The truth about STDs.There are more than 25 diseases spread primarily by sexual activity. Together these infections--called sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted diseases
Infections that are acquired and transmitted by sexual contact. Although virtually any infection may be transmitted during intimate contact, the term sexually transmitted disease is restricted to conditions that are largely (STDs)--have created a significant public health challenge in the United States. While many STDs are curable cur·a·ble
Capable of being cured or healed. , others are not. Even those that are curable often have no symptoms and go unrecognized for long periods of time. If left untreated, even curable STDs can result in long-term health problems for both men and women.
In the United States, an estimated 15 million people become infected with one or more STDs each year. In addition, an estimated 65 million people live with an incurable STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) Long distance dialing outside of the U.S. that does not require operator intervention. STD prefix codes are required and billing is based on call units, which are a fixed amount of money in the currency of that country. . Still, less than half of adults 18 to 44 years of age have ever been tested for an STD other than HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome . (1)
This fact sheet is designed to provide health care professionals, educators, and individuals with basic information. It focuses on eight of the most common STDs and contains information on how they are spread, what signs and symptoms individuals should look for, and what treatment options are available. Those interested in learning more about these or other STDs can go the web site of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/disease_info.htm
Note: Some professionals use the term sexually transmitted infection (STI STI systolic time intervals. ) instead of sexually transmitted disease sexually transmitted disease (STD) or venereal disease, term for infections acquired mainly through sexual contact. Five diseases were traditionally known as venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, and the less common granuloma inguinale, (STD). This fact sheet uses the term STD.
CHLAMYDIA chlamydia (kləmĭd`ēə), genus of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans and other animals. Psittacosis, or parrot fever, caused by the species Chlamydia psittaci,
Chlamydia, which is caused by the bacteria chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydia tra·cho·ma·tis
A species of Chlamydia that causes trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereum, nonspecific urethritis, and proctitis in humans. , targets the cells of mucous membranes Mucous membranes
The inner tissue that covers or lines body cavities or canals open to the outside, such as nose and mouth. These membranes secrete mucus and absorb water and salts.
Mentioned in: Leprosy, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Topical Anesthesia including the surfaces of the urethra urethra (yrē`thrə), canal in most mammals that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body; in the male it also serves as a genital duct. (male and female), vagina, cervix, and endometrium endometrium /en·do·me·tri·um/ (-me´tre-um) pl. endome´tria the mucous membrane lining the uterus.
n. pl. (the lining of the uterus) as well as the anus and rectum. Although possible, it rarely targets the mouth or throat. If left untreated in women, it can spread to the fallopian tubes Fallopian tubes
The narrow ducts leading from a woman's ovaries to the uterus. After an egg is released from the ovary during ovulation, fertilization (the union of sperm and egg) normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. and lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infection of the female reproductive organs, usually resulting from infection with the bacteria that cause chlamydia or gonorrhea. (PID (1) (Process IDentifier) A temporary number assigned by the operating system to a process or service.
(2) (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) The most common control methodology in process control. ), a serious medical condition that can cause infertility. (2)
Chlamydia is transmitted through vaginal or cervical secretions and semen during unprotected anal, oral, or vaginal sex with an infected person. It can also be transmitted from mother to newborn during childbirth. (3)
Chlamydia is not transmitted through such casual contact as hugging, shaking hands, sharing food, using the same eating utensils, drinking from the same glass, sitting on public toilets, or touching door knobs. (4)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS (5)
* Signs of infection usually appear within one to three weeks after contact. In some cases, infection is obvious only after several weeks or months. Approximately 75 percent of women and 50 percent of men do not have symptoms.
* Women may experience such symptoms as itching, vaginal discharge Vaginal discharge
discharge of secretions from the cervical glands of the vagina; normally clear or white
Mentioned in: Bacterial Vaginosis
vaginal discharge , and burning during urination urination
Process of excreting urine from the bladder (see urinary system). Nerve centres in the spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebral cortex control it through involuntary and voluntary muscles. The need to void is felt when the bladder holds 3. .
* Some women may experience pain of the lower abdomen or back, pain during intercourse, bleeding between menstrual periods, nausea, or fever if the infection has spread to the fallopian tubes. This may indicate that the infection has progressed to PID.
* Men may experience heaviness and discomfort in their testicles Testicles
Also called testes or gonads, they are part of the male reproductive system, and are located beneath the penis in the scrotum.
Mentioned in: Testicular Cancer, Testicular Surgery, Vasectomy and inflammation of their scrotal scrotal /scro·tal/ (skro´t'l) pertaining to the scrotum.
pertaining to scrotum.
scrotal abscess skin. They may also notice pus pus, thick white or yellowish fluid that forms in areas of infection such as wounds and abscesses. It is constituted of decomposed body tissue, bacteria (or other micro-organisms that cause the infection), and certain white blood cells. in the form of a thick white fluid or watery or milky discharge from the penis. Men may also experience pain or burning during urination.
Chlamydia is diagnosed through cultures of secretions collected from the urethra, anus, throat, or cervix. It is also diagnosed through urine tests.
Chlamydia is curable with oral antibiotics prescribed by a health care provider. All partners should undergo treatment at the same time to avoid passing the infection back and forth. They should also be sure to finish the full course of antibiotics even if symptoms subside.
GONORRHEA gonorrhea (gŏnərē`ə), common infectious disease caused by a bacterium (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), involving chiefly the mucous membranes of the genitourinary tract.
Gonorrhea, once known as "the clap," is caused by bacteria called neisseria gonorrhoea gonorrhoea or esp US gonorrhea
a sexually transmitted disease that causes inflammation and a discharge from the genital organs [Greek gonos semen + rhoia flux]
Noun 1. that grow in the warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract, including the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes in women and the urethra in both women and men. The bacteria can also grow in the mouth, throat, and anus. (7)
Gonorrhea is transmitted through vaginal or cervical secretions and semen during unprotected anal, oral, or vaginal sex with an infected person. It can also be transmitted from mother to newborn during childbirth.
Gonorrhea is not transmitted through such casual contact as hugging, shaking hands, sharing food, using the same eating utensils, drinking from the same glass, sitting on public toilets, or touching door knobs. (8)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS (9)
* Most men and women will experience no symptoms.
* Men may show signs of infection within two to five days after exposure. Women may show signs within 10 days. The signs are similar to those of Chlamydia. Individuals should, therefore, receive tests for both STDs.
* Men may experience such symptoms as a yellowish discharge from the penis, burning or pain during urination, frequent urination, and pain or swelling of the testicles.
* Women may experience such symptoms as a yellow or bloody discharge from the vagina and burning or pain during urination.
* Some women may experience pain of the lower abdomen or back, pain during intercourse, bleeding between menstrual periods, and nausea or fever if the disease has spread to the fallopian tubes. This is often an indication that the infection has progressed to PID.
* Men and women may have a sore or red throat if the infection has spread to that part of the body.
Gonorrhea is diagnosed through cultures of secretions collected from the throat, urethra, anus, or cervix. It is also diagnosed through urine tests. (10)
Gonorrhea is curable with oral antibiotics prescribed by a health care provider. All partners should undergo treatment at the same time to prevent passing the infection back and forth. They should also be sure to finish the full course of antibiotics even if symptoms subside.
Syphilis, which is caused by bacteria called spirochetes, causes sores (chancres) to appear mainly on the external genitals, vagina, anus, or in the rectum. They can also appear on the lips and in the mouth.
There are three stages of syphilis. During the primary stage, which usually occurs within 10 to 90 days after exposure, a sore may appear. During the secondary phase, which usually occurs within 17 days to six-and-a-half months after exposure, a rash may appear on various parts of the body. If left untreated, Syphilis can proceed to the latent stage latent stage
See incubative stage. during which it may have no visible symptoms but can cause irreversible damage to internal organs. (11)
Syphilis is transmitted through direct contact with sores during unprotected anal, oral, or vaginal sex with an infected person. Syphilis can also be transmitted from mother to newborn during childbirth. (12)
Syphilis is not transmitted through such casual contact as hugging, shaking hands, sharing food, using the same eating utensils, drinking from the same glass, sitting on public toilets, or touching door knobs. (13)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
* Women and men may experience the same signs of Syphilis.
* During the "primary" stage, a sore may appear on the genitals at or near the place where the bacteria entered the body. Usually firm, round, small, and painless, the sore will develop within 10 to 90 days after contact with the bacteria and will usually last from one to five weeks. A person can easily spread the disease during this stage. If adequate treatment is not received, the infection will progress to the "secondary" stage. (14)
* During the "secondary" stage, a rash may appear over the entire body or on the hands and soles of the feet. Other symptoms may include fever, swollen lymph glands swollen lymph glands Vox populi Lymphadenopathy, see there , sore throat Sore Throat Definition
Sore throat, also called pharyngitis, is a painful inflammation of the mucous membranes lining the pharynx. It is a symptom of many conditions, but most often is associated with colds or influenza. , patchy hair loss, headaches, weight loss, muscle aches, and tiredness. Symptoms may appear from 17 days to six-and-a-half months after infection has occurred. They can last up to six months. A person can easily spread the disease during this stage. If adequate treatment is not received, the infection will progress to the "latent" stage. (15)
* During the "latent" stage, the untreated bacteria will begin to damage internal organs, including the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels Blood vessels
Tubular channels for blood transport, of which there are three principal types: arteries, capillaries, and veins. Only the larger arteries and veins in the body bear distinct names. , liver, bones, and joints. Latent signs may include uncoordinated un·co·or·di·nat·ed
1. Lacking physical or mental coordination.
2. Lacking planning, method, or organization.
un muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, and dementia. A person is not usually contagious during this stage. (16)
Syphilis is diagnosed through cultures of secretions from the sore or through blood tests. (17)
Syphilis is curable with antibiotics prescribed by a health care provider. Damage to internal organs during the latent stage is irreversible. All partners should undergo treatment at the same time to prevent passing the infection back and forth. They should also be sure to finish the full course of antibiotics even if symptoms subside.
TRICHOMONIASIS trichomoniasis (trĭk'əmənī`əsĭs), sexually transmitted disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis.
Trichomoniasis, or "trich," is a genital inflammation caused by the protozoa trichomonas vaginalis Trichomonas vag·i·na·lis
A protozoan found in the vagina and urethra of women and in the urethra and prostate gland of men. .
Trichomoniasis is transmitted through skin-to-skin contact during unprotected anal, oral, or vaginal sex with an infected person. (18)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS (19)
* Signs of infection in women usually appear within five to 28 days after exposure. Men usually show no signs of infection.
* Women may have a frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong odor. They may also experience burning during intercourse and urination as well as irritation and itching of the female genital area.
* Pregnant women may experience a premature rupture of the membranes and a preterm preterm /pre·term/ (-term´) before completion of the full term; said of pregnancy or of an infant.
* Men may experience irritation inside the penis, a mild discharge, or a slight burning after urination or ejaculation ejaculation /ejac·u·la·tion/ (e-jak?u-la´shun) forcible, sudden expulsion; especially expulsion of semen from the male urethra. .
Trichomoniasis is diagnosed through cultures of vaginal and penile penile /pe·nile/ (pe´nil) of or pertaining to the penis.
Of or relating to the penis.
of or pertaining to the penis. discharge?
Trichomoniasis is curable with antibiotics prescribed by a health care provider. Both partners must undergo treatment at the same time to prevent passing the infection back and forth. They should also be sure to finish the full course of antibiotics even if symptoms subside.
Herpes is a recurrent skin condition characterized by sores on the mouth or genitals. It is caused by the herpes simplex viruses called HSV-1 and HSV-2. Although HSV-1 most commonly causes "cold sores" or "fever blisters" on the mouth or face and HSV-2 most commonly causes sores on the penis or vulva vulva /vul·va/ (vul´vah) [L.] the external genital organs of the female, including the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, and vestibule of the vagina. , the viruses are identical under a microscope and either type can infect the mouth or genitals. (21)
Herpes is transmitted through skin-to-skin contact during unprotected anal, oral, or vaginal sex with an infected person or through kissing. This is possible even when no sores are present.
Herpes is not transmitted through such casual contact as hugging, shaking hands, sharing food, using the same eating utensils, drinking from the same glass, sitting on public toilets, or touching door knobs. (22)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
* Individuals are often not aware they are infected with Herpes because there are either no symptoms, mild symptoms that are not noticed, or symptoms that are mistaken for other health problems such as yeast infections, insect bites, and hemorrhoids hemorrhoids (hĕm`əroidz) or piles, dilatations of the veins about the anus (external hemorrhoids) or those higher up inside it (internal hemorrhoids). .
* Signs of Herpes may first appear within days. They may, however, not appear for weeks, months, or years. Symptoms can last for three or four weeks though they usually heal within two to 12 days. (23)
* Symptoms may include one or more sores, blisters, cuts, pimples, bumps, or a rash. Other symptoms include an itching, burning, or tingling tin·gle
v. tin·gled, tin·gling, tin·gles
1. To have a prickling, stinging sensation, as from cold, a sharp slap, or excitement: tingled all over with joy. in either the genital area or the mouth, a fever, or swollen glands. (24)
* Individuals usually have an average of four to five Herpes outbreaks a year. The recurrences tend to lessen in severity and frequency with time. (25)
Herpes is diagnosed through a visual examination of sores, an analysis of cultures from the sore(s), or blood tests. (26)
There is no cure for Herpes. Antiviral medications can reduce the frequency of outbreaks and speed the healing of the outbreaks.
HEPATITIS B Hepatitis B Definition
Hepatitis B is a potentially serious form of liver inflammation due to infection by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It occurs in both rapidly developing (acute) and long-lasting (chronic) forms, and is one of the most common chronic
Hepatitis B is a virus that causes chronic infection, cirrhosis (scarring), and cancer of the liver Noun 1. cancer of the liver - malignant neoplastic disease of the liver usually occurring as a metastasis from another cancer; symptoms include loss of appetite and weakness and bloating and jaundice and upper abdominal discomfort
liver cancer . The virus is present in blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk.
Hepatitis B is transmitted through unprotected anal, vaginal, and oral sex with an infected person; through contaminated needles or syringes; or from an infected mother to her newborn during childbirth or breast-feeding breast-feeding /breast-feed·ing/ (brest´fed?ing) nursing; the feeding of an infant at the mother's breast. .
Hepatitis B is the only STD for which a vaccine is available. Individuals must take all three doses of the vaccine to protect themselves against infection. They can obtain the vaccine from their health care provider. (27)
Hepatitis B is not transmitted through such casual contact as hugging, shaking hands, sharing food, using the same eating utensils, drinking from the same glass, sitting on public toilets, or touching door knobs. (28)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
* Individuals will usually experience mild flu-like symptoms including fever, aches, appetite loss, and fatigue. Many people will experience no symptoms. (29)
* Many people will develop a temporary jaundice jaundice (jôn`dĭs, jän`–), abnormal condition in which the body fluids and tissues, particularly the skin and eyes, take on a yellowish color as a result of an excess of bilirubin. (yellowing of the skin) as well as dark urine, nausea, and abdominal pain. (30)
Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests. (31)
There is no cure for Hepatitis B. Treatment varies depending on whether the infection is acute (newly acquired) or chronic (persistent). (32)
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS human immunodeficiency virus
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A transmissible retrovirus that causes AIDS in humans. (H/V H/V Horizontal/Vertical
H/V Height/Velocity )
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. ) causes an individual's immune system immune system
Cells, cell products, organs, and structures of the body involved in the detection and destruction of foreign invaders, such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. Immunity is based on the system's ability to launch a defense against such invaders. to weaken and lose its ability to fight off infections and cancers. After developing a number of these infections or reaching a certain blood count level, an HIV-positive person is diagnosed with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, see AIDS. (AIDS). (33)
HIV is present in blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. It is transmitted through unprotected anal, vaginal, and oral sex with an infected person; through contaminated needles or syringes used to inject drugs; or from an infected mother to her newborn during childbirth or breast-feeding. (34)
HIV is not transmitted through such casual contact as hugging, shaking hands, sharing food, using the same eating utensils, drinking from the same glass, sitting on public toilets, or touching door knobs. (35)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
* There are no symptoms of HIV infection.
* The average time between HIV infection and AIDS is eight to 11 years.
* Over time, HIV causes the body to develop opportunistic infections Opportunistic infections
Infections that cause a disease only when the host's immune system is impaired. The classic opportunistic infection never leads to disease in the normal host. or cancers normally controlled by a healthy immune system.
* AIDS symptoms are usually those of the opportunistic infection opportunistic infection
An infection by a microorganism that normally does not cause disease but becomes pathogenic when the body's immune system is impaired and unable to fight off infection, as in AIDS and certain other diseases. or cancer. These include fever, chills and sweats, chronic fatigue, appetite or weight loss, muscle and joint pain, long-lasting sore throat, swollen lymph nodes Lymph nodes
Small, bean-shaped masses of tissue scattered along the lymphatic system that act as filters and immune monitors, removing fluids, bacteria, or cancer cells that travel through the lymph system. , diarrhea, yeast infections, and skin sores.
* Opportunistic infections that most frequently affect someone with AIDS include Kaposi's sarcoma Kaposi's sarcoma (käp`əshē', kəpō`sē), a usually fatal cancer that was considered rare until its appearance in AIDS patients. , Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
A lung infection that affects people with weakened immune systems, such as people with AIDS or people taking medicines that weaken the immune system.
Mentioned in: AIDS, Antiprotozoal Drugs, Sulfonamides (PCP PCP
2. primary care physician
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) ), tuberculosis, meningitis, and Herpes simplex herpes simplex (hûr`pēz), an acute viral infection of the skin characterized by one or more painful, itching blisters filled with clear fluid. infections.
HIV infection is diagnosed through blood tests. It can also be diagnosed through urine tests and an oral fluid test taken from the inside of the mouth. (36) Individuals exposed to HIV may not test positive for three to six months. Individuals should test periodically for HIV if they feel they are at risk.
There is no cure or vaccine for HIV or AIDS. There are, however, new combinations of drugs (called "cocktails") that allow people to live with the infection or HIV/AIDS for longer periods of time.
HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS human papillomavirus (HPV), any of a family of more than 60 viruses that cause various growths, including plantar warts and genital warts, a sexually transmitted disease. Detectable warts can be or removed, usually by chemicals, freezing, or laser, but often recur. (HPV HPV human papillomavirus.
human papilloma virus
Human papilloma virus (HPV) )
There are over 100 strains of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Approximately a third of these strains cause warts that infect the genital tract genital tract
The genital passages of the urogenital system.
The organs involved in reproduction. . These warts can grow on the cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, scrotum scrotum: see testis. , urethra, and anus. HPV can also cause other abnormal cells to grow on the cervix. Some strains of HPV can lead to cervical cancer Cervical Cancer Definition
Cervical cancer is a disease in which the cells of the cervix become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably, forming tumors. . (37)
HPV is transmitted by direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected individual. It can also transmitted when warts are not present. (38) It is sometimes transmitted from mother to infant during childbirth. (39)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS (40)
* People with HPV may experience no visible signs or symptoms or may have warts in places they cannot see (such as the cervix).
* Genital warts genital warts: see human papillomavirus. are raised or flat growths that are usually flesh colored or whitish in appearance.
* Genital warts usually do not cause itching or burning.
* If left untreated, genital warts may disappear. However, HPV infection remains and warts can reappear.
HPV is often diagnosed through a visual examination of genital warts. In some cases, a biopsy is necessary.
The presence of HPV on the cervix is detected through a Pap smear Pap smear
or Papanicolaou smear
Sample of cells from the vagina and cervix of the uterus for laboratory staining and examination to detect genital herpes and early-stage cancer, especially of the cervix. Developed by the Greek-born U.S. . (41)
There is no cure for HPV. There are, however, a number of methods to remove warts.
INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE
People with STDs do not always seek testing or treatment, and health care providers do not always report all cases of diagnosed STDs. Therefore, in all likelihood, the number of STD cases included in the following statistics is less than the actual number of cases that occurred in the United States.
* Over 783,000 Chlamydia infections were reported to the CDC in 2001. (42)
* The reported rate of Chlamydia among women (435.2 cases per 100,000 females) was approximately four times higher than the reported rate among men (113.9 per 100,000 males) in 2001. (43)
* Female adolescents 15 to 19 years of age had the highest reported rates of Chlamydia (2,536.1 per 100,000) in 2001. (44)
* Chlamydia infections increased from 50.8 to 278.3 per 100,000 between 1987 and 2001. (45)
* Over 361,000 cases of Gonorrhea were reported to the CDC in 2001.
* The reported rate of Gonorrhea among women in 2001 (128.2 cases per 100,000 females) was similar to the rate in 2000 (126.7 per 100,000) and in 1999 (128.6 per 100,000).
* The rate of Gonorrhea among men declined from 135.5 cases per 100,000 males in 1999 to 130.9 in 2000 and 128.2 in 2001.
* Among women, those 15 to 19 years of age had the highest reported rate of Gonorrhea (703.2 per 100,000) in 2001.
* Among men, those 20 to 24 years of age had the highest reported rate of Gonorrhea (563.6 per 100,000) in 2001.
* Over 6,100 cases of primary and secondary Syphilis secondary syphilis
The second stage of syphilis, beginning with the appearance of the dermatologic eruption, slight fever, and various constitutional symptoms. cases were reported to the CDC in 2001.
* The reported rate of primary and secondary Syphilis increased 15.4 percent among men (from 2.6 cases to 3.0 cases per 100,000) between 2000 and 2001. During this time, the rate declined 17.7 percent among women (from 1.7 to 1.4 cases per 100,000).
* Approximately 25 percent of adults have Genital Herpes Genital Herpes Definition
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by a herpes virus. The disease is characterized by the formation of fluid-filled, painful blisters in the genital area. .
* Over 45 million people 12 years of age and older (or one out of five) are infected with HSV-2, a Herpes virus Herpes virus
Viruses that can infect the skin, mucous membranes, and brain, and they are responsible for such diseases as herpes simplex, chicken pox, and shingles.
Mentioned in: Erythema Multiforme .
* Infection with HSV-2, a Herpes virus, is more common in women (approximately one out of four) than in men (almost one out of five). This may be due to the fact that male-to-female transmission is more efficient than female-to-male transmission.
* The number of new Hepatitis B infections per year has declined from an average of 260,000 in the 1980s to approximately 78,000 in 2001. (49)
* Of an estimated 1.25 million Americans chronically infected with Hepatitis B, 20 to 30 percent were infected during childhood. (50)
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)
* Nearly 24,000 adult and adolescent males from the 39 areas of the country with confidential HIV-infection reporting were diagnosed as HIV positive in 2001. (51)
* Over 11,000 adult and adolescent females from the 39 areas of the country with confidential HIV-infection reporting were diagnosed as HIV positive in 2001. (52)
* Nearly 32,000 adult and adolescent males were diagnosed with AIDS in 2001. In total, over 666,000 cases among adult and adolescent males were reported through December 2001. (53)
* Over 11,000 adult and adolescent females were diagnosed with AIDS in 2001. In total, over 141,000 cases among adult and adolescent females were reported through December 2001. (54)
HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV)
* Approximately 5.5 million new cases of HPV infection are reported every year. At least 20 million Americans are already infected. (55)
* Fifty to 75 percent of sexually active men and women will become infected with genital HPV at some point in their lives. (56)
* Approximately 14,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year; over 5,000 die from this disease each year. (57)
(14.) The Boston Women's Health Book Collective, Our Bodies Ourselves: For the New Century (NewYork: Touchstone, 1998), p.355.
(42.) Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2001 (Atlanta, GA: Division of STD Prevention, CDC, September 2002), p.7.
(43.) Ibid, p.8
(45.) Ibid, p.7
(46.) Ibid, p.15, 16
(47.) Ibid., p.25, 26
(51.) HIV Surveillance Report, vol. 13, no.2 (Atlanta, GA: CDC, December 200l), p. 19, Table 10.
(52.) Ibid., p.21, Table 12.
(53.) Ibid., p. 18, Table 9.
(54.) Ibid., p. 20, Table 11.
RELATED ARTICLE: TWO STD CATEGORIES: VIRAL AND BACTERIAL
STDs are often divided into two categories--viral and bacterial--based on the type of microorganism microorganism /mi·cro·or·gan·ism/ (-or´gah-nizm) a microscopic organism; those of medical interest include bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. that causes the specific disease.
Those STDS caused by bacteria--such as Gonorrhea, Syphilis, and Chlamydia--are curable with antibiotics. On the other hand, those STDs caused by viruses are not curable. These include Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Herpes, and Hepatitis B. Medical treatment can, however, alleviate the symptoms of these STDs.
Some STDs are also caused by protozoa (Trichomoniasis) and other organisms (crabs/pubic lice and scabies scabies (skā`bēz), highly contagious parasitic skin disease caused by the itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei). The disease is also known as itch. ). These STDs are curable with antibiotics or topical creams/lotions.
TESTING FOR STDs: WHAT'S INVOLVED
Less than half of adults 18 to 44 years of age in the United States have been tested for an STD other than HIV. Some people may not seek a test because they do not know they are at risk. Others may not seek a test because they are nervous, embarrassed, or unsure of what the tests involve.
There are many different ways health care providers screen for STDs. These can include visually examining sores or lesions, collecting fluid from the urethra or cervix with a cotton swab, testing urine or blood, or conducting a biopsy.
Individuals should seek an early diagnosis and treatment at the first sign of symptoms to avoid serious complications. They should also talk to their health care providers about having a routine STD screening as part of their annual physical or gynecological gynecological /gy·ne·co·log·i·cal/ (-kah-loj´i-k'l) gynecologic. exam since many STDs have no symptoms. Women need to understand that STD screenings are not necessarily part of their annual gynecological exam and that Pap smears do not screen for STDs other than HPV. (1)
CONDOMS AND STDs: PREVENTION MESSAGES
Condoms can provide different levels of risk reduction for different STDs. There is no definitive study about condom effectiveness for all STDs. Definitive data are lacking on the degree of risk reduction that latex condoms provide for some STDs; for others, the evidence is considered inconclusive.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states, "It is important to note that the lack of data about the level of condom effectiveness indicates that more research is needed -- not that latex condoms do not work." (1)
These are prevention messages recently developed by the CDC:
* Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are highly effective in preventing the transmission of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. In addition, correct and consistent use of latex condoms can reduce the risk of other STDs.
* Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of transmission of Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Trichomoniasis.
* Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of Genital Herpes, Syphilis, and HPV only when the infected areas are covered or protected by the condom. (2)
(1.) U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Latex Condoms and Sexually Transmitted Diseases-Prevention Messages (Atlanta, GA: CDC, 2001), p. 2.
CDC'S NATIONAL SYPHILIS ELIMINATION PLAN
As the result of a steady decline in Syphilis rates in the United States, the CDC launched a National Plan to Eliminate Syphilis from the United States in 1998.
The CDC is using this window of opportunity to reduce the total number of primary and secondary syphilis cases to 1,000 or fewer--0.4 cases per 100,000 people--and to increase the number of Syphilis-free counties to 90 percent by 2005.
The National Plan has five strategies: (1) to increase surveillance, (2) to strengthen community involvement and partnerships, (3) to rapidly respond to outbreaks, (4) to improve and increase health promotion, and (5) to expand clinical and laboratory services.
STDs AMONG ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS
Teens are at high behavioral risk for acquiring most STDs. Teens and young adults are more likely than other age groups to have multiple sex partners and to engage in unprotected sex. In addition, young women are biologically more susceptible to Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and HIV.
Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are the most common curable STDs among teens. Curable STDs are typically caused by bacteria that can be killed with antibiotics. However, if these diseases remain undetected and untreated, they can result in severe health consequences later in life.
The rate of new infections for Herpes and HPV--both viral STDs -- is typically highest during the late teens and early twenties. Among women under the age of 25, studies have found that 28 to 46 percent are typically infected with HPV. Between 15 to 20 percent of young men and women have become infected with Herpes by the time they reach adulthood.
Tracking the Hidden Epidemics: Trends in STD's in the United States, 2000 (Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001), p. 4.
Tests that determine HIV infection look for antibodies produced by the body to fight the virus. Most people will develop such antibodies between 25 days and six months after infection. Although it is possible to test earlier, the CDC recommends testing six months after the last possible exposure.
Many places provide testing for HIV infection. These include local health departments, doctors' offices, hospitals, or specific HIV test sites.
Sites may provide pre- and post-test counseling for those who want it. They may also provide either anonymous (no name given) or confidential (name given only to doctor) testing. Some states require that doctors report positive results to state health departments. Individuals should check to determine procedures at individual sites.
Most HIV tests involve drawing blood to determine if antibodies specific to HIV are present. Other options include urine tests and oral fluid tests that involve taking a sample of fluid from inside the mouth with a cotton swab.
For more information about HIV tests and test sites, individuals should contact the CDC National AIDS Hotline The CDC National AIDS Hotline is 1-800-342-AIDS.
It distributes many publications on HIV and AIDS, including guides for teaching HIV prevention and caring for AIDS patients. Many of them are available at no charge. at 1-800/342-2437 (English), 1-800/344-7432, (Spanish), or 1-800/243-7889 (TTY (TeleTYpewriter) See teletypewriter and TDD/TTY.
(hardware) tty - /tit'ee/ (ITS pronunciation, but some Unix people say it this way as well; this pronunciation is not considered to have sexual undertones), /T T Y/
UPDATE ON NONOXYNOL-9
In the past, public health experts recommended using condoms combined with Nonoxynol-9 (N-9), a spermicide spermicide /sper·mi·cide/ (sper´mi-sid) an agent destructive to spermatozoa.spermici´dal
An agent that kills spermatozoa, especially as a contraceptive. , for increased protection against pregnancy, HIV, and STDs. Two recent studies, however, call into question the effectiveness and safety of N-9.
A study published by UNAIDS UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS found that N-9 used without condoms was ineffective against HIV transmission. This study actually showed some evidence that N-9 increased the risk of HIV infection.
Researchers note that this study was conducted among commercial sex workers in Africa who are at increased risk and used an N-9 gel on a frequent basis. The adverse effects might not be seen at the same level among women who are using N-9 less frequently or in a different formulation.
As a result of this study, however, the CDC concluded that "given that N-9 has been proven ineffective against HIV transmission, the possibility of risk, with no benefit, indicates that N-9 should not be recommended as an effective means of HIV-prevention." (1)
A similar study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal, published 48 times per year by the American Medical Association. JAMA is the most widely circulated medical journal in the world. found that N-9, when used with condoms, did not protect women from the bacteria that cause Gonorrhea and Chlamydia any better than condoms used alone.2
(1.) Letter to Colleagues from Helene D. Gayle, M.D., M.P.H., director, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention The National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHSTP) is a part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and is responsible for public health surveillance, prevention research, and programs to prevent and control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and , U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, August 4, 2000.
(2.) R. E. Roddy, L. Zekeng, K. A. Ryan, U. Tamoufe, and K. G. Tweedy, "Effect of Nonoxynol-9 Gel on Urogenital urogenital /uro·gen·i·tal/ (-jen´i-tal) genitourinary.
u·ro·gen·i·tal or u·ri·no·gen·i·tal
Genitourinary. Gonorrhea and Chlamydial chlamydial
pertaining to members of the family Chlamydiaceae.
abortion in cows, ewes, sows and goat does caused by Chlamydophila abortus and C. pecorum. See enzootic abortion of ewes. Infection: A Randomized Controlled Trial A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a scientific procedure most commonly used in testing medicines or medical procedures. RCTs are considered the most reliable form of scientific evidence because it eliminates all forms of spurious causality. ," Journal of the American Medical Association, March 6, 2002, pp. 1117-22.
HPV AND CERVICAL CANCER
Certain strains of HPV are considered the primary risk factor for cervical cancer. The majority of such cancers develop through a series of gradual precancerous precancerous /pre·can·cer·ous/ (-kan´ser-us) pertaining to a pathologic process that tends to become malignant.
adj. lesions that are easily detected by a Pap smear, and can be removed. (1)
A Pap smear is a routine gynecological test in which a health care provider uses a cotton swab or similar instrument to collect cells from the cervix. The test looks for abnormal or precancerous cells. These cells may be signs of cervical cancer. (2)
Regular Pap smears reduce the risk of invasive cervical cancer by early detection of abnormal cells. In fact, over half of women with newly diagnosed cervical cancer had not had a Pap smear in five years. (3)
Researchers are developing a vaccine that targets HPV-16, one of the HPV strains that lead to cervical cancer. In initial trials, none of the women who received the vaccine showed HPV-16 6 infections or precancerous tissue. The vaccine is awaiting approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA FDA
Food and Drug Administration
n.pr See Food and Drug Administration.
n.pr the abbreviation for the Food and Drug Administration. ). (4)
It is important to note that not every HPV infection will become cervical cancer. The National Cancer Institute points out that while HPV infection is common, cervical cancer is not. (5)
(4.) P. Guthrie, "Vaccine Could Wipe Out Cervical Cancer; Study: New Drug 100% Effective against Disease," The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, November 21, 2002.