male and female participants.
The participants were surveyed about their substance use at multiple points during their adolescence: about their use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana and other illicit drugs illicit drug Street drug, see there at ages 13, 14, 15 and 16, and about their use of all these substances except hard drugs at age 18. The follow-up survey at age 21 asked participants about their sexual behavior in the past year (i.e., the number of partners they had had and whether they had used condoms in all sexual encounters), whether they were involved in a stable relationship (i.e., lived with a partner) and whether they had used condoms at first intercourse. In all of the surveys except those at ages 13 and 17, participants were asked their age at first sexual intercourse sexual intercourse
or coitus or copulation
Act in which the male reproductive organ enters the female reproductive tract (see reproductive system). .
For each type of teenage substance use examined, the researchers used a statistical model to group participants according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. patterns of use. The resultant categories distinguished participants' behaviors according to the onset and frequency of use and changes in use over time. The researchers used negative binomial regressions In statistics, binomial regression is a technique in which the response (often referred to as Y) is the result of a series of Bernoulli trials, or a series of one of two possible disjoint outcomes (traditionally denoted "success" or 1, and "failure" or 0). and logistic regressions In statistics, logistic regression is a regression model for binomially distributed response/dependent variables. It is useful for modeling the probability of an event occurring as a function of other factors. , respectively, to assess whether patterns of substance use in adolescence were independently related to number of partners and consistency of condom 1. condom - The protective plastic bag that accompanies 3.5-inch microfloppy diskettes. Rarely, also used of (paper) disk envelopes. Unlike the write protect tab, the condom (when left on) not only impedes the practice of SEX but has also been shown to have a high failure use in young adulthood.
Statistical modeling resulted in the following categories of adolescent drinking: chronic (steady) bingeing (3% of participants), binge drinking binge drinking An early phase of chronic alcoholism, characterized by episodic 'flirtation' with the bottle by binges of drinking to the point of stupor, followed by periods of abstinence; BD is accompanied by alcoholic ketoacidosis–accelerated lipolysis and begun during the mid-teens and then steadily increasing over time (4%), binge drinking begun in the middle to late teen years (23%) and no binge drinking (70%). For use of cigarettes, the patterns that emerged were chronic heavy smoking (1%), smoking that escalated over time (8%), smoking begun after age 14 (11%), experimental smoking (7%) and no smoking (73%). Categories of marijuana use were use that began in the early teen years (3%), use with sharply increasing frequency after age 15 (5%), use begun in the late teen years (19%) and nonuse (74%). Hard-drug use was categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat as having begun in the early teens (7%) or later in adolescence (4%), and nonuse (89%).
On average, at age 21, study participants reported having had 1.9 sexual partners in the previous year. Young adults whose teenage patterns of substance use reflected no alcohol bingeing reported the lowest number (1.7), and those with chronic binge drinking reported the highest (3.0). The mean had a smahller range within the other types of substance use: for cigarette smoking, 1.9 (for nonsmokers and experimental smokers) to 2.2 (for all other types of smokers); for marijuana use, 1.8 (nonusers) to 2.5 (those who began using in their late teens); and for hard-drug use, 1.8 (users beginning in late adolescence) to 2.3 (users beginning in the early teens). Participants whose first sexual intercourse occurred at or after age 13 (88% of the total sample) reported an average of 1.9 recent partners at age 21; participants younger than 13 at first intercourse reported an average of 2.4.
Eighty-two percent of the total sample reported not always using condoms for sexual intercourse at age 21. Ninety percent of participants who had been chronic adolescent binge drinkers reported inconsistent use, compared with 80% of those who had never binged. The level of inconsistent condom use was markedly lower among participants who had experimented with cigarette smoking (65%) than among nonsmokers (83%) or regular smokers (85-86%). Inconsistent condom use was reported by 88% of participants who started using marijuana in the late teen years, 81% of nonusers of marijuana and 77% of those who began using marijuana in their early teens. Eighty-eight percent of participants who started using illicit hard drugs in the late teen years, compared with 82% of nonusers, reported inconsistent condom use.
Among participants who had not used a condom at first intercourse, 92% reported not always using a condom as a young adult; for those who had used a condom for their first sexual experience, 78% reported inconsistent use. Ninety-two percent of participants in stable relationships, and 78% of others, had not consistently used condoms for recent intercourse.
In the multivariate The use of multiple variables in a forecasting model. analyses examining the associations between number of sexual partners and each type of substance use, the researchers controlled for the effects of the other types of substance use and early initiation of sexual intercourse (before age 13). They found that the number of sexual partners for participants who had been binge drinkers throughout adolescence or in their late teens was significantly larger than that for participants who had not binged (coefficients, 0.5 and 0.3, respectively). Participants who had begun using marijuana in their late teens had significantly more sexual partners than nonusers of marijuana (0.3).
The logistic regression analyses of substance use patterns and condom use were performed by controlling for the effects of other teenage substance use, condom use at first intercourse and involvement in a stable relationship at age 21. Compared with not smoking, experimental smoking in adolescence was associated with a significantly decreased risk of inconsistent condom use in young adulthood (odds ratio, 0.3). The authors suggest that the same sort of self-control that allowed some young people to smoke cigarettes occasionally without escalating to chronic smoking may explain their relatively high rate of consistent condom use. For participants who began using marijuana in their late teens, the risk was nearly double (1.9) that for nonusers. Use of illicit hard drugs was not correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. with either measure of risky sexual behavior.
According to the authors, a limitation of this study is that it did not explore possible factors affecting both substance use and risky sexual behavior. In addition, the study sample included a higher proportion of low-income persons than would be found in the general population. Nonetheless, the authors believe that their findings can provide useful information for the design of programs to curb the risky sexual practices of young adults: "Specifically, interventions that prevent the onset of binge-drinking and marijuana use during high school may be of particular utility in preventing later risky sexual behavior."
(1.) Guo J et al., Developmental relationships between adolescent substance use and risky sexual behavior in young adulthood, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2002, 31(4): 354-362.