The theoretical framework for designing desktop virtual reality-based learning environments.This article describes the instructional design Instructional design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology) and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. The process consists broadly of determining the current state of learner understanding, defining the end goal of theoretical foundation of a desktop virtual reality-based learning environment aimed at complementing the current novice driver education system in Malaysia Malaysia (məlā`zhə), independent federation (2005 est. pop. 23,953,000), 128,430 sq mi (332,633 sq km), Southeast Asia. The official capital and by far the largest city is Kuala Lumpur; Putrajaya is the adminstrative capital. . It provides an elaboration of how various components of the learning environment are designed to support this theoretical underpinning un·der·pin·ning
1. Material or masonry used to support a structure, such as a wall.
2. A support or foundation. Often used in the plural.
3. Informal The human legs. Often used in the plural. that fits to the new paradigm New Paradigm
In the investing world, a totally new way of doing things that has a huge effect on business.
The word "paradigm" is defined as a pattern or model, and it has been used in science to refer to a theoretical framework. of instruction. This is followed by the suggestion of a theoretical framework that can be used to guide the design of other virtual reality-based learning environments. This framework can also act as an initial structure that is to be further refined and/or revised, as a robust model model to guide the design and development of a learning environment using this technology is still unavailable at the present time.
The benefits of using three-dimensional virtual environment technology, commonly known as virtual reality, in education have increasingly gained recognition from many researchers and educational practitioners. Virtual reality is described as a cutting-edge technology that allows learners to step through the computer screen into a three-dimensional interactive environment. Although virtual reality has been recognised as an impressive learning tool, the need for expensive head-mounted displays, gloves, and high-end computer systems has somehow restricted its uses. However, today virtual reality systems can run by affordable personal computers. Human interaction with the generated virtual worlds can be performed using conventional input devices, such as the mouse and keyboard without introducing any additional peripherals. In short, the availability of relatively low cost desktop virtual reality system has made this technology feasible to be widely used. Indeed, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Youngblut (1998), this nonimmersive technology is much more mature and ubiquitously used in many different application areas rather than the immersive technology. This article focuses on this particular type of virtual reality technology.
Virtual reality is predicted to be the most significant technological transformation in educational media. Numerous researchers such as Roussos, Moher, Vasilakis, and Barnes (1999), Whitelock, Brna, and Holland (1996), Winn (1993), and Grove (1996) have found that virtual reality technology offers unique capabilities that are able to provide significant and positive support for education. Some of these capabilities include the ability to allow learners to visualise the three-dimensional representation of a problem, to visualise abstract concepts, to articulate articulate /ar·tic·u·late/ (ahr-tik´u-lat)
1. to pronounce clearly and distinctly.
2. to make speech sounds by manipulation of the vocal organs.
3. to express in coherent verbal form.
4. their understanding of a phenomenon through their development of virtual environments, to visualise the dynamic relationships in a system, to obtain an infinite number infinite number
a number so large as to be uncountable. Represented by 8, frequently obtained by 'dividing' by zero. of viewpoints of a virtual environment, and to visit and interact with events that are unavailable or unfeasible due to distance, time, or safety factors. The power of virtual reality as a tool for experiencing prebuilt pre·built
Of, relating to, or constituting a structure or a portion of a structure that is constructed or assembled before being transported to its site of installation; prefabricated: a prebuilt home. worlds as well as for world building by learners, suggests that the technology will be widely applicable for education. Moreover, with the current development of virtual reality on the World Wide Web (WWW WWW or W3: see World Wide Web.
(World Wide Web) The common host name for a Web server. The "www-dot" prefix on Web addresses is widely used to provide a recognizable way of identifying a Web site. or Web), other relevant information from the Web could also be linked to the virtual representation of the problem. Indeed, the integration of the Internet Internet
Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the and virtual reality has enabled us to manipulate manipulate
To cause a security to sell at an artificial price. Although investment bankers are permitted to manipulate temporarily the stock they underwrite, most other forms of manipulation are illegal. the benefits offered by both technologies.
MOTIVATION OF PROJECT
Malaysia is one of the developing countries that is experiencing a gradual increase in road accidents. Statistics released by the Road Transport Department (RTD RTD returned to duty (US DoD)
RTD Ready to Drink
RTD Richmond Times-Dispatch
RTD Regional Transportation District
RTD Research, Technological Development
RTD Research and Technology Development
RTD Real-Time Data ) of Malaysia shows that the number of road accidents has been increasing for the last 10 years. This is not limited as a local phenomenon. The World Health Organization (2002) has reported that road traffic crashes will account for the third highest cause of the global burden of disease, jumping from its current ranking of ninth, and developing countries will be largely responsible for this predicted sharp rise.
In the year 2001, a total of 265,175 road accidents were reported in Malaysia where 6,942 persons were killed and 42,856 persons injured in·jure
tr.v. in·jured, in·jur·ing, in·jures
1. To cause physical harm to; hurt.
2. To cause damage to; impair.
3. (Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan Malaysia, 2002). These deaths and injuries result in substantial economic and social costs as well as serious grief and physical sufferings. These figures are indeed worrying and prompt the need for effective and sustainable prevention since road traffic injuries are to a great extent, preventable. The Transport Ministry of Malaysia has stated the vision to reduce the fatal accident rate from the present 5.17 deaths to 2 deaths per 10,000 registered vehicles (Sim (1) (Society for Information Management, Chicago, IL, www.simnet.org) Founded in 1968 as the Society for MIS, it is a membership organization made up of corporate and division heads of IT organizations. , 2002). Among the measures taken to reduce road accidents include improving the current driving curriculum and introducing more stringent driving evaluation procedures.
Virtual Reality and the Current Practice in the Novice Car Driver Education
The main goal of RTD is to produce competent car drivers. The current law allows a person who is 17 or older to undertake tests to obtain a driving license. A candidate, who will be called "learner" throughout this text, has to undergo a driver education programme. This programme requires him or her to successfully complete four evaluation components to be eligible for a driving license. These include a compulsory Wikipedia does not currently have an encyclopedia article for .
You may like to search Wiktionary for "" instead.
To begin an article here, feel free to [ edit this page], but please do not create a mere dictionary definition. attendance of a five hour basic practical lesson known as the Courteous cour·te·ous
Characterized by gracious consideration toward others. See Synonyms at polite.
[Middle English corteis, courtly, from Old French, from cort, court; see Driving Course, a compulsory attendance of a six hour practical training course, a theory test (oral or written), and an on road test.
The RTD of Malaysia has published a textbook textbook Informatics A treatise on a particular subject. See Bible. known as the Driver Education Curriculum in 1997 while a revised version Revised Version
A British and American revision of the King James Version of the Bible, completed in 1885.
Noun known as the Driver Education Curriculum Learning Manual was introduced in March, 2003. Generally, the aim of these books is to provide each learner with the essential knowledge required of a competent driver. Besides a large portion of text, this textbook also comprises various static images.
Limitations of the current methods. The cognitive domain cognitive domain,
n area of study that deals with the processes and measurable results of study, as well as the practical ability to apply intelligence. , according to Reigeluth and Moore Moore, city (1990 pop. 40,761), Cleveland co., central Okla., a suburb of Oklahoma City; inc. 1887. Its manufactures include lightning- and surge-protection equipment, packaging for foods, and auto parts. (1999) is defined as the domain that deals with the recall or recognition of knowledge, the development of understandings, intellectual abilities, and skills. Focusing solely on the cognitive skills cognitive skill Psychology Any of a number of acquired skills that reflect an individual's ability to think; CSs include verbal and spatial abilities, and have a significant hereditary component that need to be imparted to a learner, the textbook, theory test, and the basic practical lesson are observed to pose a few limitations. The following will summarise Verb 1. summarise - be a summary of; "The abstract summarizes the main ideas in the paper"
sum, sum up, summarize
sum up, summarize, summarise, resume - give a summary (of); "he summed up his results"; "I will now summarize" these limitations while a more comprehensive elaboration of these observations is reported in Chen, Toh, and Wan (2003).
The use of a two-dimensional plan, view of road scenarios, and heavy reliance on the linguistics linguistics, scientific study of language, covering the structure (morphology and syntax; see grammar), sounds (phonology), and meaning (semantics), as well as the history of the relations of languages to each other and the cultural place of language in human ability of the learner to understand narrative information (spoken and printed text), for example, has introduced unnecessary levels of abstraction In object technology, determining the essential characteristics of an object. Abstraction is one of the basic principles of object-oriented design, which allows for creating user-defined data types, known as objects. See object-oriented programming and encapsulation.
1. . Learning is decontextualised as the use of knowledge or skills is separated as to how they would be used in real life. For instance, theoretical learning materials are contained in textbook and lectures but the outcomes of learning are tested on paper. Thus, a learner may have difficulty in triggering their memories when facing a real life driving situation.
The existing methods of instruction are found to support limited learning styles. These methods are often more suited for learners who learn best through reflective Refers to light hitting an opaque surface such as a printed page or mirror and bouncing back. See reflective media and reflective LCD. observation and/or abstract conceptualisation (artificial intelligence) conceptualisation - The collection of objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them. . In addition, the existing methods create a teacher-directed environment where the instructional decisions lie mainly in the hands of the instructor, and the quality of instructions could vary greatly among the instructors. The current design of instruction appears to fit the objectivist paradigm where learners learn domain content to solve a problem, rather than solving a problem to apply the learning. Although the educational benefits offered by the current instructional design are not deniable de·ni·a·ble
1. Possible to contradict or declare untrue: deniable accusations.
2. Being such that plausible disavowal or disclaimer is possible: , the possibility to incorporate appropriate constructivist con·struc·tiv·ism
A movement in modern art originating in Moscow in 1920 and characterized by the use of industrial materials such as glass, sheet metal, and plastic to create nonrepresentational, often geometric objects. methods should also be considered to take advantage of both approaches.
These observations have indeed raised doubts on the effectiveness of the current methods of instruction in assisting learners with recalling or recognizing relevant knowledge while developing their understandings, intellectual abilities, and skills. These include supporting learners with different cognitive abilities, providing authentic and meaningful tasks, providing concrete experience, and active experimentation to support this kind of learning style, and providing learner-directed learning.
Potential of virtual reality to overcome the observed problems. The various capabilities of the virtual environment technology are foreseen fore·see
tr.v. fore·saw , fore·seen , fore·see·ing, fore·sees
To see or know beforehand: foresaw the rapid increase in unemployment. to be able to overcome the problems stated. Desktop virtual reality is able to present a three-dimensional representation of a road scenario or problem in a visual and auditory auditory /au·di·to·ry/ (aw´di-tor?e)
1. aural or otic; pertaining to the ear.
2. pertaining to hearing.
adj. form. Besides being more appealing, interesting and engaging when compared with other representation methods, it also acts as an excellent visualisation (graphics) visualisation - Making a visible presentation of numerical data, particularly a graphical one. This might include anything from a simple X-Y graph of one dependent variable against one independent variable to a virtual reality which allows you to fly around the data. tool.
The ability of a virtual environment to simulate simulate - simulation a real road scenario also means that it is able to be used to present authentic problems. For example, incorporating appropriate traffic signs in a simulated road scenario presents a similar cognitive challenge that will be faced in real life driving conditions. Through the process of visiting or exploring the simulated environment, the learner can further comprehend the real context of these signs in contrast to learning them in isolation through text.
A unique feature of a virtual environment, which is unavailable in any other traditional educational media, is its ability to provide infinite or unlimited number of viewpoints of a three-dimensional environment to the learner. The viewpoint of the learner who is maneuvering a vehicle can be tailored to the respective driver's viewpoint. He or she can also take the viewpoints of other drivers and even other meaningful physically-impossible viewpoint, such as bird-eyes view to gain an overall understanding of the whole road scenario. Indeed, having multiple perspectives of the world can thus encourage diverse ways of thinking. As pointed out by Duffy and Jonassen (1991), there are many ways to structure the world, and there are many meanings or perspectives for any event or concept.
The designer of a virtual environment is free to exclude any secondary elements that may divert di·vert
v. di·vert·ed, di·vert·ing, di·verts
1. To turn aside from a course or direction: Traffic was diverted around the scene of the accident.
2. the learner's attention from the elements of primary importance (Pantelidis, 1996). This helps in the attempt to represent the concepts that are the first steps toward the construction of an abstracted idea. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , a virtual environment functions as a cognitive tool that is capable of making imperceptible im·per·cep·ti·ble
1. Impossible or difficult to perceive by the mind or senses: an imperceptible drop in temperature.
2. things perceptible per·cep·ti·ble
Capable of being perceived by the senses or the mind: perceptible sounds in the night.
[Late Latin perceptibilis, from Latin perceptus . This attribute enables the design of various road scenarios with controlled level of complexities and incorporates elements that may not in existence in a real situation, such as the use of text, and artificial feedback to scaffold scaffold
Temporary platform used to elevate and support workers and materials during work on a structure or machine. It consists of one or more wooden planks and is supported by either a timber or a tubular steel or aluminum frame; bamboo is used in parts of Asia. the learning process.
Virtual environments can be used to present a road scenario that serves as a problem manipulation space that allows free exploration of the environment and manipulation of virtual vehicles by the learners. Learners can actively learn from the process of visiting or exploring the virtual environment. Moreover, many studies (Bricken, 1990; Chen & Teh, 2000a; Johnson et al., 1998; and Pantelidis, 1997) have proven the motivating factor of this technology.
Unlike many other educational tools, a virtual environment is designed without a specified sequence. Its focus shifts from the design of prescribed pre·scribe
v. pre·scribed, pre·scrib·ing, pre·scribes
1. To set down as a rule or guide; enjoin. See Synonyms at dictate.
2. To order the use of (a medicine or other treatment). interactions with the learning environment to the design of environments that permit the learner with various types of interaction that the system is capable of. This complies with the learner-centred approach where a learner has control over what he or she wants to explore or manipulate. The learner can choose to navigate (1) "Surfing the Web." To move from page to page on the Web.
(2) To move through the menu structure in a software application. through the simulated environment or interact with the objects of his or her interest for further observations. By doing so, the learner may make mistakes and wrong predictions. These experiences will provide conditions for modifying existing knowledge and thus, construct new knowledge (Dijkstra, 1990). This is also known as discovery or experiential ex·pe·ri·en·tial
Relating to or derived from experience.
ex·peri·en learning where it is based on the assumption that a learner discovers principles through experimentation and practice (Alessi & Trollip, 2001).
THEORETICAL FOUNDATION FOR SYSTEM DESIGN
For this project, the concept of integrative goals suggested by Gagne and Merrill (1990), and the model for designing constructivist learning environments proposed by Jonassen (1999) serves as the macro-strategy to guide the design of the virtual environment-based learning environment. These two strategies are interrelated in·ter·re·late
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.
in and in accord with the new paradigm of instructional design theory. The learning environment will then employ the cognitive theory Conitive theory may refer to:
Macro-Strategy--Integrative Goals (Robert M. Gagne and M. David Merrill)
According to Gagne and Merrill (1990), goals which are projected to result from learning are presumed to be the starting point Noun 1. starting point - earliest limiting point
terminus a quo
commencement, get-go, offset, outset, showtime, starting time, beginning, start, kickoff, first - the time at which something is supposed to begin; "they got an early start"; "she knew from the of the instructional design process. When the comprehensiveness of topics reaches a level similar to the context of real world problems, instructional design is forced to deal with multiple objectives and the relationships among these objectives. Integrative goals proposed by Gagne and Merrill deal with the design requirements for such a condition.
According to Orey and Nelson (1997), and Nelson (2000), integrative goals proposed by Gagne and Merrill (1990) are an example of traditional instructional design that has evolved to better reflect the conceptions of learning proposed by current theories. Gagne and Merrill have suggested that an instructional goal must be a combination of several individual objectives that are to be integrated into a comprehensive purposeful pur·pose·ful
1. Having a purpose; intentional: a purposeful musician.
2. Having or manifesting purpose; determined: entered the room with a purposeful look. activity. This approach requires the initial identification of a category of instructional objectives, such as verbal information, intellectual skills, and cognitive strategies (Gagne, 1985). The multiple objectives which make up a module or course goal will then be integrated to assist a learner in the acquisition of interrelationships among the various component objectives.
They have used the term "enterprise" to refer to a purposive pur·po·sive
1. Having or serving a purpose.
2. Purposeful: purposive behavior.
pur activity that may depend for its execution on some combination of verbal information, intellectual skills, and cognitive strategies, all related by their involvement within the common goal. The instructional designer is expected to identify the goal of a targeted enterprise along with its component skills and knowledge, and then design instruction that enables a learner to acquire the capability of achieving this integrated outcome.
According to Gagne and Merrill (1990), an enterprise is represented in memory by a schema. (Figure 1), which contains various knowledge and skill constituents (such as verbal label, verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills, and/or attitudes) that become associated in the service of the integrated goal. It also includes a scenario that provides a basis for the application of the constituent CONSTITUENT. He who gives authority to another to act for him. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 893.
2. The constituent is bound with whatever his attorney does by virtue of his authority. knowledge and skill in the enterprise performance.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Macro-Strategy--Model for Designing Constructivist Learning Environments (David H. Jonassen)
Jonassen, Hernandez-Serrano, and Choi (2000) had provided a list of technologies that are capable of affording constructive learning, and virtual environment is one of them. The various attributes of this technology are observed to be able to support constructivist learning as elaborated in Winn (1993), Bricken (1990), and Chen and Teh (2000b).
Figure 2 depicts a model for designing constructivist learning environments (CLEs) as proposed by Jonassen (1999). This model suggests the importance of posing an appropriate problem with the support of various interpretative in·ter·pre·ta·tive
Variant of interpretive.
in·terpre·ta and intellectual systems for the learning to focus on. These include related cases and information resources (1) The data and information assets of an organization, department or unit. See data administration.
(2) Another name for the Information Systems (IS) or Information Technology (IT) department. See IT. , cognitive tools, conversation and collaboration tools A collaboration tool is something that helps people collaborate. The term is often used to mean collaborative software, but collaboration tools were being used before computers existed, a piece of paper can for example can be used as collaboration tool. , and social or contextual support systems.
Reigeluth and Squire (1998) supported Jonassen's model as providing good and useful guidance in designing constructivist learning environment. This model was chosen as another macro-strategy for this project.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Supporting learning in CLEs. Jonassen (1999) has also provided a thorough recommendation of learning activities that learners perform in CLEs and instructional activities the CLEs provide to support them. Learning activities include exploration, articulation articulation
In phonetics, the shaping of the vocal tract (larynx, pharynx, and oral and nasal cavities) by positioning mobile organs (such as the tongue) relative to other parts that may be rigid (such as the hard palate) and thus modifying the airstream to produce speech of what the learners know and have learned, speculation, manipulation of the environment, and reflection, while instructional activities to support such learning activities include modelling, coaching, and scaffolding.
There are two types of modelling in CLEs: behavioural Adj. 1. behavioural - of or relating to behavior; "behavioral sciences"
behavioral modelling and cognitive modelling. Behavioural modelling demonstrates how to perform the activities while cognitive modelling articulates the reasoning that learners should use. Modelling strategies focus on the expert's performance where it provides an example of the desired performance for an activity.
It is assumed that learners will attempt to perform like the model and their performances are likely to improve with coaching. Coaching strategies include motivating learners, analysing their performances, providing feed-back and advice on the performances. The learners then learn how to perform, reflect, and articulate what they have learned.
Scaffolding is the process through which learning efforts are supported (Linn linn
1. A waterfall.
2. A steep ravine.
[Scottish Gaelic linne, pool, waterfall.] , 1995; Jonassen, 1999). Scaffolding strategies include adjusting the task difficulty, the system performing part of the task for the learner, supplanting sup·plant
tr.v. sup·plant·ed, sup·plant·ing, sup·plants
1. To usurp the place of, especially through intrigue or underhanded tactics.
2. the learner's ability to perform some part of the task by changing the nature of the task, or imposing the use of cognitive tools that help the learner perform. Hannafin, Land, and Oliver (1999) have classified the scaffolding strategies into four types as in Table 1.
Micro-Strategy--Principles of Multimedia Design (Richard E. Mayer)
Mayer (2002) did a large series of experimental studies and the results offer a set of basic principles for the design of multimedia messages. Table 2 describes five of the principles that are referred to in designing the instructional messages for this learning environment. These principles are consistent with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning. This theory assumes that the human information processing information processing: see data processing.
Acquisition, recording, organization, retrieval, display, and dissemination of information. Today the term usually refers to computer-based operations. system includes two channels; (a) visual or pictorial, and (b) auditory or verbal processing VERBAL PROCESS. In Louisiana, by this term is understood a written account of any proceeding or operation required by law, signed by the person commissioned to perform the duty, and attested by the signature of witnesses. Vide Proces Verbal. . Each channel has limited capacity for processing, and that active learning entails carrying out a coordinated set of cognitive processes Cognitive processes
Thought processes (i.e., reasoning, perception, judgment, memory).
Mentioned in: Psychosocial Disorders during learning.
THE DESIGN OF THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
1. Selecting or employing individual elements from a variety of sources, systems, or styles: an eclectic taste in music; an eclectic approach to managing the economy.
As mentioned earlier, this project will take an eclectic approach by combining the concept of integrative goals with the model for designing constructivist learning environment. Constructivists, however, believe that the learning goals cannot be fully prespecified apart from the actual learning context. Goal analyses often cannot identify the content, instead rich learning experiences and interaction in which learners can pick up on their own the content missing between the gaps of analysis should be designed (Wilson, 1997). Thus, for this project, integrative goals proposed by Gagne and Merrill (1990) helped determine the specific integrative goals and its associated enterprise schemas Schemas
Fundamental core beliefs or assumptions that are part of the perceptual filter people use to view the world. Cognitive-behavioral therapy seeks to change maladaptive schemas. . Based on these identified integrative goals and enterprise schemas, a rich and interactive virtual environment-based learning environment will then be designed as guided by Jonassen's constructivist learning environments design model to enable the learners to have a more complete grasp of the contents.
How the Design Supports the Theoretical Foundation
The RTD has identified six accident-prone accident-prone adjective Referring to a person's real or percieved tendency to suffer from accidents of various types situations (Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan Malaysia, 2003). These situations are found to occur mostly on ordinary roads and junctions. Hence, this learning environment focuses on assisting the learners to better comprehend the basic rules, particularly on ordinary roads and junctions.
* Objectives. By applying integrative goals to the instructional design, the identification of the types of learning and the respective learning objectives (Table 3) represents the starting point of the design process.
* Integrative Goal. According to Gagne and Merrill (1990), an instructional goal must be a combination of several different objectives that are to be integrated into a comprehensive purposeful activity, which is called an enterprise. In other words, an instructional designer needs to identify the component skills and knowledge that relate to the goal and design the scenario which relates each piece of knowledge or skill to the goal. The integrative goal is incorporated within the enterprise schema as verbal knowledge. In this learning environment, we identify the integrative goal as the learners' abilities to interpret the basic rules of a road scenario that comprises ordinary roads, road junctions, and various traffic signs.
* Enterprise Scenario or Problem. The designer then needs to identify the enterprise scenario that must be played out in conducting the enterprise. This enterprise scenario is somehow similar to the problem posed in a constructivist learning environment. According to Jonassen (1999), a problem in a constructivist learning environment consists of three integrated components: the problem context, the problem representation, and the problem manipulation space.
Problem context. Constructivist learning environments must describe in the problem statement all of the contextual factors that surround a problem to enable the learners to understand the problem. In this learning environment, we present its importance and the learning goal when a learner begins exploring the environment. As pointed out by Jonassen (2002), one critical attribute of a problem is that it must have some social, cultural, or intellectual value to the problem solver. Thus, by explicitly revealing the value and focus of the learning environment, it assists in engaging the learner with the learning activities.
Problem representation. Constructivist learning environment must also provide an interesting, appealing, and engaging problem representation that is able to perturb the learner. In this learning environment, we use a narrative, which is presented in text, and virtual environments to help the learner build a mental representation of the problem. The narrative is in the form of stories while the virtual environments present various virtual road scenarios that correspond to the stories. Both the problem context and problem representation describe a set of events that leads up to the problem that needs to be resolved. They relate particular singular SINGULAR, construction. In grammar the singular is used to express only one, not plural. Johnson.
2. In law, the singular frequently includes the plural. objectives that consist of the expected behaviour to the purposive activity which is the enterprise.
Problem manipulation space. It is also critical to provide some active manipulation space for the problem. Learners must manipulate something and obtain the feedback as how their manipulations affect the environment. In this learning environment, the virtual road scenarios serve as the problem manipulation space that allow the learner to navigate his or her virtual car through the virtual road scenarios using input devices such as a mouse or the keyboard. Navigation is however restricted to movements which are possible in the real world, such as moving forward or backward, and turning left or right. The effect of this navigation on the virtual environment will be viewed in real-time 1. real-time - Describes an application which requires a program to respond to stimuli within some small upper limit of response time (typically milli- or microseconds). Process control at a chemical plant is the classic example. and thus, closely resembles the car navigation See GPS. in real life.
* Related Cases. It is important that the constructivist learning environment provides access to a set of related experiences or knowledge that learners can refer to. One of the core benefits of a virtual environment is its ability to provide three-dimensional graphical representation that mimics the real world. As pointed out by Alessi and Trollip (2001), knowledge and skills learned in a particular context are easily repeated by learners as long as they are in a similar context. Thus, embedding 1. (mathematics) embedding - One instance of some mathematical object contained with in another instance, e.g. a group which is a subgroup.
2. (theory) embedding - (domain theory) A complete partial order F in [X -> Y] is an embedding if relevant, meaningful and a real-world context within the instructional strategies would enhance the transfer of learning to the real setting.
In this learning environment, the virtual road scenarios have implicitly provided authentic representations that the learner could easily relate to those found in the real world. For example, incorporating appropriate traffic signs in a simulated road scenario presents a similar cognitive challenge that is faced in real driving conditions. Through the process of visiting or exploring the simulated environment, learners can further comprehend the real uses of these signs in contrast to learning them in isolation through printed text alone.
* Information Resources. Rich sources of information are also essential in the constructivist learning environment. This enables learners to construct their mental models and formulate formulate /for·mu·late/ (for´mu-lat)
1. to state in the form of a formula.
2. to prepare in accordance with a prescribed or specified method. hypotheses that drive the manipulation of the problem space. In this learning environment, we provide hyperlink A predefined linkage between one object and another. See hypertext.
hyperlink - anchor to various resources, which include the description of relevant basic rules for ordinary roads and junctions, traffic signs, and line markings. The learner is free to access these resources while trying to solve the problem.
* Cognitive Tools. The learning environment incorporates a few cognitive tools. The virtual road scenarios act as a visualisation tool where learners can visualise a dynamic three-dimensional representation of the problem. This is then much more authentic when compared to static two-dimensional representations in a picture form. This representation, which mimics the real world, helps reduce the learner's cognitive load Cognitive Load is a term (used in Educational psychology and other fields of study) that refers to the load on working memory during problem solving, thinking and reasoning (including perception, memory, language, etc.). in constructing mental images and performing visualising activities.
The virtual environment functions as cognitive tool that is capable of making imperceptible things perceptible. It can be designed to make the abstract more concrete and visible by providing symbols not available in the real world. The learning environment, for instance, provides guiding arrows at appropriate places in the virtual road scenarios to avoid the learner from getting lost in the virtual environment. Overall, the virtual road scenarios are designed to be less complex than those in real world so that learner can focus on the salient aspects of the representation. As pointed out by Alessi and Trollip (2001), reduced fidelity is known to benefit learning for a novice learner.
Virtual environments also allow a learner to visualise and understand complex structures that would otherwise remain hidden. The learner's viewpoint may also be manipulated through which arbitrary levels of scale can be applied to facilitate observations (Winn, 1993). Indeed, the uniqueness of virtual environments is the ability to provide an infinite number of viewpoints. In this learning environment, we provide the screenshots of appropriate physically impossible viewpoints of the virtual road scenarios. These include a plan view map to provide understanding of the overall road scenario and 2.5 dimensional (or bird's eyes) view of various parts of the road scenario, and a tracer that shows the position of the learner's vehicle on a 2 two-dimensional plan view map in real-time. The learning environment also presents a summary of the overall journey plan and a structure map that guides the sequence of the problem-solving process. These components all act as cognitive tools that help to reinforce the learner's mental representation of the problem and help him or her in performing the learning activities in the learning environment.
Modelling. The learning environment incorporates both behavioural modelling and cognitive modelling. Behavioural modelling in the learning environment demonstrates how virtual vehicles abide by the rules at various road scenarios in the virtual environment and the subsequent cognitive modelling articulates the reasoning for such behaviour in a narrative (text and audio format). Such modelling is often provided right before the learner's virtual car encounter similar situations in the virtual environment.
Coaching. Jonassen (1999) suggested four types of coaching in CLEs. In this learning environment, we provide coaching to the learner's performance through feedback messages (both verbal and text) that pop up while navigating (networking, hypertext) navigating - Finding your way around. Often used of the Internet, particularly the World-Wide Web.
A browser is a tool for navigating hypertext documents. through the virtual road scenarios. This type of feedback is termed as artificial feedback by Alessi and Trollip (2001). According to them, although the use of such artificial feedback is lower in fidelity, novice learners often prefer such feedback as it is more obvious, understandable, and more positive in tone. Artificial feedback can be given immediately, as in the case of this learning environment, thus can prevent errors and increase learning efficiency. Table 4 shows the types of coaching and examples of feedback messages that support each of type of coaching.
Scaffolding. In this learning environment, we divide the learning problem into five sub-problems to provide scaffold for a learner's performance. This is accordance Accordance is Bible Study Software for Macintosh developed by OakTree Software, Inc.
As well as a standalone program, it is the base software packaged by Zondervan in their Bible Study suites for Macintosh. with providing strategic scaffolding as elaborated in Hannafin, Land, and Oliver (1999). The five subproblems together with a structure map guide the learners in approaching the learning problem.
Stanney, Mourant, and Kennedy (1998) indicated that navigational complexity of a virtual environment is one of the main factors that could affect human performance in such an environment. If the user cannot effectively navigate in a virtual environment, then his or her ability to perform required tasks would be severely limited. This will definitely affect the amount of learning acquired. In this regard, studies had found that subjects faced difficulty in mapping two-dimensional input to a three-dimensional navigation (Chen, Lim, Ng, & Norsyarina, 2000; Chen & Teh, 2000a). Thus, this learning environment provides a "help" link that scaffolds the learners' abilities to perform the navigational task in the virtual environment. Hannafin et al. (1999) has classified this type of scaffolding as procedural scaffolding. This "help" link is provided on the same screen as the virtual environment, which is in line with suggestion by Alessi and Trollip (2001) that stated it is usually better to provide directions and aid when they are relevant.
This learning environment also guides learners regarding what should be considered. This is known as conceptual scaffolding. Hints that guide the learner to available resources are given to assist in the problem solving problem solving
Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. although an explicit direction as to which resources are considered best is not provided. Figures 3 and 4 show screenshots of the learning environment that depicts several of the components that are incorporated to support the macro-strategy.
Micro-Strategy. Mayer's (2000) first principle of multimedia design stated that learning can be enhanced when pictures are added to words rather than words alone. In this learning environment, we provide appropriate words or labels in both the images of the plan view for the overall road scenario and the road scenario for each sub-learning problem. This is an example of adding text to illustrations to help learners understand the presented material.
The images of the plan view and the corresponding description of each sublearning problem are presented near to each other on the screen. Similarly, the virtual environment for each sublearning problem is presented near to the corresponding summary of the sublearning problem description. These are all in line with the spatial contiguity contiguity /con·ti·gu·i·ty/ (kon?ti-gu´i-te) contact or close proximity.
The state of being contiguous. principle where presenting words and pictures near to each other encourage learners to build mental connections between them.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
The coherence coherence, constant phase difference in two or more Waves over time. Two waves are said to be in phase if their crests and troughs meet at the same place at the same time, and the waves are out of phase if the crests of one meet the troughs of another. principle is against the inclusion of interesting but irrelevant material into the design of instructional messages. Thus, this learning environment avoids seemingly seem·ing
Outward appearance; semblance.
seeming·ly adv. interesting words, pictures, and sounds that are not relevant to the main message, and the presentation is kept as concise as possible.
Based on the modality modality /mo·dal·i·ty/ (mo-dal´i-te)
1. a method of application of, or the employment of, any therapeutic agent, especially a physical agent.
2. principle, learners are found to learn better when words in a message are presented as spoken text rather than printed text. Hence, this learning environment provides feedback in the form of narration during a learner's exploration of the virtual road scenario. Feedback in the form of onscreen on·screen or on-screen
adj. & adv.
1. As shown on a movie, television, or display screen.
2. Within public view; in public. text is still retained. This is however, opposing the redundancy principle. As stressed in Mayer (2002), the redundancy principle should not be applied as unbending commandments as his studies had only focused on situations in which the animation and narration run at a fast rate without learner control of the presentation. This learning environment is different from the situations studied by Mayer that led to the redundancy principle. The exploration of the virtual environment is fully learner-controlled, and is temporarily halted when any feedback (narration and onscreen text) is provided. It is assumed the learner will only use his or her verbal channel for the narration component and the visual channel for the on-screen on·screen or on-screen
adj. & adv.
1. As shown on a movie, television, or display screen.
2. Within public view; in public. text. Thus, there is no additional visual load as the scene of the virtual environment is temporarily halted until the learner decides to proceed with the exploration.
PROPOSAL OF A FEASIBLE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Generally, the framework that guides the design of this learning environment is illustrated in Figure 5. It is hoped that this framework, which integrates both the employed macro and micro-strategy, could serve as a feasible and useful framework to guide the design of other desktop virtual reality-based learning environment.
The circular shape framework of the macro-strategy depicts the various steps to be taken in the designing process. It starts from the centre of the circular shape diagram diagram /di·a·gram/ (di´ah-gram) a graphic representation, in simplest form, of an object or concept, made up of lines and lacking pictorial elements. (innermost in·ner·most
1. Situated or occurring farthest within: the innermost chamber.
2. Most intimate: one's innermost feelings.
n. ring) and gradually moves outward to the outmost out·most
Farthest out; outermost.
Adj. 1. outmost - situated at the farthest possible point from a center
outermost ring. As with most instructional design processes, this framework suggests that the design process begins by identifying individual objectives (also referred to as component skills and knowledge) and then the relationships among these objectives to derive the integrative goal. These objectives may fall in the category of verbal information, label, intellectual skill, or cognitive strategies.
The next step in the framework involves designing instruction that enables the learner to acquire the capability of achieving this integrated outcome, which is called the enterprise scenario. Basically, this step involves selecting the problem context, problem representation, and problem manipulation space that will help in achieving the integrated goal. The virtual environment will represent the problem, and provide a space for learner's to perform learning activities.
The design process continues by providing various necessary supports that may assist the learners to actively construct their knowledge in the learning environment. These supports include related cases, information resources, cognitive tools, collaboration Working together on a project. See collaborative software. and conversation tools, and social or contextual support. Having completed the design at the macro level, Mayer's (2002) principles of multimedia design which serves as the microstrategy are incorporated into the macro structure. These principles guide the design of instructional messages in the learning environment in the effort to produce better learning. (Figure 5)
This article has elaborated the theoretical foundation, both macro and micro strategies, that guides the design of a desktop virtual reality-based learning environment for novice car drivers in Malaysia. This has then led to a framework that can guide the design of other virtual reality-based learning environments that fit with the new paradigm of instruction. Nevertheless, this framework focuses solely on the design of a learner-centred learning environment. Our current study concentrates on expanding the framework by incorporating the development process into it, which will then produce a more comprehensive template (1) A pre-designed document or data file formatted for common purposes such as a fax, invoice or business letter. If the document contains an automated process, such as a word processing macro or spreadsheet formula, then the programming is already written and embedded in the to help educators design, develop, and evaluate a desktop virtual reality-based learning environment. The fact that a robust model for guiding the design and development of learning environment using this technology is still unavailable at present, this framework functions as an initial structure which can be further refined and/or revised in the endeavour to generate a robust design and development model for such learning environment.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
Table 1 Scaffolding Classifications Scaffold Types Functions Conceptual Guides learner in what to consider Metacognitive Guides how to think during learning Procedural Guides how to utilise the available features in the learning environment Strategic Guides in analysing and approaching learning tasks or problem Table 2 Principles of Multimedia Design (Mayer, 2002) Principle Description Theoretical Rationale Multimedia Learners learn better from When words and pictures are Principle words and pictures than both presented, learners have from words alone. an opportunity to construct verbal and visual mental models and build connections between them. Spatial Learners learn better when When corresponding words and Contiguity corresponding words and pictures are near to each other Principle pictures are presented near on the screen, learners do not rather than far from each have to use cognitive resources other on the page or to visually search the page or screen. screen and learners are more likely to be able to hold them both in working memory at the same time. Coherence Learners learn better when Extraneous material competes Principle extraneous words, pictures, fpr cognitive resources in and sounds are excluded working memory and can divert rather than included. attention from the important material, can disrupt the process of organising the material, and can prime the learner to organise the material around an inappropriate theme. Modality Learners learn better from When pictures and words are Principle animation and narration both presented visually, the than from animation, and visual channel can be on-screen text. overloaded but the verbal channel is unused. When words are presented auditorily, they can be processed in the verbal channel, thereby leaving the visual channel to process only the pictures. Redundancy Learners learn better from When pictures and words are Principle animation and narration both presented visually, the than from animation, visual channel can become narration, and on-screen overloaded. text. Table 3 Types of Learning with the Corresponding Learning Objectives Types of learning Learning objectives Labels Name the various types of road (one-way, two-way, single lane, double lane) Name the various types of junctions (T-junction, Side road left junction, Side road right junction, Y-junction, Cross junction) Name the various traffic signs Name the various common line markings Verbal information Describe the meaning of various traffic signs Describe the meaning of common line markings Intellectual skills Identify the basic rules of ordinary road (one- way, two-way, single lane, double lane) Distinguish the various types of junctions (T- junction. Side road left junction, Side road right junction, Y-junction, Cross junction) Identify the basic rules when entering or exiting the various types of junctions Identify the basic rules of a cross junction, which is regulated by traffic lights Distinguish the use of various traffic signs Distinguish the use of various line markings Cognitive strategies Reflect on the actions taken when navigating through the virtual scenario Table 4 Types of Coaching with Examples of Feedback Messages Types of coaching Examples of feedback messages Provide motivational Good! You have been keeping to the left of prompts this one-way road. Congratulations! You have reached your destination. Monitor and regulate the Danger! You have entered the lane for vehicles learner's performance from opposite direction. Keep to the left lane when not overtaking. Please refer to Scenario 1. Provoke reflection Are you sure you are on the correct lane? Are you sure you have entered the correct junction? Perturb learners' models When turning out a T-junction, should you give way to the vehicles on the main road or otherwise? Note: Right-hand side driving system is adopted in Malaysia
Alessi, S.M., & Trollip, S.R. (2001). Multimedia for learning: Methods and development. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Bricken, W. (1990). Learning in virtual reality. (Technical Memorandum M-90-5), University of Washington.
Chen, C.J., Lim, T.Y., Ng, Y.W., & Norsyarina, H. (2000). A cooperative technique for usability How easy something is to use. Both software and Web sites can be tested for usability. Considering how difficult applications are to use and Web sites are to navigate, one would wish that more designers took this seriously. See user interface and usability lab. evaluation of a three-dimensional web-based marketing system. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of APCHI 2000 and ASEAN ASEAN: see Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
in full Association of Southeast Asian Nations
International organization established by the governments of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand in Ergonomics ergonomics, the engineering science concerned with the physical and psychological relationship between machines and the people who use them. The ergonomicist takes an empirical approach to the study of human-machine interactions. 2000, (pp. 392-398). The Netherlands: ELSEVIER.
Chen, C.J., & Teh, C.S. (2000a). Design issues of desktop virtual reality educational applications, In H.M. Khalid, (Ed.), Virtual reality: Select issues and a pplications. (pp. 63-78). London: Asean Academic.
Chen, C.J., & Teh, C.S. (2000b). An affordable virtual reality technology for constructivist learning environments. Proceedings of 4th Global Chinese Conference on Computers in Education, Singapore, (pp. 414-421).
Chen, C.J., Toh, S.C., & Wan, M.F. (2003). Virtual reality: A potential technology for providing novel perspective to novice driver education in Malaysia Education in Malaysia may be obtained from government-sponsored schools, private schools, or through homeschooling. The education system is highly centralised, particularly for primary and secondary schools, with state and local governments having little say in the curriculum or . Proceedings of International Conference on Information Technology: Research and Education. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, www.ieee.org) A membership organization that includes engineers, scientists and students in electronics and allied fields. .
Dijkstra, S. (1990). The description of knowledge and skills for the purpose of instruction. In S.
Dijkstra, B.H. Wolters, & P.C p.c. (post cibum),
n a Latin phrase meaning “after meals”; the abbreviation may be used in prescription writing. . Sijde (Eds.), Research on instructional design and effects. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Duffy, T.M., & Jonassen, D.H. (1991). Constructivism constructivism, Russian art movement founded c.1913 by Vladimir Tatlin, related to the movement known as suprematism. After 1916 the brothers Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevsner gave new impetus to Tatlin's art of purely abstract (although politically intended) : New implications for instructional technology There are two types of instructional technology: those with a systems approach, and those focusing on sensory technologies.
The definition of instructional technology prepared by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Definitions and Terminology ? Educational Technology, 39(5), 7-12.
Gagne, R.M. (1985). The conditions of learning (4th ed.). New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Holt holt
A wood or grove; a copse.
[Middle English, from Old English.]
the lair of an otter [from , Rinehart and Winston.
Gagne, R.M., & Merrill, M.D. (1990). Integrative goals for instructional design. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 23-30.
Grove, J. (1996). VR and history--some findings and thoughts. VR in the Schools, 2(1). [Online]. Available: http://eastnet.educ.ecu.edu/vr/vrits/2-1grove.htm
Hannafin, M., Land, S., & Oliver, K. (1999). Open learning environments: Foundations, methods, and models. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory Instructional theory is a discipline that focuses on how to structure material for promoting the education of humans, particularly youth. Originating in the United States in the late 1970s, instructional theory (vol 2, pp. 115-140). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan Malaysia (2002). Road transport department of Malaysia. [Online]. Available: http://www.jpj.gov.my/statis.htm
Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan Malaysia (2003). Panduan pembelajaran kurikulum pendidikan pemandu (KPP KPP Key Performance Parameter
KPP K-Profile Parameterization
KPP Kepler Packing Problem (mathematics)
KPP Kinoform Phase Plate
KPP Kodak Premium Processing
KPP Knowledge Processing Subsystem ). Putrajaya: Kelab Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan Malaysia.
Johnson, A., Roussos, M., Leigh, J., Vasilakis, C., Barnes, C., & Moher, T. (1998). The NICE project: Learning together in virtual world. Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium symposium
In ancient Greece, an aristocratic banquet at which men met to discuss philosophical and political issues and recite poetry. It began as a warrior feast. Rooms were designed specifically for the proceedings. . (pp. 176-183). Los Alamitos Los Alamitos (lôs ăləmē`təs, lŏs), city (1990 pop. 11,676), Orange co., NE of Long Beach, S Calif., in a suburban area; inc. 1960. Los Alamitos Racetrack and U.S. military installations are nearby. , CA: IEEE Computer Society (body) IEEE Computer Society - The society of the IEEE which publishes the journal "Computer".
Jonassen, D.H. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environment. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory. (vol. 2, pp. 215-239). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Jonassen, D.H. (2002). Integration of problem solving into instructional design. In R.A. Rieser & J.V. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology, (pp. 107-120). Upper Saddle River Saddle River may refer to:
In 1913, law professor Dr. .
Jonassen, D.H., Hernandez-Serrano, J., & Choi, I. (2000). Integrating constructivism and learning technologies. In M. Spector & T.M. Anderson Anderson, river, Canada
Anderson, river, c.465 mi (750 km) long, rising in several lakes in N central Northwest Territories, Canada. It meanders north and west before receiving the Carnwath River and flowing north to Liverpool Bay, an arm of the Arctic (Eds.), Integrated and holistic Holistic
A practice of medicine that focuses on the whole patient, and addresses the social, emotional, and spiritual needs of a patient as well as their physical treatment.
Mentioned in: Aromatherapy, Stress Reduction, Traditional Chinese Medicine perspectives on learning, instruction and technology: Understanding complexity, (pp. 103-127). Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
Linn, M. (1995). Designing computer learning environments for engineering and computer science: The scaffolded knowledge integration framework. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 4(2), 103-126.
Mayer, R.E. (2002). Multimedia learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). .
Nelson, W.A. (2000). Gagne and the new technologies of instruction. In R.C. Richey (Ed.), The legacy of Robert M. Gagne. New York: Syracuse.
Orey, M.A., & Nelson, W.A. (1997). The impact of situated cognition Situated cognition is a movement in cognitive psychology which derives from pragmatism, Gibsonian ecological psychology, ethnomethodology, the theories of Vygotsky (activity theory) and the writings of Heidegger. : Instructional design paradigms in transition. In R.D. Charles & A.J. Romiszowski (Eds.), Instructional development paradigms, (pp. 283-296). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Pantelidis, V. (1996). Suggestions on when to use and when not to use virtual reality in education. VR in the Schools, 2(1). [Online]. Available: http://eastnet.educ.ecu.edu/vr/vrits/2-1pante.htm.
Pantelidis, V. (1997). Designing virtual environments for instruction: Concepts and considerations. VR in the Schools, 2(4). [Online]. Available: http://eastnet.educ.ecu.edu /vr/vrits/2-4salas.htm
Reigeluth, C.M., & Moore, J. (1999). Cognitive education and the cognitive domain. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Reigeluth, C.M., & Squire, K. (1998). Emerging work on the new paradigm of instructional theories. Educational Technology, 38(4), 41-47.
Roussos, M.J., Moher, T.L., Vasilakis, C., & Barnes, C. (1999). Learning and building together in an immersive virtual world. Presence, 8(3), 247-263.
Sim, B.H. (2002, Dec.). Transport ministry welcomes feedback. Malaysia. [Online]. Available: http://www.emedia.com.my/Current_News/NST/Tuesday/NewsBreak/2.../pp_index_htm
Stanney, K.M., Mourant, R.R., & Kennedy, R.S. (1998). Human factors issues in virtual environments: A review of the literature. Presence, 7(4), 327-351.
Whitelock, D., Brna, P., & Holland, S. (1996). What is the value of virtual reality for conceptual learning? Towards a theoretical framework. Proceedings of European European
emanating from or pertaining to Europe.
European bat lyssavirus
European beech tree
see cryptococcosis. Conference on Al in Education, [Online]. Available: http://www.cbl.leeds.ac.uk/~euroaied/papers/Whitelock1/
Wilson, B.G. (1997). The postmodern post·mod·ern
Of or relating to art, architecture, or literature that reacts against earlier modernist principles, as by reintroducing traditional or classical elements of style or by carrying modernist styles or practices to extremes: paradigm. In R.D. Charles & A.J. Romiszowski (Eds.), Instructional development paradigms (pp. 297-309). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Winn, W. (1993). A conceptual basis for educational applications of virtual reality. (Technical report), University of Washington.
World Health Organization (2002, November). Road traffic injury prevention. Geneva Geneva, canton and city, Switzerland
Geneva (jənē`və), Fr. Genève, canton (1990 pop. 373,019), 109 sq mi (282 sq km), SW Switzerland, surrounding the southwest tip of the Lake of Geneva. . [Online]. Available: http://www5.who.int/violenceinjuryprevention/printercontent.cfm?p=0000000532
Youngblut, C. (1998). Educational uses of virtual reality technology. (Technical report), Institute for Defense Analyses The Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) runs three federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs) focusing on defense and scientific issues. Centers
The IDA Studies and Analyses FFRDC is co-located with IDA headquarters in Alexandria, Virginia. .
CHWEN JEN CHEN
University Science Malaysia, Malaysia
SEONG CHONG TOH AND WAN MOHD FAUZY
University Science Malaysia, Malaysia