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The tobacco industry and pesticide regulations: case studies from tobacco industry archives.

Tobacco is a heavily pesticide-dependent crop. Because pesticides involve human safety and health issues, they are regulated nationally and internationally; however, little is known about how tobacco companies respond to regulatory pressures regarding pesticides. In this study we analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to describe industry activities aimed at influencing pesticide regulations. We used a case study approach based on examination of approximately 2,000 internal company documents and 3,885 pages of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), independent agency of the U.S. government, with headquarters in Washington, D.C. It was established in 1970 to reduce and control air and water pollution, noise pollution, and radiation and to ensure the safe handling and  documents obtained through Freedom of Information Act requests. The cases involved methoprene, the ethylene ethylene (ĕth`əlēn') or ethene (ĕth`ēn), H2C=CH2, a gaseous unsaturated hydrocarbon. It is the simplest alkene.  bisdithiocarbamates, and phosphine phosphine

1. PH3, a toxic war gas called hydrogen phosphide.

2. a coal tar dye; called Philadelphia yellow.
. We show how the tobacco industry successfully altered the outcome in two cases by hiring ex-agency scientists to write reports favorable fa·vor·a·ble  
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.

2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.

 to industry positions regarding pesticide regulations for national (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and international (World Health Organization) regulatory bodies. We also show how the industry worked to forestall fore·stall  
tr.v. fore·stalled, fore·stall·ing, fore·stalls
1. To delay, hinder, or prevent by taking precautionary measures beforehand. See Synonyms at prevent.

 tobacco pesticide regulation by attempting to self-regulate in Europe, and how Philip Morris encouraged a pesticide manufacturer to apply for higher tolerance levels in Malaysia and Europe while keeping tobacco industry interest a secret from government regulators. This study suggests that the tobacco industry is able to exert considerable influence over the pesticide regulatory process and that increased scrutiny of this process and protection of the public interest in pesticide regulation may be warranted. Key words: ethylene bisdithiocarbamates, Environmental Protection Agency, methoprene, pesticide regulation, phosphine, tobacco industry, World Health Organization. Environ Health Perspect 113:1659-1665 (2005). doi:10.1289/ehp.7452 available via [Online 8 August 2005]


Tobacco is a pesticide-intensive crop. With nearly 27 million pounds of pesticides (including insecticides insecticides, chemical, biological, or other agents used to destroy insect pests; the term commonly refers to chemical agents only. Chemical Insecticides
, herbicides, fungicides This page aims to list well-known chemical compounds, to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles.

This list is not necessarily complete or up to date – if you see an article that should be here but isn't (or one that shouldn't be here but is), please update the page
, and suckercides) applied to the U.S.-grown crop from 1994 to 1998, it ranks sixth in terms of the amount of pesticides applied per acre [U.S. Government Accounting Office (GAO) 2003]. The tobacco industry regards pesticides as essential to tobacco production, stating that "the crop could not be produced economically without them" (Davis 1989; Philip Morris 1990b). According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 industry documents, government-imposed limitations on pesticide use "may present a serious impediment A disability or obstruction that prevents an individual from entering into a contract.

Infancy, for example, is an impediment in making certain contracts. Impediments to marriage include such factors as consanguinity between the parties or an earlier marriage that is still valid.
" to the international tobacco trade (Hill 1989).

Internal tobacco industry documents provide a window into the tobacco industry's activities regarding pesticide regulations. These case studies drawn from industry documents describe the tobacco industry's responses to pesticide regulatory action. The documents also provide insight into the relationships between the tobacco industry and pesticide regulatory agencies regulatory agency

Independent government commission charged by the legislature with setting and enforcing standards for specific industries in the private sector. The concept was invented by the U.S.
 and tensions between business and public health interests.

The Tobacco Industry Documents

Litigation An action brought in court to enforce a particular right. The act or process of bringing a lawsuit in and of itself; a judicial contest; any dispute.

When a person begins a civil lawsuit, the person enters into a process called litigation.
 against the tobacco industry has resulted in the release of nearly 7 million previously secret tobacco industry documents (Bero 2003; Malone and Balbach 2000). Scanned PDF (Portable Document Format) The de facto standard for document publishing from Adobe. On the Web, there are countless brochures, data sheets, white papers and technical manuals in the PDF format.  versions of original handwritten hand·write  
tr.v. hand·wrote , hand·writ·ten , hand·writ·ing, hand·writes
To write by hand.

[Back-formation from handwritten.]

Adj. 1.
, typed, or printed documents have been archived at the University of California, San Francisco Coordinates:  , library in electronic repositories, searchable using basic keywords ( Between July 2003 and February 2004, we searched the archives using a "snowball snowball: see honeysuckle. " sampling strategy, beginning with broad search terms ("pesticide" and "crop protection agent") and using retrieved documents to identify more specific search terms (such as names of specific pesticides, people, and regulatory agencies). Table 1 provides examples of keyword searches and the number of documents yielded. This process produced nearly 300,000 documents relating to relating to relate prepconcernant

relating to relate prepbezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc 
 many different pesticides. The first author reviewed these documents' index entries and excluded duplicates and documents unrelated to pesticide regulatory issues. The final sample size was approximately 2,000 documents, spanning 1974-2001.

We also filed Freedom of Information Act (FOIA (Freedom Of Information Act) A U.S. government rule that states that public information shall be delivered within 10 days of request. ) requests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA EPA eicosapentaenoic acid.

eicosapentaenoic acid

EPA, See acid, eicosapentaenoic.

) on pesticide issues raised by information in the industry documents, resulting in 3,885 pages of government documents. Finally, we reviewed public health agency reports based on industry documents (Zeltner et al. 2000). We analyzed the industry, government, and public health agency documents by assembling chronologically constructed case studies, a method common to sociology, political science, and anthropology (e.g., analyses of a corporation's organizational structure This article has no lead section.

To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines, one should be written.
, a social movement, or a tribe) (Hill 1993; Yin 1994) (Table 2). The pesticides chosen for inclusion [methoprene, the ethylene bisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs), and phosphine] were those for which sufficient information related to regulatory activities was available in the archives to construct a case study.

Pesticides and Tobacco

Pesticides used on tobacco are also used regularly on food crops. As with food crops, trace amounts of pesticides remain on tobacco leaves after treatment; typically, residue levels decline during the drying and manufacturing process, although additional pesticides may be applied to the finished product (U.S. GAO 2003). Although pesticides increase production of tobacco and food crops, pesticide exposure may harm humans; thus, regulatory agencies such as the U.S. EPA may set limits on the amount of pesticide residue Pesticide residue refers to the pesticides that may remain on or in food after they are applied to food crops.[1] Regulation of pesticide residue in the US  permitted in or on food and tobacco and establish standards for workers handling pesticides. Because tobacco is burned and the smoke inhaled in·hale  
v. in·haled, in·hal·ing, in·hales
1. To draw (air or smoke, for example) into the lungs by breathing; inspire.

, active and passive smokers are exposed to pyrolyzed pesticide residues (U.S. GAO 2003). The U.S. EPA has concluded that this exposure poses no short-term risk, but little is known about the long-term health effects (U.S. GAO 2003).


In 1974, Philip Morris formed a partnership with the chemical company Zoecon to market a new insecticide insecticide

Any of a large group of substances used to kill insects. Such substances are mainly used to control pests that infest cultivated plants and crops or to eliminate disease-carrying insects in specific areas.
 (Manzelli 1975). The insecticide's active ingredient An active ingredient, also active pharmaceutical ingredient (or API), is the substance in a drug that is pharmaceutically active. Some medications may contain more than one active ingredient. , methoprene, acted as an endocrine disruptor Endocrine disruptors are exogenous substances that act like hormones in the endocrine system and disrupt the physiologic function of endogenous hormones. Studies have linked endocrine disruptors to adverse biological effects in animals, giving rise to concerns that low-level  in cigarette beetles beetles

members of the insect order Coleoptera. They are common intermediate hosts for tapeworms.

darkling beetles
this and other mealworms are common inhabitants of poultry houses and are suspected of aiding in the transmission of
 and tobacco moths This is an incomplete list of species of Lepidoptera that are commonly known as moths. Large and dramatic moth species
  • Death's-head Hawkmoth Acherontia atropos
  • Luna Moth Actias luna
  • Atlas moth Attacus atlas
, preventing their larvae Larvae, in Roman religion
Larvae: see lemures.
 from maturing into adult insects (Manzelli 1975). Philip Morris anticipated that methoprene would replace phosphine, a common warehouse fumigant fu·mi·gant
A chemical compound used in its gaseous state as a disinfectant.
 (Philip Morris 1988) and pledged to assist Zoecon in introducing methoprene "in as many countries as we can" (Seligman 1982).

Some countries have regulations that require the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) for pesticides on crops; however, Philip Morris determined that MRLs were not required in all countries, especially for pesticides on nonfood non·food  
Of, relating to, or being something that is not food but is sold in a supermarket, as housewares or stationery.
 crops such as tobacco (Ryan 1991). Philip Morris asked Zoecon "to not force this issue and submit for MRLs when not required" (Lindahl 1992b). In April 1991 Zoecon alerted Philip Morris's director of research that the Malaysian pesticide board had recently set an MRL MRL Medical Record Librarian; now called Medical Record Administrator.


maximum residue limit.
 of 1.0 ppm (Pages Per Minute) The measurement of printer speed. See gppm.

PPM - Portable Pixmap
 for methoprene on tobacco (Hutney 1991). Zoecon considered 1.0 ppm too low to enable the effective use of methoprene; the level supported by the labeled application rate was 10 ppm (Ryan 1992). Philip Morris requested that Zoecon ask for an even higher MRL of 15 ppm to allow for application errors (Greenberg and Transon 1992; McCuen 1992). Zoecon representatives met with government authorities and requested a change to 15 ppm (Hutney 1991).

A Zoecon representative informed Philip Morris that "in order to avoid surprises of this nature in the future," he had directed Zoecon's pharmaceutical group to obtain information from health authorities in other countries regarding the commodities for which methoprene tolerances were assigned (which could include foods such as rice and mushrooms as well as tobacco) (Hutney 1991). Assigning this task to the pharmaceutical group instead of the pesticide group, the Zoecon representative wrote, "will not arouse the curiosity of the health directorates and will allow us to keep our promise to the tobacco industry, namely, that we won't initiate queries that may cause the health authorities to direct attention to tobacco" (Hutney 1991).

In April 1992, George Lindahl of Zoecon faxed a letter to Bob McCuen, head of Philip Morris's biochemical bi·o·chem·is·try  
1. The study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms; biological chemistry; physiological chemistry.

 research, outlining some of his concerns about Philip Morris's approach to establishing MRLs for methoprene on tobacco (Lindahl 1992b). In regard to Zoecon's effort to establish an MRL of 15 ppm in Malaysia, Lindahl explained that
   I know we simply argued this case without any
   data to support our request. In more advanced
   countries, this tactic will not succeed.... All our
   data demonstrate the need for a 10 ppm MRL. If a
   higher value is desired then we will require data
   from real field operations showing that a worse [sic]
   case scenario for faulty application will result in a
   15 ppm residue, and hence the need for this value.
   (Lindahl 1992b)

In a fax following this one, Lindahl asked Philip Morris to provide such data; a handwritten comment from a Philip Morris employee who reviewed the fax noted that "data doesn't [sic] exist" (Lindahl 1992a). Initially, the Malaysian authorities agreed to increase methoprene's MRL to 10 ppm (Lindahl 1992c); subsequently, it was raised to 15 ppm (Mueller and Ward 1998). Philip Morris continued to advocate (through Zoecon) for MRLs of 15 ppm in Italy and Germany (Greenberg and Transon 1992).

In the meantime Adv. 1. in the meantime - during the intervening time; "meanwhile I will not think about the problem"; "meantime he was attentive to his other interests"; "in the meantime the police were notified"
meantime, meanwhile
, anticipating the creation of a single European market Single European Market n the Single European Market → el Mercado Único Europeo

Single European Market n the Single European Market → le marché unique européen 
 with uniform pesticide regulations, Philip Morris had asked the longtime tobacco industry law firm, Shook, Hardy, and Bacon, to prepare a document with MRL recommendations for possible submission to the European Community European Community: see European Union.
European Community (EC)

Organization formed in 1967 with the merger of the European Economic Community, European Coal and Steel Community, and European Atomic Energy Community.
 (Kemna 1991). Philip Morris first provided a draft of recommended MRLs to the Scientific Working Group of the Confederation A union of states in which each member state retains some independent control over internal and external affairs. Thus, for international purposes, there are separate states, not just one state.  of European Community Cigarette Manufacturers (CECCM) (Philip Morris 1991c). At their June 1991 meeting, members of this group (including representatives of Philip Morris, British American Tobacco British American Tobacco Plc (LSE: BATS, AMEX: BTI, KLSE: BAT) is the second largest listed tobacco company in the world. It is based in London, England and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index with a market capitalisation of over £29 billion as of June 2005. , R.J. Reynolds, Gallaher, and Rothmans) recommended that the document be rewritten as a voluntary code of practice "to be used pre-emptively ... in advance of any EC [European Community] initiative" to impose formal regulations on pesticide residue limits on tobacco (Philip Morris 1991a). A meeting participant reported, "It is hoped that, by implementing this Code, the EC Commission would not any longer see the need to develop a formal EC regulation on pesticide residues in tobacco (products)" (Mueller 1991). Manuel Bourlas, Philip Morris's director of research and development, was appointed chair of a subgroup sub·group  
1. A distinct group within a group; a subdivision of a group.

2. A subordinate group.

3. Mathematics A group that is a subset of a group.

 of tobacco company representatives who were to assist in preparing the code (Philip Morris 1991a).

This voluntary code underwent numerous revisions throughout 1991 and 1992 (CECCM 1991, 1992a, 1992b, 1992c, 1992d, 1992e; Philip Morris 1991b). Although 236 regulated and unregulated Adj. 1. unregulated - not regulated; not subject to rule or discipline; "unregulated off-shore fishing"
regulated - controlled or governed according to rule or principle or law; "well regulated industries"; "houses with regulated temperature"

 tobacco pesticides were in use at the time (Mitchell 1991b), the voluntary code proposed MRLs for only 25-27 pesticides [including chlordane chlordane (klōr`dān): see insecticide. , dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane di·chlo·ro·di·phen·yl·tri·chlo·ro·eth·ane
 (DDT DDT or 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1,-trichloroethane, chlorinated hydrocarbon compound used as an insecticide. First introduced during the 1940s, it killed insects that spread disease and feed on crops. ), lindane lindane: see insecticides. , dithiocarbamates, methoprene, and maleic hydrazide maleic hydrazide

used experimentally to control the growth of grass without killing it. May cause vomiting in dogs walking in the grass.
]. According to British American British Americans are Americans whose ancestry stems, either wholly or in part, from one of the four constituent nations of the United Kingdom. The term is seldom used by people to refer to themselves (less than 1% chose it in the 2000 census), and is used primarily as a  Tobacco's Terry Mitchell, "many of the substances in the list are no longer recommended for tobacco production" (e.g., DDT) (Mitchell 1991a). Moreover, this list did not impose "any constraint automatically on non-specified substances" (Mitchell 1991a). Mitchell noted that this lack of limits was "highly desirable" (Mitchell 1991a).

In December 1992, Walter Russell Walter Russell (1871–1963), is an American artist, sculptor, architect, and a controversial figure in physics and cosmogony, credited as the originator of the term 'New Age'. He posited that the universe was founded on the unifying principle of rhythmic balanced interchange. , a legal assistant, reported that the code "has undergone two more revisions (by SHB SHB Svenska Handelsbanken (Swedish bank)
SHB System Host Board (PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group standard)
SHB Strictly Hard Bean (coffee)
SHB Saudi Hollandi Bank
) [Shook, Hardy, and Bacon] and it [is] currently watered down, but still causing much agitation agitation /ag·i·ta·tion/ (aj?i-ta´shun) excessive, purposeless cognitive and motor activity or restlessness, usually associated with a state of tension or anxiety. Called also psychomotor a. " (Philip Morris 1992). Russell pointed out that the code set MRLs that Philip Morris "might have trouble complying with" if they were to become international standards (Philip Morris 1992). In addition, "failure to comply with tolerances written by the tobacco industry which might come up during litigation would put the tobacco industry at great disadvantage" (Philip Morris 1992). He indicated that Philip Morris had decided to withdraw its support from the voluntary code (Philip Morris 1992). In 1993, the tobacco companies suspended work on the document due to "principle disagreements both within and between participating companies" (R.J. Reynolds 1993). Throughout the 1990s, the tobacco industry continued to anticipate European Union European Union (EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the

European Community
 harmonization har·mo·nize  
v. har·mo·nized, har·mo·niz·ing, har·mo·niz·es
1. To bring or come into agreement or harmony. See Synonyms at agree.

2. Music To provide harmony for (a melody).
 of tobacco pesticide MRLs (Philip Morris 1995); as of April 2004, the European Union had established community-level MRLS for 150 pesticides, but none specifically applied to tobacco (European Union 2004).

EBDC EBDC Ethylenebis Dithiocarbamate  Fungicides

In 1987, the U.S. EPA initiated a review of EBDC fungicides, prompted by the agency's determination that a breakdown product of EBDCs, ethylene thiourea thiourea

a goitrogenic agent used in industry as a photographic fixative. Mode of action is as for thiouracil.
 (ETU ETU Electrical Trades Union
ETU Ethylene Thiourea (pesticide & fungicide)
ETU European Taekwondo Union
ETU Educational Technology Unit
ETU Elementary Time Unit (SIM card timing unit) 
), was a probable human carcinogen carcinogen: see cancer.

Agent that can cause cancer. Exposure to one or more carcinogens, including certain chemicals, radiation, and certain viruses, can initiate cancer under conditions not completely understood.
 (U.S. EPA 1987). Anticipating the U.S. EPA's cancellation of many EBDC uses, U.S. manufacturers voluntarily withdrew EBDC registrations for all but 13 food crops in 1989, including wheat and corn (U.S. EPA 1989). At least one company continued to hold registrations for EBDCs on tobacco, but only for seed bed use, not plants (Arce 1989).

In internal documents, the tobacco industry expressed concern that the U.S. EPA's action could result in the "imposition of potentially crippling crip·ple  
1. A person or animal that is partially disabled or unable to use a limb or limbs: cannot race a horse that is a cripple.

2. A damaged or defective object or device.

 product residue tolerances" in Europe [Centre de Cooperation pour les Recherches Scientifiques Relatives au Tabac Tabac may refer to:
  • Tabac (perfume), a cologne that was created by Mäurer & Wirtz in 1959
  • Tabac (store), a store licensed to sell tobacco products in France
 (CORESTA CORESTA Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco ) 1989b; Mitchell 1990]. EBDCs were regarded as vital to control blue mold the blue fungus (Aspergillus glaucus) which grows on cheese.
- McElrath.

See also: Blue
 outbreaks in Europe (Philip Morris 1990a). In October 1989, members of CORESTA, an international tobacco research organization with members drawn largely from the tobacco industry, established a subcommittee to "provide regulatory agencies with a sound basis for the development of tobacco agro-chemical regulations" (CORESTA 1989a, 1989b).

As discussed in a larger World Health Organization (WHO) report on tobacco industry influence at that agency, the subcommittee hired a consultant, Gaston Vettorazzi, to provide advice on influencing regulation (CORESTA 1990b; Zeltner et al. 2000). Vettorazzi was a former WHO toxicologist toxicologist (tok´sikol´jist),
n a person versed in toxicology.


a specialist in toxicology.
 and former technical secretary of the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), an international meeting of scientists whose decisions often formed the basis of international law (Zeltner et al. 2000). Selected partly for his "old boys' contacts" (Reif 1991b), Vettorazzi's initial duties were to provide a review and analysis of toxicologic data on EBDCs and ETU (CORESTA 1990a).

Some CORESTA members were concerned that Vettorazzi's review might conclude that EBDCs were unsafe (Beuchat 1990). However, according to one member's notes, at his first meeting with the subcommittee in April 1990, Vettorazzi stated that "someone has to lay the red carpet for [me], otherwise [I] can spoil more than help" (Reif 1990).

Vettorazzi's initial review concluded that ETU was neither carcinogenic carcinogenic

having a capacity for carcinogenesis.
 nor genotoxic genotoxic /ge·no·tox·ic/ (je´no-tok?sik) damaging to DNA: pertaining to agents known to damage DNA, thereby causing mutations, which can result in cancer.

 (Vettorazzi 1991a). Some of the tobacco industry scientists commented that this statement was "too strong in light of the NTP (Network Time Protocol) A TCP/IP protocol used to synchronize the real time clock in computers, network devices and other electronic equipment that is time sensitive. It is also used to maintain the correct time in NTP-based wall and desk clocks.  feeding studies"--a reference to the U.S. National Toxicology toxicology, study of poisons, or toxins, from the standpoint of detection, isolation, identification, and determination of their effects on the human body. Toxicology may be considered the branch of pharmacology devoted to the study of the poisonous effects of drugs.  Program's conclusion that animal studies showed clear evidence of ETU's carcinogenicity carcinogenicity /car·ci·no·ge·nic·i·ty/ (kahr?si-no-je-nis´i-te) the ability or tendency to produce cancer.


the ability or tendency to produce cancer.
 (Reif 1991a). Vettorazzi subsequently revised his conclusions, stating that ETU's "toxicity, including carcinogenicity, can be explained by the known mechanisms of action characteristic of thyroid-function inhibiting agents" (Vettorazzi 1991b). Thus, he stated, a threshold could be set below which ETU did not cause thyroid thyroid /thy·roid/ (thi´roid)
1. the thyroid gland; see under gland.

2. pertaining to the thyroid gland.

3. scutiform.

 tumors (Vettorazzi 1991b).

CORESTA authorized au·thor·ize  
tr.v. au·thor·ized, au·thor·iz·ing, au·thor·iz·es
1. To grant authority or power to.

2. To give permission for; sanction:
 the distribution of Vettorazzi's revised report to his former colleagues at WHO, once all references to tobacco and CORESTA were removed (CORESTA 1992). WHO's JMPR was scheduled to review EBDCs/ETU in 1993; if this review were favorable, the tobacco industry would be assured continued access to EBDCs in Europe (Zeltner et al. 2000).

With CORESTA funding ($100,000 a year) and approval, Vettorazzi offered to assist J. Herrman, of the JMPR WHO Secretariat, with JMPR toxicologic reviews, without disclosing his tobacco industry ties (Herrman 1991; Vettorazzi 1991c, 1992a). Vettorazzi wrote and reviewed several working papers working papers
Legal documents certifying the right to employment of a minor or alien.

Noun 1. working papers
 on compounds to be discussed at the 1992 JMPR, including the EBDC thiram thiram

see tetramethylthiuram disulfide.
 (Herrman 1992; Vettorazzi 1992b). One outcome of that meeting was the reestablishment, at a higher level, of the previously cancelled Acceptable Daily Intake acceptable daily intake

the amount of a drug or chemical residue to which an animal can be exposed daily for a lifetime without suffering a deleterious or injurious effect, on the basis of all of the facts known at the time.
 (ADI) for thiram (Vettorazzi 1992b).

Vettorazzi continued his work with WHO in 1993, supplying his CORESTA-funded reviews to the adviser responsible for drafting the working paper that would form the basis of the September JMPR on EBDCs/ ETU without revealing their sponsor (Zeltner et al. 2000). Vettorazzi also attended the September meeting as an invited "temporary adviser" (Zeltner et al. 2000). The meeting's outcome reflected Vettorazzi's conclusions. In contrast to the U.S. EPA, JMPR determined that ETU was not genotoxic, and thus raised the ADI level from 0.002 to 0.004 mg/kg body weight (Black 1993). CORESTA considered this "a very positive result for the industry," since it "clearly indicates that the 'carcinogenicity' of [ETU] is not really a burning issue any longer" (CORESTA 1994; Mueller 1993). JMPR's safety standard became part of international trade law, preserving tobacco industry access to EBDCs (Zeltner et al. 2000). Soon after the JMPR meeting, CORESTA extended Vettorazzi's contract for 18 months, listing one of his duties as providing "information about the activities of pesticide action groups" (CORESTA 1993). He was to be paid another $100,000 (CORESTA 1993). Vettorazzi continued working for CORESTA until at least 2001, when the organization paid him $30,000 to monitor international activities related to tobacco pesticide residues and registrations (CORESTA 2001).


Phosphine is a fumigant used on stored commodities, including nuts, seeds, grains, coffee, tobacco, and finished cigarettes to kill insects. Because of the risks it poses, applicators are advised to wear respirators and protective clothing, and warehouses must be sealed to prevent leaks that contribute to air pollution and endanger en·dan·ger  
tr.v. en·dan·gered, en·dan·ger·ing, en·dan·gers
1. To expose to harm or danger; imperil.

2. To threaten with extinction.
 nearby residents (U.S. EPA 1998b). By the early 1990s, several case reports had been published noting sometimes fatal phosphine poisoning among workers and community members (Garry et al. 1989, 1993; Heyndrickx et al. 1976; Schoonbroodt et al. 1992; Wilson et al. 1980).

In December 1998, the U.S. EPA proposed a series of 15 risk mitigation measures (RMMs) for phosphine. The U.S. EPA's primary concern was the risk that phosphine posed to applicators and community residents (U.S. EPA 1998b). Thus, the RMMs included a threshold limit value threshold limit value
n. Abbr. TLV
The maximum concentration of a chemical allowable for repeated exposure without producing adverse health effects.
 of 0.03 ppm of phosphine during fumigation fumigation: see disinfectant.  (reduced from the existing 0.3-ppm standard), the establishment of a 500-foot buffer zone buffer zone
A neutral area between hostile or belligerent forces that serves to prevent conflict.

Noun 1. buffer zone
 around all fumigated structures, and prior notification of all residents living within 750 feet of a fumigated structure (U.S. EPA 1998a).

The Tobacco Association of the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , in a letter to the U.S. EPA, stated that the economic burdens imposed by the RMMs would "make it virtually impossible for our industry to continue to fumigate fu·mi·gate
To subject to smoke or fumes, usually in order to exterminate pests or disinfect.

 stored tobacco" (Ward 1999). The Tobacco Association, R.J. Reynolds, Philip Morris, and > 150 other organizations with a stake in the continued use of phosphine formed a lobbying group, the Commodity Industry Coalition for Phosphine Fumigation (Harrell 1999).

R.J. Reynolds, represented primarily by toxicologist Joel Seckar, took an active role in the Commodity Industry Coalition (Seckar 1999c). The company calculated that complying with the U.S. EPA's buffer zone requirement would cost approximately $50 million in new land and warehouse purchases (R.J. Reynolds 1999a). Increasing the time required to aerate aerate Physiology verb To add air or O2 into a liquid. See Waste treatment.  warehouses before employee reentry reentry n. taking back possession and going into real property which one owns, particularly when a tenant has failed to pay rent or has abandoned the property, or possession has been restored to the owner by judgment in an unlawful detainer lawsuit.  to comply with the worker exposure limit of 0.03 ppm would increase costs, as would the possibility of liability suits brought by nearby residents notified of phosphine use (Degesch America 1998; R.J. Reynolds 1999d).

Coalition members lobbied Congress, released media statements, worked closely with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and attended U.S. EPA-sponsored stakeholder stakeholder n. a person having in his/her possession (holding) money or property in which he/she has no interest, right or title, awaiting the outcome of a dispute between two or more claimants to the money or property.  meetings (Goldman 1998; Lyon 1999; R.J. Reynolds 1999b, 1999c). Their message was that the proposed RMMs were overly conservative, based on "anecdotal anecdotal /an·ec·do·tal/ (an?ek-do´t'l) based on case histories rather than on controlled clinical trials.
anecdotal adjective Unsubstantiated; occurring as single or isolated event.
 information and hypothetical risk" rather than on "sound science" (Lyon 1999; Ong and Glantz 2001). To challenge the scientific basis of the U.S. EPA's proposals, the coalition decided to hire an expert whose research would support existing standards (Seckar 1999h). They chose Sciences International, a consulting firm Noun 1. consulting firm - a firm of experts providing professional advice to an organization for a fee
consulting company

business firm, firm, house - the members of a business organization that owns or operates one or more establishments; "he worked for a
 specializing in health and environmental risk assessment. It was headed by Elizabeth Anderson, a former director of the Carcinogen Assessment Group and the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment at the U.S. EPA (Sciences International 2005). She was also an experienced expert defense witness, having served in that capacity in a number of environmental lawsuits brought against corporations (Anderson 1999c).

To support the Commodity Industry Coalition's assertion that the proposed exposure level of 0.03 ppm was too conservative, Sciences International focused on the interspecies uncertainty factor. The U.S. EPA had first determined from a published subchronic toxicity study of rats that there were no observed effects attributable to inhaled phosphine at 3 ppm (Seckar 1999a). To extrapolate extrapolate - extrapolation  to humans, the U.S. EPA had then used two 10-fold uncertainty factors, one for intraspecies in·tra·spe·cif·ic   also in·tra·spe·cies
Arising or occurring within a species: intraspecific competition.

Adj. 1.
 variability and one for interspecies variability, to arrive at a maximum exposure level of 0.03 ppm (Sciences International 1999c). Documents indicate that Sciences International's strategy was to convince the U.S. EPA that the interspecies uncertainty factor was unnecessary, showing that because a number of animal species reacted in the same manner to phosphine, humans were similar enough that the interspecies uncertainty factor could be removed (Seckar 1999a, 1999b). This would leave only the intraspecies factor of 10, which would result in a maximum exposure level for humans of 0.3 ppm, the existing standard.

In April 1999, the U.S. EPA representatives met with a small group of Commodity Industry Coalition members, including R.J. Reynolds's Seckar and Sciences International's Anderson (Seckar 1999a). Anderson questioned the U.S. EPA's interspecies uncertainty factor, citing several animal studies and an epidemiologic study epidemiologic study A study that compares 2 groups of people who are alike except for one factor, such as exposure to a chemical or the presence of a health effect; the investigators try to determine if any factor is associated with the health effect  to suggest that the U.S. EPA's calculations were too conservative (Seckar 1999a). In an e-mail, Seckar noted that Anderson's presentation was very effective, as evidenced by the fact that U.S. EPA representatives were now informing coalition members that the 0.03 ppm standard "was not 'set in stone,'" a direct contradiction of earlier statements to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Bair 1999; Seckar 1999d). (Despite Freedom of Information Act requests, we were unable to obtain U.S. EPA documents related to its meetings with the coalition.)

Soon after, Sciences International asked the Commodity Industry Coalition for additional funding to turn its phosphine report into a peer-reviewed journal peer-reviewed journal Refereed journal Academia A professional journal that only publishes articles subjected to a rigorous peer validity review process. Cf Throwaway journal.  article (Turim 1999). In a memo to Seckar, Anderson (1999b) explained that
   My experience is that consultant reports funded
   by those being regulated, and written expressly for
   the EPA, are easily and frequently ignored or dismissed
   by the Agency, no matter how scholarly.
   However, a paper or article that is peer-reviewed
   and published, or in the peer review process for
   publication, in an accepted scientific journal can
   neither be ignored nor dismissed.

Anderson suggested that since she was editor-in-chief of Risk Analysis, "perhaps the peer review process could be expedited if we decide that it is the journal of choice" (Anderson 1999b). R.J. Reynolds, Brown and Williamson, and several other tobacco companies agreed to fund most of the cost of this work (Seckar 1999e). The paper was published in Risk Analysis in 2004, with the acknowledgment acknowledgment, in law, formal declaration or admission by a person who executed an instrument (e.g., a will or a deed) that the instrument is his. The acknowledgment is made before a court, a notary public, or any other authorized person.  that "This work was supported by the Phosphine/Metal Phosphide phosphide

Any of a class of chemical compounds in which phosphorous is combined with a metal. Phosphides exhibit a wide variety of chemical and physical properties. Phosphides that are rich in metal have high melting points and are hard, brittle, and chemically inert; these
 Coalition, consisting of the producers and users of phosphine and metal phosphides for the control of insects in stored commodities" (Pepelko et al. 2004).

Coalition members also pursued other strategies. At a meeting with U.S. EPA representatives in March 1999, the Commodity Industry Coalition proposed that the U.S. EPA participate in a series of small, coalition-sponsored focus groups to "educate [EPA] on the issues involved with ... fumigations" (Seckar 1999g). One such group met in May 1999, when tobacco companies demonstrated a tobacco warehouse fumigation (Ward and Cowan 1999). The following month, several companies conducted additional emissions tests to show that the proposed 500-foot buffer was unnecessary (Bridges 1995). However, an e-mail message from a Philip Morris employee indicated that Philip Morris's test coordinator had "some reservations regarding the quality of the test design/data generation" and that he himself believed that "the test plan and methods will provide, literally, no information, so it won't hurt us to do it" (Bridges 1995).

In June 1999, Sciences International submitted a first draft of its phosphine toxicity review to some coalition members (Sciences International 1999a). A reviewer from the coalition's lobbying firm pointed out that the animal studies cited did little to support the idea that the interspecies uncertainty factor should be eliminated "since most [of the animals] appear to be rat or mouse strains with similar breathing characteristics" (Wilkinson 1999). Instead, the studies cited by Sciences International seemed to support the idea that phosphine called for a conservative standard, as they indicated that "phosphine is a very toxic material to most species tested" (Wilkinson 1999). Another reviewer noted that the uncertain and tentative tone of the report "will trigger concerns by EPA and they will say 'if [an] expert in the field states that there remains great uncertainty, maybe we are on solid ground by being very conservative'" (Barolo 1999a). Sciences International staff revised the report, removing tentative statements and asserting that their work to date supported reducing the interspecies uncertainty factor to 1 (effectively eliminating it), thus preserving the existing exposure standard of 0.3 ppm (Sciences International 1999b). They submitted this revised interim report to the U.S. EPA in July 1999 (Sciences International 1999b). At a Commodity Industry Coalition meeting that same month, coalition consultant Dan Barolo, former director of the U.S. EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP OPP Opposite
OPP Opportunity/Opportunities
OPP Office of Pesticide Programs
OPP Ontario Provincial Police (Ontario, Canada)
OPP Office of Polar Programs (National Science Foundation) 
), reportedly urged members to speed their efforts because
   phosphine is quite hazardous when used improperly.
   The more the Coalition slows the process, the
   greater the chance for an accident with possible
   fatalities, which would send EPA back into conservative
   mode and make it far more difficult for
   them to publish reasonable RMMs. (Seckar 1999f)

In August, John Whalan, a toxicologist at the U.S. EPA's Health Effects Division, summarized in a memo his analysis of Sciences International's interim report (Whalan 1999). He noted that
   there is no precedent for using an [interspecies
   uncertainty factor] of 1 when establishing ... an
   inhalation regulatory value in the Health Effects
   Division. The only time an interspecies [uncertainty
   factor] is not applicable is when human data
   are used. The available data do not support deviating
   from Agency policy, and the Coalition did not
   provide any new data. (Whalan 1999)

He also pointed out that Sciences International's review of animal studies, intended to show that phosphine toxicity was relatively constant across species, was largely "irrelevant" because it did not include a comparison of toxicity for a small versus large mammal mammal, an animal of the highest class of vertebrates, the Mammalia. The female has mammary glands, which secrete milk for the nourishment of the young after birth. .

In September 1999, phosphine registrants and several coalition members again met with U.S. EPA officials to discuss alternative RMMs proposed by the coalition (Seckar 1999i). Instead of a 500-foot buffer and a 750-foot neighbor notification requirement, the coalition recommended a "site management plan" that required companies to develop emergency preparedness pre·par·ed·ness  
The state of being prepared, especially military readiness for combat.

Noun 1. preparedness - the state of having been made ready or prepared for use or action (especially military action); "putting them
 measures. The U.S. EPA asked the Commodity Industry Coalition to reword re·word  
tr.v. re·word·ed, re·word·ing, re·words
a. To change the wording of.

b. To state or express again in different words.

 its proposals to specify how and when workers and bystanders would be informed of danger (Seckar 1999i). On the exposure limit for workers, the U.S. EPA now proposed a 0.1-ppm standard (reflecting a reduction from 10 to 3 in the interspecies uncertainty factor) based upon Sciences International's interim report (despite the weaknesses noted by Whalan) (Seckar 1999i). (The U.S. EPA failed to provide memos or notes regarding this decision.)

In several fall 1999 memos to Seckar, Sciences International staff explained that they thought it would be difficult to convince the U.S. EPA to drop the interspecies uncertainty factor without human exposure studies (Anderson 1999a; Gray 1999). Commodity Industry Coalition members expressed reluctance to commit to human studies without confirmation that this would convince the U.S. EPA to "give up" the uncertainty factor (Barolo 1999b). Barolo commented to Seckar, "I do not believe it will be easy for OPP to abandon both safety factors. There are too many unknowns from children to endocrine endocrine /en·do·crine/ (en´do-krin, en´do-krin)
1. secreting internally.

2. pertaining to internal secretions; hormonal. See also under system.

 to reliability of studies to absence of dog/monkey study.... Some day they are going to figure out there is a 0.1 ppm standard in other countries and the door will close" (Barolo 1999c).

Although Sciences International had not yet submitted to the U.S. EPA its full report on phosphine, in December 1999, the U.S. EPA made its final decision (Sharp 1999). (This decision was published in the Federal Register in February 2001 [U.S. EPA 2001]). The U.S. EPA now mandated a "fumigation management plan" like that proposed by the Commodity Industry Coalition (U.S. EPA 2000). The agency also eliminated the interspecies safety factor and left the old 0.3-ppm standard in place, on condition that phosphine registrants conduct additional research if Sciences International's review was found to be inadequate (U.S. EPA 2000). A coalition member noted that "it is important to point out that this additional work will take years and that the current 0.3 ppm threshold will stay in place during that time" (Sharp 1999). R.J. Reynolds credited its leadership on the scientific issues with saving the company "many millions of dollars" (R.J. Reynolds 2000).


Although others have charged that agencies responsible for protecting human health and the environment are unduly influenced by the industries they regulate (Abraham 2002; Huff huff - To compress data using a Huffman code. Various programs that use such methods have been called "HUFF" or some variant thereof.

Opposite: puff. Compare crunch, compress.
 2002), it is rare to be able to study this process from the perspective of the regulated industry. This study provides documentation of the behind-the-scenes activities of an industry as it attempts to influence the regulatory process on matters that have a direct bearing on public health.

Our analysis has limitations. Given the sheer volume and limited indexing of the documents, it is impossible to ensure that we located all potentially relevant documents. Some may have been destroyed or concealed by the tobacco companies (Liberman 2002); others may have never been obtained in the legal discovery process. In addition, we had no access to pesticide company documents, except those in the tobacco documents archives. Finally, despite properly filed Freedom of Information Act requests, we were unable to obtain from the U.S. EPA documentation of its meetings with the industry's Commodity Industry Coalition. All minutes of meetings with stakeholders Stakeholders

All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government.
 should be part of the public record.

Despite these limitations, the case studies discussed here provide insight into tactics that the tobacco industry applies to a regulatory agency when trying to influence the outcome of a decision. These tactics go significantly beyond the usual approaches--such as participation in public comment periods and public meetings--to influence scientific and regulatory decision making. Tobacco industry tactics described in these cases include:

* Encouraging a chemical company (Zoecon) to advocate for high MRLs without any supporting data and directing that same company to gather information about international regulatory efforts on methoprene in a manner designed to hide the interest of the tobacco industry in this chemical;

* Attempting to forestall regulatory efforts on tobacco pesticides in the European Community by creating voluntary industry MRLs for a subset of chemicals;

* Hiring an ex-WHO scientist to participate (without disclosing his funding source) in the WHO regulatory effort on EBDCs;

* Hiring several ex-U.S. EPA scientists to influence the U.S. EPA's regulatory decision making on phosphine;

* Hiring scientific consultants with instructions to marshal data to support the tobacco industry's a priori a priori

In epistemology, knowledge that is independent of all particular experiences, as opposed to a posteriori (or empirical) knowledge, which derives from experience.
 arguments and funding consultants to publish a report supporting these arguments in a journal over which the consultants had influence;

* Staging fumigations for the U.S. EPA with the knowledge that the methodology was flawed and the results would show no emissions problem.

Yet, as the case of European MRLs showed, the tobacco industry does not always work together effectively to influence regulations. Tobacco companies may disagree about regulatory strategies or conclude that inaction in·ac·tion  
Lack or absence of action.


lack of action; inertia

Noun 1.
 is preferable to action that might have unintended consequences For the "Law of unintended consequences", see Unintended consequence

Unintended Consequences is a novel by author John Ross, first published in 1996 by Accurate Press.
. Moreover, the fact that even voluntary, industry-friendly pesticide guidelines posed significant problems for Philip Morris underscores tobacco industry motivation for resisting or influencing more stringent, government-imposed regulations.

This study also raises questions about industry influence over regulatory agencies. In the case of WHO deliberations on EBDCs, the tobacco industry coordinated covert actions Covert action may refer to:
  • Covert operation, several HUMINT techniques used by intelligence agencies.
  • Covert Action, a game designed by Sid Meier.

Covert Action
, hiding the financial ties and involvement of CORESTA. Rigorous disclosure requirements and oversight might have allowed the WHO's agencies to judge more accurately the potential for bias related to conflicts of interest. In the case of the U.S. EPA's review of phosphine, a regulatory agency appears to have been quite willing to cooperate with the industry and its consultants. This is a reminder of why regulatory processes were designed to be transparent and open to the public, and why "closed-door" meetings between regulators and industry have been ruled illegal (Federal Advisory Committee Act 1972; Registration Standards 2004; Special Review Procedures 2002).

Protection of the public interest hinges Hinges may refer to:
  • Plural form of hinge, a mechanical device that connects two solid objects, allowing a rotation between them.
  • Hinges, a commune of the Pas-de-Calais département, in northern France
 on an open process and regulatory agencies' willingness to stand up to pressure from regulated industries. When these are in doubt, public confidence in the fairness and efficacy of regulations may be unwarranted. The resource disparities between powerful industries and public health organizations may also make it difficult to ensure that the public interest is fairly represented, particularly when discussions occur behind closed doors, as apparently occurred at the U.S. EPA. Increased public and media scrutiny of these processes could help ensure that public health considerations are weighed at least as heavily as commercial ones.

Finally, given the deadly epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, which kills an estimated 5 million people annually worldwide (WHO 2004), is it in the public interest for regulatory agencies today to continue facilitating standards that make it easier and less costly to grow, transport, store, and manufacture tobacco products?

We thank E.A. Smith and B. Skinner for critically reviewing drafts of the manuscript.

This research was supported by grants CA90789 and CA095989 from the National Cancer Institute and by American Legacy fellowship funding.

The authors declare they have no competing financial interests. G.S. is employed by an environmental nonprofit organization Nonprofit Organization

An association that is given tax-free status. Donations to a non-profit organization are often tax deductible as well.

Examples of non-profit organizations are charities, hospitals and schools.
 with an interest in ensuring that regulations of toxic chemicals Any chemical which, through its chemical action on life processes, can cause death, temporary incapacitation, or permanent harm to humans or animals. This includes all such chemicals, regardless of their origin or of their method of production, and regardless of whether they are produced  are as health protective as feasible.

Received 27 July 2004; accepted 8 August 2005.


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R.J. Reynolds. 1999a. Added Costs to the Tobacco Industry of Complying with Risk Mitigation Measures Announced by EPA. Bates No. 521114944/521114947. Available: http:// [accessed 13 April 2004].

R.J. Reynolds. 1999b. Caucus caucus: see convention.  Meeting Minutes. Bates No. 521597226/521597228. Available: bttp://legacy.library.ucsf. edu/tid/fmy20d00 [accessed 13 April 2004[.

R.J. Reynolds. 1999c. Reminder Notice Meeting with USDA USDA, See United States Department of Agriculture.
. Bates No. 521559538/521559539. Available: http://legacy. [accessed 13 April 2004].

R.J. Reynolds. 1999d. The (Worst Case) Plan. Bates No. 521106913/521106918. Available: http://legacy.library.ucsf. edu/tid/Ixz20d00 [accessed 13 April 2004].

R.J. Reynolds. 2000. R&D 1999 Accomplishments, 8 Mar, Bates No. 522497112. Available: tuo60d00 [accessed 13 April 2004].

Ryan L. 1991. The Status of Methoprene in PM's Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management (IPM), planned program that coordinates economically and environmentally acceptable methods of pest control with the judicious and minimal use of toxic pesticides.  Program for Tobacco. Philip Morris. Bates No. 2501294728A/2501294728C. Available: http://legacy. [accessed 6 December 2004].

Ryan L. 1992. MRL for Methoprene in Italy. Philip Morris. Bates No. 2024113499/2024113500, Available: http://legacy.library. [accessed 6 December 2004].

Schoonbroodt D, Guffens P, Jousten P, Ingels J, Grodos J. 1992. Acute phosphine poisoning? a case report and review. Acta Clin Belg 47:280-284.

Sciences International. 1999a. Interim Status Report: Toxicity Review of Phosphine, 22 June. R.J. Reynolds. Bates No. 521558656/521558664. Available: http://legacy.library.ucsf. edu/tid/orxG0d00 [accessed 15 June 2004].

Sciences International. 1999b. Interim Status Report: Phosphine Toxicity Review, July. R.J, Reynolds. Bates No. 521576948/ 521576955. Available: http://legacy.library, fic70d00 [accessed 13 April 2004].

Sciences International. 1999c. Recommended Follow-up to the EPA Meeting on the Phosphide RED. R.J. Reynolds. Bates No. 521558672/521558673. Available: http://legacy.library. [accessed 13 April 2004].

Sciences International. 2005. Professionals. Available: [accessed 16 June 2095],

Seckar J. 1999a. Coalition Meeting with EPA to Discuss Science Issues Relative to EPA's Phosphine Risk Mitigation Measures. R.J. Reynolds. Bates No. 521597164/521597165. Available: [accessed 13 April 2004].

Seckar J. 1999b. Fw: Additional Work. R.J. Reynolds. Bates No. 521558674. Available: vrx6Od00 [accessed 8 July 2005].

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acid-fast bacillus

AFB Acid-fast bacillus, also 1. Aflatoxin B 2. Aorto-femoral bypass
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Bound by signed agreement: the signatory parties to a contract.

n. pl. sig·na·to·ries
One that has signed a treaty or other document.
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Patricia A. McDaniel, (1) Gina Solomon, (2,3) and Ruth E. Malone (4)

(1) Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA; (2) Natural Resources Defense Council The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a New York City-based, non-profit non-partisan international environmental advocacy group, with offices in Washington, D.C., San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Beijing. Founded in 1970, NRDC today has 1. , San Francisco, California “San Francisco” redirects here. For other uses, see San Francisco (disambiguation).

The City and County of San Francisco (EN IPA: [sænfrənˈsɪskoʊ] 
, USA; (3) Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA; (4) Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences behavioral sciences, those sciences devoted to the study of human and animal behavior.
 and School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA

Address correspondence to P. A. McDaniel, Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California-San Francisco, 530 Parnassus Avenue, Suite 366, San Francisco San Francisco (săn frănsĭs`kō), city (1990 pop. 723,959), coextensive with San Francisco co., W Calif., on the tip of a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay, which are connected by the strait known as the Golden , CA 94143-1390, USA. Telephone: (415) 514-9342. Fax: (415) 514-9345. E-mail:
Table 1. Number of documents yielded by searches of tobacco
company collections at the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library
using selected keywords and wildcards (*).

                                                Tobacco company

                                      American   Brown and
Key word                              Tobacco    Williamson   Lorillard

Pesticide (*)                             224         232          872
Crop protection agent (*)                   3          60           66
Kabat/methoprene                           65         182          604
Dithiocarbamate/EBDC (*)                    1          22          130
Phosphine                                  28          21          195
World Health Organization/WHO             909       2,047        6,769
Environmental Protection Agency/EPA     1,423       2,082       23,791
Agrochemical Advisory Committee             0          37           48

                                       Tobacco company

                                      Philip      R.J.
Key word                              Morris    Reynolds

Pesticide (*)                           7,632     6,095
Crop protection agent (*)               1,533       193
Kabat/methoprene                        5,416     2,336
Dithiocarbamate/EBDC (*)                  278       275
Phosphine                                 247       580
World Health Organization/WHO          28,902    14,024
Environmental Protection Agency/EPA   155,094    24,961
Agrochemical Advisory Committee           684       383

Table 2. Overview of case studies.

Pesticide     action                Dates       Agency

Methoprene    MRL of 1.0 ppm        1991-1995   Malaysian

Methoprene,   Industry concern      1991-1993   European
others        about future MRLs                 Community

EBDCs/ETU     Potential             1989-1993   UN FAO/
              imposition                        WHO JMPR
              of residue

Phosphine     15 proposed risk      1998-2001   U.S. EPA
              mitigation measures
              including worker
              exposure standard
              of 0.03 ppm

Pesticide     Tactics                             Outcome

Methoprene    Work through chemical industry      MRL raised to 15 ppm
              partners to avoid raising tobacco
              issues, request higher MRL with
              no supporting research

Methoprene,   Attempt to create voluntary MRLs    No voluntary MRLs,
others        to forestall regulation             no EC regulations

EBDCs/ETU     Hire ex-WHO scientist to review     ETU listed as not
              EBDCs and ETU, covertly lobby       genotoxic, higher
              and assist JMPR                     ADI assigned

Phosphine     Hire consultant with EPA ties to    Worker exposure
              challenge scientific basis of       standard increased
              proposed exposure standard, write   to 0.3 ppm
              journal article

UN FAO, Unit  Nations Food and Agricultural Organization.
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Title Annotation:Commentary
Author:Malone, Ruth E.
Publication:Environmental Health Perspectives
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 1, 2005
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