The workaholism syndrome: an emerging issue in the psychological literature.
The present paper provides a concise overview of the "workaholism syndrome." This includes a discussion of workaholism from an addiction perspective, it's overall components and consequences, and a conceptual framework For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see .
A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to a system analysis project. . Suggestions are offered for effective strategies to confront and mediate MEDIATE, POWERS. Those incident to primary powers, given by a principal to his agent. For example, the general authority given to collect, receive and pay debts due by or to the principal is a primary power. the onerous impact of workaholism.
The construct of "workaholism" has received limited, systematic attention within I-O psychology. Although studies on workaholism rose after the development of the Work Addiction RiskTest (Robinson, 1999) and the Workaholic work·a·hol·ic
One who has a compulsive and unrelenting need to work. Triad (Spence n. 1. A place where provisions are kept; a buttery; a larder; a pantry.
In . . . his spence, or "pantry" were hung the carcasses of a sheep or ewe, and two cows lately slaughtered.
- Sir W. Scott. & Robbins, 1992), much research in this area is theoretical in nature and exists in popular magazines, books, and in clinical, counseling-related journals. This state of affairs is a bit surprising since workaholism can impact diverse areas of human functioning at the individual, family, organizational, and societal levels (e.g., Vodanovich & Piotrowski, 2006). Here, we provide a brief synopsis A summary; a brief statement, less than the whole.
A synopsis is a condensation of something—for example, a synopsis of a trial record. of workaholism from an addiction perspective, its general features and consequences, a conceptual framework for the "workaholic syndrome" and suggestions for organizational strategies to confront workaholism.
Workaholism as an Addiction
Many writers have conceptualized workaholism as having addictive features (e.g., Robinson, 1989). The theoretical underpinnings of work addiction have, at its core, similar, dynamic features with other addictions such as alcoholism (e.g., Porter, 1996). This approach to workaholism was echoed by Robinson who stated that "Work addiction is an addiction in the same way that alcoholism is an addiction. Progressive in nature, it is an unconscious attempt to resolve unmet psychological needs that have roots in the family of origin and can lead to unmanageable life, family disintegration disintegration /dis·in·te·gra·tion/ (-in?ti-gra´shun)
1. the process of breaking up or decomposing.
2. , serious health problems, and even death" (Robinson, 2000 p. 34). Other maladies associated with workaholism in this framework include obsessive-compulsiveness, perfectionism per·fec·tion·ism
A tendency to set rigid high standards of personal performance.
per·fection·ist adj. & n. , and Type A behavior type A behavior
A behavior pattern characterized by tenseness, impatience, and aggressiveness, often resulting in stress-related symptoms such as insomnia and indigestion and possibly increasing the risk of heart disease. (e.g., Mudrack, 2004).
The Workaholism Syndrome
The portrayal of workaholism as a developmental and progressive process with dysfunctional features was recently illustrated by Piotrowski and Vodanovich (2006). One of the basic tenets of this model is that workaholic behaviors are a set of progressive, maladaptive Maladaptive
Unsuitable or counterproductive; for example, maladaptive behavior is behavior that is inappropriate to a given situation.
Mentioned in: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy behaviors that worsen wors·en
tr. & intr.v. wors·ened, wors·en·ing, wors·ens
To make or become worse.
to make or become worse
worsening adjn over time. In the early developmental stages, workaholic behaviors, which emanate em·a·nate
intr. & tr.v. em·a·nat·ed, em·a·nat·ing, em·a·nates
To come or send forth, as from a source: light that emanated from a lamp; a stove that emanated a steady heat. from a combination of individual factors (e.g., personality traits), home/family characteristics (e.g. roles, responsibilities), and internal and external stressors, do not typically interfere with everyday functioning. Nevertheless, as time progresses, the combination of various individual and work-related factors combine and lead to more frequent and intense workaholic behaviors. At this point, work becomes and increasing basis of reinforcement for the workaholic individual and both work and non-work environments begin to noticeably decline. Eventually, workaholic behaviors spiral out of control and become dysfunctional, and lapse into the full-blown Workaholism Syndrome. At this stage, the impact of workaholism can become severe and substantially impact the physical and psychological well-being psychological well-being Research A nebulous legislative term intended to ensure that certain categories of lab animals, especially primates, don't 'go nuts' as a result of experimental design or conditions of individual employees, their families, and co-workers. These most common correlates of workaholic behaviors reported in the literature are heightened levels of job stress (e .g., Taris, Schaufeli, & Verhoven, 2005) and work-family conflict Work-family conflict is “a form of interrole conflict in which the role pressures from the work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect. That is participation in the work (family) role is made more difficult by virtue of participation in the family (work) (Burke, 1999), although others have been identified and are noted below.
* Increased health symptoms (physical and psychological)
* Job stress/burnout
* Work-family conflict
* Teamwork problems (competition, unrealistic standards)
* Job performance decrements (e.g., busy work)
* Withdrawal from family interactions
* Communication difficulties
* Low life satisfaction
* Lack of enjoyment of leisure time
Many researchers have discussed how workaholism can be addressed by organizations and consultants (e.g., Porter, 1996). However, such efforts can be offset by the fact that workaholic behaviors are often rewarded by organizations. Another confounding confounding
when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.
confounding factor issue is the contention that whole organizations can be considered as manifesting workaholic characteristics (e.g., Spurell, 1987; Vodanovich & Piotrowski, 2006). Finally, as in the case for all successful interventions, it is imperative to convince upper-level management that workaholism can pose serious threats to the health of their organizations.
So, what can managers and professionals do to reduce the extent and detrimental impact of workaholism? Some suggestions are listed below which include assessment efforts, structural changes in job duties and incentive systems, as well as training and treatment options.
* Identify employees who show a penchant for workaholism
* Assess the extent of workaholism within organizations (Is workaholism a problem within the company?)
* Reestablish work priorities, alter job schedules, assure that workaholics leave work at designated times (managers can play a vital role here)
* Develop training programs (e.g., assist employees to acquire outside interests, learn stress and/or time management strategies)
* Establish organizational values and culture that emphasize the importance of better work-life balance The expression work-life balance was first used in 1986 in the US (although had been used in the UK from the late 1970s by organisations such as New Ways to Work and the Working Mother's Association) to help explain the unhealthy life choices that many people were making; they were
* Offer incentives for work-family balance
* Discourage perfectionism in work assignments
* Provide opportunities for individual, group and/or family counseling
Burke, R. J. (1999). Workaholism and extra-work satisfaction. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 7, 352-364.
Mudrack, P. E. (2004). Job involvement, obsessive-compulsive personality Noun 1. obsessive-compulsive personality - personality characterized by a strong need to repeat certain acts or rituals
personality - the complex of all the attributes--behavioral, temperamental, emotional and mental--that characterize a unique individual; "their traits, and workaholic behavioral tendencies. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17, 490-508.
Piotrowski, C., & Vodanovich, S. J. (2006). The interface between workaholism and work-family conflict: A review and conceptual framework. Organization Development Journal, 24(4), 84-92.
Porter, G. (1996). Organizational impact of workaholism: Suggestions for researching the negative outcomes of excessive work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1, 70-84.
Robinson, B. E. (1989). Work addiction. Dearfield Beach, FL: Health Communications.
Robinson, B. E. (1999). The Work Addiction Risk Test: Development of a tentative measure of workaholism. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 88, 199-210.
Robinson, B. E. (2000). A typology typology /ty·pol·o·gy/ (ti-pol´ah-je) the study of types; the science of classifying, as bacteria according to type.
the study of types; the science of classifying, as bacteria according to type. of workaholics with implications for counselors. Journal of Addictions and Offender Counseling, 21, 34-48.
Spruell, G. (1987). Work fever. Training and Development Journal, 41, 41-45.
Taris, T. W., Schaufeli, W. B., & Verhoeven, L. C. (2005). Workaholism in the Netherlands: Measurement and implications for job strain and work-non-work conflict. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54, 37-60.
Vodanovich, S. J., & Piotrowski, C. (2006). Workaholism: A critical but neglected factor in O.D. Organization Development Journal, 24(2), 55-61.
Chris Piotrowski and Stephen J. Vodanovich, University of West Florida
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Chris Piotrowski at firstname.lastname@example.org.